Science.gov

Sample records for radiant cooling systems

  1. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Germer, J.H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Anuj; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  3. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  4. Design and Control of Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jingjuan

    Improving energy efficiency in the Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings is critical to achieve the energy reduction in the building sector, which consumes 41% of all primary energy produced in the United States, and was responsible for nearly half of U.S. CO2 emissions. Based on a report by the New Building Institute (NBI), when HVAC systems are used, about half of the zero net energy (ZNE) buildings report using a radiant cooling/heating system, often in conjunction with ground source heat pumps. Radiant systems differ from air systems in the main heat transfer mechanism used to remove heat from a space, and in their control characteristics when responding to changes in control signals and room thermal conditions. This dissertation investigates three related design and control topics: cooling load calculations, cooling capacity estimation, and control for the heavyweight radiant systems. These three issues are fundamental to the development of accurate design/modeling tools, relevant performance testing methods, and ultimately the realization of the potential energy benefits of radiant systems. Cooling load calculations are a crucial step in designing any HVAC system. In the current standards, cooling load is defined and calculated independent of HVAC system type. In this dissertation, I present research evidence that sensible zone cooling loads for radiant systems are different from cooling loads for traditional air systems. Energy simulations, in EnergyPlus, and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer dynamics in spaces conditioned by radiant and air systems. The results show that the magnitude of the cooling load difference between the two systems ranges from 7-85%, and radiant systems remove heat faster than air systems. For the experimental tested conditions, 75-82% of total heat gain was removed by radiant system during the period when the heater (simulating the heat gain) was on, while for air

  5. Development of Personalized Radiant Cooling System for an Office Room

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Vaibhav; Sharma, Anuj; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2015-01-01

    The building industry nowadays is facing two major challenges increased concern for energy reduction and growing need for thermal comfort. These challenges have led many researchers to develop Radiant Cooling Systems that show a large potential for energy savings. This study aims to develop a personalized cooling system using the principle of radiant cooling integrated with conventional all-air system to achieve better thermal environment at the workspace. Personalized conditioning aims to create a microclimatic zone around a single workspace. In this way, the energy is deployed only where it is actually needed, and the individual s needs for thermal comfort are fulfilled. To study the effect of air temperature along with air temperature distribution for workspace, air temperature near the vicinity of the occupant has been obtained as a result of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation using FLUENT. The analysis showed that personalized radiant system improves thermal environment near the workspace and allows all-air systems to work at higher thermostat temperature without compromising the thermal comfort, which in turn reduces its energy consumption.

  6. Analysis of Radiant Cooling System Configurations Integrated with Cooling Tower for Different Indian Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S; Jain, Robin; Srivastava, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Radiant cooling system has proven to be a low energy consumption system for building cooling needs. This study describes the use of cooling tower in radiant cooling system to improve the overall system efficiency. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in radiant cooling system was performed for the fifteen cities in different climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of the different climatic zones except warm-humid is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with radiant cooling system. In these climates, cooling tower can provide on average 24 C to 27 C water In order to achieve the energy saving potential, three different configurations of radiant cooling system have been compared in terms of energy consumption. The different configurations of the radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower are: (1) provide chilled water to the floor, wall and ceiling mounted tubular installation. (2) provide chilled water to the wall and ceiling mounted tabular installation. In this arrangement a separate chiller has also been used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor mounted tubular installation. (3) provide chilled water to the wall mounted tabular installation and a separate chiller is used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor and ceiling mounted tabular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation in all three configurations. A conventional all-air system was simulated as a baseline to compare these configurations for assessing the energy saving potential.

  7. The development of radiant cooler and cryogenic heat pipes for 200K cryogenic optical system cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enguang; Wu, Yinong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Mu, Yongbin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a heat transfer system, in which a radiant cooler, cryogenic heat pipes and flexible thermal links were developed for heat transfer, by which a cryogenic system was cooled down to 200K from room temperature. A scrolling mechanism was designed for the radiant cooler to anti-contamination and block sunlight in the initial orbit phase. The cryogenic heat pipe is a type of grooved heat pipe with the working fluid of ethane and working temperature ranging from 160K to 210K. Some experimental and simulation results of the radiant cooler, cryogenic heat pipes will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building using a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.

  9. Performance evaluation of radiant cooling system integrated with air system under different operational strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Yasin; Khare, Vaibhav Rai; Mathur, Jyotirmay; ...

    2015-03-26

    The paper describes a parametric study developed to estimate the energy savings potential of a radiant cooling system installed in a commercial building in India. The study is based on numerical modeling of a radiant cooling system installed in an Information Technology (IT) office building sited in the composite climate of Hyderabad. To evaluate thermal performance and energy consumption, simulations were carried out using the ANSYS FLUENT and EnergyPlus softwares, respectively. The building model was calibrated using the measured data for the installed radiant system. Then this calibrated model was used to simulate the energy consumption of a building usingmore » a conventional all-air system to determine the proportional energy savings. For proper handling of the latent load, a dedicated outside air system (DOAS) was used as an alternative to Fan Coil Unit (FCU). A comparison of energy consumption calculated that the radiant system was 17.5 % more efficient than a conventional all-air system and that a 30% savings was achieved by using a DOAS system compared with a conventional system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was performed to evaluate indoor air quality and thermal comfort. It was found that a radiant system offers more uniform temperatures, as well as a better mean air temperature range, than a conventional system. To further enhance the energy savings in the radiant system, different operational strategies were analyzed based on thermal analysis using EnergyPlus. Lastly, the energy savings achieved in this parametric run were more than 10% compared with a conventional all-air system.« less

  10. Very low temperature radiant heating/cooling indoor end system for efficient use of renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jianbo; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Congrong; Xiong, Weicheng; Zhu, Li

    2010-06-15

    Solar or solar-assisted space heating systems are becoming more and more popular. The solar energy utilization efficiency is high when the collector is coupled with indoor radiant heating suppliers, since in principle, lower supply temperature means lower demand temperature and then the system heat loss is less. A new type radiant end system is put forward for even lower supply temperature compared to the conventional radiant floor heating systems. A three dimensional model was established to investigate its energy supply capacities. Simulation results show that 50 W per meter length tube can be achieved with the medium temperature of 30 C for heating and 15 C for cooling. The predicted results agree well with the actual data from a demonstration building. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a supply temperature of 22 C in winter and of 17 C in summer already met the indoor requirements. The new end system has good prospects for effective use of local renewable resources. (author)

  11. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Yasin; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  12. Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1993-05-01

    A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

  13. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  14. Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.

    1993-05-01

    A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

  15. Radiant cooling in US office buildings: Towards eliminating the perception of climate-imposed barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Stetiu, Corina

    1998-01-01

    Much attention is being given to improving the efficiency of air-conditioning systems through the promotion of more efficient cooling technologies. One such alternative, radiant cooling, is the subject of this thesis. Performance information from Western European buildings equipped with radiant cooling systems indicates that these systems not only reduce the building energy consumption but also provide additional economic and comfort-related benefits. Their potential in other markets such as the US has been largely overlooked due to lack of practical demonstration, and to the absence of simulation tools capable of predicting system performance in different climates. This thesis describes the development of RADCOOL, a simulation tool that models thermal and moisture-related effects in spaces equipped with radiant cooling systems. The thesis then conducts the first in-depth investigation of the climate-related aspects of the performance of radiant cooling systems in office buildings. The results of the investigation show that a building equipped with a radiant cooling system can be operated in any US climate with small risk of condensation. For the office space examined in the thesis, employing a radiant cooling system instead of a traditional all-air system can save on average 30% of the energy consumption and 27% of the peak power demand due to space conditioning. The savings potential is climate-dependent, and is larger in retrofitted buildings than in new construction. This thesis demonstrates the high performance potential of radiant cooling systems across a broad range of US climates. It further discusses the economics governing the US air-conditioning market and identifies the type of policy interventions and other measures that could encourage the adoption of radiant cooling in this market.

  16. Radiant Cooling for Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-20

    and require cooling water . Currently, this water is simply pumped from the harbor, through the ship’s systems, and discharged. The effluent cooling...Radiant Cooling For Closed-Loop Water Containment: Exploration of Possible Application in Dry Docks by Trevor R. Murphy, Mechanical...system that moves 26 million gallons per day (≈ 18000 ). Although this analysis has not accounted for redundancy, pumps , and other one-time

  17. Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: thermal and structural performance

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, C.P.; Nowak, R.J.; Kelly, H.N.

    1982-01-01

    A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu/ft/sup 2/-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene glycol in water circulating through tubes in an aluminum-honeycomb-sandwich panel absorbed the remainder of the incident heating (0.8 Btu/sq ft-sec). The panel successfully withstood (1) 46.7 hr of radiant heating which included 53 thermal cycles and 5000 cycles of uniaxial inplane loading of + or - 1200 lfb/in; (2) simulated 2g-maneuver heating conditions and simulated cooling system failures without excessive temperatures on the structural panel; and (3) the extensive thermal/structural tests and the aerothermal tests reported in NASA TP-1595 without significant damage to the structural panel, coolant leaks, or hot-gas ingress to the structural panel.

  18. Flightweight radiantly and actively cooled panel: Thermal and structural performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Kelly, H. N.

    1982-01-01

    A 2- by 4-ft flightweight panel was subjected to thermal/structural tests representative of design flight conditions for a Mach 6.7 transport and to off-design conditions simulating flight maneuvers and cooling system failures. The panel utilized Rene 41 heat shields backed by a thin layer of insulation to radiate away most of the 12 Btu/ft2-sec incident heating. A solution of ethylene glycol in water circulating through tubes in an aluminum-honeycomb-sandwich panel absorbed the remainder of the incident heating (0.8 Btu/sq ft-sec). The panel successfully withstood (1) 46.7 hr of radiant heating which included 53 thermal cycles and 5000 cycles of uniaxial inplane loading of + or - 1200 lfb/in; (2) simulated 2g-maneuver heating conditions and simulated cooling system failures without excessive temperatures on the structural panel; and (3) the extensive thermal/structural tests and the aerothermal tests reported in NASA TP-1595 without significant damage to the structural panel, coolant leaks, or hot-gas ingress to the structural panel.

  19. Development of a simulation tool to evaluate the performance of radiant cooling ceilings

    SciTech Connect

    Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.; Winkelmann, F.C.

    1995-06-01

    Considerable electrical energy used to cool nonresidential buildings equipped with All-Air Systems is drawn by the fans that transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydropic Cooling Systems have the potential to reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating the tasks of ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, Hydropic Cooling Systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. They are suited to the dry climates that are typical of California and been used for more than 30 years in hospital rooms. However, energy savings and peak-load characteristics have not yet been analyzed. Adequate guidelines for their design and control systems has prevented lack of their widespread application to other building types. Evaluation of theoretical performance of Hydropic Systems could be made by computer models. Energy analysis programs such as DOE-2 do not yet have the capacity to simulate Hydropic Cooling Systems. Scope of this project is developing a model that can accurately simulate the dynamic performance of Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems. The model can calculate loads, heat extraction rates, room air temperature and room surface temperature distributions, and can be used to evaluate issues such as thermal comfort, controls, system sizing, system configuration and dynamic response. The model was created with the LBL Simulation Problem Analysis and Research Kernel (SPARK), which provides a methodology for describing and solving the dynamic, non-linear equations that correspond to complex physical systems. Potential for Hydropic Radiant Cooling Systems applications can be determined by running this model for a variety of construction types in different California climates.

  20. Aerodynamic thermal simulation system. Part 1: Radiant array (instruction manual)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchar, A. F.; Steuffen, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An aerodynamic thermal simulation system (ATSS) is presented. The construction of the system, the maintenance, set up, and operations are reported. System description of the radiant array is given along with the array subsystems modular heating unit, adjustable stanchion frame, cooling water system, and the gaseous nitrogen cooling system. The array configuration procedure outlines the set up and the start up. Maintenance procedures involve both lamp maintenance and reflector maintenance along with weather protection. Drawing codes are included. Descriptions of the 36 zone ATSS controls are also given. Each zone is an independent closed loop temperature control circuit. Procedures are presented for starting and stopping the system. The DATA-TRAK programmer and its operation, instruction manuals for the temperature controller and the power regulator and discriptions of peripheral equipment are discussed.

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  2. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  3. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  4. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John E.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Kopia, Leonard P.

    1992-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment will play a major role in NASA's planned multi-instrument multi-satellite Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the total Earth System on a global scale. The CERES experiment will provide EOS with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds; and will investigate the important question of the impact of clouds upon the radiative energy flow through the earth-atmosphere system. The CERES instruments will be an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) broadband scanning radiometer instruments flown by NASA in the 1980s. This paper describes the CERES experiment approach and the current CERES instrument design status.

  5. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  6. Thermal model of attic systems with radiant barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the first phase of a project to model the thermal performance of radiant barriers. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a refined model for the thermal performance of residential house attics, with and without radiant barriers, and to verify the model by comparing its predictions against selected existing experimental thermal performance data. Models for the thermal performance of attics with and without radiant barriers have been developed and implemented on an IBM PC/AT computer. The validity of the models has been tested by comparing their predictions with ceiling heat fluxes measured in a number of laboratory and field experiments on attics with and without radiant barriers. Cumulative heat flows predicted by the models were usually within about 5 to 10 percent of measured values. In future phases of the project, the models for attic/radiant barrier performance will be coupled with a whole-house model and further comparisons with experimental data will be made. Following this, the models will be utilized to provide an initial assessment of the energy savings potential of radiant barriers in various configurations and under various climatic conditions. 38 refs., 14 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  8. Dynamic thermal responses of five commercially available infant radiant warmer systems.

    PubMed

    Simenauer, R; Spencer, T

    2000-01-01

    Five commercially available infant radiant warmer systems were characterized through radiant-energy measurements at the mattress surface under identical environmental conditions. Average irradiance levels for each warmer were then calculated. In addition, all systems were thermally evaluated for warm-up time using the International IEC standard black anodized aluminum disk simulator. Warm-up time and radiant-energy bed mapping tests were conducted in manual mode. To assess thermal performance under dynamic conditions, skin and core temperatures were measured using a patient simulator test-load device. Dynamic patient simulator response-time data and side-wall temperature data are provided. The radiative heat contribution from the warmer side walls on patient simulator core and skin temperatures was demonstrated. Extreme differences in warmer performances and energy to the mattress surface are documented. Differences in infant radiant warmer performances are principally due to heater-element composition, reflector design, and heater-to-mattress distance.

  9. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions--gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling.

    PubMed

    Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D

    2012-09-10

    Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions.

  10. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-01-01

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

  11. Data center cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Dang, Hien P; Parida, Pritish R; Schultz, Mark D; Sharma, Arun

    2015-03-17

    A data center cooling system may include heat transfer equipment to cool a liquid coolant without vapor compression refrigeration, and the liquid coolant is used on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack housed in the data center. The system may also include a controller-apparatus to regulate the liquid coolant flow to the liquid cooled information technology equipment rack through a range of liquid coolant flow values based upon information technology equipment temperature thresholds.

  12. Atmospheric radiative flux divergence from Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Louis G.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Crommelynk, D.; Rutan, David; Gupta, Shashi

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) is the computation of vertical profiles through the atmosphere of the divergence of radiation flux, with global coverage. This paper discusses the need for radiation divergence and presents some options for its inference from CERES measurements and other data from the Earth Observating System.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the radiant field produced by a multiple-lamp quartz heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a reflected bank of tungsten-filament tubular-quartz radiant heaters. The method is correlated with experimental results from two cases, one consisting of a single lamp and a flat reflector and the other consisting of a single lamp and a parabolic reflector. The simulation methodology, computer implementation, and experimental procedures are discussed. Analytical refinements necessary for comparison with experiment are discussed and applied to a multilamp, common reflector heating system.

  14. Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the use of photovoltaic cells to generate the electrical power demands of the aircraft. The photovoltaic cells are mounted inside the casing of the jet engine, are thermally insulated from the normally hot engine casing, and are appropriately cooled. The photovoltaic cells receive their required radiant energy from the combustion flame by holes in the combustion liner. The instrumentation system used to make these measurements employed fiberoptic probes - entering the engine by way of an existing (modified) access plate - to obtain the radiation measurements. Such an instrumentation system has the strong advantage of being able to measure radiation from all the holes running axially down the combustor without making any holes in the plenum/engine casing - as would be necessary if sapphire observation windows were used. This report is thus more than a discussion of spectral radiation measurements made on a jet engine: it is also a report of the design and evolution of the fiberoptic instrumentation system used to make these measurements. The instrumentation system was designed and built from fundamental first principles, as described in detail in this report. It is believed that this fiberoptic instrumentation system will find application with gas-turbine manufacturers.

  15. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  16. Gas turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bancalari, Eduardo E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

  17. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  18. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Elevation Bearing Assembly Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Phillip L.; Miller, James B.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Rasmussen, Kent; Wheeler, Donald R.; Rana, Mauro; Peri, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) elevation scan bearings lubricated with Pennzane SHF X2000 and 2% lead naphthenate (PbNp) were life tested for a seven-year equivalent Low Earth Orbit (LEO) operation. The bearing life assembly was tested continuously at an accelerated and normal rate using the scanning patterns developed for the CERES Earth Observing System AM-1 mission. A post-life-test analysis was performed on the collected data, bearing wear, and lubricant behavior.

  19. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  20. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  1. A radiant heating test facility for space shuttle orbiter thermal protection system certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherborne, W. D.; Milhoan, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A large scale radiant heating test facility was constructed so that thermal certification tests can be performed on the new generation of thermal protection systems developed for the space shuttle orbiter. This facility simulates surface thermal gradients, onorbit cold-soak temperatures down to 200 K, entry heating temperatures to 1710 K in an oxidizing environment, and the dynamic entry pressure environment. The capabilities of the facility and the development of new test equipment are presented.

  2. TPV Power Generation System Using a High Temperature Metal Radiant Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.; Entchev, E.

    2007-02-01

    Interest has grown in micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP). Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity in fuel-fired furnaces is one of the micro-CHP technologies that are attracting technical attention. Previous investigations have shown that a radiant burner that can efficiently convert fuel chemical energy into radiation energy is crucial to realize a practical TPV power system. In this work, we developed a TPV power generation system using a gas-fired metal radiant burner. The burner consists of a high temperature alloy emitter, which could have an increased emissivity at short wavelengths and low emissivity at long wavelengths. The metal emitter is capable of bearing high temperatures of interest to fuel-fired TPV power conversion. GaSb TPV cells were tested in the combustion-driven radiant source. Electric output characteristics of the TPV cells were investigated at various operating conditions. The electric power output of the TPV cells was demonstrated to be promising. At an emitter temperature of 1185°C, an electric power density of 0.476 W/cm2 was generated by the GaSb cells. It is shown that the metal emitter is attractive and could be applied to practical fuel-fired TPV power systems.

  3. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  4. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  5. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

  6. Research of large scale replicate mirror of IR radiant cooler system for satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoqing; Guo, Xuejian

    2006-02-01

    Aluminum honeycomb mirror is an important component of the IR radiant cooler system employing in the aerospace applications. The radiant cooler system has a great impact on the quality of IR measurements. The quality of the mirror affects that of the radiant cooler. This article mainly introduces the manufacture of a large scale replicate mirror using thin film technology on a honeycomb-shaped aluminum plate. It discusses several technical difficulties, such as requisition of the mother board, selection of the glue and the techniques of replication on large scale aluminum plate. Borosilicate glass, which has low index of thermal expansion, is used as mother board material. It is requested to be processed to a good plane, N < or = -5, ΔN < or = 0.3.. After extensive experiments, the type of resin and solidifier and the ratio of those materials are confirmed. The selection is in consideration of the application in outer space condition and for the favor of processing big replicated mirror.

  7. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Don E; Ezell, Matthew A; Becklehimer, Jeff; Donovan, Matthew J; Layton, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  8. Waveguide cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  9. Waveguide cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B. C. J.; Hartop, R. W.

    1981-04-01

    An improved system is described for cooling high power waveguides by the use of cooling ducts extending along the waveguide, which minimizes hot spots at the flanges where waveguide sections are connected together. The cooling duct extends along substantially the full length of the waveguide section, and each flange at the end of the section has a through hole with an inner end connected to the duct and an opposite end that can be aligned with a flange hole in another waveguide section. Earth flange is formed with a drainage groove in its face, between the through hole and the waveguide conduit to prevent leakage of cooling fluid into the waveguide. The ducts have narrowed sections immediately adjacent to the flanges to provide room for the installation of fasteners closely around the waveguide channel.

  10. Radiant energy absorption enhancement in optical imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Reimaging system efficiently uses incident light and overcomes previous imaging detector problems. Optical system collects reflected and focal plane transmitted light and redirects it so it again impinges on focal plane in register with original image. Reimaging unabsorbed light increases light absorption and detector use probability.

  11. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  12. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  13. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  14. Cloud Effects on Meridional Atmospheric Energy Budget Estimated from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Rose, Fred G.; Rutan, David A.; Charlock, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect, defined as the difference of the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and surface cloud radiative effects, is estimated from three years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The zonal mean shortwave effect is small, though it tends to be positive (warming). This indicates that clouds increase shortwave absorption in the atmosphere, especially in midlatitudes. The zonal mean atmospheric cloud radiative effect is, however, dominated by the longwave effect. The zonal mean longwave effect is positive in the tropics and decreases with latitude to negative values (cooling) in polar regions. The meridional gradient of cloud effect between midlatitude and polar regions exists even when uncertainties in the cloud effect on the surface enthalpy flux and in the modeled irradiances are taken into account. This indicates that clouds increase the rate of generation of mean zonal available potential energy. Because the atmospheric cooling effect in polar regions is predominately caused by low level clouds, which tend to be stationary, we postulate that the meridional and vertical gradients of cloud effect increase the rate of meridional energy transport by dynamics in the atmosphere from midlatitude to polar region, especially in fall and winter. Clouds then warm the surface in polar regions except in the Arctic in summer. Clouds, therefore, contribute in increasing the rate of meridional energy transport from midlatitude to polar regions through the atmosphere.

  15. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Visualization Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) Plot Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.

    1995-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched in 1997 to collect data on the Earth's radiation budget. The data retrieved from the satellite will be processed through twelve subsystems. The Single Satellite Footprint (SSF) plot generator software was written to assist scientists in the early stages of CERES data analysis, producing two-dimensional plots of the footprint radiation and cloud data generated by one of the subsystems. Until the satellite is launched, however, software developers need verification tools to check their code. This plot generator will aid programmers by geolocating algorithm result on a global map.

  16. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  17. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  18. Lamination cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, Wally E.; Kobayashi, Daryl M.

    2005-10-11

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a lamination cooling system including a stack of laminations, each defining a plurality of apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define a plurality of cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack, and gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed to prevent a liquid cooling fluid in the passageways from escaping between the laminations. The gaps are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. The apertures of each lamination can be coincident with the same-sized apertures of adjacent laminations to form straight passageways, or they can vary in size, shape and/or position to form non-axial passageways, angled passageways, bidirectional passageways, and manifold sections of passageways that connect a plurality of different passageway sections. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  19. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  20. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  1. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Products for Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, Seiji; Loeb, Norman G.; Rutan, David A.; Rose, Fred G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project integrates CERES, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and geostationary satellite observations to provide top-of-atmosphere (TOA) irradiances derived from broadband radiance observations by CERES instruments. It also uses snow cover and sea ice extent retrieved from microwave instruments as well as thermodynamic variables from reanalysis. In addition, these variables are used for surface and atmospheric irradiance computations. The CERES project provides TOA, surface, and atmospheric irradiances in various spatial and temporal resolutions. These data sets are for climate research and evaluation of climate models. Long-term observations are required to understand how the Earth system responds to radiative forcing. A simple model is used to estimate the time to detect trends in TOA reflected shortwave and emitted longwave irradiances.

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schenewerk, William E.; Glasgow, Lyle E.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

  3. Determination of Unfiltered Radiances from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Priestley, K. J.; Kratz, D. P.; Geier, E. B.; Green, R. N.; Wielicki, B. A.; Hinton, P. OR.; Nolan, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for determining unfiltered shortwave (SW), longwave (LW) and window (W) radiances from filtered radiances measured by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite instrument is presented. The method uses theoretically derived regression coefficients between filtered and unfiltered radiances that are a function of viewing geometry, geotype and whether or not cloud is present. Relative errors in insta.ntaneous unfiltered radiances from this method are generally well below 1% for SW radiances (approx. 0.4% 1(sigma) or approx.l W/sq m equivalent flux), < 0.2% for LW radiances (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) or approx.0.3 W/sq m equivalent flux) and < 0.2% (approx. 0.1% 1(sigma) for window channel radiances.

  4. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  5. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  6. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.

    The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

  7. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-03-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  8. Numerical and experimental analyses of the radiant heat flux produced by quartz heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is developed for predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by tungsten filament, tubular fused-quartz envelope heating systems with reflectors. The method is an application of Monte Carlo simulation, which takes the form of a random walk or ray tracing scheme. The method is applied to four systems of increasing complexity, including a single lamp without a reflector, a single lamp with a Hat reflector, a single lamp with a parabolic reflector, and up to six lamps in a six-lamp contoured-reflector heating unit. The application of the Monte Carlo method to the simulation of the thermal radiation generated by these systems is discussed. The procedures for numerical implementation are also presented. Experiments were conducted to study these quartz heating systems and to acquire measurements of the corresponding empirical heat flux distributions for correlation with analysis. The experiments were conducted such that several complicating factors could be isolated and studied sequentially. Comparisons of the experimental results with analysis are presented and discussed. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was obtained in all cases. This study shows that this method can be used to analyze very complicated quartz heating systems and can account for factors such as spectral properties, specular reflection from curved surfaces, source enhancement due to reflectors and/or adjacent sources, and interaction with a participating medium in a straightforward manner.

  9. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  10. Radiative cooling for thermophotovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Sun, Xingshu; Bermel, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Radiative cooling has recently garnered a great deal of attention for its potential as an alternative method for photovoltaic thermal management. Here, we will consider the limits of radiative cooling for thermal management of electronics broadly, as well as a specific application to thermal power generation. We show that radiative cooling power can increase rapidly with temperature, and is particularly beneficial in systems lacking standard convective cooling. This finding indicates that systems previously operating at elevated temperatures (e.g., 80°C) can be passively cooled close to ambient under appropriate conditions with a reasonable cooling area. To examine these general principles for a previously unexplored application, we consider the problem of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of heat to electricity via thermal radiation illuminating a photovoltaic diode. Since TPV systems generally operate in vacuum, convective cooling is sharply limited, but radiative cooling can be implemented with proper choice of materials and structures. In this work, realistic simulations of system performance are performed using the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) techniques to capture thermal emitter radiation, PV diode absorption, and radiative cooling. We subsequently optimize the structural geometry within realistic design constraints to find the best configurations to minimize operating temperature. It is found that low-iron soda-lime glass can potentially cool the PV diode by a substantial amount, even to below ambient temperatures. The cooling effect can be further improved by adding 2D-periodic photonic crystal structures. We find that the improvement of efficiency can be as much as an 18% relative increase, relative to the non-radiatively cooled baseline, as well as a potentially significant improvement in PV diode lifetime.

  11. Combustor liner cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

    2013-08-06

    A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

  12. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  13. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  14. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  15. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Sensors and Preflight Calibration Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.; Kopia, Leonard P.; Lawrence, R. Wes; Thomas, Susan; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.

    1996-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft sensors are designed to measure broadband earth-reflected solar shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and earth-emitted longwave (5- > 100 microns) radiances at the top of the atmosphere as part of the Mission to Planet Earth program. The scanning thermistor bolometer sensors respond to radiances in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5 microns) and total-wave (0.3- > 100 microns) spectral regions, as well as to radiances in the narrowband water vapor window (8-12 microns) region. 'ne sensors are designed to operate for a minimum of 5 years aboard the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System AM-1 spacecraft platforms that are scheduled for launches in 1997 and 1998, respectively. The flight sensors and the in-flight calibration systems will be calibrated in a vacuum ground facility using reference radiance sources, tied to the international temperature scale of 1990. The calibrations will be used to derive sensor gains, offsets, spectral responses, and point spread functions within and outside of the field of view. The shortwave, total-wave, and window ground calibration accuracy requirements (1 sigma) are +/-0.8, +/-0.6, and +/-0.3 W /sq m/sr, respectively, while the corresponding measurement precisions are +/-O.5% and +/-1.0% for the broadband longwave and shortwave radiances, respectively. The CERES sensors, in-flight calibration systems, and ground calibration instrumentation are described along with outlines of the preflight and in-flight calibration approaches.

  16. Superconducting magnet cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.

  17. Improvements in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Products Based on Instrument Calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. M.; Priestley, K.; Loeb, N. G.; Thomas, S.; Shankar, M.; Walikainen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) mission is instrumental in providing highly accurate radiance measurements that are critical for monitoring the Earth's radiation budget. Two identical CERES instruments are deployed aboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites Terra and Aqua. Each CERES instrument consists of scanning thermistor bolometer sensors that measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3 to 5 micron), total (0.3 to < 100 micron) and water vapor window (8 to 12 micron) regions. CERES instruments have the capability of scanning in either the cross-track or rotating azimuth plane (RAP) scan mode. Cross-track scanning, the primary mode of CERES operation, allows for the geographical mapping of the radiation fields while RAP scanning enables the acquisition of data over a more extensive combination of viewing configurations, needed for developing vastly improved angular distribution models used in radiance to flux conversion. To evaluate, achieve and maintain radiometric stability, a rigorous and comprehensive radiometric calibration and validation protocol is implemented. Calibrations and validation studies have indicated spectral changes in the reflected solar spectral regions of the shortwave and total sensors. Spectral darkening is detected in the shortwave channel optics, which is more prominent while the instrument operates in RAP mode. In the absence of a climatological explanation for this darkening, this likely occurs during part of the RAP scan cycle when the scan plane is aligned with the direction of motion, making the optics more susceptible to increased UV exposure and molecular contamination. Additionally, systematic daytime-nighttime longwave top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux inconsistency was also detected during validation, which highlights the changes in the shortwave region of the total sensor. This paper briefly describes the strategy to correct for the sensor response changes and presents the improvements in

  18. Non-intrusive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Edward F.; Bergman, John W.

    2001-05-22

    A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

  19. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ning, Xiaohui

    1993-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  20. Nonimaging radiant energy device

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Ning, Xiaohui

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging radiant energy device may include a hyperbolically shaped reflective element with a radiant energy inlet and a radiant energy outlet. A convex lens is provided at the radiant energy inlet and a concave lens is provided at the radiant energy outlet. Due to the provision of the lenses and the shape of the walls of the reflective element, the radiant energy incident at the radiant energy inlet within a predetermined angle of acceptance is emitted from the radiant energy outlet exclusively within an acute exit angle. In another embodiment, the radiant energy device may include two interconnected hyperbolically shaped reflective elements with a respective convex lens being provided at each aperture of the device.

  1. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Oberoi, H. S.

    Six of the nine solar cooling systems discussed in this paper had negative energy savings. In several cases the solar cooling system used substantially more energy than a conventional system could have been expected to use. Two systems, however, had significant energy savings. These systems (1 residential and 1 commercial) obtained system thermal efficiencies of 12.0 to 12.4 percent. Their system overall efficiences averaged 11.2 and 5.2 percent respectively. The residential-sized system achieved an annual energy savings of about 16.8 GJ/year, or approximately .34 GJ/year.m2 of collector. The commercial system had equivalent values of 137 GJ/year or about .22 GJ/year/sq m of collector. It should be noted that these efficiencies re much lower than those of well-designed and properly controlled cooling systems in commercial sizes. However, with realistic system modifications and subsequent improvements in performance these solar cooling systems can be expected to achieve savings in nonrenewable energy sources of approximately 1.2 GJ/year/sq m of collector. These savings can be compared to those associated with solar space and domestic hot water heating systems of 2.2 and 2.5 GJ/year/sq m of collector, respectively.

  2. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-12-24

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system uses nanostructural materials made of high specific surface area adsorption aerogel as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material. A circulation system circulates refrigerant from the nanostructural material to a cooling unit.

  3. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOEpatents

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  4. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOEpatents

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  5. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  6. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  7. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  8. Cooling system for electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  9. Cooling system for electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  10. Magnetic heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, J.E.

    1993-08-03

    A method is described for pumping heat for heating or refrigeration, comprising the steps of: exposing a system comprising a magnetic fluid to a magnetic field; causing the magnetic fluid to absorb heat of magnetization; transferring heat from the system to a heat sink; causing the magnetic fluid to exit the magnetic field, undergoing the cooling effect therefrom; and transferring heat to the system from a heat source.

  11. Lamination cooling system formation method

    SciTech Connect

    Rippel, Wally E; Kobayashi, Daryl M

    2012-06-19

    An electric motor, transformer or inductor having a cooling system. A stack of laminations have apertures at least partially coincident with apertures of adjacent laminations. The apertures define straight or angled cooling-fluid passageways through the lamination stack. Gaps between the adjacent laminations are sealed by injecting a heat-cured sealant into the passageways, expelling excess sealant, and heat-curing the lamination stack. Manifold members adjoin opposite ends of the lamination stack, and each is configured with one or more cavities to act as a manifold to adjacent passageway ends. Complex manifold arrangements can create bidirectional flow in a variety of patterns.

  12. Climate Model Evaluation using New Datasets from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, Norman G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Doelling, David R.

    2008-01-01

    There are some in the science community who believe that the response of the climate system to anthropogenic radiative forcing is unpredictable and we should therefore call off the quest . The key limitation in climate predictability is associated with cloud feedback. Narrowing the uncertainty in cloud feedback (and therefore climate sensitivity) requires optimal use of the best available observations to evaluate and improve climate model processes and constrain climate model simulations over longer time scales. The Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a satellite-based program that provides global cloud, aerosol and radiative flux observations for improving our understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation feedbacks in the Earth s climate system. CERES is the successor to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which has widely been used to evaluate climate models both at short time scales (e.g., process studies) and at decadal time scales. A CERES instrument flew on the TRMM satellite and captured the dramatic 1998 El Nino, and four other CERES instruments are currently flying aboard the Terra and Aqua platforms. Plans are underway to fly the remaining copy of CERES on the upcoming NPP spacecraft (mid-2010 launch date). Every aspect of CERES represents a significant improvement over ERBE. While both CERES and ERBE measure broadband radiation, CERES calibration is a factor of 2 better than ERBE. In order to improve the characterization of clouds and aerosols within a CERES footprint, we use coincident higher-resolution imager observations (VIRS, MODIS or VIIRS) to provide a consistent cloud-aerosol-radiation dataset at climate accuracy. Improved radiative fluxes are obtained by using new CERES-derived Angular Distribution Models (ADMs) for converting measured radiances to fluxes. CERES radiative fluxes are a factor of 2 more accurate than ERBE overall, but the improvement by cloud type and at high latitudes can be as high as a factor of 5

  13. Evaluation of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanner Pointing Accuracy using a Coastline Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currey, Chris; Smith, Lou; Neely, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigation to examine the role of clouds in the radiative energy flow through the Earth-atmosphere system. The first CERES scanning radiometer was launched on November 27, 1997 into a 35 inclination, 350 km altitude orbit, on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. The CERES instrument consists of a three channel scanning broadband radiometer. The spectral bands measure shortwave (0.3 - 5 microns), window (8 - 12 microns), and total (0.3 - 100 microns) radiation reflected or emitted from the Earth-atmosphere system. Each Earth viewing measurement is geolocated to the Earth fixed coordinate system using satellite ephemeris, Earth rotation and geoid, and instrument pointing data. The interactive CERES coastline detection system is used to assess the accuracy of the CERES geolocation process. By analyzing radiative flux gradients at the boundaries of ocean and land masses, the accuracy of the scanner measurement locations may be derived for the CERES/TRMM instrument/satellite system. The resulting CERES measurement location errors are within 10% of the nadir footprint size. Precise pointing knowledge of the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) is required for convolution of cloud properties onto the CERES footprint; initial VIRS coastline results are included.

  14. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  15. Cooling systems for satellite remote sensing instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, R. J.; Oren, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a cryogenic cooling system for the Pollution Monitoring Satellite (PMS) are discussed. Studies were conducted to make the following determinations: (1) the characteristics and use of proven and state-of-the-art cryogenic cooling systems for six specified ranges of performance, (2) the system most applicable for each of the six cooling categories, and (3) conceptual designs for candidate system for each of the six representative cooling categories. The six cooling categories of electrical loads are defined. The desired mission life for the cooling system is two years with both continuous and intermittent operating conditions.

  16. Information technology equipment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  17. Large modular graphite radiant heaters for testing space shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, B. G.; Christensen, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A graphite radiant heating array, capable of heating a 5-ft span of shuttle wing leading edge or a 4 x 8 ft flat panel through an entry thermal profile up to 3200 G, has been designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation for NASA-Johnson Space Center. The unique, interchangeable, self-contained heather modules and their versatile support structure/coolant manifold are discussed along with the extensive thermal analysis that accompanied the design effort. A complete description of the geometric capabilities of the array, as well as the design details of the individual modules, is presented. The complete performance envelope of the array is discussed, including maximum temperature and gradients, heating uniformity, and the required utilities and support equipment.

  18. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, B.B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.

    1998-12-15

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir. 3 figs.

  19. Cooling system for superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed

    1998-01-01

    A cooling system is configured to control the flow of a refrigerant by controlling the rate at which the refrigerant is heated, thereby providing an efficient and reliable approach to cooling a load (e.g., magnets, rotors). The cooling system includes a conduit circuit connected to the load and within which a refrigerant circulates; a heat exchanger, connected within the conduit circuit and disposed remotely from the load; a first and a second reservoir, each connected within the conduit, each holding at least a portion of the refrigerant; a heater configured to independently heat the first and second reservoirs. In a first mode, the heater heats the first reservoir, thereby causing the refrigerant to flow from the first reservoir through the load and heat exchanger, via the conduit circuit and into the second reservoir. In a second mode, the heater heats the second reservoir to cause the refrigerant to flow from the second reservoir through the load and heat exchanger via the conduit circuit and into the first reservoir.

  20. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  1. Using Lunar Observations to Validate In-Flight Calibrations of Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Janet L.; Smith, G. Louis; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The validation of in-orbit instrument performance requires stability in both instrument and calibration source. This paper describes a method of validation using lunar observations scanning near full moon by the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments. Unlike internal calibrations, the Moon offers an external source whose signal variance is predictable and non-degrading. From 2006 to present, in-orbit observations have become standardized and compiled for the Flight Models-1 and -2 aboard the Terra satellite, for Flight Models-3 and -4 aboard the Aqua satellite, and beginning 2012, for Flight Model-5 aboard Suomi-NPP. Instrument performance parameters which can be gleaned are detector gain, pointing accuracy and static detector point response function validation. Lunar observations are used to examine the stability of all three detectors on each of these instruments from 2006 to present. This validation method has yielded results showing trends per CERES data channel of 1.2% per decade or less.

  2. Heat exchanger with auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, John H.

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchanger with an auxiliary cooling system capable of cooling a nuclear reactor should the normal cooling mechanism become inoperable. A cooling coil is disposed around vertical heat transfer tubes that carry secondary coolant therethrough and is located in a downward flow of primary coolant that passes in heat transfer relationship with both the cooling coil and the vertical heat transfer tubes. A third coolant is pumped through the cooling coil which absorbs heat from the primary coolant which increases the downward flow of the primary coolant thereby increasing the natural circulation of the primary coolant through the nuclear reactor.

  3. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOEpatents

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  4. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Peter

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  5. Solar-powered cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  6. High temperature cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Loewen, Eric P.

    2006-12-12

    A method for cooling a heat source, a method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition therein, and a cooling system. The method for cooling employs a containment vessel with an oxidizable interior wall. The interior wall is oxidized to form an oxide barrier layer thereon, the cooling composition is monitored for excess oxidizing agent, and a reducing agent is provided to eliminate excess oxidation. The method for preventing chemical interaction between a vessel and a cooling composition involves introducing a sufficient quantity of a reactant which is reactive with the vessel in order to produce a barrier layer therein that is non-reactive with the cooling composition. The cooling system includes a containment vessel with oxidizing agent and reducing agent delivery conveyances and a monitor of oxidation and reduction states so that proper maintenance of a vessel wall oxidation layer occurs.

  7. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  8. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  9. Emergency cooling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Cheung, Y.K.

    1994-01-04

    An improved emergency cooling system and method are disclosed that may be adapted for incorporation into or use with a nuclear BWR wherein a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) containing a nuclear core and a heat transfer fluid for circulation in a heat transfer relationship with the core is housed within an annular sealed drywell and is fluid communicable therewith for passage thereto in an emergency situation the heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and any noncondensibles present in the RPV, an annular sealed wetwell houses the drywell, and a pressure suppression pool of liquid is disposed in the wetwell and is connected to the drywell by submerged vents. The improved emergency cooling system and method has a containment condenser for receiving condensible heat transfer fluid in a gaseous phase and noncondensibles for condensing at least a portion of the heat transfer fluid. The containment condenser has an inlet in fluid communication with the drywell for receiving heat transfer fluid and noncondensibles, a first outlet in fluid communication with the RPV for the return to the RPV of the condensed portion of the heat transfer fluid and a second outlet in fluid communication with the drywell for passage of the noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles. The noncondensed balance of the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles passed to the drywell from the containment condenser are mixed with the heat transfer fluid and the noncondensibles from the RPV for passage into the containment condenser. A water pool is provided in heat transfer relationship with the containment condenser and is thermally communicable in an emergency situation with an environment outside of the drywell and the wetwell for conducting heat transferred from the containment condenser away from the wetwell and the drywell. 5 figs.

  10. A Mini-channel Heat Exchanger System for Heating, Boiling, and Superheating Water by Radiant Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    heat flux should not be overlooked. T [°C] Temperature TC Thermocouple w [cm] Width of rectangular channel wc [cm] Center -to- center spacing of...smaller hydraulic diameters changes the flow dynamics and brings the bulk fluid in closer contact with the heat exchanger wall. The objective is a...prescribed or targeted heat rate is known. The available contact area is then used to specify the required heat flux of the cooling or heating

  11. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. Volume 1; Overviews (subsystem 0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator); Baum, Bryan A.; Cess, Robert D.; Charlock, Thomas P.; Coakley, James A.; Green, Richard N.; Lee, Robert B., III; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, G. Louis

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 1 provides both summarized and detailed overviews of the CERES Release 1 data analysis system. CERES will produce global top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere, at the surface, and within the atmosphere by using the combination of a large variety of measurements and models. The CERES processing system includes radiance observations from CERES scanning radiometers, cloud properties derived from coincident satellite imaging radiometers, temperature and humidity fields from meteorological analysis models, and high-temporal-resolution geostationary satellite radiances to account for unobserved times. CERES will provide a continuation of the ERBE record and the lowest error climatology of consistent cloud properties and radiation fields. CERES will also substantially improve our knowledge of the Earth's surface radiation budget.

  12. Techniques for computing regional radiant emittances of the earth-atmosphere system from observations by wide-angle satellite radiometers, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pina, J. F.; House, F. B.

    1975-01-01

    Radiometers on earth orbiting satellites measure the exchange of radiant energy between the earth-atmosphere (E-A) system and space at observation points in space external to the E-A system. Observations by wideangle, spherical and flat radiometers are analyzed and interpreted with regard to the general problem of the earth energy budget (EEB) and to the problem of determining the energy budget of regions smaller than the field of view (FOV) of these radiometers.

  13. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  14. Relationship Between the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements and Surface Temperatures of Selected Ocean Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Dhirendra, K.; Lee, Robert B., III; Brown, Shannon B.; Paden, Jack; Spence, Peter L.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.; Al-Hajjah, Aiman

    2001-01-01

    Clear sky longwave radiances and fluxes are compared with the sea surface temperatures for three oceanic regions: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) measurements were obtained by the three thermistor bolometers: total channel which measures the radiation arising from the earth-atmosphere system between 0.3 - greater than 100 micrometers; the window channel which measures the radiation from 8-12 micrometers; and the shortwave channel which measures the reflected energy from 0.3 - less than 5.0 micrometers. These instruments have demonstrated measurement precisions of approximately 0.3% on the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) between ground and on-orbit sensor calibrations. In this work we have used eight months of clear sky earth-nadir-view radiance data starting from January 1998 through August 1998. We have found a very strong correlation of 0.97 between the CERES window channel's weekly averaged unfiltered spectral radiance values at satellite altitude (350 km) and the corresponding weekly averaged sea surface temperature (SST) data covering all the oceanic regions. Such correlation can be used in predicting the sea surface temperatures using the present CERES Terra's window channel radiances at satellite altitude very easily.

  15. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  16. Conversion of radiant light energy in photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cornet, J.F.; Dussap, C.G.; Gros, J.B. . Lab. de Genie Chimique Biologique)

    1994-06-01

    The conversion of radiant light energy into chemical affinity by microorganisms in photobioreactors is examined. The kinetics of entropy production in the system is theoretically established from entropy and energy balances for the material and photonic phases in the reactor. A negative chemical affinity term compensated for by a radiant energy term at a higher level of energy characterizes photosynthetic organisms. The local volumetric rate of radiant light energy absorbed, which appears in the dissipation function as an irreversible term, is calculated for monodimensional approximations providing analytical solutions and for general tridimensional equations requiring the solution of a new numerical algorithm. Solutions for the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis cultivated in photoreactors with different geometries and light energy inputs are compared. Thermodynamic efficiency of the photosynthesis is calculated. The highest value of 15% found for low radiant energy absorption rates corresponds to a maximum quantum yield in the reactor.

  17. Global, Multi-Year Analysis of Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System Terra Observations and Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, T. P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Coleman, L. H.; Caldwell, T.; Zentz, S.

    2005-01-01

    An extended record of the Terra Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget (SARB) computed by CERES (Clouds and Earth s Radiant Energy System) is produced in gridded form, facilitating an investigation of global scale direct aerosol forcing. The new gridded version (dubbed FSW) has a spacing of 1 at the Equator. A companion document (Rutan et al. 2005) focuses on advances to (and validation of) the ungridded, footprint scale calculations (dubbed CRS), primarily in clear-sky conditions. While mainly intended to provide observations of fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA), CERES (Wielicki et al. 1996) includes a program to also compute the fluxes at TOA, within the atmosphere and at the surface, and also to validate the results with independent ground based measurements (Charlock and Alberta 1996). ARM surface data has been a focus for this component of CERES. To permit the user to infer cloud forcing and direct aerosol forcing with the computed SARB, CERES includes surface and TOA fluxes that have been computed for cloud-free (clear) and aerosol free (pristine) footprints; this accounts for aerosol effects (SW scattering and absorption, and LW scattering, absorption and emission) to both clear and cloudy skies.

  18. Ground Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Lou; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Direndra K.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Bolden, William C.; Wilson, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometers will measure earth-reflected solar and earth-emmitted,longwave radiances, at the top-of-the-atmosphere. The measurements are performed in the broadband shortwave (0.3-5.0 micron) and longwave (5.0 - >100 micron) spectral regions as well as in the 8 -12 micron water vapor window over geographical footprints as small as 10 kilometers at the nadir. The CERES measurements are designed to improve our knowledge of the earth's natural climate processes, in particular those related to clouds, and man's impact upon climate as indicated by atmospheric temperature. November 1997, the first set of CERES bolometers is scheduled for launch on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft. The CERES bolometers were calibrated radiometrically in a vacuum ground facility using absolute reference sources, tied to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Accurate bolometer calibrations are dependent upon the derivations of the radiances from the spectral properties [reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.] of both the sources and bolometers. In this paper, the overall calibration approaches are discussed for the longwave and shortwave calibrations. The spectral responses for the TRMM bolometer units are presented and applied to the bolometer ground calibrations in order to determine pre-launch calibration gains.

  19. Feasibility of cool storage systems in refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Kekkonen, Veikko; Laitinen, Ari; Pihala, Hannu

    1989-05-01

    In the present report, the economic viability and technical feasibility of selected cool storage systems are considered. Cool storage has clear potential for several applications: in connection with air-conditioning systems, domestic refrigerating and freezing systems; commercially e.g., in the dairy and vegetable industries; and in deep freezing, as in the meat industry. Air-conditioning has limited significance in Finland. For this reason it was not investigated in this study. In domestic refrigeration and freezing two systems were investigated; a controlled cooling/heating system and a simple built-in system in individual refrigerators and freezers. The central cooling/heating system in houses was found to be economically unattractive. It also has several technical drawbacks. The simple built-in system appeared to be promising. The amount of savings is rationally a function of the difference between day and night tariffs and the costs of installing an automatic switch and storage media. In the vegetable and dairy industries cool storage also has considerable potential. Several systems were investigated in this respect and compared to the conventional system. The cool storage system using Cristopia balls, one of the most common commercial systems available in Europe, was not economical at a tariff difference of 10 p/k Wh or more. Cool storage for freezing in meat plants was also investigated.

  20. Hot gas path component cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  1. Solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, D. E.; Humphries, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    System has been placed in operation to verify technical feasibility of using solar energy to provide residential heating and cooling. Complete system analysis was performed to provide design information.

  2. Effect of radiant heat on conventional glass ionomer cements during setting by using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm).

    PubMed

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Tolidis, Kosmas; Strakas, Dimitrios; Gerasimou, Paris; Sfeikos, Thrasyvoulos; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of radiant heat on surface hardness of three conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) by using a blue diode laser system (445 nm) and a light-emitting diode (LED) unit. Additionally, the safety of the laser treatment was evaluated. Thirty disk-shaped specimens were prepared of each tested GIC (Equia Fil, Ketac Universal Aplicap and Riva Self Cure). The experimental groups (n = 10) of the study were as follows: group 1 was the control group of the study; in group 2, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a LED light-curing unit; and in group 3, the specimens were irradiated for 60 s at the top surface using a blue light diode laser system (445 nm). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests at a level of significance of a = 0.05. Radiant heat treatments, with both laser and LED devices, increased surface hardness (p < 0.05) but in different extent. Blue diode laser treatment was seemed to be more effective compared to LED treatment. There were no alterations in surface morphology or chemical composition after laser treatment. The tested radiant heat treatment with a blue diode laser may be advantageous for the longevity of GIC restorations. The safety of the use of blue diode laser for this application was confirmed.

  3. Cooling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1982-01-01

    A cooling system for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed which includes at least one primary cooling loop adapted to pass coolant gas from the reactor core and an associated steam generator through a duct system having a main circulator therein, and at least one auxiliary cooling loop having communication with the reactor core and adapted to selectively pass coolant gas through an auxiliary heat exchanger and circulator. The main and auxiliary circulators are installed in a common vertical cavity in the reactor vessel, and a common return duct communicates with the reactor core and intersects the common cavity at a junction at which is located a flow diverter valve operative to effect coolant flow through either the primary or auxiliary cooling loops.

  4. A System for Determining Parameters of a Particle by Radiant Energy Scattering Techniques, Patent Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The system for determining parameters of a particle described in this document is a government-owned invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the system together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A collector contains a hole and annular apertures for transmitting…

  5. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  6. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, Mark P.; Kedl, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention is a process for formation of a gas hydrate to be used as a cool storage medium using a refrigerant in water. Mixing of the immiscible refrigerant and water is effected by addition of a surfactant and agitation. The difficult problem of subcooling during the process is overcome by using the surfactant and agitation and performance of the process significantly improves and approaches ideal.

  7. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  8. Biomedical Application of Aerospace Personal Cooling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Webbon, Bruce W.; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which are used by astronauts to alleviate thermal stress during extravehicular activity have been applied to the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of two passive and two active cooling vests and to measure the body temperature and circulatory changes produced by each cooling vest configuration. The MicroClimate Systems and the Life Enhancement Tech(LET) lightweight liquid cooling vests, the Steele Vest and LET's Zipper Front Garment were used to cool the chest region of 10 male and female subjects (25 to 55 yr.) in this study. Calf, forearm and finger blood flows were measured using a tetrapolar impedance rheograph. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx.22C), were tested for 60 min. with the cooling system operated at its maximum cooling capacity. Blood flows were recorded continuously using a computer data acquisition system with a sampling frequency of 250 Hz. Oral, right and left ear temperatures and cooling system parameters were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; respiration; and an activity index were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. In general, the male and female subjects' oral and ear temperature responses to cooling were similar for all vest configurations tested. Oral temperatures during the recovery period were significantly (P<0.05) lower than during the control period, approx. 0.2 - 0.5C, for both men and women wearing any of the four different garments. The corresponding ear temperatures were significantly (P<0.05) decreased approx.0.2 - 0.4C by the end of the recovery period. Compared to the control period, no significant differences were found in rectal temperatures during cooling and

  9. Effectiveness-weighted control method for a cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simons, Robert E.

    2015-12-15

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  10. Effectiveness-weighted control of cooling system components

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Simmons, Robert E.

    2015-12-22

    Energy efficient control of cooling system cooling of an electronic system is provided based, in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components. The control includes automatically determining speed control settings for multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on weighted cooling effectiveness of the components of the cooling system, and the determining operates to limit power consumption of at least the cooling system, while ensuring that a target temperature associated with at least one of the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range by provisioning, based on the weighted cooling effectiveness, a desired target temperature change among the multiple adjustable cooling components of the cooling system. The provisioning includes provisioning applied power to the multiple adjustable cooling components via, at least in part, the determined control settings.

  11. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Charles E.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  12. Energy metabolism and substrate utilization in low birth weight neonates under radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Marks, K H; Nardis, E E; Momin, M N

    1986-09-01

    We evaluated the metabolic response to the thermal demands of an open radiant warmer device, as distinct from convection incubator, in 13 healthy premature infants (1.395 +/- 169 g, 28 +/- 12 days of age, mean +/- SD). Metabolic rate was 10% higher for infants under the radiant warmer than in the incubator (2.60 +/- 0.4 v 2.36 +/- 0.3 kcal/kg/h; P less than .05). The radiant warmer also induced a small (4%), but significant, increase in nonprotein respiratory quotient (0.94 +/- 0.1 v 0.90 +/- 0.1; P less than .05) and a 13% increase in carbon dioxide production (8.26 +/- 1.1 v 7.31 +/- 1.1 mL/kg/min; P less than .05). Subcutaneous fat accumulation (estimated from 60-second skin-fold thickness measurements) was greater under the radiant warmer than in the incubator (0.08 +/- 0.05 v 0.04 +/- 0.04 mm/d; P less than .05). Under the warmer, the infant's mean skin temperatures and core temperatures were normal and similar to those found in the incubator, but the foot temperature was on average 0.6 degrees C cooler. The average rate of weight gain (18 g/kg/d) was the same in the radiant environment. The pattern of the elevated metabolic rate, shift of respiratory quotient coupled with the accumulation of subcutaneous fat, and cool extremities of infants under the radiant warmer may represent a physiologic adaptive response to thermal stress. However, the reasons for the elevated metabolic rate are unclear, because activation of the sympathetic nervous system with the release of catecholamines is not apparently involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  14. ASRM full scale test case cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Cary E.; Hollenbeck, Anne K.

    1993-07-01

    After an ASRM static firing, excessive motorcase heating resulting from Al2O3 accumulation could cause irrecoverable case loss if adequate cooling were not determined and provided. Cooling system performance parameters and design criteria were determined through this analysis. Comparisons were made with data from literature. Advances in the thermal analysis were accomplished as compared to previous investigators. Results were based on the analysis, comparisons to other investigators, and utilization of test data from literature.

  15. Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Sumpman, Wayne C.; Baker, Robert J.; Williams, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

  16. Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

    1988-06-07

    A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

  17. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  18. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  19. Preoperational test report, recirculation condenser cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Condenser Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The four system provide condenser cooling water for vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a pair of redundant recirculation pumps, a closed-loop evaporative cooling tower, and supporting instrumentation; equipment is located outside the farm on concrete slabs. Piping is routed to the each ventilation condenser inside the farm via below-grade concrete trenches. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  20. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A collection of monthly status reports on the development of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation. The systems are 3, 25, and 75 ton size units.

  1. Cavity Cooling for Ensemble Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cory, David

    2015-03-01

    Recently there has been a surge of interest in exploring thermodynamics in quantum systems where dissipative effects can be exploited to perform useful work. One such example is quantum state engineering where a quantum state of high purity may be prepared by dissipative coupling through a cold thermal bath. This has been used to great effect in many quantum systems where cavity cooling has been used to cool mechanical modes to their quantum ground state through coupling to the resolved sidebands of a high-Q resonator. In this talk we explore how these techniques may be applied to an ensemble spin system. This is an attractive process as it potentially allows for parallel remove of entropy from a large number of quantum systems, enabling an ensemble to achieve a polarization greater than thermal equilibrium, and potentially on a time scale much shorter than thermal relaxation processes. This is achieved by the coupled angular momentum subspaces of the ensemble behaving as larger effective spins, overcoming the weak individual coupling of individual spins to a microwave resonator. Cavity cooling is shown to cool each of these subspaces to their respective ground state, however an additional algorithmic step or dissipative process is required to couple between these subspaces and enable cooling to the full ground state of the joint system.

  2. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  3. System for Cooling of Electronic Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, L. L.; Grakovich, L. P.; Dragun, L. A.; Zhuravlev, A. S.; Olekhnovich, V. A.; Rabetskii, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Results of computational and experimental investigations of heat pipes having a predetermined thermal resistance and a system based on these pipes for air cooling of electronic components and diode assemblies of lasers are presented. An efficient compact cooling system comprising heat pipes with an evaporator having a capillary coating of a caked copper powder and a condenser having a developed outer finning, has been deviced. This system makes it possible to remove, to the ambient air, a heat flow of power more than 300 W at a temperature of 40-50°C.

  4. Evaluation of three commercial microclimate cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadarette, Bruce S.; Decristofano, Barry S.; Speckman, Karen N.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1988-11-01

    Three commercially available microclimate cooling systems were evaluated for their ability to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insulative, low permeability clothing. The cooling systems were: (1) ILC Dover Model 19 Coolvest (ILC) (2) LSSI Coolhead(LSSI), and (3) Thermacor Cooling vest (THERM). Endurance Time (ET), Heart Rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (TSK), Sweating Rate (SR), Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Thermal Sensation (TS) were measured. The subjects self-terminated on all LSSI tests because of headaches. Statistical analyses were performed on data collected at 60 minutes to have values on all subjects. There were no differences in HR, Tre, SR or TS values among the cooling vests. The subjects' TSK was lower (P less than 0.05) for the LSSI than THERM: and RPE values were higher (P less than 0.05) for LSSI than the other two vests. These data suggest an improved physiological response to exercise heat stress with all three commercial systems with the greatest benefit in performance time provided by the ILC cooling system.

  5. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  6. Passive cooling system for a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  7. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  8. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section... Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to... fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer operation....

  9. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section... Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to... fan(s) may be used to maintain sufficient engine cooling during engine dynamometer operation....

  10. PCM Passive Cooling System Containing Active Subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanding, David E.; Bass, David I.

    2005-01-01

    A multistage system has been proposed for cooling a circulating fluid that is subject to intermittent intense heating. The system would be both flexible and redundant in that it could operate in a basic passive mode, either sequentially or simultaneously with operation of a first, active cooling subsystem, and either sequentially or simultaneously with a second cooling subsystem that could be active, passive, or a combination of both. This flexibility and redundancy, in combination with the passive nature of at least one of the modes of operation, would make the system more reliable, relative to a conventional cooling system. The system would include a tube-in-shell heat exchanger, within which the space between the tubes would be filled with a phase-change material (PCM). The circulating hot fluid would flow along the tubes in the heat exchanger. In the basic passive mode of operation, heat would be conducted from the hot fluid into the PCM, wherein the heat would be stored temporarily by virtue of the phase change.

  11. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaat, B.; Ostrega, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra pixel layer in the space obtained by a smaller radius beam pipe. This new pixel layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) was installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (< ‑35oC) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the expected high radiation dose received at an integrated luminosity of 550 fb1. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  12. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  13. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  14. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Busboom, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  15. Quality control of radiant heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Daniel A.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Quintela, María Á.; López-Higuera, José M.

    2005-09-01

    Based on infrared thermography, a non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) procedure is proposed for defects assessment on radiant heaters. Under a short electrical excitation, an infrared camera captures the cooling process of the heaters. Breaking the thermographic images down not only makes easiest the location of defects but it also allows their classification. Several kinds of defects have been taken into account: lack of supporting brackets; defects originated by a deficiency in the heating material; those from an excess of heating material; and those parts of the heating elements which are in wrong contact (non-contact or semi-buried) with the substrate. Each kind of analyzed defect has a different thermal history after the electrical excitation because of its nature. By means of computer vision techniques, the defects can be spatially located. The "chain code" was employed to follow the pattern of the heating element and so concentrate the analysis in points belonging to the pattern. A good agreement with analysis made under human's criteria is achieved. However, using infrared cameras and processing the data with computer vision algorithms allows controlling in-site the quality of the product without any subjectivity. So, the heaters manufacturing industry could come along with the implementation of this automatic detection procedure. Experimental results that validate the proposed method will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Infant incubators and radiant warmers.

    PubMed

    Bell, E F

    1983-10-01

    Incubators and radiant warmers are used to maintain the body temperature of newborn infants. This is best done so that the energy expended for metabolic heat production is minimized. The heat output of these devices is usually regulated by servocontrol to keep the skin temperature constant at a site on the abdomen where a thermistor probe is attached. In incubators, air temperature can also be controlled as an alternative to skin temperature servocontrol. Increased ambient humidity, heat shields and clothing have been used to decrease the evaporative or nonevaporative heat loss of infants in incubators under certain conditions. Double-walled incubators, by adding a second inner layer of Plexiglas, reduce radiant heat loss. They may also reduce total heat loss, but only if air temperature is controlled rather than skin temperature. The minimal oxygen consumption under a radiant warmer is the same or perhaps slightly higher than it is for the same infant in an incubator. Compared with incubators, the partition of body heat loss is quite different under radiant warmers. Radiant warmers increase convective and evaporative heat loss and insensible water loss but eliminate radiant heat loss or change it to net gain. A heat shield of thin polyethylene film can be used with a radiant warmer to reduce heat loss by convection and evaporation. The major advantage of the radiant warmer is the easy access it provides to critically-ill infants without disturbing the thermal environment. Its major disadvantage is the increase in insensible water loss produced by the radiant warmer. Most infants can be safely and adequately cared for in either incubator or radiant warmer bed.

  17. Vented Cavity Radiant Barrier Assembly And Method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.; Jackaway, Adam D.

    2000-05-16

    A vented cavity radiant barrier assembly (2) includes a barrier (12), typically a PV module, having inner and outer surfaces (18, 22). A support assembly (14) is secured to the barrier and extends inwardly from the inner surface of the barrier to a building surface (14) creating a vented cavity (24) between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. A low emissivity element (20) is mounted at or between the building surface and the barrier inner surface. At least part of the cavity exit (30) is higher than the cavity entrance (28) to promote cooling air flow through the cavity.

  18. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  20. Low pressure cooling seal system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A low pressure cooling system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids at low pressure, such as at ambient pressure, through at least one cooling fluid supply channel and into a cooling fluid mixing chamber positioned immediately downstream from a row of turbine blades extending radially outward from a rotor assembly to prevent ingestion of hot gases into internal aspects of the rotor assembly. The low pressure cooling system may also include at least one bleed channel that may extend through the rotor assembly and exhaust cooling fluids into the cooling fluid mixing chamber to seal a gap between rotational turbine blades and a downstream, stationary turbine component. Use of ambient pressure cooling fluids by the low pressure cooling system results in tremendous efficiencies by eliminating the need for pressurized cooling fluids for sealing this gap.

  1. Evaluation of Three Commercial Microclimate Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    easily counteracted because of the difficulty of drinking inside protective clothing . Dehydration combined with warm skin and exercise can easily result in...Stress; Exercise ; Thermoregulation 9. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) (OThree commercially available microclimate...cooling systems were evaluated for their abil- ity to reduce heat stress in men exercising in a hot environment while wearing high insula- tive, low

  2. Modeling of High Capacity Passive Cooling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Cooling System Case Number: AOARD-084029 Contract Number: FA4869-08- 1 -4029 Award Period: 06 March 2008 to 06 March 2009 Report Documentation...Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE 28 OCT 2009 2. REPORT

  3. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2015-08-18

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  4. Controlled cooling of an electronic system based on projected conditions

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-05-17

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided based, in part, on projected conditions. The control includes automatically determining an adjusted control setting(s) for an adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on projected power consumed by the electronic system at a future time and projected temperature at the future time of a heat sink to which heat extracted is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on an experimentally obtained model(s) relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the adjustable cooling component(s) of the cooling system.

  5. Radiant energy collector

    DOEpatents

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  6. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  7. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  8. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Air. Part I: Experiments; Part II: Separate Effects Tests and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Corradin, Michael; Anderson, M.; Muci, M.; Hassan, Yassin; Dominguez, A.; Tokuhiro, Akira; Hamman, K.

    2014-10-15

    This experimental study investigates the thermal hydraulic behavior and the heat removal performance for a scaled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) with air. A quarter-scale RCCS facility was designed and built based on a full-scale General Atomics (GA) RCCS design concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR). The GA RCCS is a passive cooling system that draws in air to use as the cooling fluid to remove heat radiated from the reactor pressure vessel to the air-cooled riser tubes and discharged the heated air into the atmosphere. Scaling laws were used to preserve key aspects and to maintain similarity. The scaled air RCCS facility at UW-Madison is a quarter-scale reduced length experiment housing six riser ducts that represent a 9.5° sector slice of the full-scale GA air RCCS concept. Radiant heaters were used to simulate the heat radiation from the reactor pressure vessel. The maximum power that can be achieved with the radiant heaters is 40 kW with a peak heat flux of 25 kW per meter squared. The quarter-scale RCCS was run under different heat loading cases and operated successfully. Instabilities were observed in some experiments in which one of the two exhaust ducts experienced a flow reversal for a period of time. The data and analysis presented show that the RCCS has promising potential to be a decay heat removal system during an accident scenario.

  9. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  10. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  11. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  12. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  13. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  14. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  15. 40 CFR 90.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 90.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  16. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 91.307 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine...

  17. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  18. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  19. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section... cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures as prescribed by the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used...

  20. 40 CFR 91.307 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 91.307 Section... cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity to maintain the engine at normal operating temperatures as prescribed by the engine manufacturer. Auxiliary fan(s) may be used...

  1. 40 CFR 89.329 - Engine cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine cooling system. 89.329 Section...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.329 Engine cooling system. An engine cooling system is required with sufficient capacity...

  2. Design of panel heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bohle, J.; Klan, H.

    2000-07-01

    Panel heating and cooling systems use controlled temperature surfaces in the floor, walls, or ceiling of a conditioned space. The temperature is maintained by a circulating fluid through a circuit embedded in the panel. Heat transfer occurs by radiation and convection to or from a room. The performance of these systems may be determined by design calculations or testing. Thermal testing and system analysis by experiments are costly and inefficient. For different closed panel systems, finite element-based models and programs were developed by which temperature distribution in the construction, interdependence between performance and mean carrier fluid temperature, panel surface temperature, and room temperature can be calculated. One single power function product of all relevant parameters has been derived as an algorithm for performance calculations of panel heating and cooling systems, which can be adapted for other systems. Findings have been verified by experiment for floor heating panels with best results. These basic equations provided the design standards for German Standard DIN 4725, ''Thermal Output of Floor Heating'', which has been adopted as European Standard EN 1264. Finite element method calculation results were also compared with results from design calculations based on the ASHRAE method.

  3. Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Fontana, L

    2012-11-01

    Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions.

  4. Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, L.

    2012-11-01

    Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions.

  5. Characterization of radiant emitters used in food processing.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, B J; Farkas, B E; Keener, K M

    2003-01-01

    Radiant emissions from short, medium, and long wavelength thermal radiant emitter systems typically used for food processing applications were quantified. Measurements included heat flux intensity, emitter surface temperature, and spectral wavelength distribution. Heat flux measurements were found highly dependent on the incident angle and the distance from the emitter facing. The maximum flux measured was 5.4 W/cm2. Emitter surface temperature measurements showed that short wavelength radiant systems had the highest surface temperature and greatest thermal efficiency. The emitter spectral distributions showed that radiant emitter systems had large amounts of far infrared energy emission greater than 3 microm when compared to theoretical blackbody curves. The longer wavelength energy would likely cause increased surface heating for most high moisture content food materials.

  6. Directional control of radiant heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. R.; Perlmutter, M.

    1970-01-01

    Surface with grooves having flat bases gives directional emissivities and absorptivities that can be made to approximate a perfect directional surface. Radiant energy can then be transferred in desired directions.

  7. Corrosion in HVDC valve cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.O.; Abrahamsson, B.; Gustavsson, D.; Igetoft, L.

    1997-04-01

    Stainless steel couplings in the main cooling water pipes of HVDC thyristor valves have been in use since 1983, with an overall satisfactory behavior. However, some water leakage due to corrosion below the sealing O-rings of the couplings was observed during 1992. An extensive investigation and follow-up worldwide showed a direct correlation between water quality and the corrosion rate of the stainless steel couplings. Recommendations are given about actions to be taken in order to maintain a long lifetime for the fine water systems.

  8. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  9. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is reported. Manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and monitoring the operation of prototype systems is included. Heating and cooling equipment for single family residential and commercial applications and eight operational test sites (four heating and four heating and cooling) is described.

  10. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test was reported. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for single family residences, multiple family residences and commercial applications.

  11. Electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Joseph Mauger, G.; Anderson, Eric H.

    1999-02-01

    We have successfully developed and fielded an electromechanically cooled germanium radiation detector (EMC-HPGe) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This detector system was designed to provide optimum energy resolution, long lifetime, and extremely reliable operation for unattended and portable applications. For most analytical applications, high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors are the standard detectors of choice, providing an unsurpassed combination of high energy resolution performance and exceptional detection efficiency. Logistical difficulties associated with providing the required liquid nitrogen (LN) for cooling is the primary reason that these systems are found mainly in laboratories. The EMC-HPGe detector system described in this paper successfully provides HPGe detector performance in a portable instrument that allows for isotopic analysis in the field. It incorporates a unique active vibration control system that allows the use of a Sunpower Stirling cycle cryocooler unit without significant spectral degradation from microphonics. All standard isotopic analysis codes, including MGA and MGA++ [1], GAMANL [2], GRPANL [3]and MGAU [4], typically used with HPGe detectors can be used with this system with excellent results. Several national and international Safeguards organisations including the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have expressed interest in this system. The detector was combined with custom software and demonstrated as a rapid Field Radiometric Identification System (FRIS) for the U.S. Customs Service [5]. The European Communities' Safeguards Directorate (EURATOM) is field-testing the first Safeguards prototype in their applications. The EMC-HPGe detector system design, recent applications, and results will be highlighted.

  12. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  13. New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1981-01-01

    New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)

  14. Cooling-load implications for residential passive solar heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. W.; McFarland, R. D.

    1983-11-01

    The quantification of cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in the design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

  15. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  16. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. Volume 3; Cloud Analyses and Determination of Improved Top of Atmosphere Fluxes (Subsystem 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 3 details the advanced CERES methods for performing scene identification and inverting each CERES scanner radiance to a top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) flux. CERES determines cloud fraction, height, phase, effective particle size, layering, and thickness from high-resolution, multispectral imager data. CERES derives cloud properties for each pixel of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) visible and infrared scanner and the Earth Observing System (EOS) moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud properties for each imager pixel are convolved with the CERES footprint point spread function to produce average cloud properties for each CERES scanner radiance. The mean cloud properties are used to determine an angular distribution model (ADM) to convert each CERES radiance to a TOA flux. The TOA fluxes are used in simple parameterization to derive surface radiative fluxes. This state-of-the-art cloud-radiation product will be used to substantially improve our understanding of the complex relationship between clouds and the radiation budget of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  17. An objective method for screening and selecting personal cooling systems based on cooling properties.

    PubMed

    Elson, John; Eckels, Steve

    2015-05-01

    A method is proposed for evaluation and selection of a personal cooling system (PCS) incorporating PCS, subject, and equipment weights; PCS run time; user task time; PCS cooling power; and average metabolic rate. The cooling effectiveness method presented is derived from first principles and allows those who select PCSs for specific applications to compare systems based on their projected use. This can lower testing costs by screening for the most applicable system. Methods to predict cooling power of PCSs are presented and are compared to data taken through standard manikin testing. The cooling effectiveness ranking is presented and validated against human subject test data. The proposed method provides significant insight into the application of PCS on humans. However, the interaction a humans with a PCS is complex, especially considering the range of clothing ensembles, physiological issues, and end use scenarios, and requires additional analysis.

  18. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program is to develop intelligent control and distribution methods for turbine cooling, while achieving a reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. The program also will develop embedded sensor technologies and cooling system models for real-time engine diagnostics and health management. Both active and passive control strategies will be investigated that include the capability of intelligent modulation of flow quantities, pressures, and temperatures both within the supply system and at the turbine component level. Thermal management system concepts were studied, with a goal of reducing HPT blade cooling air supply temperature. An assessment will be made of the use of this air by the active clearance control system as well. Turbine component cooling designs incorporating advanced, high-effectiveness cooling features, will be evaluated. Turbine cooling flow control concepts will be studied at the cooling system level and the component level. Specific cooling features or sub-elements of an advanced HPT blade cooling design will be downselected for core fabrication and casting demonstrations.

  19. Design of Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Vinet, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the material (Model III). The governing equations for the models were developed in non-dimensional form and a comprehensive parametric investigation of the effects of the independent variables on the important dependent variables was performed. In addition, detailed analyses were performed for selected materials to evaluate the practical limitations of the results of the parametric study.

  20. Coloration Determination of Spectral Darkening Occurring on a Broadband Earth Observing Radiometer: Application to Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Grant; Priestley, Kory; Loeb, Norman G.; Loukachine, Konstantin; Thomas, Susan; Walikainen, Dale; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2006-01-01

    It is estimated that in order to best detect real changes in the Earth s climate system, space based instrumentation measuring the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) must remain calibrated with a stability of 0.3% per decade. Such stability is beyond the specified accuracy of existing ERB programs such as the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES, using three broadband radiometric scanning channels: the shortwave 0.3 - 5microns, total 0.3. > 100microns, and window 8 - 12microns). It has been shown that when in low earth orbit, optical response to blue/UV radiance can be reduced significantly due to UV hardened contaminants deposited on the surface of the optics. Since typical onboard calibration lamps do not emit sufficient energy in the blue/UV region, this darkening is not directly measurable using standard internal calibration techniques. This paper describes a study using a model of contaminant deposition and darkening, in conjunction with in-flight vicarious calibration techniques, to derive the spectral shape of darkening to which a broadband instrument is subjected. Ultimately the model uses the reflectivity of Deep Convective Clouds as a stability metric. The results of the model when applied to the CERES instruments on board the EOS Terra satellite are shown. Given comprehensive validation of the model, these results will allow the CERES spectral responses to be updated accordingly prior to any forthcoming data release in an attempt to reach the optimum stability target that the climate community requires.

  1. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Terra Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Loukachine, K.; Smith, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) provides coincident global cloud and aerosol properties together with reflected solar, emitted terrestrial longwave and infrared window radiative fluxes. These data are needed to improve our understanding and modeling of the interaction between clouds, aerosols and radiation at the top of the atmosphere, surface, and within the atmosphere. This paper describes the approach used to estimate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from instantaneous CERES radiance measurements on the Terra satellite. A key component involves the development of empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that account for the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. The CERES Terra ADMs are developed using 24 months of CERES radiances, coincident cloud and aerosol retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological parameters from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMA0) s Goddard Earth Observing System DAS (GEOS-DAS V4.0.3) product. Scene information for the ADMs is from MODIS retrievals and GEOS-DAS V4.0.3 properties over ocean, land, desert and snow, for both clear and cloudy conditions. Because the CERES Terra ADMs are global, and far more CERES data is available on Terra than was available from CERES on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the methodology used to define CERES Terra ADMs is different in many respects from that used to develop CERES TRMM ADMs, particularly over snow/sea-ice, under cloudy conditions, and for clear scenes over land and desert.

  2. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  3. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  4. Potential of solar cooling systems for peak demand reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A A; Neymark, J

    1994-11-01

    We investigated the technical feasibility of solar cooling for peak demand reduction using a building energy simulation program (DOE2.1D). The system studied was an absorption cooling system with a thermal coefficient of performance of 0.8 driven by a solar collector system with an efficiency of 50% with no thermal storage. The analysis for three different climates showed that, on the day with peak cooling load, about 17% of the peak load could be met satisfactorily with the solar-assisted cooling system without any thermal storage. A performance availability analysis indicated that the solar cooling system should be designed for lower amounts of available solar resources that coincide with the hours during which peak demand reduction is required. The analysis indicated that in dry climates, direct-normal concentrating collectors work well for solar cooling; however, in humid climates, collectors that absorb diffuse radiation work better.

  5. Solar space heating and cooling by selective use of the components of a desiccant cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud, Ihsan Aladdin

    The economic advantages of by-passing various components of a desiccant cooling system under conditions not requiring their use are estimated by evaluating the annual costs of heating and cooling a commercial building in three representative U.S. cities. Life-cycle costs of systems employing solar heat for space heating and desiccant regeneration are compared with those using electric heat. The costs of purchasing and operating heating and desiccant cooling systems, with and without solar heat supply, are compared with those employing conventional heating and vapor compression cooling. The conditions under which commercial buildings can be cooled with desiccant systems at costs competitive with conventional systems are identified. A commercially available vapor compression air conditioner is used as a standard of comparison for energy consumption and room comfort. Heating and cooling requirements of the building are determined by use of the BLAST computer model in a simulation of long term system operation. Performance of the desiccant cooling system and life cycle savings obtained by its use are determined by simulation employing the TRNSYS computer model. TRNSYS compatible subroutines are developed to simulate operation of the desiccant equipment, the building, and the controllers that operate and monitor the system components. The results are presented in tabular and graphical form. This study shows that in the widely different climates represented in Los Angeles, New York, and Miami, by-passing various components in the desiccant cooling system when they are not needed is economically advantageous. Operation cost of the complete system decreased by 47.3% in Los Angeles, by 30.9% in New York City, and by 23.9% in Miami by not operating the desiccant wheel and other elements. The ventilation desiccant cooling system has major economic advantage over conventional systems under conditions of moderate humidity, as in Los Angeles and New York City. In Miami, however

  6. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are being developed. The effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  7. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems are considered. This effort includes development, manufacture, test, installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  8. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made in the manufacture, test, evaluation, installation, problem resolution, performance evaluation, and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is described.

  9. Estimate of Top-of-Atmosphere Albedo for a Molecular Atmosphere over Ocean using Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Loeb, N. G.; Rutledge, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    The shortwave broadband albedo at the top of a molecular atmosphere over ocean between 40deg N and 40deg S is estimated using radiance measurements from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The albedo monotonically increases from 0.059 at a solar zenith angle of 10deg to 0.107 at a solar zenith angle of 60deg. The estimated uncertainty in the albedo is 3.5 x 10(exp -3) caused by the uncertainty in CERES-derived irradiances, uncertainty in VIRS-derived aerosol optical thicknesses, variations in ozone and water vapor, and variations in surface wind speed. The estimated uncertainty is similar in magnitude to the standard deviation of 0.003 that is derived from 72 areas divided by 20deg latitude by 20deg longitude grid boxes. The empirically estimated albedo is compared with the modeled albedo using a radiative transfer model combined with an ocean surface bidirectional reflectivity model. The modeled albedo with standard tropical atmosphere is 0.061 and 0.111 at the solar zenith angles of 10deg and 60deg, respectively. This empirically estimated albedo can be used to estimate the direct radiative effect of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere over oceans.

  10. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) algorithm theoretical basis document. volume 2; Geolocation, calibration, and ERBE-like analyses (subsystems 1-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, B. A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, B. R. (Principal Investigator); Charlock, T. P.; Baum, B. A.; Green, R. N.; Minnis, P.; Smith, G. L.; Coakley, J. A.; Randall, D. R.; Lee, R. B., III

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical bases for the Release 1 algorithms that will be used to process satellite data for investigation of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) are described. The architecture for software implementation of the methodologies is outlined. Volume 2 details the techniques used to geolocate and calibrate the CERES scanning radiometer measurements of shortwave and longwave radiance to invert the radiances to top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface fluxes following the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) approach, and to average the fluxes over various time and spatial scales to produce an ERBE-like product. Spacecraft ephemeris and sensor telemetry are used with calibration coefficients to produce a chronologically ordered data product called bidirectional scan (BDS) radiances. A spatially organized instrument Earth scan product is developed for the cloud-processing subsystem. The ERBE-like inversion subsystem converts BDS radiances to unfiltered instantaneous TOA and surface fluxes. The TOA fluxes are determined by using established ERBE techniques. Hourly TOA fluxes are computed from the instantaneous values by using ERBE methods. Hourly surface fluxes are estimated from TOA fluxes by using simple parameterizations based on recent research. The averaging process produces daily, monthly-hourly, and monthly means of TOA and surface fluxes at various scales. This product provides a continuation of the ERBE record.

  11. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  12. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    DOEpatents

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  13. Heating and Cooling System Design for a Modern Transportable Container

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Jason E.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with the design of a modern transportable container (MTC) for use in high reliability transportation environments. The container is required to transport cargo capable of generating its own heat and operate under the United States’ climatic extremes. In response to these requirements, active heating and cooling is necessary to maintain a controlled environment inside the container. The following thesis project documents the design of an active heating, active cooling, and combined active heating and cooling system (now referred to as active heating and cooling systems) through computational thermal analyses, scoping of commercial system options, and mechanical integration with the container’s structure.

  14. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  15. Helium cooling systems for large superconducting physics detector magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    The large superconducting detector magnets used for high energy physics experiments are virtually all indirectly cooled. In general, these detector magnets are not cryogenically stabilized. Therefore, there are a number of choices for cooling large indirectly cooled detector magnets. These choices include; 1) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by the helium refrigerator J-T circuit, 2) forced two-phase helium cooling driven by a helium pump, and 3) a peculation gravity feed cooling system which uses liquid helium from a large storage dewar. The choices for the cooling of a large detector magnet are illustrated by applying these concepts to a 4.2 meter diameter 0.5 tesla thin superconducting solenoid for an experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  16. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  17. Venus Surface Power and Cooling System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Mellott, Kenneth D.

    2004-01-01

    A radioisotope power and cooling system is designed to provide electrical power for the a probe operating on the surface of Venus. Most foreseeable electronics devices and sensors simply cannot operate at the 450 C ambient surface temperature of Venus. Because the mission duration is substantially long and the use of thermal mass to maintain an operable temperature range is likely impractical, some type of active refrigeration may be required to keep certain components at a temperature below ambient. The fundamental cooling requirements are comprised of the cold sink temperature, the hot sink temperature, and the amount of heat to be removed. In this instance, it is anticipated that electronics would have a nominal operating temperature of 300 C. Due to the highly thermal convective nature of the high-density atmosphere, the hot sink temperature was assumed to be 50 C, which provided a 500 C temperature of the cooler's heat rejecter to the ambient atmosphere. The majority of the heat load on the cooler is from the high temperature ambient surface environment on Venus. Assuming 5 cm radial thickness of ceramic blanket insulation, the ambient heat load was estimated at approximately 77 watts. With an estimated quantity of 10 watts of heat generation from electronics and sensors, and to accommodate some level of uncertainty, the total heat load requirement was rounded up to an even 100 watts. For the radioisotope Stirling power converter configuration designed, the Sage model predicts a thermodynamic power output capacity of 478.1 watts, which slightly exceeds the required 469.1 watts. The hot sink temperature is 1200 C, and the cold sink temperature is 500 C. The required heat input is 1740 watts. This gives a thermodynamic efficiency of 27.48 %. The maximum theoretically obtainable efficiency is 47.52 %. It is estimated that the mechanical efficiency of the power converter design is on the order of 85 %, based on experimental measurements taken from 500 watt power

  18. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development. [prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of twelve prototype solar heating/cooling systems, six heating and six heating and cooling systems, two each for single family, multi-family, and commercial applications, is reported. Schedules and technical discussions, along with illustrations on the progress made from April 1, 1977 through June 30, 1977 are detailed.

  19. Get the most out of your cooling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm weather poses management challenges to maintain production efficiency in broiler chickens. Proper maintenance and operation of ventilation and cooling system components is essential to maintain the proper thermal environment and efficient use of energy. Fan and evaporative cooling system clea...

  20. Note: Efficient, low-cost cooling system for gloveboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.; Marioneck, T.; Dronskowski, R.

    2016-10-01

    Cooling within gloveboxes is often restricted to expensive refrigerated bath circulators or small temperature differences. Here, we present a sturdy, inexpensive cooling system which matches various glovebox types and can be readily fabricated by a mechanical workshop in a few days. The system is suitable for cold plates of areas up to 150 cm2 and temperatures as low as -100 °C.

  1. A hemolysis study of an intravascular blood cooling system for localized organ tissue cooling.

    PubMed

    Merrill, T L; Mingin, T; Merrill, D R; Botbyl, J; Akers, J E

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can reduce both ischemic and reperfusion injury arising after strokes and heart attacks. New localized organ cooling systems offer a way to reduce tissue damage more effectively with fewer side effects. To assess initial blood safety of our new organ cooling system, the CoolGuide Cooling System (CCS), we investigated safe operating conditions and configurations from a hemolysis perspective. The CCS consists of a peristaltic pump, a custom-built external heat exchanger, a chiller, biocompatible polyvinyl cellulose (PVC) tubing, and a control console. The CCS cools and circulates autologous blood externally and re-delivers cooled blood to the patient through a conventional catheter inserted directly into the organ at risk. Catheter configurations used included: a 7F guide catheter only, a 7F guide with a 0.038" wire inserted through the center and advanced 2 cm distal to the catheter distal tip, a 6F guide catheter only and a 6F guide with a 0.014" guidewire similarly inserted through the center. Using porcine blood, an in vitro test rig was used to measure the degree of hemolysis generation, defined as the percentage change in free hemoglobin, adjusted for total hemoglobin and hematocrit, between exiting and entering blood. The highest degree of hemolysis generation was 0.11±0.04%, based on the average behavior with a 6F catheter and a 0.014" guidewire configuration at a blood flow rate of approximately 130 mL/min. In terms of average percentage free hemoglobin exiting the system, based on total hemoglobin, the highest value measured was 0.17%±0.03%, using this 6F and 0.014" guidewire configuration. This result is significantly below the most stringent European guideline of 0.8% used for blood storage and transfusion. This study provides initial evidence showing hemolysis generation arising from the CoolGuide Cooling System is likely to be clinically insignificant.

  2. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  3. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  4. Analyses of On-orbit Determinations of the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometer Sensor Zero-radiance Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Thomas, Susan; Priestley, Kory J.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Smith, G. Louis; Al-hajjah, Aiman; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) missions were designed to measure broadband earth-reflected shortwave solar (0.3 micrometers to less than 5.0 micrometers) and earth-emitted longwave (5.0 micrometers to greater than 100 micrometers) radiances as well as earth-emitted narrow-band radiances in the water vapor window region between 8 micrometers and 12 micrometers. However, the CERES scanning thermistor bolometer sensor zero-radiance offsets were found to vary as much as 1.0 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) with the scan angle measurement geometry due to gravitational forces and systematic electronic noise. To minimize the gravitational effects, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft CERES sensors' offsets were derived on-orbit as functions of scan elevation and azimuth angles from the January 7-8, 1998 radiometric observations of deep cold space, representative of a 3 K blackbody. In this paper, the TRMM/CERES six orbit data base of on-orbit derived offsets is presented and analyzed to define the sampling requirements for the CERES sensors located on the Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) Terra Spacecraft and on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Afternoon (PM-1) Spacecraft, scheduled for launches in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Analyses of the TRMM/CERES shortwave sensor earth radiance measurements indicate that offsets can be determined on-orbit at the plus or minus 0.02 Wm (exp -2) sr (exp -1) precision level. Offset measuring techniques and sampling requirements are discussed for the TRMM and ESE missions. Ground, pre-launch Terra CERES cross-track scan offsets are presented and described which were measured as a function of scan angle.

  5. Cooling systems for ultra-high temperature turbines.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper describes an introduction of research and development activities on steam cooling in gas turbines at elevated temperature of 1500 C and 1700 C level, partially including those on water cooling. Descriptions of a new cooling system that employs heat pipes are also made. From the view point of heat transfer, its promising applicability is shown with experimental data and engine performance numerical evaluation.

  6. Cooling Methods for High-Power Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Andrei; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Lehtla, Tõnu

    2011-01-01

    Thermal management is a crucial step in the design of power electronic applications, especially railroad traction and automotive systems. Mass/size parameters, robustness and reliability of the power electronic system greatly depend on the cooling system type and performance. This paper presents an approximate parameter estimation of the thermal management system required as well as different commercially available cooling solutions. Advantages and drawbacks of different designs ranging from simple passive heatsinks to complex evaporative systems are discussed.

  7. A portable personal cooling system for mine rescue operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B.; Williams, B.; Kirk, P.; Elkins, W.; Stein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Design of a portable personal cooling system to reduce physiological stress in high-temperature, high-humidity conditions is discussed. The system, based on technology used in the thermal controls of space suits, employs a combination of head and thoracic insulation and cooling through a heat sink unit. Average metabolic rates, heart rates, rectal temperature increase and sweat loss were monitored for test subjects wearing various configurations of the cooling system, as well as for a control group. The various arrangements of the cooling garment were found to provide significant physiological benefits; however, increases in heat transfer rate of the cooling unit and more effective insulation are suggested to improve the system's function.

  8. Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

  9. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    SciTech Connect

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al. 1999), and the E13 site

  10. Automotive non-pressure cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.A.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes a non-pressure automotive engine cooling system comprising: a radiator containing a liquid coolant, coupling hoses that intercouple the radiator to the engine, pump means associated with the engine for circulating coolant through the engine and radiator. The pump means has a suction side, a radiator cap sealed on the radiator, an expansion tank disposed in the engine compartment, vent means on the tank for venting the tank to atmosphere, a coupling tube disposed between the radiator below the radiator cap and the expansion tank to enable free flow of the coolant under expansion from the radiator to the expansion tank. The radiator cap seals the radiator but provides a substantially non-pressure and unimpeded fluid path from the radiator to the coupling tube, a return line coupled from the expansion tank to the suction side of the pump means. The radiator has a gooseneck with the radiator cap sealably engaged with the gooseneck, an outlet port from the top of the radiator to which the coupling tube is connected. The outlet port is continuously open and unblocked by the radiator cap to provide free fluid flow from the radiator to the expansion tank over the entire operating temperature range, the radiator cap sealing only at the top of the gooseneck, and means for supporting the expansion tank at a position at a height corresponding to the top of the radiator. Under normal temperature operating conditions, the liquid level line is substantially the same in both the radiator and the expansion tank.

  11. Cryogenic cooling systems for thermal imaging equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    For maximum sensitivity in the 8-12 micron waveband, thermal imaging devices which employ cadmium mercury telluride detectors for conversion of the thermal signal to electrical form (for further amplification, conditioning, and display) must be cooled and maintained at a steady 80-85 K. Commonly employed cooling engines are the Stirling cycle and the Joule-Thomson effect types. The former use pressurized He gas and, in the sizes used in existing thermal imagers, consume 100 watts. The latter avoid the mechanical vibration and cyclic cooling problems of the Stirling cycle devices, but require a compressed gas bottle supply. Attention is presently given to the elimination of the gas bottle requirement by feeding the Joule-Thomson cooler from a small, high pressure compressor that is driven by a low power electric motor.

  12. Prototype solar heating and combined heating cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and development of eight prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems is discussed. The program management and systems engineering are reported, and operational test sites are identified.

  13. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The research activities described herein were concentrated on the areas of economics, heating and cooling systems, architectural design, materials characteristics, climatic conditions, educational information packages, and evaluation of solar energy systems and components.

  14. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Solar heating and heating/cooling systems were designed for single family, multifamily, and commercial applications. Subsystems considered included solar collectors, heat storage systems, auxiliary energy sources, working fluids, and supplementary controls, piping, and pumps.

  15. Solar heating and cooling systems design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress in the development of prototype solar heating/cooling systems is reported. Results obtained from refinement/improvement of the single family, multifamily, and commercial systems configurations and generalized studies on several of the subsystems are presented.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  18. Cool Stars, Stellar Systems and the Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempels, Eric

    2009-02-01

    The series of 'Cool Star' meetings concentrates on the astrophysics of low-mass stars (with masses similar to that of the Sun and lower), including the Sun. The meeting in St. Andrews, Scotland, was the 15th in this series, and focused in particular on the origin of low-mass stars and their planets, as well as the properties of their atmospheres. This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the science presented by the 350 participants of this meeting. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in the astrophysics of cool stars and the Sun.

  19. Solar residential heating and cooling system development test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.; Melton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling system is described, which was installed in a simulated home at Marshall Space Flight Center. Performance data are provided for the checkout and initial operational phase for key subsystems and for the total system. Valuable information was obtained with regard to operation of a solar cooling system during the first summer of operation. Areas where improvements and modifications are required to optimize such a system are discussed.

  20. The Cooling of a Pod-Mounted Avionic System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-22

    describes the principles and testing of the air cooling of - the pod-mounted Orpheus day and night aerial reconnaissance system, since 1974 operational with...describes the principles and testing of the air cooling of the pod-mounted Orpheus day and night aerial reconnaissance system, since 1974 operational...comprising 3 day-light cameras, was replaced by an ad- va. *d pod-mounted day and night reconnaissance system. This so-called Orpheus -system had been

  1. Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

  2. Prototype solar heating and combined heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Schedules and technical progress in the development of eight prototype solar heating and combined solar heating and cooling systems are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis and preliminary design for the cooling subsystem, and the setup and testing of a horizontal thermal energy storage tank configuration and collector shroud evaluation.

  3. Cryogenic cooling system for the Ground Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F.; Spulgis, I.

    1994-12-31

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  4. Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. ); Spulgis, I. )

    1993-01-01

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  5. Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F.; Spulgis, I.

    1993-06-01

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  6. Development of a cooling system for superconducting wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuse, Mitsuho; Fuchino, Shuichiro; Okano, Makoto; Natori, Naotake; Yamasaki, Hirofumi

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the cooling system for high-Tc superconducting (HTS) generators for large capacity wind turbines. We have proposed a cooling system with a heat exchanger and circulation pumps to cool HTS field windings designed for 10 MW-class superconducting generators. In the cooling system, the refrigerants in the stationary and rotational systems are completely separated; heat between the two systems exchanges using a rotational-stationary heat exchanger. The refrigerant in rotational system is circulated by highly reliable pumps. We designed the rotational-stationary heat exchanger based on a conventional shell-and tube type heat exchanger. We also demonstrated that heat exchange in cryogenic temperature is possible with a commercially available heat exchanger. We devised a novel and highly reliable cryogenic helium circulation pump with magnetic reciprocating rotation system and verified its underlying principle with a small-scale model.

  7. HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEM FOR CALUTRON

    DOEpatents

    Starr, A.M.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is invented for heating or cooling the electrostatic liner conventionally disposed in a calutron tank. The apparatus is additionally arranged to mount the liner in its intended position in a readily detachable manner so as to facilitate disassembly of the calutron.

  8. Radiant-interchange Configuration Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D C :; Morgan, W R

    1952-01-01

    A study is presented of the geometric configuration factors required for computing radiant heat transfer between opaque surfaces separated by a nonabsorbing medium and various methods of determining the configuration factors are discussed. Configuration-factor solutions available in the literature have been checked and the more complicated equations are presented as families of curves. Cases for point, line, and finite-area sources are worked out over a wide range of geometric proportions. These cases include several new configurations involving rectangles, triangles, and cylinders of finite length which are integrated and tabulated. An analysis is presented, in which configuration factors are employed of the radiant heat transfer to the rotor blades of a typical gas turbine under different conditions of temperature and pressure. (author)

  9. Bacterial community structure in cooling water and biofilm in an industrial recirculating cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinmei; Liu, Min; Xiao, Huijie; Wu, Wei; Xie, Meijuan; Sun, Mengjia; Zhu, Chenglin; Li, Pengfu

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fouling is a serious problem in open recirculating cooling water systems. The bacterial communities that cause it have not been fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the community structure of free-living bacteria and particle-attached bacteria in cooling water, and bacteria in biofilm collected from the wall of the water reservoir in an industrial recirculating cooling water system by construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library. Based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, clones of all three libraries were clustered into 45 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Thirteen OTUs displaying 91-96% sequence similarity to a type strain might be novel bacterial species. Noted differences in community structure were observed among the three libraries. The relative species richness of the free-living bacteria in cooling water was much lower than that of particle-attached bacteria and bacteria in biofilm. The majority of the free-living bacterial community (99.0%) was Betaproteobacteria. The predominant bacteria in the particle-attached bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (20.5%), Betaproteobacteria (27.8%) and Planctomycetes (42.0%), while those in the biofilm bacterial community were Alphaproteobacteria (47.9%), Betaproteobacteria (11.7%), Acidobacteria (13.1%) and Gemmatimonadetes (11.3%). To control microbial fouling in industrial recirculating cooling water systems, additional physiological and ecological studies of these species will be essential.

  10. NPP Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Predicted Sensor Performance Calibration and Preliminary Data Product Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priestly, Kory; Smith, George L.; Thomas, Susan; Maddock, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Continuation of the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) Climate Data Record (CDR) has been identified as critical in the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey, the Global Climate Observing System WCRP report, and in an assessment titled Impacts of NPOESS Nunn-McCurdy Certification on Joint NASA-NOAA Climate Goals. In response, NASA, NOAA and NPOESS agreed in early 2008 to fly the final existing CERES Flight Model (FM-5) on the NPP spacecraft for launch in 2010. Future opportunities for ERB CDR continuity consist of procuring an additional CERES Sensor with modest performance upgrades for flight on the NPOESS C1 spacecraft in 2013, followed by a new CERES follow-on sensor for flight in 2018 on the NPOESS C3 spacecraft. While science goals remain unchanged for the long-term ERB Climate Data Record, it is now understood that the task of achieving these goals is more difficult for two reasons. The first is an increased understanding of the dynamics of the Earth/atmosphere system which demonstrates that rigorous separation of natural variability from anthropogenic change on decadal time scales requires higher accuracy and stability than originally envisioned. Secondly, future implementation scenarios involve less redundancy in flight hardware (1 vs. 2 orbits and operational sensors) resulting in higher risk of loss of continuity and reduced number of independent observations to characterize performance of individual sensors. Although EOS CERES CDR's realize a factor of 2 to 4 improvement in accuracy and stability over previous ERBE CDR's, future sensors will require an additional factor of 2 improvement to answer rigorously the science questions moving forward. Modest investments, defined through the CERES Science Team s 30-year operational history of the EOS CERES sensors, in onboard calibration hardware and pre-flight calibration and test program will ensure meeting these goals while reducing costs in re-processing scientific datasets. The CERES FM-5 pre-flight radiometric

  11. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, D.; Oonk, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress made in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. A comparison of the proposed Solaron Heat Pump and Solar Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, installation drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities are included.

  12. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  13. An air quality sensing system for cool air storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoy, T. J.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Cooling and ventilation systems play an important role in human occupied spaces. However, cooling using reversible air conditioners systems pollutes the environment and consumes a significant amount of energy. With global warming that experiences our environment, the large consumption of electrical energy and the operating instructions for reversible air conditioners, there is a need to find alternatives to those cooling systems. Hence this research project aims to investigate an air storage system, a microsystem reversible ventilation system using natural atmospheric air (renewable energy) for cooling at low consumption of energy. For the variation of the temperature range of comfort due to thermal heat produces by occupants, equipment and environment, an optimal transient automatic regulation of air flow as to be design in order to maintain the temperature of comfort in occupied spaces during peak hours.

  14. Cooling system for three hook ring segment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

    2014-08-26

    A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

  15. Cavity cooling of an ensemble spin system.

    PubMed

    Wood, Christopher J; Borneman, Troy W; Cory, David G

    2014-02-07

    We describe how sideband cooling techniques may be applied to large spin ensembles in magnetic resonance. Using the Tavis-Cummings model in the presence of a Rabi drive, we solve a Markovian master equation describing the joint spin-cavity dynamics to derive cooling rates as a function of ensemble size. Our calculations indicate that the coupled angular momentum subspaces of a spin ensemble containing roughly 10(11) electron spins may be polarized in a time many orders of magnitude shorter than the typical thermal relaxation time. The described techniques should permit efficient removal of entropy for spin-based quantum information processors and fast polarization of spin samples. The proposed application of a standard technique in quantum optics to magnetic resonance also serves to reinforce the connection between the two fields, which has recently begun to be explored in further detail due to the development of hybrid designs for manufacturing noise-resilient quantum devices.

  16. Flight performance of radiant coolers onboard FengYun-2 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulin; Zhou, Xiyan

    2014-11-01

    The IR detectors of optical instruments onboard FengYun-2 (FY-2) meteorological satellites are cooled by passive radiant coolers (RC). The operation principles, characteristics and flight performance of the radiant coolers installed on four FengYun-2 satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are presented. The orbiting data from the four satellites (FY-2C/D/E/F) are tabulated and compared. It is concluded that the radiant coolers (FY-2E/F) can operate stably at 93 K in the sunshine and have a long service lifetime. The major technologies of FY-2 radiant coolers are mainly discussed in terms of thin-walled structure design and optical coating of the sun shield. The problem of contamination control in orbit is solved.

  17. Solar Thermal Radiant Heating at Pohakuloa Training Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Solar collector panels. • Sizing the array: Using thermal storage of 256,000 BTU/day and 4’ x 10’ flat panel collectors with output of...be arranged side-by-side on the south- facing pitch of roof. – Racked at 30 angle to maximize winter sun. Flat plate solar collectors E2S2– June 2010...radiant heat flooring project will combine solar thermal hot water system with in-floor radiant heating. – Flooring heat only; no domestic water. – Flat

  18. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  19. Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, B

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems.

  20. System and method for pre-cooling of buildings

    DOEpatents

    Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

    2011-08-09

    A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

  1. Preliminary design package for prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the preliminary analysis and design activity on solar heating and cooling systems. The analysis was made without site specific data other than weather; therefore, the results indicate performance expected under these special conditions. Major items include a market analysis, design approaches, trade studies and other special data required to evaluate the preliminary analysis and design. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. Two heating and six heating and cooling units will be delivered for Single Family Residences, Multiple-family Residences and commercial applications.

  2. 2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH OF WIND TUNNEL 138 AND COOLING SYSTEM 140, NORTH ELEVATION - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Subsonic Wind Tunnel Building, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  3. Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking southwest of gas cooling system. Engine house is shown in right background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. 300 mK Continuous Cooling, Sorption-Adr System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, J. M.; Duband, L.; Luchier, N.; Tirolien, T.

    2010-04-01

    The 300 mK cooling system of two instruments onboard the Herschel satellite is achieved by the use of 3He sorption coolers developed and manufactured in CEA/SBT. This cooling system provides alternate (i.e. one-shot) cooling. The addition of a small ADR stage with a gas-gap heat switch allows continuous cooling at 300 mK by using the magnetic stage as an active thermal ballast. The realization of this continuous cooling based on a Herschel type sorption cooler is described here. It is shown that our prototype can provide continuous cooling at a stable temperature or alternatively gives the possibility of changing the setting of the nominal temperature rapidly and without thermal losses. The former mode is indeed extremely useful for detector tests and qualifications. The thermal stability is discussed. This project funded by the French Space Agency, CNES, will also provide additional knowledge to CEA/SBT in the design and realization of 50 mK cooling system using these coupled technologies.

  5. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-24

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--92 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space heating systems; (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters; (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems; (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project; (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research; and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  6. Liquid cooling system for the vibro-tactile threshold device.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Erin M; Redd, Christian; Gandhi, Minu S; Tuckett, Robert P; Bamberg, Stacy J Morris

    2011-01-01

    Vibrotactile threshold testing has been used to investigate activation of human somatosensory pathways. A portable vibrotactile threshold testing device called the Vibrotactile Threshold Evaluator for the Workplace (VTEW) was designed for screening of carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace, and initially contained a small fan for cooling. During subject testing, the device is operated intermittently, which causes the linear actuator to warm the tactile probe. The probe causes discomfort for some subjects. During testing, the probe heated to 42 °C within 90 seconds of continuous operation. A liquid cooling system was implemented to dissipate heat from the probe. The liquid cooling system maintains a steady state temperature of 36 °C for continuous actuation of the probe. The liquid cooling system is capable of maintaining a safe operating temperature, without adding erroneous vibrations to the device. However, the cooling system deters the portability of the device. Further research will investigate how to make the liquid cooling system portable and implements vibrotactile threshold testing in the workplace to quickly evaluate whether or not a person has early symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  7. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  8. Simulation of an active cooling system for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Photovoltaic cells are devices that convert solar radiation directly into electricity. However, solar radiation increases the photovoltaic cells temperature [1] [2]. The temperature has an influence on the degradation of the cell efficiency and the lifetime of a PV cell. This work reports on a water cooling technique for photovoltaic panel, whereby the cooling system was placed at the front surface of the cells to dissipate excess heat away and to block unwanted radiation. By using water as a cooling medium for the photovoltaic solar cells, the overheating of closed panel is greatly reduced without prejudicing luminosity. The water also acts as a filter to remove a portion of solar spectrum in the infrared band but allows transmission of the visible spectrum most useful for the PV operation. To improve the cooling system efficiency and electrical efficiency, uniform flow rate among the cooling system is required to ensure uniform distribution of the operating temperature of the PV cells. The aims of this study are to develop a 3D thermal model to simulate the cooling and heat transfer in Photovoltaic panel and to recommend a cooling technique for the PV panel. The velocity, pressure and temperature distribution of the three-dimensional flow across the cooling block were determined using the commercial package, Fluent. The second objective of this work is to study the influence of the geometrical dimensions of the panel, water mass flow rate and water inlet temperature on the flow distribution and the solar panel temperature. The results obtained by the model are compared with experimental results from testing the prototype of the cooling device.

  9. Active noise canceling system for mechanically cooled germanium radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karl Einar; Burks, Morgan T

    2014-04-22

    A microphonics noise cancellation system and method for improving the energy resolution for mechanically cooled high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector systems. A classical adaptive noise canceling digital processing system using an adaptive predictor is used in an MCA to attenuate the microphonics noise source making the system more deployable.

  10. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of marketable solar heating and cooling systems for single family and commercial applications is described. The delivery, installation, and monitoring of the prototype systems are discussed. Seven operational test sites are discussed in terms of system performance. Problems encountered with equipment and installation were usually due to lack of skills required for solar system installation.

  11. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  12. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

  13. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5130 - Infant radiant warmer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consisting of an infrared heating element intended to be placed over an infant to maintain the infant's body temperature by means of radiant heat. The device may also contain a temperature monitoring sensor, a heat output control mechanism, and an alarm system (infant temperature, manual mode if present, and...

  16. Effect of input power on cooling property of a thermoacoustic cooling system with diameter-expanded prime movers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, So; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Orino, Yuichiro; Wada, Takahiro; Inui, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2016-07-01

    We studied a thermoacoustic cooling system driven at low temperatures to make practical use of the system. Aiming to reduce the driving temperature of the thermoacoustic system, we developed a loop-tube-type thermoacoustic system with diameter-expanded two-stage prime movers, i.e., a heat-to-sound transducer. The system drove at 67 °C. Additionally, we developed a prototype for a thermoacoustic cooling system with a diameter-expanded two-stage prime mover. In the experiment, the cooling point temperature was decreased by 4.4 °C from room temperature, i.e., 20 °C. To improve the cooling performance of the prototype thermoacoustic cooling system, we experimentally investigated the effect of increasing the input power on the cooling performance.

  17. A Helical Cooling Channel System for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuya Yonehara, Rolland Johnson, Michael Neubauer, Yaroslav Derbenev

    2010-03-01

    Fast muon beam six dimensional (6D) phase space cooling is essential for muon colliders. The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) uses hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities imbedded in a magnet system with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components that provide the continuous dispersion needed for emittance exchange and effective 6D beam cooling. A series of HCC segments, each with sequentially smaller aperture, higher magnetic field, and higher RF frequency to match the beam size as it is cooled, has been optimized by numerical simulation to achieve a factor of 105 emittance reduction in a 300 m long channel with only a 40% loss of beam. Conceptual designs of the hardware required for this HCC system and the status of the RF studies and HTS helical solenoid magnet prototypes are described.

  18. Space cooling system using nocturnal heat rejection and sky radiation cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Satoshi; Saitoh, Takeo

    1998-07-01

    A space cooling system using natural energy, a range of atmospheric temperature and sky radiation, is considered. Behavior of the system using nocturnal heat rejection in the summer is characterized by numerical simulation. The system consists of sky radiators, a thermal energy storage tank, and an air-conditioner. The sky radiators are fin-tube heat exchanger type with fans. The air conditioner is water-to-air type. The water in the storage tank is circulated to the sky radiators by a pump at night to be cooled using forced convection of outdoor air and sky radiation cooling. In the daytime, the condenser of the air conditioner is cooled by the cold water in the storage tank. Total consumption of electric power for air conditioning is used for evaluating the system performance. From the calculation, it is found that there are optimum conditions to reduce the total consumption of electric power. The reason is that the storage system requires additional consumption of electric power by the sky radiator pump and fans though the system could reduce the consumption of electric power by the air conditioner. When the sky radiators are operated during some limited hours, the total consumption of electric power becomes smaller than that when the sky radiators are continuously operated throughout night. The consumption of electric power decreases as the capacity of the thermal energy storage tank increases. This system has a possibility to save energy and to level the uneven consumption of electric power throughout a 24-hour period. For an example of some operating condition, the total consumption of electric power is reduced by 2.4 % compared with a conventional system, and 19 % of the power is consumed late at night for operating the sky radiator pump and fans. Combining with seasonal thermal energy storage could more reduce demand for electricity or shift the demand to off-peak hours.

  19. Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, R.K. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

  20. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  1. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOEpatents

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  2. Pulse tube cryocooler SQUID cooling system involving an infrared temperature controller cooled by a cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Iwao, S.; Hatsukade, Y.

    2005-10-01

    We propose a pulse tube cryocooler SQUID cooling system, which temperature was controlled by an infrared source. A high-Tc SQUID magnetometer was mounted and cooled by a coaxial pulse tube cryocooler. A light from a halogen lamp was guided by a quartz flexible bundle fiber and was introduced to the cold head. The output power of the lamp was controlled by a temperature controller in accordance with the cold stage temperature. As a result, the flux noise of the SQUID output was not changed in the range of 1-1000 Hz regardless of the lamp power. The temperature could be controlled at 77 K with accuracy of ±0.03 K for long time duration more than 2 h. This demonstrated that the system can be applied to any applications such as NDE systems.

  3. Solar heating and cooling system design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the program during the sixth program quarter is reported. The program calls for the development and delivery of eight prototype solar heating and cooling systems for installation and operational test. The William O'Brien single-family heating system was installed and is operational. The New Castle single-family heating residence is under construction. The Kansas University (KU) system is in the final design stages. The 25 ton cooling subsystem for KU is the debugging stage. Pressure drops that were greater than anticipated were encountered. The 3 ton simulation work is being finalized and the design parameters for the Rankine system were determined from simulation output.

  4. Inhibitor analysis for a solar heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabony, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of potential corrosion inhibitors for the NASA solar heating and cooling system which uses aluminum solar panels is provided. Research consisted of testing using a dynamic corrosion system, along with an economic analysis of proposed corrosion inhibitors. Very good progress was made in finding a suitable inhibitor for the system.

  5. Use of a temperature-initiated passive cooling system (TIPACS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Conklin, J.; Reich, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    A new type of passive cooling system has been invented (Forsberg 1993): the Temperature-Initiated Passive Cooling System (TIPACS). The characteristics of the TIPACS potentially match requirements for an improved reactor-cavity-cooling system (RCCS) for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). This report is an initial evaluation of the TIPACS for the MHTGR with a Rankines (steam) power conversion cycle. Limited evaluations were made of applying the TIPACS to MHTGRs with reactor pressure vessel temperatures up to 450 C. These temperatures may occur in designs of Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and process heat MHTGRs. The report is structured as follows. Section 2 describes the containment cooling issues associated with the MHTGR and the requirements for such a cooling system. Section 3 describes TIPACS in nonmathematical terms. Section 4 describes TIPACS`s heat-removal capabilities. Section 5 analyzes the operation of the temperature-control mechanism that determines under what conditions the TIPACS rejects heat to the environment. Section 6 addresses other design and operational issues. Section 7 identifies uncertainties, and Section 8 provides conclusions. The appendixes provide the detailed data and models used in the analysis.

  6. Assessing maintenance of evaporative cooling systems in legionellosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Kelly M; Delclos, George; Emery, Robert; Symanski, Elaine

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to conduct systematic reviews of existing evaporative cooling system maintenance guidelines and of published Legionnaires' disease outbreaks to determine what, if any, maintenance practices were in place at the time of the disease outbreaks and then to contrast the reported practices with the published guidelines for evaporative cooling systems. For the first review, similarities in the reported recommendations were assessed; in the second review, any reported information about the state of the evaporative cooling system during the outbreak investigation was summarized. The systematic reviews yielded 38 current guidelines for evaporative cooling systems and 38 published outbreak investigations. The guidelines varied regarding the recommended type and dose of biocides, frequency of general inspections and total system maintenance, the preferred disinfection and cleaning procedures when testing a system for microbiological contamination, the type and frequency of testing procedures, and interpretation of test results. Overall, the maintenance guidelines did not contain sufficiently detailed procedures to prevent the problems that were observed in the outbreak investigations. These maintenance procedures included lack or improper use of a biocide; infrequent testing for microbiological contamination; improper use or maintenance of drift eliminators; and lack of a total system cleaning within 6 months of the outbreak for cooling systems that were either under continuous use, recently started up, or frequently switched on and off. This study suggests that more specific and standardized maintenance guidelines for the control of Legionella bacteria are needed and that these guidelines must be properly implemented to help reduce further Legionnaires' disease outbreaks associated with evaporative cooling systems.

  7. Gas-cooled reactor power systems for space

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the characteristics of six designs for power levels of 2, 10, and 20 MWe for operating times of 1 and 7 y are described. The operating conditions for these arbitrary designs were chosen to minimize system specific mass. The designs are based on recent work which benefits from earlier analyses of nuclear space power systems conducted at our Laboratory. Both gas- and liquid-cooled reactors had been considered. Pitts and Walter (1970) reported on the results of a detailed study of a 10-MWe lithium-cooled reactor in a potassium Rankine system. Unpublished results (1966) of a computer analysis provide details of an argon-cooled reactor in an argon Brayton system. The gas-cooled reactor design was based on extensive development work on the 500-MWth reactor for the nuclear ramjet (Pluto) as described by Walter (1964). The designs discussed here draw heavily on the Pluto project experience, which culminated in a successful full-power ground test as reported by Reynolds (1964). At higher power levels gas-cooled reactors coupled with Brayton systems with advanced radiator designs become attractive.

  8. Development of a higher power cooling system for lithium targets.

    PubMed

    Phoenix, B; Green, S; Scott, M C; Bennett, J R J; Edgecock, T R

    2015-12-01

    The accelerator based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy beam at the University of Birmingham is based around a solid thick lithium target cooled by heavy water. Significant upgrades to Birmingham's Dynamitron accelerator are planned prior to commencing a clinical trial. These upgrades will result in an increase in maximum achievable beam current to at least 3 mA. Various upgrades to the target cooling system to cope with this increased power have been investigated. Tests of a phase change coolant known as "binary ice" have been carried out using an induction heater to provide a comparable power input to the Dynamitron beam. The experimental data shows no improvement over chilled water in the submerged jet system, with both systems exhibiting the same heat input to target temperature relation for a given flow rate. The relationship between the cooling circuit pumping rate and the target temperature in the submerged jet system has also been tested.

  9. Calcium carbonate scale control in once-through cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.M.; McDowell, J.F. ); Heflin, R.F. ); Karlovich, D.N. ); Bloom, M.F. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a laboratory-scale model surface condenser used to design a successful once-through cooling water treatment program for calcium carbonate scale inhibition at Young Station. The treatment program has maintained the station's condenser cleanliness factor at approximately 100% for the duration of the treatment. The model surface condensers simulate cycled systems as well as once-through cooling systems. They are fully automated with computer-controlled chemical feed, flow, heat flux, makeup, and blowdown and data acquisition systems.

  10. Laser system for secondary cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Khabarova, K Yu; Slyusarev, S N; Strelkin, S A; Belotelov, G S; Kostin, A S; Pal'chikov, Vitaly G; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N

    2012-11-30

    A laser system with a narrow generation line for secondary laser cooling of {sup 87}Sr atoms has been developed and investigated. It is planned to use ultracold {sup 87}Sr atoms loaded in an optical lattice in an optical frequency standard. To this end, a 689-nm semiconductor laser has been stabilised using an external reference ultrastable cavity with vibrational and temperature compensation near the critical point. The lasing spectral width was 80 Hz (averaging time 40 ms), and the frequency drift was at a level of 0.3 Hz s{sup -1}. Comparison of two independent laser systems yielded a minimum Allan deviation: 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} for 300-s averaging. It is shown that this system satisfies all requirements necessary for secondary cooling of 87Sr atoms using the spectrally narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0} - {sup 3}P{sub 1} transition ({lambda} = 689 nm). (cooling of atoms)

  11. Traveling Wave RF Systems for Helical Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Lunin, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Romanov, G.; Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Thorndahl, L.; /CERN

    2009-05-01

    The great advantage of the helical ionization cooling channel (HCC) is its compact structure that enables the fast cooling of muon beam 6-dimensional phase space. This compact aspect requires a high average RF gradient, with few places that do not have cavities. Also, the muon beam is diffuse and requires an RF system with large transverse and longitudinal acceptance. A traveling wave system can address these requirements. First, the number of RF power coupling ports can be significantly reduced compared with our previous pillbox concept. Secondly, by adding a nose on the cell iris, the presence of thin metal foils traversed by the muons can possibly be avoided. We show simulations of the cooling performance of a traveling wave RF system in a HCC, including cavity geometries with inter-cell RF power couplers needed for power propagation.

  12. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  13. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reviewed in the development, delivery, and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consisted of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

  14. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  15. Thermotunneling Based Cooling Systems for High Efficiency Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Aimi, Marco; Arik, Mehmet; Bray, James; Gorczyca, Thomas; Michael, Darryl; Weaver, Stan

    2007-09-30

    GE Global Research's overall objective was to develop a novel thermotunneling-cooling device. The end use for these devices is the replacement of vapor cycle compression (VCC) units in residential and commercial cooling and refrigeration systems. Thermotunneling devices offer many advantages over vapor cycle compression cooling units. These include quiet, reliable, non-moving parts operation without refrigerant gases. Additionally theoretical calculations suggest that the efficiency of thermotunneling devices can be 1.5-2x that of VCC units. Given these attributes it can be seen that thermotunneling devices have the potential for dramatic energy savings and are environmentally friendly. A thermotunneling device consists of two low work function electrodes separated by a sub 10 nanometer-sized gap. Cooling by thermotunneling refers to the transport of hot electrons across the gap, from the object to be cooled (cathode) to the heat rejection electrode (anode), by an applied potential. GE Global Research's goal was to model, design, fabricate devices and demonstrate cooling base on the thermotunneling technology.

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  17. Cavity Cooling of A Mechanical Resonator in Amorphous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin

    2011-03-01

    The quantum backaction force generated by a cavity coupled with a mechanical resonator can be exploited to achieve sideband cooling of the mechanical mode. By applying a red-detuned driving, the quantum ground state of the mechanical mode can be reached in the resolved-sideband regime, which has recently be demonstrated in experiments. However, in many of these materials, surface defects or adsorbates can couple with the mechanical mode and impair the cavity cooling. These defects can be treated as quantum two-level system (TLS). The mechanical vibration changes the local strain tensor and generates coupling with the TLS via the deformation potential. In this work, we study the cavity cooling of the mechanical mode in the presence of a TLS. By applying the adiabatic elimination technique widely used in quantum optics, we derive the cooling master equation for the resonator-TLS system in the eigenbasis of this system. Our results show that the stationary phonon number depends non- monotonically on the energy of the TLS. We also show that the cooling depends strongly on the decoherence rate of the TLS. This work is supported by the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through AFOSR, NSF-DMR-0956064, NSF-CCF-0916303, and NSF COINS program.

  18. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  19. Radiation detector system having heat pipe based cooling

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Saveliev, Valeri D.; Barkan, Shaul

    2006-10-31

    A radiation detector system having a heat pipe based cooling. The radiation detector system includes a radiation detector thermally coupled to a thermo electric cooler (TEC). The TEC cools down the radiation detector, whereby heat is generated by the TEC. A heat removal device dissipates the heat generated by the TEC to surrounding environment. A heat pipe has a first end thermally coupled to the TEC to receive the heat generated by the TEC, and a second end thermally coupled to the heat removal device. The heat pipe transfers the heat generated by the TEC from the first end to the second end to be removed by the heat removal device.

  20. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat; Barnes, Gary R.; Gadre, Aniruddha D.; Jansen, Patrick L.; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D.; Garg, Jivtesh

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  1. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home. At the same time, a duct system that is poorly designed or maintained can have a detrimental effect on the health of the people who live in the house, through the unintended distribution of indoor air pollution.

  2. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  3. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  4. EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

  5. Surface cooled, vacuum impregnated superconducting magnet systems: Design, construction, applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Pieterman, Karel

    The design and construction of three superconducting magnet systems for applications in the fields of medical imaging, plasma physics and nuclear physics are described. All three systems have vacuum impregnated, intrinsically stable coils with cooling at the outer surfaces of the winding package with liquid helium, and are all coupled in some way to closed cycle cooling systems. General theories are discussed. The techniques used in both the design and the construction of the different magnet systems, are given. The use of numerical methods for the calculation of thermal and mechanical properties of superconducting coil systems, is emphasized. The experimental results obtained with the Delft magnetic resonance imaging system are described and examples of images showing sagittal sections of the human head, successfully produced with this system, are given.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of an Experimental Reactor Cavity Cooling System with Water: Performance and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, Darius D.

    This experimental study investigated the thermal hydraulic behavior and boiling mechanisms present in a scaled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS). The experimental facility reflects a ¼ scale model of one conceptual design for decay heat removal in advanced GenIV nuclear reactors. Radiant heaters supply up to 25 kW/m2 onto a three parallel riser tube and cooling panel test section assembly, representative of a 5° sector model of the full scale concept. Derived similarity relations have preserved the thermal hydraulic flow patterns and integral system response, ensuring relevant data and similarity among scales. Attention will first be given to the characterization of design features, form and heat losses, nominal behavior, repeatability, and data uncertainty. Then, tests performed in single-phase have evaluated the steady-state behavior. Following, the transition to saturation and subsequent boiling allowed investigations onto four parametric effects at two-phase flow and will be the primary focus area of remaining analysis. Baseline conditions at two-phase flow were defined by 15.19 kW of heated power and 80% coolant inventory, and resulted in semi-periodic system oscillations by the mechanism of hydrostatic head fluctuations. Void generation was the result of adiabatic expansion of the fluid due to a reduction in hydrostatic head pressure, a phenomena similar to flashing. At higher powers of 17.84 and 20.49 kW, this effect was augmented, creating large flow excursions that followed a smooth and sinusoidal shaped path. Stabilization can occur if the steam outflow condition incorporates a nominal restriction, as it will serve to buffer the short time scale excursions of the gas space pressure and dampen oscillations. The influences of an inlet restriction, imposed by an orifice plate, introduced subcooling boiling within the heated core and resulted in chaotic interactions among the parallel risers. The penultimate parametric examined effects of boil-off and

  7. Prototype solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A combination of monthly progress reports are presented. It contains a summary of activities and progress made from November 1, 1978, to February 28, 1979. The effort calls for the development, manufacture, test, system installation, maintenance, problem resolution, and performance evaluation.

  8. Energy Integrated Lighting-Heating-Cooling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Gershon; And Others

    1964-01-01

    Energy balance problems in the design of office buildings are analyzed. Through the use of integrated systems utilizing dual purpose products, a controlled environment with minimum expenditure of energy, equipment and space can be provided. Contents include--(1) office building occupancy loads, (2) office building heating load analysis, (3) office…

  9. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

  10. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  11. Corrosion inhibitors for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Deramus, G. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Problems dealing with corrosion and corrosion protection of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. A test program was conducted to find suitable and effective corrosion inhibitors for systems employing either water or antifreeze solutions for heat transfer and storage. Aluminum-mild-steel-copper-stainless steel assemblies in electrical contact were used to simulate a multimetallic system which is the type most likely to be employed. Several inhibitors show promise for this application.

  12. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  13. High intensity heat-pulse source operates without cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1970-01-01

    Tungsten-iodine quartz lamp with on-off control is mounted at focus of ellipsoidal reflector and shutter is mounted at conjugate focus. Flux sensor monitors lamp and actuates shutter which emits a heat pulse when the radiant flux builds up to requisite level.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Frisani, Angelo; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2010-11-02

    The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the

  15. Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.

  16. Successful water reuse in open recirculating cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaska, M.; Lee, B.

    1994-12-31

    Water reuse in open recirculating cooling water systems is becoming increasingly prevalent in industry. Reuse can incorporate a number of varied approaches with the primary goal being water conservation. Market forces driving this trend include scarcity of fresh water makeup sources and higher costs associated with pretreatment of natural waters. Utilization of reuse water for cooling tower makeup has especially detrimental effects on corrosion and deposit rates. Additionally, once the reuse water is cycled and treated with inhibitors, dispersants and microbiocides, acceptability for discharge to a public waterway can be a concern. The task for water treatment suppliers is to guide industry in the feasibility and procedures for successfully achieving these goals. This paper focuses particularly on reuse of municipal wastewater for cooling tower makeup and explores techniques which have been found especially effective. Case histories are described where these concepts have been successfully applied in practice.

  17. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1988-08-01

    This study defines the current cost and performance requirements for residential cool storage technologies based on the characteristics of conventional air conditioning equipment and residential time-of-day (TOD) rate structures existing during the 1986--1987 time frame. Currently, rate structures are changing rapidly. Given the volatility of rate structures, the establishment of cost goal is challenging. The goals presented in this study are based on the utility rate structure as of 1986. This study serves to define residential cool storage cost and performance requirements in the current economic environment as well as the many issues affecting the requirements for residential cool storage systems both now and in the future. The same methodology can be employed to establish long-run goals once future rate structures are adequately defined. 12 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs.

  20. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  1. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  2. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  3. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well a previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The SEAL-DOE program includes six tasks which have received funding for the 1991--1992 fifteen-month period. These include: (1) a project employing isothermal operation of air and liquid solar space hearing systems, (2) a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, (3) a project that will evaluate advanced solar domestic hot water components and concepts and integrate them into solar domestic hot water systems, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform system modeling and analysis work on solid desiccant cooling systems research, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

  5. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

    2014-07-14

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

  6. Concerning the improvement of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Iu. K.

    It is suggested that systems of solar heating and cooling can be simplified by the use of 'organized hydrothermal processes' (OHP) in the elements (e.g., circulation systems and heat storage units) of such systems. This paper defines and classifies such processes. Design diagrams are presented for two types of systems: (1) a heating, hot-water, and storage system with one-phase OHPs; and (2) a gravity-assisted heat pipe and an adsorption-type solar refrigeration system with two-phase OHPs.

  7. The Analysis of A Hybrid Cooling System - Phase 2,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kuan-Hsiung

    During the first phase of study, the mathematical modelling and the performance of the hybrid cooling system using solid desiccants were analyzed numerically. During this phase of study, the experimental investigation was conducted which yielded successful results with 5 % deviation as compared with the operational data of available commerical dehumidifiers. Furthmore, a prototype hybrid cooling system was actually constructed in the Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Lab of National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU), which generated good correlations with 7% deviation only, as compared with the analytical results. In other words, the good correlations obtained among the math modeling, the commercial unit operational data, and the NSYSU prototype system warrant the potential applications of this system for many industrial dehumidification and drying processes.

  8. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  9. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 C temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 C temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  10. Method and system for powering and cooling semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Telford, Steven J; Ladran, Anthony S

    2014-02-25

    A semiconductor laser system includes a diode laser tile. The diode laser tile includes a mounting fixture having a first side and a second side opposing the first side and an array of semiconductor laser pumps coupled to the first side of the mounting fixture. The semiconductor laser system also includes an electrical pulse generator thermally coupled to the diode bar and a cooling member thermally coupled to the diode bar and the electrical pulse generator.

  11. Heat pipe cooling system with sensible heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat pipe cooling system which employs a sensible heat sink is discussed. With this type of system, incident aerodynamic heat is transported via a heat pipe from the stagnation region to the heat sink and absorbed by raising the temperature of the heat sink material. The use of a sensible heat sink can be advantageous for situations where the total mission heat load is limited, as it is during re-entry, and a suitable radiation sink is not available.

  12. Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    The development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is currently underway at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features two new evaporative cooling systems, the Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (RVP SWME), and the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware, and like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crewmember and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crewmember and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and more flight like back-pressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. In addition to the RVP SWME, the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL), was developed for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feed-water assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the RVP SWME, but is only 25% of the size of RVP SWME, providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a SOV reduction in size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The development of these evaporative cooling

  13. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.

    2014-07-01

    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  14. Direct digital control of air washer cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Elben, T.; Roseblock, R.; Lawler, R.; McCord, J.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to make a practical evaluation of using new technology to extend the life of obsolete HVAC mechanical equipment. The specific exercises in this project involved the application of software driven control algorithms to operate and manage open loop air washer cooling systems in the air handling units located in the Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, Missouri. The specific opportunity evaluated in this project involved eight air handling units at the Municipal Auditorium. The air handling systems utilize outdated air washer cooling systems that provide air conditioning and dehumidification to the areas they serve. We utilized direct digital control to assume total control of the operation of the air handling units. We also found it necessary to upgrade some components of the air handling units in order to allow the new control applications to execute their functions. This report describes the plan used to execute the project and the results. 20 tabs.

  15. Integrated reactor-containment hyperbolic-cooling-tower system

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.R.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    A preliminary feasibility analysis has been conducted to evaluate placing a nuclear reactor containment building inside a large hyperbolic cooling tower, a concept previously suggested for fossil-fired units but for reasons other than those that motivate this evaluation. The geometry of the design, the amount of water available, and the shielding provided by the cooling tower are beneficial to the safety characteristics of the containment under accident conditions. Three means of decay heat management are employed: an initial water spray on the containment exterior, long-term air convection on side of the containment, and creation of a water pool inside the containment. A continuously spraying water tank on top of the containment allows for a completely passive decay heat removal system. An annular air chimney around the containment is effective in long-term removal of {approximately} 1O MW (thermal) through air convection. Five percent of the water inventory in the cooling-tower pond surrounding the containment is sufficient to flood the containment interior to a depth of 14.6 ft, thereby providing an internal containment heat sink. The packing and the height of the tower provide major scrubbing and dispersing sources for any uncontrolled radioactive leak. The cooling tower veil also protects the containment from external events such as lane crashes.

  16. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  17. Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harber, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

  18. Solar cooling system performance, Frenchman's Reef Hotel, Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harber, H.

    1981-09-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems are described. The Solar Cooling System was installed in a hotel at St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The system consists of the evacuated glass tube collectors, two 2500 gallon tanks, pumps, computerized controller, a large solar optimized industrial sized lithium bromide absorption chiller, and associated plumbing. Solar heated water is pumped through the system to the designed public areas such as lobby, lounges, restaurant and hallways. Auxiliary heat is provided by steam and a heat exchanger to supplement the solar heat.

  19. A recirculating cooling system for improved topical cardiac hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeldt, F L; Fambiatos, A; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; Stirling, G R

    1981-10-01

    A simple system is described that recirculates cooling fluid for topical cardiac hypothermia. This disposable system can produce a flow of 1,500 ml/min at 2 degrees to 4 degrees C. The recirculating cooler produced significantly lower myocardial temperatures than a conventional fluid-discard system in 22 patients having coronary operation. This system has been used as part of the technique of hypothermic cardioplegia in more than 600 patients. During various cardiac procedures, septal temperatures were maintained well below 20 degrees C for 60 minutes or more without the need to reinfuse the cardioplegic solution.

  20. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  1. Method and system for providing cooling for turbine components

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Victor John; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2016-08-16

    A system for providing cooling for a turbine component that includes an outer surface exposed to combustion gases is provided. A component base includes at least one fluid supply passage coupleable to a source of cooling fluid. At least one feed passage communicates with the at least one fluid supply passage. At least one delivery channel communicates with the at least one feed passage. At least one cover layer covers the at least one feed passage and the at least one delivery channel, defining at least in part the component outer surface. At least one discharge passage extends to the outer surface. A diffuser section is defined in at least one of the at least one delivery channel and the at least one discharge passage, such that a fluid channeled through the system is diffused prior to discharge adjacent the outer surface.

  2. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  3. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  4. Solar heating and cooling technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of selected parametric data for inclusion in a computerized Data Base using the Marshall Information Retrieval and Data System (MIRADS) developed by NASA-MSFC is discussed. This data base provides extensive technical and socioeconomic information related to solar energy heating and cooling on a national scale. A broadly based research approach was used to assist in the support of program management and the application of a cost-effective program for solar energy development and demonstration.

  5. Desiccant degradation in desiccant cooling systems: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors conducted experiments to quantify the effects of thermal cycling and exposure to contamination on solid desiccant materials that may be used in desiccant cooling systems. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke, which is considered one of the worst pollutants in building cooling applications. The authors exposed five different solid desiccants to ``ambient`` and ``contaminated`` humid air: silica gel, activated alumina, activated carbon, molecular sieves, and lithium chloride. They obtained the moisture capacity of samples as a function of exposure time. Compared to virgin desiccant samples, the capacity loss caused by thermal cycling with humid ambient air was 10 percent to 30 percent for all desiccants. The capacity loss because of combined effect of thermal cycling with ``smoke-filled`` humid air was between 30 percent to 70 percent. The higher losses occurred after four months of experiment time, which is equivalent to four to eight years of field operation. Using a system model and smoke degradation data on silica gel, the authors predicted that, for low-temperature regeneration, the loss in performance of a ventilation-cycle desiccant cooling system would be between 10 percent to 35 percent, in about eight years, with higher value under worst conditions.

  6. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  7. Project S'COOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Carolyn J.; Chambers, Lin H.

    1998-01-01

    The Students Clouds Observations On-Line or S'COOL project was piloted in 1997. It was created with the idea of using students to serve as one component of the validation for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument which was launched with the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November, 1997. As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise CERES is interested in the role clouds play in regulating our climate. Over thirty schools became involved in the initial thrust of the project. The CERES instrument detects the location of clouds and identifies their physical properties. S'COOL students coordinate their ground truth observations with the exact overpass of the satellite at their location. Their findings regarding cloud type, height, fraction and opacity as well as surface conditions are then reported to the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data is then accessible to both the CERES team for validation and to schools for educational application via the Internet. By March of 1998 ninety-three schools, in nine countries had enrolled in the S'COOL project. Joining the United States participants were from schools in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The project is gradually becoming the global project envisioned by the project s creators. As students obtain the requested data useful for the scientists, it was hoped that students with guidance from their instructors would have opportunity and motivation to learn more about clouds and atmospheric science as well.

  8. D0 Silicon Upgrad: D0 Silicon Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, B.; /Fermilab

    1998-07-14

    The cooling system design is not complete. This paper lays out the general design and some of the design calculations that have been performed up to this date. Further refinement will be performed. This is especially true in the piping layout, piping insulation and detector manifold areas. The silicon detector is cooled by means of a coolant in the beryllium channels that also act as the primary supporting device for the silicon ladders and wedges. The coolant is water with ethylene glycol added as a freezing point depressant. The glycol concentration in the coolant is 30% by weight resulting in a freezing point of approximately -15 C. If the water/glycol is not sufficient for maintaining the desired detector temperature the concentration of the water/glycol may be changed or an alternative coolant may be used.

  9. Laminated turbine vane design and fabrication. [utilizing film cooling as a cooling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    A turbine vane and associated endwalls designed for advanced gas turbine engine conditions are described. The vane design combines the methods of convection cooling and selective areas of full coverage film cooling. The film cooling technique is utilized on the leading edge, pressure side, and endwall regions. The turbine vane involves the fabrication of airfoils from a stack of laminates with cooling passages photoetched on the surface. Cold flow calibration tests, a thermal analysis, and a stress analysis were performed on the turbine vanes.

  10. The Cold Mass Support System and the Helium Cooling System for theMICE Focusing Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Stephanie Q.; Green, Michael A.; Lau, Wing W.; Senanayake,Rohan S.; Witte, Holger

    2006-08-10

    The heart of the absorber focus coil (AFC) module for the muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) is the two-coil superconducting solenoid that surrounds the muon absorber. The superconducting magnet focuses the muons that are cooled using ionization cooling, in order to improve the efficiency of cooling. The coils of the magnet may either be run in the solenoid mode (both coils operate at the same polarity) or the gradient (the coils operate at opposite polarity). The AFC magnet cold mass support system is designed to carry a longitudinal force up to 700 kN. The AFC module will be cooled using three pulse tube coolers that produce 1.5 W of cooling at 4.2 K. One of the coolers will be used to cool the liquid (hydrogen or helium) absorber used for ionization cooling. The other two coolers will cool the superconducting solenoid. This report will describe the MICE AFC magnet. The cold mass supports will be discussed. The reasons for using a pulsed tube cooler to cool this superconducting magnet will also be discussed.

  11. Prelaunch Calibrations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and Earth Observing System Morning (EOS-AM1) Spacecraft Thermistor Bolometer Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bitting, Herbert C.; Crommelynck, Dominique A. H.; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Smith, G. Louis; Thomas, Susan; Thornhill, K. Lee; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) spacecraft scanning thermistor bolometer sensors measure earth radiances in the broadband shortwave solar (O.3 - 5.0 micron and total (0.3 to 100 microns) spectral bands as well as in the 8-12 microns water vapor window spectral band. On November 27, 1997, the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft placed the first set of CERES sensors into orbit, and 30 days later, the sensors initiated operational measurements of the earth radiance fields. In 1998, the Earth Observing System morning (EOS-AM1) spacecraft will place the second and third sensor sets into orbit. The prelaunch CERES sensors' count conversion coefficients (gains and zero-radiance offsets) were determined in vacuum ground facilities. The gains were tied radiometrically to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). The gain determinations included the spectral properties (reflectance, transmittance, emittance, etc.) of both the sources and sensors as well as the in-field-of-view (FOV) and out-of-FOV sensor responses. The resulting prelaunch coefficients for the TRMM and EOS-AM1 sensors are presented. Inflight calibration systems and on-orbit calibration approaches are described, which are being used to determine the temporal stabilities of the sensors' gains and offsets from prelaunch calibrations through on-orbit measurements. Analyses of the TRMM prelaunch and on-orbit calibration results indicate that the sensors have retained their ties to ITS-90 at accuracy levels better than /- 0.3% between the 1995 prelaunch and 1997 on-orbit calibrations.

  12. The Golden Canopies (Infant Radiant Warmer)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The cradle warmer is based on technology in heated transparent materials developed by Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, California he original application was in heated faceplates for the pressure suit heated faceplates worn by pilots of an Air Force/NASA reconnaissance and weather research plane. Later, Sierracin advanced the technology for other applications, among them the cockpit windows of the NASA X-15 supersonic research vehicle and the helmet faceplates of Apollo astronauts. Adapting the technology to hospital needs, Sierracin teamed with Cavitron Corporation, Anaheim, California, which produces the cradle warmer and two other systems employing Sierracin's electrically-heated transparencies. Working to combat the infant mortality rate, hospitals are continually upgrading delivery room and nursery care techniques. Many have special procedures and equipment to protect infants during the "period of apprehension," the critical six to 12 hours after delivery. One such item of equipment is an aerospace spinoff called the Infant Radiant Warmer, a "golden canopy" which provides uniform, controlled warmth to the infant's cradle. Warmth is vitally important to all newborns, particularly premature babies; they lose heat more rapidly than adults because they have greater surface area in comparison with body mass.

  13. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  14. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Schertz, William W.

    1986-01-01

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  15. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  16. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RCIC results.

  17. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the HPCI results. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for RCIC start-only and 8-hour trends.

  18. System Study: Reactor Core Isolation Cooling 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at 31 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant trends were identified in the RCIC results.

  19. System and method for cooling a super-conducting device

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William; Steinbach, Albert Eugene; Dawson, Richard Nils; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrul

    2008-01-08

    A system and method for cooling a superconductive rotor coil. The system comprises a rotatable shaft coupled to the superconductive rotor coil. The rotatable shaft may comprise an axial passageway extending through the rotatable shaft and a first passageway extending through a wall of the rotatable shaft to the axial passageway. The axial passageway and the first passageway are operable to convey a cryogenic fluid to the superconductive rotor coil through the wall of the rotatable shaft. A cryogenic transfer coupling may be provided to supply cryogenic fluid to the first passageway.

  20. Computer Simulation Performed for Columbia Project Cooling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Jasim

    2005-01-01

    This demo shows a high-fidelity simulation of the air flow in the main computer room housing the Columbia (10,024 intel titanium processors) system. The simulation asseses the performance of the cooling system and identified deficiencies, and recommended modifications to eliminate them. It used two in house software packages on NAS supercomputers: Chimera Grid tools to generate a geometric model of the computer room, OVERFLOW-2 code for fluid and thermal simulation. This state-of-the-art technology can be easily extended to provide a general capability for air flow analyses on any modern computer room. Columbia_CFD_black.tiff

  1. Heat pipe radiation cooling of advanced hypersonic propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. A.; Keddy, M.; Merrigan, M. A.; Silverstein, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Heat transfer, heat pipe, and system studies were performed to assess the newly proposed heat pipe radiation cooling (HPRC) concept. With an HPRC system, heat is removed from the ramburner and nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft engine by a surrounding, high-temperature, heat pipe nacelle structure, transported to nearby external surfaces, and rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. With HPRC, the Mach number range available for using hydrocarbon fuels for aircraft operation extends into the Mach 4 to Mach 6 range, up from the current limit of about Mach 4. Heat transfer studies using a newly developed HPRC computer code determine cooling system and ramburner and nozzle temperatures, heat loads, and weights for a representative combined-cycle engine cruising at Mach 5 at 80,000 ft altitude. Heat pipe heat transport calculations, using the Los Alamos code HTPIPE, reveal that adequate heat trasport capability is available using molybdenum-lithium heat pipe technology. Results show that the HPRC system radiator area is limited in size to the ramburner-nozzle region of the engine nacelle; reasonable system weights are expected; hot section temperatures are consistent with advanced structural materials development goals; and system impact on engine performance is minimal.

  2. Active cooling for downhole instrumentation: Preliminary analysis and system selection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    A feasibility study and a series of preliminary designs and analyses were done to identify candidate processes or cycles for use in active cooling systems for downhole electronic instruments. A matrix of energy types and their possible combinations was developed and the energy conversion process for each pari was identified. The feasibility study revealed conventional as well as unconventional processes and possible refrigerants and identified parameters needing further clarifications. A conceptual design or series od oesigns for each system was formulated and a preliminary analysis of each design was completed. The resulting coefficient of performance for each system was compared with the Carnot COP and all systems were ranked by decreasing COP. The system showing the best combination of COP, exchangeability to other operating conditions, failure mode, and system serviceability is chosen for use as a downhole refrigerator. 85 refs., 48 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. CAIS standard manual. System number 32. Central cooling plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Cooling Plants.

  4. A Gas-Cooled Reactor Surface Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, G.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.

    1998-11-09

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life- cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitide clad in Nb 1 %Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-I 00 program The fiel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fbel and stabilizing the geometty against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality cannot occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  5. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, Ronald J.; Wright, Steven A.; Lenard, Roger X.; Harms, Gary A.

    1999-01-22

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1%Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars.

  6. A gas-cooled reactor surface power system

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Wright, S.A.; Lenard, R.X.; Harms, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    A human outpost on Mars requires plentiful power to assure survival of the astronauts. Anywhere from 50 to 500 kW of electric power (kWe) will be needed, depending on the number of astronauts, level of scientific activity, and life-cycle closure desired. This paper describes a 250-kWe power system based on a gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a recuperated closed Brayton cycle conversion system. The design draws upon the extensive data and engineering experience developed under the various high-temperature gas cooled reactor programs and under the SP-100 program. The reactor core is similar in power and size to the research reactors found on numerous university campuses. The fuel is uranium nitride clad in Nb1{percent}Zr, which has been extensively tested under the SP-100 program. The fuel rods are arranged in a hexagonal array within a BeO block. The BeO softens the spectrum, allowing better use of the fuel and stabilizing the geometry against deformation during impact or other loadings. The system has a negative temperature feedback coefficient so that the power level will automatically follow a variable load without the need for continuous adjustment of control elements. Waste heat is removed by an air-cooled heat exchanger using cold Martian air. The amount of radioactivity in the reactor at launch is very small (less than a Curie, and about equal to a truckload of uranium ore). The system will need to be engineered so that criticality can not occur for any launch accident. This system is also adaptable for electric propulsion or life-support during transit to and from Mars. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Laser cooling of a high-temperature oscillator by a three-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-08-01

    We study the laser cooling of a mechanical oscillator through the coupling with a dissipative three-level system. Under a background temperature beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime, we extend the standard cooling analysis by separately studying the classical motion and the quantum dynamics of the oscillator. In ladder-system cooling, the cooling rate degrades by orders of magnitude at large classical motion. This phenomenon causes a critical transition of the final temperature at a hot background. In stark contrast, electromagnetic-induced-transparency (EIT) cooling with a Λ system produces significant negative cooling rate at high motional excitation. At steady state, the oscillator could exhibit both cooling and lasing behaviors. We argue that a successful EIT cooling requires either a poor quality oscillator to suppress the lasing effect, or terminating the cooling process at a transient stage.

  8. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  9. Radiant energy to electric energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, Arden (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Radiant energy is converted into electric energy by irradiating a capacitor including an ionic dielectric. The dielectric is a sintered crystal superionic conductor, e.g., lanthanum trifluoride, lanthanum trichloride, or silver bromide, so that a multiplicity of crystallites exist between electrodes of the capacitor. The radiant energy cyclically irradiates the dielectric so that the dielectric exhibits a cyclic photocapacitive like effect. Adjacent crystallites have abutting surfaces that enable the crystallites to effectively form a multiplicity of series capacitor elements between the electrodes. Each of the capacitor elements has a dipole layer only on or near its surface. The capacitor is initially charged to a voltage just below the dielectric breakdown voltage by connecting it across a DC source causing a current to flow through a charging resistor to the dielectric. The device can be utilized as a radiant energy detector or as a solar energy cell.

  10. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  11. System design package for the solar heating and cooling central data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The central data processing system provides the resources required to assess the performance of solar heating and cooling systems installed at remote sites. These sites consist of residential, commercial, government, and educational types of buildings, and the solar heating and cooling systems can be hot-water, space heating, cooling, and combinations of these. The instrumentation data associated with these systems will vary according to the application and must be collected, processed, and presented in a form which supports continuity of performance evaluation across all applications. Overall software system requirements were established for use in the central integration facility which transforms raw data collected at remote sites into performance evaluation information for assessing the performance of solar heating and cooling systems.

  12. The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

  13. Characterizing K2 Planetary Systems Orbiting Cool Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua; Vanderburg, Andrew; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather; K2C2

    2017-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the repurposed Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. K2 observes 10,000 - 30,000 stars in each field for roughly 80 days, which is too short to observe multiple transits of planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars, but long enough to detect potentially habitable planets orbiting low-mass dwarfs. Accordingly, M and K dwarfs are frequently nominated as K2 Guest Observer targets and K2 has already observed significantly more low-mass stars than the original Kepler mission. While the K2 data are therefore an enticing resource for studying the properties and frequency of planetary systems orbiting low-mass stars, many K2 cool dwarfs are not well-characterized. We are refining the properties of K2 planetary systems orbiting cool dwarfs by acquiring medium-resolution NIR spectra with SpeX on the IRTF and TripleSpec on the Palomar 200". In our initial sample of 144 potential cool dwarfs hosting candidate planetary systems detected by K2, we noted a high contamination rate from giants (16%) and reddened hotter dwarfs (31%). After employing empirically-based relations to determine the temperatures, radii, masses, luminosities, and metallicities of K2 planet candidate host stars, we found that our new cool dwarf radius estimates were 10-40% larger than the initial values, indicating that the radii of the associated planet candidates were also underestimated. Refining the stellar parameters allows us to identify astrophysical false positives and better constrain the radii and insolation flux environments of bona fide transiting planets. I will present our resulting catalog of system properties and highlight the most attractive K2 planets for radial velocity mass measurement and atmospheric characterization with Spitzer, HST, JWST, and the next generation of extremely large ground- and space-based telescopes. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program

  14. System and method for cooling a superconducting rotary machine

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Robert Adolf; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon; Huang, Xianrui; Bray, James William

    2011-08-09

    A system for cooling a superconducting rotary machine includes a plurality of sealed siphon tubes disposed in balanced locations around a rotor adjacent to a superconducting coil. Each of the sealed siphon tubes includes a tubular body and a heat transfer medium disposed in the tubular body that undergoes a phase change during operation of the machine to extract heat from the superconducting coil. A siphon heat exchanger is thermally coupled to the siphon tubes for extracting heat from the siphon tubes during operation of the machine.

  15. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

    2010-06-29

    A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

  16. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the engine operating under test conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling system fails to... to start the engine. Note: If the cooling system includes a reserve supply water tank, the line or... effectiveness of the automatic engine shut-off, which will operate when the water in the cooling...

  17. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the engine operating under test conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling system fails to... to start the engine. Note: If the cooling system includes a reserve supply water tank, the line or... effectiveness of the automatic engine shut-off, which will operate when the water in the cooling...

  18. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the engine operating under test conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling system fails to... to start the engine. Note: If the cooling system includes a reserve supply water tank, the line or... effectiveness of the automatic engine shut-off, which will operate when the water in the cooling...

  19. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the engine operating under test conditions by withdrawing water until the cooling system fails to... to start the engine. Note: If the cooling system includes a reserve supply water tank, the line or... effectiveness of the automatic engine shut-off, which will operate when the water in the cooling...

  20. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  1. Thermal design of lithium bromide-water solution vapor absorption cooling system for indirect evaporative cooling for IT pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Digvijay Ramkrishna

    Nowadays with increase use of internet, mobile there is increase in heat which ultimately increases the efficient cooling system of server room or IT POD. Use of traditional ways of cooling system has ultimately increased CO2 emission and depletion of CFC's are serious environmental issues which led scientific people to improve cooling techniques and eliminate use of CFC's. To reduce dependency on fossil fuels and 4environmental friendly system needed to be design. For being utilizing low grade energy source such as solar collector and reducing dependency on fossil fuel vapour absorption cooling system has shown a great driving force in today's refrigeration systems. This LiBr-water aabsorption cooling consists of five heat exchanger namely: Evaporator, Absorber, Solution Heat Exchanger, Generator, Condenser. The thermal design was done for a load of 23 kW and the procedure was described in the thesis. There are 120 servers in the IT POD emitting 196 W of heat each on full load and some of the heat was generated by the computer placed inside the IT POD. A detailed procedure has been discussed. A excel spreadsheet was to prepared with varying tube sizes to see the effect on flows and ultimately overall heat transfer coefficient.

  2. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGennaro, Richard; Gee, Bruce; Guigli, Jim; Hogrefe, Henning; Howells, Malcolm; Rarback, Harvey

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft X-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance . Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T miniundulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with a peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm 2. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract #DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. A water-cooled mirror system for synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, R.; Gee, B.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Howells, M.; Rarback, H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a directly-cooled soft x-ray mirror system which has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for synchrotron radiation beam lines in which mirror thermal distortion must be minimized for acceptable optical performance. Two similar mirror systems are being built: the first mirror has been installed and operated at the National Synchrotron Light Source on the X-17T mini-undulator beam line and will be moved to the permanent X-1 beam line when a new, more powerful undulator is installed there. The second system is being built for installation at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory on Beam Line VI, where the total absorbed power on the mirror may be as high as 2400 W with peak absorbed power density of 520 W/cm/sup 2/. Direct cooling by convection is achieved using internal water channels in a brazed, dispersion-strengthened copper and OFHC copper substrate with a polished electroless-nickel surface. A simple kinematic linkage and flexural pivot mounting provide for mirror positioning about two rotational axes that coincide with the optical surface. Surface figure metrology, optical configurations, and tolerancing are also discussed. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Efficacy of different antifouling treatments for seawater cooling systems.

    PubMed

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-11-01

    In an industrial seawater cooling system, the effects of three different antifouling treatments, viz. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), aliphatic amines (Mexel®432) and UV radiation, on the characteristics of the fouling formed were evaluated. For this study a portable pilot plant, as a side-stream monitoring system and seawater cooling system, was employed. The pilot plant simulated a power plant steam condenser, having four titanium tubes under different treatment patterns, where fouling progression could be monitored. The nature of the fouling obtained was chiefly inorganic, showing a clear dependence on the antifouling treatment employed. After 72 days the tubes under treatment showed a reduction in the heat transfer resistance (R) of around 70% for NaClO, 48% for aliphatic amines and 55% for UV, with respect to the untreated tube. The use of a logistic model was very useful for predicting the fouling progression and the maximum asymptotic value of the increment in the heat transfer resistance (ΔR(max)). The apparent thermal conductivity (λ) of the fouling layer showed a direct relationship with the percentage of organic matter in the collected fouling. The characteristics and mode of action of the different treatments used led to fouling with diverse physicochemical properties.

  5. Experimental and CFD Analysis of Advanced Convective Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2012-06-27

    The objective of this project is to study the fundamental physical phenomena in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs). One of the primary design objectives is to assure that RCCS acts as an ultimate heat sink capable of maintaining thermal integrity of the fuel, vessel, and equipment within the reactor cavity for the entire spectrum of postulated accident scenarios. Since construction of full-scale experimental test facilities to study these phenomena is impractical, it is logical to expect that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will play a key role in the RCCS design process. An important question then arises: To what extent are conventional CFD codes able to accurately capture the most important flow phenomena, and how can they be modified to improve their quantitative predictions? Researchers are working to tackle this problem in two ways. First, in the experimental phase, the research team plans to design and construct an innovative platform that will provide a standard test setting for validating CFD codes proposed for the RCCS design. This capability will significantly advance the state of knowledge in both liquid-cooled and gas-cooled (e.g., sodium fast reactor) reactor technology. This work will also extend flow measurements to micro-scale levels not obtainable in large-scale test facilities, thereby revealing previously undetectable phenomena that will complement the existing infrastructure. Second, in the computational phase of this work, numerical simulation of the flow and temperature profiles will be performed using advanced turbulence models to simulate the complex conditions of flows in critical zones of the cavity. These models will be validated and verified so that they can be implemented into commercially available CFD codes. Ultimately, the results of these validation studies can then be used to enable a more accurate design and safety evaluation of systems in actual nuclear power

  6. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-04-05

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  7. Cooled electronic system with liquid-cooled cold plate and thermal spreader coupled to electronic component

    DOEpatents

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Graybill, David P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J.; Schmidt, Roger R.; Steinke, Mark E.

    2016-08-09

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled cold plate and a thermal spreader associated with the cold plate. The cold plate includes multiple coolant-carrying channel sections extending within the cold plate, and a thermal conduction surface with a larger surface area than a surface area of the component to be cooled. The thermal spreader includes one or more heat pipes including multiple heat pipe sections. One or more heat pipe sections are partially aligned to a first region of the cold plate, that is, where aligned to the surface to be cooled, and partially aligned to a second region of the cold plate, which is outside the first region. The one or more heat pipes facilitate distribution of heat from the electronic component to coolant-carrying channel sections of the cold plate located in the second region of the cold plate.

  8. Preliminary study of a radiantly heated fluidized bed for the production of high purity silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levenspiel, O.; Larson, M.; Zhang, G. T.; Ouyang, F.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation of very pure silicon from silane (SIH4) using radiant heating of the hot silicon particles of a fluidized bed is discussed. The fraction of electrical energy supplied to the heater which is actually absorbed by the particles and the heat transfer coefficient between the hot bed and the cool distributor plate were investigated. The experimental design is presented and the results of the study are summarized.

  9. What is Success? Evaluating S'COOL, an Educational Outreach Project Focused on NASA's CERES Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Costulis, P. Kay; Young, David F.; Green, Carolyn J.; Stoddard, Douglas B.; Haberer, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    The Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project involved students in K-16 as ground truth observers for a NASA Earth-Observing satellite instrument. The Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument allows scientists to study the Earth's energy budget and how clouds affect it. Student reports of cloud conditions help scientists verify their algorithms and allow students to be involved in obtaining and analyzing real scientific data. The presentation contains 23 slides.

  10. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  11. Detecting and mitigating aging in component cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1991-12-31

    The time-dependent effects of aging on component cooling water (CCW) systems in nuclear power plants has been studied and documented as part of a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It was found that age related degradation leads to failures in the CCW system which can result in an increase in system unavailability, if not properly detected and mitigated. To identify effective methods of managing this degradation, information on inspection, monitoring, and maintenance practices currently available was obtained from various operating plants and reviewed. The findings were correlated with the most common aging mechanisms and failure modes and a compilation of aging detection and mitigation practices was formulated. This paper discusses the results of this work.

  12. Superconducting helical solenoid systems for muon cooling experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, Vladimir S.; Andreev, Nikolai; Johnson, Rolland P.; Kashikhin, Vadim V.; Lamm, Michael J.; Romanov, Gennady; Yonehara, Katsuya; Zlobin, Alexander V.; /Fermilab

    2007-08-01

    Novel configurations of superconducting magnet system for Muon Beam Cooling Experiment is under design at Fermilab. The magnet system has to generate longitudinal and transverse dipole and quadrupole helical magnetic fields providing a muon beam motion along helical orbit. It was found that such complicated field configuration can be formed by a set of circular coils shifted in transverse directions in such a way that their centers lay on the center of the helical beam orbit. Closed beam orbit configurations were also proposed and investigated. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical designs and parameters of such magnetic system based on a NbTi Rutherford type cable. The helical solenoid fabrication, assembly and quench protection issues are presented.

  13. Reliability and Maintainability Data for Liquid Metal Cooling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2015-05-01

    One of the coolants of interest for future fusion breeding blankets is lead-lithium. As a liquid metal it offers the advantages of high temperature operation for good station efficiency, low pressure, and moderate flow rate. This coolant is also under examination for use in test blanket modules to be used in the ITER international project. To perform reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI) assessment as well as probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of lead-lithium cooling systems, component failure rate data are needed to quantify the system models. RAMI assessment also requires repair time data and inspection time data. This paper presents a new survey of the data sets that are available at present to support RAMI and PSA quantification. Recommendations are given for the best data values to use when quantifying system models.

  14. THERMAL DESIGN OF THE ITER VACUUM VESSEL COOLING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, Juan J; Yoder Jr, Graydon L; Kim, Seokho H

    2010-01-01

    RELAP5-3D models of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) have been developed. The design of the cooling system is described in detail, and RELAP5 results are presented. Two parallel pump/heat exchanger trains comprise the design one train is for full-power operation and the other is for emergency operation or operation at decay heat levels. All the components are located inside the Tokamak building (a significant change from the original configurations). The results presented include operation at full power, decay heat operation, and baking operation. The RELAP5-3D results confirm that the design can operate satisfactorily during both normal pulsed power operation and decay heat operation. All the temperatures in the coolant and in the different system components are maintained within acceptable operating limits.

  15. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.

    1989-05-01

    The objective is to develop and test various integrated solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems, and to evaluate their performance. Systems composed of new, as well as previously tested, components are carefully integrated so that effects of new components on system performance can be clearly delineated. The program for 1989-90 is separated into seven tasks. There are asks for each of the three solar houses, a project to build and test several generic solar water heaters, a task involving development of an improved evacuated tube collector, a management task, and a task under which an international workshop will test IEA Task 4 models. The objectives and progress in each task are described in this report.

  16. Instruments for measuring radiant thermal fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerashenko, O. A.; Sazhina, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    An absolute two-sided radiometer, designed on the principle of replacing absorbed radiant energy with electrical energy, is described. The sensitive element of the detector is a thermoelectric transducer of thermal flux. The fabrication technology, methods of measurement, technical characteristics, and general operation of the instrument are presented.

  17. Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF2:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF2:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 microR. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed.

  18. Evaporative Cooling and Dehumidification Garment for Portable Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael; Chen, Weibo; Bue, Grant

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of an innovative thermal and humidity control system for future space suits. The system comprises an evaporation cooling and dehumidification garment (ECDG) and a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR). The ECDG absorbs heat and water vapor from inside the suit pressure garment, while the LCAR rejects heat to space without venting water vapor. The ECDG is built from thin, flexible patches with coversheets made of non-porous, water-permeable membranes that -enclose arrays of vapor flow passages. Water vapor from inside the spacesuit diffuses across the water permeable membranes, enters the vapor flow channels, and then flows to the LCAR, thus dehumidifying the internal volume of the space suit pressure garment. Additional water evaporation inside the ECDG provides cooling for sensible heat loads. -The heat released from condensation and absorption in the LCAR is rejected to the environment by thermal radiation. We have assembled lightweight and flexible ECDG pouches from prototypical materials and measured their performance in a series of separate effects tests under well-controlled, prototypical conditions. Sweating hot plate tests at typical space suit pressures show that ECDG pouches can absorb over 60 W/ft of latent heat and 20 W/ft of sensible heat from the pressure garment environment. These results are in good agreement with the predictions of our analysis models.

  19. Capillary Action may Cool Systems and Precisely balance Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that it takes no work for Water to rise in a Capillary tube against the force of Gravity. There is a precise balance in this system that resembles Robert Millikan's ``Oil Drop'' experiment, where mass was balanced against the electrostatic force. If at the top of the capillary tube there is evaporation, one can see that the system is cooled as another water molecule has room to move up the column. Furthermore, if the evaporation process can be controlled one photon at a time, a precise balance is created between a photon, and the height/mass of the column. If other molecules are place in the column, they can be moved up and down the column, in a chromatograph way, in a fairly precise manner, by controlling evaporation and molecular weight. If in addition to all of this, the interface of the solution against the walls of the column have Fermi levels, it can be seen as a very precise Electrochemical Device. In the situation of nanotubes, as opposed to trees and plants, these properties can be used to create measure environmental properties and to Balance Chemical Reactions. Forests, and Plants may cool themselves and their environment using this process, and using this process coupled with more energetic photons through photosynthesis.

  20. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part 1; Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Smith, N. M.; Kato, S.; Miller, W. F.; Gupta, S. K.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) investigates the critical role that clouds and aerosols play in modulating the radiative energy flow within the Earth-atmosphere system. CERES builds upon the foundation laid by previous missions, such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, to provide highly accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes together with coincident cloud and aerosol properties inferred from high-resolution imager measurements. This paper describes the method used to construct empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) for estimating shortwave, longwave, and window TOA radiative fluxes from CERES radiance measurements on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. To construct the ADMs, multiangle CERES measurements are combined with coincident high-resolution Visible Infrared Scanner measurements and meteorological parameters from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data assimilation product. The ADMs are stratified by scene types defined by parameters that have a strong influence on the angular dependence of Earth's radiation field at the TOA. Examples of how the new CERES ADMs depend upon the imager-based parameters are provided together with comparisons with existing models.

  1. An experimental comparison between a novel and a conventional cooling system for the blown film process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janas, M.; Andretzky, M.; Neubert, B.; Kracht, F.; Wortberg, J.

    2016-03-01

    The blown film extrusion is a significant manufacturing process of plastic films. Compared to other extrusion processes, the productivity is limited by the cooling of the extrudate. A conventional cooling system for the blown film application provides the cooling air tangentially, homogeneous over the whole circumference of the bubble, using a single or dual lip cooling ring. In prior works, major effects could be identified that are responsible for a bad heat transfer. Besides the formation of a boundary sublayer on the film surface due to the fast flowing cooling air, there is the interaction between the cooling jet and the ambient air. In order to intensify the cooling of a tubular film, a new cooling approach was developed, called Multi-Jet. This system guides the air vertically on the film surface, using several slit nozzles over the whole tube formation zone. Hence, the jets penetrate the sublayer. To avoid the interaction with the ambient air, the bubble expansion zone is surrounded by a housing. By means of a numeric investigation, the novel cooling approach and the efficiency of the cooling system could be proved. Thereby, a four times higher local heat transfer coefficient is achieved compared to a conventional cooling device. In this paper, the Multi-Jet cooling system is experimentally tested for several different process conditions. To identify a worth considering cooling configuration of the novel cooling system for the experiment, a simulation tool presets the optimal process parameters. The comparison between the results of the new and a conventional system shows that the novel cooling method is able to gain the same frost line height using a 40% lower cooling air volume flow. Due to the housing of the tube formation zone, a heat recovery can be achieved.

  2. Solar heating and cooling: Technical data and systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The solar energy research is reported including climatic data, architectural data, heating and cooling equipment, thermal loads, and economic data. Lists of data sources presented include: selected data sources for solar energy heating and cooling; bibliography of solar energy, and other energy sources; sources for manufacturing and sales, solar energy collectors; and solar energy heating and cooling projects.

  3. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  4. Design and evaluation of active cooling systems for Mach 6 cruise vehicle wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconarty, W. A.; Anthony, F. M.

    1971-01-01

    Active cooling systems, which included transpiration, film, and convective cooling concepts, are examined. Coolants included hydrogen, helium, air, and water. Heat shields, radiation barriers, and thermal insulation are considered to reduce heat flow to the cooling systems. Wing sweep angles are varied from 0 deg to 75 deg and wing leading edge radii of 0.05 inch and 2.0 inches are examined. Structural temperatures are varied to allow comparison of aluminum alloy, titanium alloy, and superalloy structural materials. Cooled wing concepts are compared among themselves, and with the uncooled concept on the basis of structural weight, cooling system weight, and coolant weight.

  5. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, F.; Pereira, H.; Silva, P.; Pezzetti, M.; Pavlov, O.; Pirotte, O.; Metselaar, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Lettry, J.; Kirk, H. G.; McDonald, K. T.; Titus, P.; Bennett, J. R. J.

    2010-04-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron) complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  6. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  7. Heating and cooling system. [for fatigue test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.; Gardner, M. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A heating and cooling apparatus capable of cyclic heating and cooling of a test specimen undergoing fatigue testing is discussed. Cryogenic fluid is passed through a block clamped to the speciment to cool the block and the specimen. Heating cartridges penetrate the block to heat the block and the specimen to very hot temperaures. Control apparatus is provided to alternatively activate the cooling and heating modes to effect cyclic heating and cooling between very hot and very cold temperatures. The block is constructed of minimal mass to facilitate the rapid temperature changes.

  8. Increasing the Efficiency of a Thermoelectric Generator Using an Evaporative Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonyasri, M.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2016-11-01

    A system for reducing heat from the cold side of a thermoelectric (TE) power generator, based on the principle of evaporative cooling, is presented. An evaporative cooling system could increase the conversion efficiency of a TE generator. To this end, two sets of TE generators were constructed. Both TE generators were composed of five TE power modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The hot side heat sinks were inserted in a hot gas duct. The cold side of one set was cooled by the cooling air from a counter flow evaporative cooling system, whereas the other set was cooled by the parallel flow evaporative cooling system. The counter flow pattern had better performance than the parallel flow pattern. A comparison between the TE generator with and without an evaporative cooling system was made. Experimental results show that the power output increased by using the evaporative cooling system. This can significantly increase the TE conversion efficiency. The evaporative cooling system increased the power output of the TE generator from 22.9 W of ambient air flowing through the heat sinks to 28.6 W at the hot gas temperature of 350°C (an increase of about 24.8%). The present study shows the promising potential of using TE generators with evaporative cooling for waste heat recovery.

  9. Memory device for two-dimensional radiant energy array computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A memory device for two dimensional radiant energy array computers was developed, in which the memory device stores digital information in an input array of radiant energy digital signals that are characterized by ordered rows and columns. The memory device contains a radiant energy logic storing device having a pair of input surface locations for receiving a pair of separate radiant energy digital signal arrays and an output surface location adapted to transmit a radiant energy digital signal array. A regenerative feedback device that couples one of the input surface locations to the output surface location in a manner for causing regenerative feedback is also included

  10. Solid-state electrocaloric cooling system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Basiulis, A.; Berry, R.L.

    1988-07-19

    A cooling system for transferring heat is described comprising: a first electrocaloric element; a pair of electrodes disposed on opposite surfaces of the electrocaloric element; a first unidirectional heat pipe for conducting heat away from the heat source to the electrocaloric element when the heat source temperature exceeds the temperature of the electrocaloric element; a second unidirectional heat pipe for transferring heat from the electrocaloric element when the temperature of the electrocaloric element exceeds a predetermined temperature; a second electrocaloric element; a second pair of electrodes disposed on opposite surfaces of the second electrocaloric element; a third unidirectional heat pipe for transferring heat from the second electrocaloric element when its temperature exceeds a predetermined temperature; and means for selectively applying voltages between electrodes of the electrode pairs for respectively generating electric fields in the first and second electrocaloric elements to heat the first and second electrocaloric elements in response to the presence of the electric fields and to cool the first and second electrocaloric elements upon removal of the electric fields.

  11. Intelligent Engine Systems: Thermal Management and Advanced Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergholz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objective is to provide turbine-cooling technologies to meet Propulsion 21 goals related to engine fuel burn, emissions, safety, and reliability. Specifically, the GE Aviation (GEA) Advanced Turbine Cooling and Thermal Management program seeks to develop advanced cooling and flow distribution methods for HP turbines, while achieving a substantial reduction in total cooling flow and assuring acceptable turbine component safety and reliability. Enhanced cooling techniques, such as fluidic devices, controlled-vortex cooling, and directed impingement jets, offer the opportunity to incorporate both active and passive schemes. Coolant heat transfer enhancement also can be achieved from advanced designs that incorporate multi-disciplinary optimization of external film and internal cooling passage geometry.

  12. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  13. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  14. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  15. R&D on The Cooling Systems Using Natural Refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hideharu

    The use of waste heat of low temperatures is an important problem from the environmental considerations. Notice that adsorption cycles have a distinct advantage over other systems of their ability to produce cooling by using low waste heat as 60 to 80°C and also being absolutely benign for the environment. However the present available adsorption chillers are still heavier and larger in size. Hence their compactness and cost reduction as well as higher efficiency are urgent tasks for wider use. This review discusses recent development on adsorption heat pumps as well as forthcoming applications. The sources are mainly papers and discussions at the IEA Annex 24 Workshop in Turin, Italy (1999), FOA6 (Fundamental of Adsorption) Conference in Presquile de Giens, France (1998) and ISHPC (International Sorption Heat Pump Conference) in Munich, Germany (1999).

  16. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  17. Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  19. Radiant energy and insensible water loss in the premature newborn infant nursed under a radiant warmer.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, S

    1982-10-01

    Radiant warmers are a powerful and efficient source of heat serving to warm the cold-stressed infant acutely and to provide uninterrupted maintenance of body temperature despite a multiplicity of nursing, medical, and surgical procedures required to care for the critically ill premature newborn in today's intensive care nursery. A recognized side-effect of radiant warmer beds is the now well-documented increase in insensible water loss through evaporation from an infant's skin. Particularly the very-low-birth-weight, severely premature, and critically ill neonate is subject to this increase in evaporative water loss. The clinician caring for the infant is faced with the difficult problem of fluid and electrolyte balance, which requires vigilant monitoring of all parameters of fluid homeostasis. Compounding these difficulties, other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (for example, phototherapy) may affect an infant's fluid metabolism by mechanisms that are not well understood. The role of plastic heat shielding in reducing large insensible losses in infants nursed on radiant warmer beds is currently under intense investigation. Apparently, convective air currents and not radiant heat energy may be the cause of the observed increase in insensible water loss in the intensive care nursery. A thin plastic blanket may be effective in reducing evaporative water loss by diminishing an infant's exposure to convective air currents while being nursed on an open radiant warmer bed. A rigid plastic body hood, although effective as a radiant heat shield, is not as effective in preventing exposure to convection in the intensive care nursery and, therefore, is not as effective as the thin plastic blanket in reducing insensible water loss. Care should be exercised in determining the effect of heat shielding on all parameters of heat exchange (convection, evaporation, and radiation) before application is made to the critically ill premature infant nursed on an open radiant

  20. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.

    PubMed

    Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

  1. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, James William

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  2. a Study on Performance Evaluation of Thermoelectric Cooling System Using Piezoelectric Bending Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee-Sung; Yang, Ho-Dong; Oh, Yool-Kwon

    This study investigated the performance of thermoelectric cooling system using the piezoelectric bending actuator. The temperatures in the cooling region of thermoelectric cooling system were measured with and without operation of piezoelectric bending actuator at the frequencies of 90 Hz and 120 Hz. The cooling coefficients were calculated by the temperature measurement results, and the thermo-flow phenomenon in the cooling region was visualized under the same condition. The coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric cooling system was improved by the piezoelectric bending actuator when the results of temperature measurement and thermo-flow visualization were compared, because that the vibration from the piezoelectric bending actuator generated compulsive convection and the cold air in the cooling region was actively circulated by the compulsive convection.

  3. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  5. Methodology to determine cost and performance goals for active solar cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M. L.; Wahlig, M.

    1981-11-01

    Systems analysis is used to calculate the 20 yr. present value of energy savings of solar cooling systems located in Texas, Arizona, Florida, and Washington, DC, and methods of solar system development to meet the cost goals of economic operation are outlined. Solar cooling systems are projected to begin commercial entry in 1986 and reach 20% of the total cooling market by the year 2000, producing 0.14 quads of displaced energy. A numerical simulation was carried out for both residential and commercial solar cooling units with consideration for system cost goals, cost goals per unit collector area, and the cost goals per ton of cooling. System size was targeted as a 3 ton residential chiller and a 25 ton commercial absorption cooling unit. The costs for volume production are provided, along with trends for an incrementally decreasing need for tax incentives, ending in about 1994

  6. Consideration of sub-cooled LN2 circulation system for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hirai, Hirokazu; Nara, N.; Nagasaka, T.; Hirokawa, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We consider a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN) circulation system for HTS power equipment. The planned circulation system consists of a sub-cool heat exchanger (subcooler) and a circulation pump. The sub-cooler will be connected to a neon turbo- Brayton cycle refrigerator with a cooling power of 2 kW at 65 K. Sub-cooled LN will be delivered into the sub-cooler by the pump and cooled within it. Sub-cooled LN is adequate fluid for cooling HTS power equipment, because its dielectric strength is high and it supports a large critical current. However, a possibility of LN solidification in the sub-cooler is a considerable issue. The refrigerator will produce cold neon gas of about 60 K, which is lower than the nitrogen freezing temperature of 63 K. Therefore, we designed two-stage heat exchangers which are based on a plate-fin type and a tube-intube type. Process simulations of those heat exchangers indicate that sub-cooled LN is not frozen in either sub-cooler. The plate-fin type sub-cooler is consequently adopted for its reliability and compactness. Furthermore, we found that a cooling system with a Brayton refrigerator has the same total cooling efficiency as a cooling system with a Stirling refrigerator.

  7. Cool Roof Systems; What is the Condensation Risk?

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrer, Manfred; Pallin, Simon B

    2014-01-01

    A white roof, or cool roof, is constructed to decrease thermal loads from solar radiation, therefore saving energy by decreasing the cooling demands. Unfortunately, cool roofs with a mechanically attached membrane have shown a higher risk of intermediate condensation in the materials below the membrane in certain climates (Ennis & Kehrer, 2011) and in comparison with similar constructions with a darker exterior surface (Bludau, Zirkelbach, & Kuenzel, 2009). As a consequence, questions have been raised regarding the sustainability and reliability of using cool roof membranes in northern U.S. climate zones.

  8. Beam Based Measurements for Stochastic Cooling Systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Pasquinelli, R.J.; Werkema, S.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-09-13

    Improvement of antiproton stacking rates has been pursued for the last twenty years at Fermilab. The last twelve months have been dedicated to improving the computer model of the Stacktail system. The production of antiprotons encompasses the use of the entire accelerator chain with the exception of the Tevatron. In the Antiproton Source two storage rings, the Debuncher and Accumulator are responsible for the accumulation of antiprotons in quantities that can exceed 2 x 10{sup 12}, but more routinely, stacks of 5 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons are accumulated before being transferred to the Recycler ring. Since the beginning of this recent enterprise, peak accumulation rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup 11} to greater than 2.3 x 10{sup 11} antiprotons per hour. A goal of 3 x 10{sup 11} per hour has been established. Improvements to the stochastic cooling systems are but a part of this current effort. This paper will discuss Stacktail system measurements and experienced system limitations.

  9. Evaporation-Cooled Protective Suits for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard Murray

    2007-01-01

    Suits cooled by evaporation of water have been proposed as improved means of temporary protection against high temperatures near fires. When air temperature exceeds 600 F (316 C) or in the presence of radiative heating from nearby sources at temperatures of 1,200 F (649 C) or more, outer suits now used by firefighters afford protection for only a few seconds. The proposed suits would exploit the high latent heat of vaporization of water to satisfy a need to protect against higher air temperatures and against radiant heating for significantly longer times. These suits would be fabricated and operated in conjunction with breathing and cooling systems like those with which firefighting suits are now equipped

  10. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  11. Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

  12. Design considerations and experimental observations for the TAMU air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system for the VHTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, S. A. Dominguez-Ontiveros, E. E. Alhashimi, T. Budd, J. L. Matos, M. D. Hassan, Y. A.

    2015-04-29

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is a promising passive decay heat removal system for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to ensure reliability of the transfer of the core residual and decay heat to the environment under all off-normal circumstances. A small scale experimental test facility was constructed at Texas A and M University (TAMU) to study pertinent multifaceted thermal hydraulic phenomena in the air-cooled reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) design based on the General Atomics (GA) concept for the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The TAMU Air-Cooled Experimental Test Facility is ⅛ scale from the proposed GA-MHTGR design. Groundwork for experimental investigations focusing into the complex turbulence mixing flow behavior inside the upper plenum is currently underway. The following paper illustrates some of the chief design considerations used in construction of the experimental test facility, complete with an outline of the planned instrumentation and data acquisition methods. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out to furnish some insights on the overall behavior of the air flow in the system. CFD simulations assisted the placement of the flow measurement sensors location. Preliminary experimental observations of experiments at 120oC inlet temperature suggested the presence of flow reversal for cases involving single active riser at both 5 m/s and 2.25 m/s, respectively and four active risers at 2.25 m/s. Flow reversal may lead to thermal stratification inside the upper plenum by means of steady state temperature measurements. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiment was carried out to furnish some insight on flow patterns and directions.

  13. Cooling system having reduced mass pin fins for components in a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J

    2014-03-11

    A cooling system having one or more pin fins with reduced mass for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The cooling system may include one or more first surfaces defining at least a portion of the cooling system. The pin fin may extend from the surface defining the cooling system and may have a noncircular cross-section taken generally parallel to the surface and at least part of an outer surface of the cross-section forms at least a quartercircle. A downstream side of the pin fin may have a cavity to reduce mass, thereby creating a more efficient turbine airfoil.

  14. Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

  15. THERMAL STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR HEATPIPE-COOLED REACTOR POWER SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    Kapernick, R. J.; Guffee, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module comprises a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of the design development and performance assessment activities for these reactors, specialized methods and models have been developed to perform thermal and stress analyses of the core modules. The methods have been automated so that trade studies can be readily performed, looking at design options such as module size, heatpipe and clad thickness, use of sleeves to contain the fuel, material type, etc. This paper describes the methods and models that have been developed, and presents thermal and stress analysis results for a Mars surface power system and a NEP power source.

  16. Fast cooling for a system of stochastic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yongxin Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Pavon, Michele

    2015-11-15

    We study feedback control of coupled nonlinear stochastic oscillators in a force field. We first consider the problem of asymptotically driving the system to a desired steady state corresponding to reduced thermal noise. Among the feedback controls achieving the desired asymptotic transfer, we find that the most efficient one from an energy point of view is characterized by time-reversibility. We also extend the theory of Schrödinger bridges to this model, thereby steering the system in finite time and with minimum effort to a target steady-state distribution. The system can then be maintained in this state through the optimal steady-state feedback control. The solution, in the finite-horizon case, involves a space-time harmonic function φ, and −logφ plays the role of an artificial, time-varying potential in which the desired evolution occurs. This framework appears extremely general and flexible and can be viewed as a considerable generalization of existing active control strategies such as macromolecular cooling. In the case of a quadratic potential, the results assume a form particularly attractive from the algorithmic viewpoint as the optimal control can be computed via deterministic matricial differential equations. An example involving inertial particles illustrates both transient and steady state optimal feedback control.

  17. Gas-cooled reactor for space power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.; Pearson, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Reactor characteristics based on extensive development work on the 500-MWt reactor for the Pluto nuclear ramjet are described for space power systems useful in the range of 2 to 20 MWe for operating times of 1 y. The modest pressure drop through the prismatic ceramic core is supported at the outlet end by a ceramic dome which also serves as a neutron reflector. Three core materials are considered which are useful at temperatures up to about 2000 K. Most of the calculations are based on a beryllium oxide with uranium dioxide core. Reactor control is accomplished by use of a burnable poison, a variable-leakage reflector, and internal control rods. Reactivity swings of 20% are obtained with a dozen internal boron-10 rods for the size cores studied. Criticality calculations were performed using the ALICE Monte Carlo code. The inherent high-temperature capability of the reactor design removes the reactor as a limiting condition on system performance. The low fuel inventories required, particularly for beryllium oxide reactors, make space power systems based on gas-cooled near-thermal reactors a lesser safeguard risk than those based on fast reactors.

  18. Shuttle active thermal control system development testing. Volume 5: Integrated radiator/expendable cooling system tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheps, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to gather data on a space shuttle active control system (ATCS) incorporating both radiators and an expendable cooling device to provide vehicle heat removal. Two systems were tested and design information was provided for both nominal and limit conditions. The tests verified the concept that an integrated radiator/expendable cooling system can adequately maintain desired water quantities while responding to variations in heat loads and environments. In addition, the need for duct heating was demonstrated, while exhaust nozzle heating was also shown to be unnecessary.

  19. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Beeck, Alexander R [Orlando, FL

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  20. Theoretical model for Sub-Doppler Cooling with EIT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peiru; Tengdin, Phoebe; Anderson, Dana; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2016-05-01

    We propose a of sub-Doppler cooling mechanism that takes advantage of the unique spectral features and extreme dispersion generated by the so-called Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) effect, a destructive quantum interference phenomenon experienced by atoms with Lambda-shaped energy levels when illuminated by two light fields with appropriate frequencies. By detuning the probe lasers slightly from the ``dark resonance'', we observe that atoms can be significantly cooled down by the strong viscous force within the transparency window, while being just slightly heated by the diffusion caused by the small absorption near resonance. In contrast to polarization gradient cooling or EIT sideband cooling, no external magnetic field or external confining potential are required. Using a semi-classical method, analytical expressions, and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed EIT cooling method can lead to temperatures well below the Doppler limit. This work is supported by NSF and NIST.

  1. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  2. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  3. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  4. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems.

  5. Micro-Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) for DoD Electronics Systems Douglas S. Beck Beck Engineering , Inc. 1490 Lumsden Road, Port Orchard...refrigerator. We are developing for DARPA a cm-scale Micro- Stirling Active Cooling Module (MS/ACM) micro- refrigerator to benefit the DoD systems. Under...a DARPA contract, we are designing, building, and demonstrating a breadboard MS/ACM. Keywords: Stirling ; cooler; active cooling module; micro

  6. Commissioning of Fermilab's electron cooling system for 8-GeV antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Seletsky, S.; Gai, W.; Kazakevich, Grigory M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2005-05-01

    A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system [1] has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is currently being commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper reports on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.

  7. System and method for regulating EGR cooling using a rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Morris, Dave

    2015-12-22

    This disclosure relates to a waste heat recovery (WHR) system and method for regulating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling, and more particularly, to a Rankine cycle WHR system and method, including a recuperator bypass arrangement to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling for engine efficiency improvement and thermal management. This disclosure describes other unique bypass arrangements for increased flexibility in the ability to regulate EGR exhaust gas cooling.

  8. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A 'swept blade

  9. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  10. Non-Cooled Power System for Venus Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Denise; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2013-2022 stated that the exploration of Venus is of significant interest. Studying the seismic activity of the planet is of particular importance because the findings can be compared to the seismic activity of Earth. Further, the geological and atmospheric properties of Venus will shed light into the past and future of Earth. This paper presents a radioisotope power system (RPS) design for a small low-power Venus lander. The feasibility of the new power system is then compared to that of primary batteries. A requirement for the power source system is to avoid moving parts in order to not interfere with the primary objective of the mission - to collect data about the seismic activity of Venus using a seismometer. The target mission duration of the lander is 117 days, a significant leap from Venera 13, the longest-lived lander on the surface of Venus, which survived for 2 hours. One major assumption for this mission design is that the power source system will not provide cooling to the other components of the lander. This assumption is based on high-temperature electronics technology that will enable the electronics and components of the lander to operate at Venus surface temperature. For the proposed RPS, a customized General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHSRTG) is designed and analyzed. The GPHS-RTG is chosen primarily because it has no moving parts and it is capable of operating for long duration missions on the order of years. This power system is modeled as a spherical structure for a fundamental thermal analysis. The total mass and electrical output of the system are calculated to be 24 kilograms and 26 Watts, respectively. An alternative design for a battery-based power system uses Sodium Sulfur batteries. To deliver a similar electrical output for 117 days, the battery mass is calculated to be 234 kilograms. Reducing mission duration or power required will reduce the required battery mass

  11. Finding radiant-energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Antenna is scanned in orthogonal directions to pinpoint interfering sources. Satellite system locates ground-based microwave transmitter to accuracy of about 100 miles. When data on misalinement of satellite antenna boresight are used to correct antenna pointing, accuracy is improved to better than 70 miles.

  12. Methods to reduce bacterial contamination of recycling cooling systems of a CHPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasov, S. M.; Vlasova, A. Yu.

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial contamination of circulating and make-up water of the nonconjugated recycling cooling system with evaporative cooling towers of thermal power plants is studied. The nonconjugated recycling cooling system of Naberezhnochelninskaya CHP Plant was selected as the object of study. It was found that circulating water of recycling cooling is highly contaminated with aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. At the same time, make-up water for the cooling system from the Kama River is moderately polluted with anaerobic bacteria. Measurements of biological contamination in different parts of the recycling cooling system showed that populations of colonies of microorganisms abruptly decreases in turbine condensers, which is probably indicative of their death and deposition on the heat transfer surface of the condenser. Calculation using a special program showed that biological contamination of the recycling cooling system poses the greatest risks for clogging of the equipment (seven points on a nine-point scale), its corrosion (two points), and damage to the health of personnel (two points). Rapid development of aerobic bacteria apparently occurs under elevated temperature and intense aeration of water in the cooling tower. It is suggested to periodically monitor the recycling cooling system for biological pollution and to set a timetable for bactericidal treatment of circulating water depending on the level of its bacterial contamination.

  13. Heat exchanger. [rocket combustion chambers and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, D. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger, as exemplified by a rocket combustion chamber, is constructed by stacking thin metal rings having microsized openings therein at selective locations to form cooling passages defined by an inner wall, an outer wall and fins. Suitable manifolds are provided at each end of the rocket chamber. In addition to the cooling channel openings, coolant feed openings may be formed in each of rings. The coolant feed openings may be nested or positioned within generally U-shaped cooling channel openings. Compression on the stacked rings may be maintained by welds or the like or by bolts extending through the stacked rings.

  14. Better Duct Systems for Home Heating and Cooling; Building Technologies Program (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    Duct systems used in forced-air space-conditioning systems are a vital element in home energy efficiency. How well a system works makes a big difference in the cost and the effectiveness of heating and cooling a home.

  15. Surface radiation budget in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) effort and in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlock, Thomas P.; Smith, G. L.; Rose, Fred G.

    1990-01-01

    The surface radiation budget (SRB) and the atmospheric radiative flux divergence (ARD) are vital components of the weather and climate system. The importance of radiation in a complex international scientific endeavor, the GEWEX of the World Climate Research Programme is explained. The radiative transfer techniques and satellite instrumentation that will be used to retrieve the SRB and ARD later in this decade with the CERES are discussed; CERES is a component of the Earth Observing System satellite program. Examples of consistent SRB and ARD retrievals made with Nimbus-7 and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data from July 1983 are presented.

  16. Improved cooling design for high power waveguide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. C. J.; Hartop, R.

    1981-06-01

    Testing of X band high power components in a traveling wave resonator indicates that this improved cooling design reduces temperature in the waveguide and flange. The waveguide power handling capability and power transmission reliability is increased substantially.

  17. Improved cooling design for high power waveguide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. C. J.; Hartop, R.

    1981-01-01

    Testing of X band high power components in a traveling wave resonator indicates that this improved cooling design reduces temperature in the waveguide and flange. The waveguide power handling capability and power transmission reliability is increased substantially.

  18. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  19. Monitoring system for a liquid-cooled nuclear fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    DeVolpi, Alexander

    1987-01-01

    A monitoring system for detecting changes in the liquid levels in various regions of a water-cooled nuclear power reactor, viz., in the downcomer, in the core, in the inlet and outlet plenums, at the head, and elsewhere; and also for detecting changes in the density of the liquid in these regions. A plurality of gamma radiation detectors are used, arranged vertically along the outside of the reactor vessel, and collimator means for each detector limits the gamma-radiation it receives as emitting from only isolated regions of the vessel. Excess neutrons produced by the fission reaction will be captured by the water coolant, by the steel reactor walls, or by the fuel or control structures in the vessel. Neutron capture by steel generates gamma radiation having an energy level of the order of 5-12 MeV, whereas neutron capture by water provides an energy level of approximately 2.2 MeV, and neutron capture by the fission fuel or its cladding provides an energy level of 1 MeV or less. The intensity of neutron capture thus changes significantly at any water-metal interface. Comparative analysis of adjacent gamma detectors senses changes from the normal condition with liquid coolant present to advise of changes in the presence and/or density of the coolant at these specific regions. The gamma detectors can also sense fission-product gas accumulation at the reactor head to advise of a failure of fuel-pin cladding.

  20. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  1. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. 36.47..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.47 Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system. (a) The adequacy of...

  2. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  3. 76 FR 6551 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Devices; Classification of Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the contact... Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use.'' The Agency is classifying...

  4. History, status and future applications of spaceborne cryogenic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling is employed for an increasing number of space instruments. Cryogenic cooling is needed to provide the required detector response, reduce preamplifier noise, and/or reduce background radiation. Cryogenic cooling is required by instruments employed for applications missions, gamma-ray and X-ray astronomy, cosmic ray measurements, space surveillance, IR astronomy, relativity measurements, superconductivity devices, and basic research experiments. The cooling is provided with the aid of radiant coolers, stored solid cryogen coolers, stored liquid-helium coolers, mechanical coolers, He-3 coolers, adiabatic demagnetization, refrigeration, and higher temperature adsorption and magnetic systems. Radiant coolers will continue to find widespread application for low cooling-load/high-temperature situation. It is pointed out that a long-lifetime closed-cycle, mechanical cooler is one of the most critical space technological needs.

  5. Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2005-04-01

    Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

  6. Experimental study on active cooling systems used for thermal management of high-power multichip light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs.

  7. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  8. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  9. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  10. Prediction of the thermal environment and thermal response of simple panels exposed to radiant heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Ash, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    A method of predicting the radiant heat flux distribution produced by a bank of tubular quartz heaters was applied to a radiant system consisting of a single unreflected lamp irradiating a flat metallic incident surface. In this manner, the method was experimentally verified for various radiant system parameter settings and used as a source of input for a finite element thermal analysis. Two finite element thermal analyses were applied to a thermal system consisting of a thin metallic panel exposed to radiant surface heating. A two-dimensional steady-state finite element thermal analysis algorithm, based on Galerkin's Method of Weighted Residuals (GFE), was formulated specifically for this problem and was used in comparison to the thermal analyzers of the Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). Both analyses allow conduction, convection, and radiation boundary conditions. Differences in the respective finite element formulation are discussed in terms of their accuracy and resulting comparison discrepancies. The thermal analyses are shown to perform well for the comparisons presented here with some important precautions about the various boundary condition models. A description of the experiment, corresponding analytical modeling, and resulting comparisons are presented.

  11. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  12. Subsystem design package for Mod 2 site data acquisition system: Solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Mod II Site Data Acquisition Subsystem (SDAS) is designed to collect data from sensors located on residential or commercial buildings using a solar heating and/or cooling system. The SDAS takes the data obtained from sensors located on the solar heating and/or cooling system, processes the data into a suitable format, stores the data for a period of time, and provides the capability for both telephone retrieval by the Central Data Processing System (CDPS) and manual retrieval of the data for transfer to the central site. The unit is designed so it will not degrade the operation of the solar heating/cooling system which it is monitoring.

  13. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  14. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  15. Ground-Coupled Heating-Cooling Systems in Urban Areas: How Sustainable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-coupled heating-cooling systems (GCHCSs) exchange heat between the built environment and the subsurface using pipework buried in trenches or boreholes. If heat pumps in GCHCSs are powered by "green electricity," they offer genuine carbon-free heating-cooling; for this reason, there has been a surge in the technology in recent…

  16. Performance test of the cryogenic cooling system for the superconducting fault current limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; In, Sehwan; Yeom, Han-Kil; Kim, Heesun; Kim, Hye-Rim

    2015-12-01

    A Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is an electric power device which limits the fault current immediately in a power grid. The SFCL must be cooled to below the critical temperature of high temperature superconductor modules. In general, they are submerged in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for their stable thermal characteristics. To cool and maintain the target temperature and pressure of the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, the cryogenic cooling system should be designed well with a cryocooler and coolant circulation devices. The pressure of the cryostat for the SFCL should be pressurized to suppress the generation of nitrogen bubbles in quench mode of the SFCL. In this study, we tested the performance of the cooling system for the prototype 154 kV SFCL, which consist of a Stirling cryocooler, a subcooling cryostat, a pressure builder and a main cryostat for the SFCL module, to verify the design of the cooling system and the electric performance of the SFCL. The normal operation condition of the main cryostat is 71 K and 500 kPa. This paper presents tests results of the overall cooling system.

  17. A multifunction wall system for application with solar heating and ground cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. F.; Schubert, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The research presented in this report is an exploration of one alternative energy building system concept which is attempting to produce performance characteristics in a way closely approaching those of conventional fossil fuel heating and cooling systems. This alternative energy building system is a multifunction wall system for application with solar-heating and ground-cooling. The concept of the system is to expand the use of structure and enclosure elements of a building to function additionally as: (1) the ductwork for the solar-heated or earth-cooled air; (2) the heat transfer membrane between the heated or cooled air and the living environment of the building; (3) the heat storage medium (in winter); and (4) the temperature leveling and control medium. All these functions are integrated into a single wall construction using a new concrete block, surface-bonding cement, and the exterior insulation system. This report presents the series of experiments conducted on the Multifunction Wall System.

  18. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENACE 1. UNIT XV, I--MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, I--UNIT INSTALLATION--TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE (1) IMPORTANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, (2) COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, (3) EVALUATING COOLING SYSTEM FAILURES, (4) CARING FOR THE COOLING SYSTEM,…

  20. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  1. Angular Distribution Models for Top-of-Atmosphere Radiative Flux Estimation from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite. Part II; Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Loukachine, K.; Wielicki, B. A.; Young, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative fluxes from the Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System (CERES) are estimated from empirical angular distribution models (ADMs) that convert instantaneous radiance measurements to TOA fluxes. This paper evaluates the accuracy of CERES TOA fluxes obtained from a new set of ADMs developed for the CERES instrument onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The uncertainty in regional monthly mean reflected shortwave (SW) and emitted longwave (LW) TOA fluxes is less than 0.5 W/sq m, based on comparisons with TOA fluxes evaluated by direct integration of the measured radiances. When stratified by viewing geometry, TOA fluxes from different angles are consistent to within 2% in the SW and 0.7% (or 2 W/sq m) in the LW. In contrast, TOA fluxes based on ADMs from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) applied to the same CERES radiance measurements show a 10% relative increase with viewing zenith angle in the SW and a 3.5% (9 W/sq m) decrease with viewing zenith angle in the LW. Based on multiangle CERES radiance measurements, 18 regional instantaneous TOA flux errors from the new CERES ADMs are estimated to be 10 W/sq m in the SW and, 3.5 W/sq m in the LW. The errors show little or no dependence on cloud phase, cloud optical depth, and cloud infrared emissivity. An analysis of cloud radiative forcing (CRF) sensitivity to differences between ERBE and CERES TRMM ADMs, scene identification, and directional models of albedo as a function of solar zenith angle shows that ADM and clear-sky scene identification differences can lead to an 8 W/sq m root-mean-square (rms) difference in 18 daily mean SW CRF and a 4 W/sq m rms difference in LW CRF. In contrast, monthly mean SW and LW CRF differences reach 3 W/sq m. CRF is found to be relatively insensitive to differences between the ERBE and CERES TRMM directional models.

  2. Passive-solar-cooling system concepts for small office buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whiddon, W.I.; Hart, G.K.

    1983-02-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of a small group of building design professionals and energy analysis experts to develop passive solar cooling concepts including first cost estimates for small office buildings. Two design teams were brought together at each of two workshops held in the fall of 1982. Each team included an architect, mechanical engineer, structural engineer, and energy analysis expert. This report presents the passive cooling system concepts resulting from the workshops. It summarizes the design problems, solutions and first-cost estimates relating to each technology considered, and documents the research needs identified by the participants in attempting to implement the various technologies in an actual building design. Each design problem presented at the workshops was based on the reference (base case) small office building analyzed as part of LBL's Cooling Assessment. Chapter II summarizes the thermal performance, physical specifications and estimated first-costs of the base case design developed for this work. Chapters III - VI describe the passive cooling system concepts developed for each technology: beam daylighting; mass with night ventilation; evaporative cooling; and integrated passive cooling systems. The final Chapters, VII and VIII present the preliminary implications for economics of passive cooling technologies (based on review of the design concepts) and recommendations of workshop participants for future research in passive cooling for commercial buildings. Appendices provide backup information on each chapter as indicated.

  3. Marginal costs of water savings from cooling system retrofits: a case study for Texas power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Aviva; Jaramillo, Paulina; Zhai, Haibo

    2016-10-01

    The water demands of power plant cooling systems may strain water supply and make power generation vulnerable to water scarcity. Cooling systems range in their rates of water use, capital investment, and annual costs. Using Texas as a case study, we examined the cost of retrofitting existing coal and natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plants with alternative cooling systems, either wet recirculating towers or air-cooled condensers for dry cooling. We applied a power plant assessment tool to model existing power plants in terms of their key plant attributes and site-specific meteorological conditions and then estimated operation characteristics of retrofitted plants and retrofit costs. We determined the anticipated annual reductions in water withdrawals and the cost-per-gallon of water saved by retrofits in both deterministic and probabilistic forms. The results demonstrate that replacing once-through cooling at coal-fired power plants with wet recirculating towers has the lowest cost per reduced water withdrawals, on average. The average marginal cost of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling retrofits at coal-fired plants is approximately 0.68 cents per gallon, while the marginal recirculating retrofit cost is 0.008 cents per gallon. For NGCC plants, the average marginal costs of water withdrawal savings for dry-cooling and recirculating towers are 1.78 and 0.037 cents per gallon, respectively.

  4. Fail-safe system for activity cooled supersonic and hypersonic aircraft. [using liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Braswell, D. O.; Richie, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    A fail-safe-system concept was studied as an alternative to a redundant active cooling system for supersonic and hypersonic aircraft which use the heat sink of liquid-hydrogen fuel for cooling the aircraft structure. This concept consists of an abort maneuver by the aircraft and a passive thermal protection system (TPS) for the aircraft skin. The abort manuever provides a low-heat-load descent from normal cruise speed to a lower speed at which cooling is unnecessary, and the passive TPS allows the aircraft skin to absorb the abort heat load without exceeding critical skin temperature. On the basis of results obtained, it appears that this fail-safe-system concept warrants further consideration, inasmuch as a fail-safe system could possibly replace a redundant active cooling system with no increase in weight and would offer other potential advantages.

  5. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  6. Multicriteria aided design of integrated heating-cooling energy systems in buildings.

    PubMed

    Mróz, Tomasz M

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possible application of integrated heating-cooling systems in buildings. The general algorithm of integrated heating-cooling system design aid was formulated. The evaluation criteria of technically acceptable variants were defined. Fossil fuel energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, investment, and total exploitation cost were identified as the most important factors describing the considered decision problem. The multicriteria decision aid method ELECTRE III was proposed as the decision tool for the choice of the most compromised variant. The proposed method was used for a case study calculation-the choice of an integrated heating-cooling system for an office building.

  7. Cooling system for removing metabolic heat from an hermetically sealed spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C.; Williams, B. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved cooling and ventilating system is described for removing metabolic heat, waste gases and water vapor generated by a wearer of an hermetically sealed spacesuit. The cooling system was characterized by a body suit, having a first circuit for simultaneously establishing a cooling flow of water through the thorax and head sections of the body suit. Circulation patches were included mounted in the thorax section and head section of the body suit. A second circuit for discharing a flow of gas throughout the spacesuit and a disconnect unit for coupling the circuits with a life support system externally related to the spacesuit were provided.

  8. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  9. Safe and Ecological Refluxing with a Closed-Loop Air Cooling System.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Eilenberger, Gottfried; Zweckmair, Thomas; Sumerskii, Ivan; Potthast, Antje; Rosenau, Thomas

    2017-01-20

    Off-the-shelf computer cooling hardware was used to construct a closed-loop air cooling system (CLACS) that is distinguished by scalability, low energy, and no tap water consumption. Constructed to be generally used with laboratory condensers, the system was tested with several common low and high boiling solvents and showed a condensation performance equivalent to conventional tap water cooling. Reaction yields were therefore unaffected. Also, long-lasting Soxhlet extractions showed no performance loss relative to conventional cooling. Optionally, the device can be assembled from low-voltage components and be powered from a battery, rendering it independent of the main power. Both investment and running costs are minimal, allowing a lab-wide adoption and elimination of the two major drawbacks of commonly employed tap water cooling: waste of drinking water and the risk of flooding.

  10. Evaluation of the Thermal Comfort of a Thermoelectric Ceiling Cooling Panel (TE-CCP) System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, Charoenporn; Wiset, Lamul; Atthajariyakul, Surat

    2009-07-01

    This present work evaluates the cooling performance and thermal comfort of a thermoelectric ceiling cooling panel (TE-CCP) system composed of 36 TE modules. The cold side of the TE modules was fixed to an aluminum ceiling panel to cool a test chamber of 4.5 m3 volume, while a copper heat exchanger with circulating cooling water at the hot side of the TE modules was used for heat release. Thermal acceptability assessment was performed to find out whether the indoor environment met the ASHRAE Standard-55's 80% acceptability criteria. The standard was met with the TE-CCP system operating at 1 A of current flow with a corresponding cooling capacity of 201.6 W, which gives the COP of 0.82 with an average indoor temperature of 27°C and 0.8 m/s indoor air velocity.

  11. CERES and the S'COOL Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Young, David F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1997-01-01

    The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument will be launched on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft from a Japanese launch site in November 1997. This instrument is a follow-on to the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) begun in the 1980's. The instrument will measure the radiation budget - incoming and outgoing radiant energy - of the Earth. It will establish a baseline and look for climatic trends. The major feature of interest is clouds, which play a very strong role in regulating our climate. CERES will identify clear and cloudy regions and determine cloud physical and microphysical properties using imager data from a companion instrument. Validation efforts for the remote sensing algorithms will be intensive. As one component of the validation, the S'COOL (Students' Cloud Observations On-Line) project will involve school children from around the globe in making ground truth measurements at the time of a CERES overpass. Their observations will be collected at the NASA Langley Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and made available over the Internet for educational purposes as well as for use by the CERES Science Team in validation efforts. Pilot testing of the S'COOL project began in January 1997 with two local schools in Southeastern Virginia and one remote site in Montana. This experience is helping guide the development of the S'COOL project. National testing is planned for April 1997, international testing for July 1997, and global testing for October 1997. In 1998, when the CERES instrument is operational, a global observer network should be in place providing useful information to the scientists and learning opportunities to the students.

  12. Extraocular muscle degeneration and regeneration after exposure of rats to incandescent radiant energy.

    PubMed

    O'Steen, W K; Shear, C R; Anderson, K V

    1975-06-01

    Exposure of albino rats to incandescent radiant energy for a short period of time in an elevated environmental temperature (39 degrees C) causes degenerative changes in the extraocular muscles. The muscle fibres regenerate and the muscles reorganize if the animals are returned to room lighting and temperature. Extraocular muscles (EOMs) were damaged first near their insertion on the eyeball. All EOMs of both eyes were affected, but the degeneration did not extend the entire length of the muscle. The peripheral fibres of each muscle were damaged before the more central fibres. Mitochondria were swollen and often contained dense bodies. Numerous vesicular profiles, possibly from the sarcotubular system, were present. Myofibrils of the more severely damaged fibres lacked typical Z-disk structures, and I-bands had disappeared by 24 h after the exposure period, a degenerative pattern which seems to be unique for this method of EOM damage. EOM degeneration appeared to be dependent on the interaction between thermal and radiant energy on the orbital contents. However, EOMs were only rarely and very slightly affected when rats were exposed to elevated temperature in the absence of incandescent radiant energy. When an opaque, black, ocular occluder was placed over one eye and the contralateral eye was left unoccluded, EOMs and retinas of occluded eyes were undamaged, while those tissues were severely damaged in unoccluded eyes. Therefore, the most critical single variable in inducing EOM degeneration appears to be exposure to radiant energy.

  13. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  14. Nutrient solution cooling and its effect on temperature of leaf lettuce in hydroponic system.

    PubMed

    Nam, S W; Kim, M K; Son, J E

    1996-12-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of a hydroponic system were experimentally verified after theoretical establishment and the effect of nutrient solution cooling on the plant temperature was investigated. About 96 percent of the total heat flow transferred from culture bed to nutrient solution was the conductive heat through planting board and partitioning materials. The average and maximum temperatures of the leaf lettuce decreased 0.6 and 1.5 degrees C., respectively, with cooling of nutrient solution by 6 degrees C. A numerical model for prediction of cooling load of nutrient solution in a hydroponic greenhouse was developed, and the results from the simulation model showed a good agreement with those from experiments. A mechanical cooling system using the counter flow type with double pipes was developed for cooling the nutrient solution. Also the heat transfer characteristics of the system were analyzed experimentally and theoretically, and compared with the other existing cooling systems of nutrient solution. The cooling capacities of three different systems, which used polyethylene tube in solution tank, stainless tube in solution tank, and the counter flow type with double pipes, were comparatively evaluated.

  15. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Neclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-10-30

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume high-resolution gamma-ray detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. Three important factors affect the operation of mechanically cooled germanium detectors: temperature, vacuum, and vibration. These factors will be studied in the laboratory at the most fundamental levels to insure a solid understanding of the physical limitations each factor places on a practical mechanically cooled germanium detector system. Using this knowledge, mechanically cooled germanium detector prototype systems will be designed and fabricated.

  16. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  17. Effect of Propeller on Engine Cooling System Drag and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure recovery of incoming cooling air and the drag associated with engine cooling of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was Investigated experimentally. The semispan model was mounted vertically in the 40 x 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The propeller was driven by an electric motor to provide thrust with low vibration levels for the cold-now configuration. It was found that the propeller slip-stream reduces the frontal air spillage around the blunt nacelle shape. Consequently, this slip-stream effect promotes flow reattachment at the rear section of the engine nacelle and improves inlet pressure recovery. These effects are most pronounced at high angles of attack; that is, climb condition. For the cruise condition those improvements were more moderate.

  18. Green Chemical Treatments for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    of condenser wa- ter treatment with a key ingredient being polyaspartate (PASP). Polyaspar- tic acid was the 1996 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge...cooling water biocide tetrakis (hy- droxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS). THPS won the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1997. The...Legionella pneumophila bacterium, which causes Legion- naire’s Disease. 2.3 Steam Line Treatment The third and final product in the Green Chemistry project

  19. Physical installation of Pelletron and electron cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hurh, P.

    1997-09-01

    Bremsstrahlung of 5 MeV electrons at a loss current of 50 microamp in the acceleration region is estimated to produce X-ray intensities of 7 Rad/sec. Radiation losses due to a misteer or sudden obstruction will of course be much higher still (estimated at 87,500 Rad/hr for a 0.5 mA beam current). It is estimated that 1.8 meters of concrete will be necessary to adequately shield the surrounding building areas at any possible Pelletron installation site. To satisfy our present electron cooling development plan, two Pelletron installations are required, the first at our development lab in the Lab B/NEF Enclosure area and the second at the operational Main Injector service building, MI-30, in the main Injector ring. The same actual Pelletron and electron beam-line components will be used at both locations. The Lab B installation will allow experimentation with actual high energy electron beam to develop the optics necessary for the cooling straight while Main Injector/Recycler commissioning is taking place. The MI-30 installation is obviously the permanent home for the Pelletron when electron cooling becomes operational. Construction plans for both installations will be discussed here.

  20. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.