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Sample records for radiata bark pine

  1. Bending strength of Chilean radiata pine poles

    Treesearch

    Gina Cerda; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2003-01-01

    Because radiata pine has thrived in south-central Chile since it was introduced there more than a century ago, pine plantation productivity there has grown tremendously. Plantation owners are seeking new markets for this material. One potential market is utility poles. The American National Standards Institute 05.1 standard (ANSI 05.1) provides a means for radiata pine...

  2. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  3. Loblolly pine bark flavanoids

    Treesearch

    J.J. Karchesy; R.W. Hemingway

    1980-01-01

    The inner bark of Pinus taeda L. contains (+)-catechin, the procyanidin 8.1 (a C-4 to C-8 linked (-)-epicatechin to (+)-catechin dimer), and three polymeric procyanidins that have distinctly different solubility and chromatographic properties. An ethyl acetate soluble polymer (0.20% of bark, Mn = 1200) was purified by chromatography on LH-20 Sephadex. A water-soluble...

  4. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  5. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  6. Rapid analysis of inner and outer bark composition of southern yellow pine bark from industrial sources

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2006-01-01

    Differences in bark chemistry between inner and outer bark are well known and may affect the suitability of various bark supplies for a particular application. Accordingly, there is a need for quality control protocols to assess variability and predict product yields. Southern yellow pine bark samples from two industrial sources were separated into inner and outer bark...

  7. Development of Screening Trials to Rank Pinus radiata Genotypes for Resistance to Defoliation by Monterey Pine Aphid (Essigella californica)

    Treesearch

    Stephen Elms; Peter Ades; Nick Collet

    2012-01-01

    The Monterey pine aphid (Essigella californica) is a recent arrival in Australia, having first been detected in 1998. It quickly spread throughout the national radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation estate, causing seasonal defoliation and compromising tree growth in many areas. Selection of resistant radiata...

  8. Bioassay of Pine Bark Extracts as Biting Stimulants for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    H.A. Thomas; J.A. Richmond; E.L. Bradley

    1981-01-01

    A bioassay was developed to compare pine outer-bark constituents extracted chemically from five species of southern pines. Extracts from inner and outer bark were also compared. Extracts from the outer bark of shortleaf pine elicited the greatest number of biting responses which significantly exceeded the controls. Beetles responded more often to extracts from the...

  9. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.

  10. Interspecific olfactory communication in the southern pine bark beetle guild

    Treesearch

    T. L. Payne; M. T. Smith; M. C. Birch; A. Ascoli

    1991-01-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild consists of many species, the most economically significant of which are the five scolytid species, Dendructonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. avulses (Eichhoff), and I. grandicollis (Eichhoff...

  11. Substituting pine wood for pine bark affects physical properties of nursery substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine bark (PB) is currently imported from southern U.S. states to those in the upper Midwest and Northeast U.S. Alternatives to pine bark that are regionally abundant and sustainable are needed for nursery substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of chipped and hamm...

  12. Nature of resistance of pines to bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1966-01-01

    Patterns of susceptibility of pines to attack by certain species of Dendroctonus bark beetles suggest that a resistance mechanism exists. This situation was first called to my attention in 1949 by John M. Miller, entomologist at the Berkeley Forest Insect Laboratory. He was studying the resistance of pines to insects, at the Institute of Forest...

  13. Influence of elevation on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Andrew Miller; Kelly Barton; Joel McMillin; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Bark beetles killed more than 20 million ponderosa pine trees in Arizona during 2002-2004. Historically, bark beetle populations remained endemic and ponderosa pine mortality was limited to localized areas in Arizona. Consequently, there is a lack of information on bark beetle community structure in ponderosa pine stands of...

  14. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  15. Bark-peeling, food stress and tree spirits - the use of pine inner bark for food in Scandinavia and North America

    Treesearch

    Lars Ostlund; Lisa Ahlberg; Olle Zackrisson; Ingela Bergman; Steve Arno

    2009-01-01

    The Sami people of northern Scandinavia and many indigenous peoples of North America have used pine (Pinus spp.) inner bark for food, medicine and other purposes. This study compares bark-peeling and subsequent uses of pine inner bark in Scandinavia and western North America, focusing on traditional practices. Pine inner bark contains substances - mainly carbohydrates...

  16. Bark structure of the southern pines

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1971-01-01

    The living inner bark is composed of thin-walled elements - soeve cells, albuminous cells, longitudinal and ray parenchyma, and epithelial cells. the rhytidome or outer bark is dead and has alternating areas of distorted phloem enclosed by periderm layers. Periderms consist of phellogen and its derivative cells -- phelloderm and phellem. Phelloderm cells, to the inside...

  17. Location and characterization of lignin in tracheid cell walls of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) compression woods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Lapierre, Catherine; Nouxman, Noor Liyana; Nieuwoudt, Michel K; Smith, Bronwen G; Chavan, Ramesh R; McArdle, Brian H; Harris, Philip J

    2017-09-01

    Tilted stems of softwoods form compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) on their lower and upper sides, respectively. More is known about the most severe form of CW, severe CW (SCW), but mild CWs (MCWs) also occur widely. Two grades of MCWs, MCW1 and MCW2, as well as SCW and OW were identified in the stems of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) that had been slightly tilted. The four wood types were identified by the distribution of lignin in the tracheid walls determined by fluorescence microscopy. A solution of the fluorescent dye acridine orange (AO) (0.02% at pH 6 or 7) was shown to metachromatically stain the tracheid walls and can also be used to determine lignin distribution. The lignified walls fluoresced orange to yellow depending on the lignin concentration. Microscopically well-characterized discs (0.5 mm diameter) of the wood types were used to determine lignin concentrations and lignin monomer compositions using the acetyl bromide method and thioacidolysis, respectively. Lignin concentration and the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H-units) relative to guaiacyl (G-units) increased with CW severity, with <1% H-units in OW and up to 14% in SCW. Lignin H-units can be used as a marker for CW and CW severity. Similar discs were also examined by Raman and FTIR micro-spectroscopies coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine if these techniques can be used to differentiate the four different wood types. Both techniques were able to do this, particularly Raman micro-spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A reassessment of the compressive strength properties of southern yellow pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2007-01-01

    Samples of southern yellow pine outer bark and wood were tested in compression to determine values for modulus of elasticity, stress at proportional limit, and maximum crushing strength. Results reported here resolve inconsistencies in the compressive strength data previously reported by others for pine bark. Testing of solvent-treated bark blocks suggests that...

  19. Bark yields of 11-year-old loblolly pine as influenced by competition control and fertilization

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; James D. Haywood

    1992-01-01

    Bolts cut from 11-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) were measured to determine the effects of applications of fertilizer and competition control treatments on the amount of pine bark produced. Bark thickness at breast height was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. Regression analysis showed that the dry weight of bark per unit...

  20. Sorption and desorption characteristics of methyl bromide during and after fumigation of pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Najar-Rodriguez, Adriana; Adlam, Anthony; Hall, Alistair; Brash, Don

    2017-05-01

    The sorption and desorption characteristics of methyl bromide (MB) were determined during and after fumigation of recently harvested pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs. The effects of dose (48 or 120 g m(-3) ), degree of bark cover (0, 50 or 100%) and end-grain sealing (sealed or unsealed) on sorption and desorption were determined over time. Sorption of MB was proportional to the dose applied and dependent on the amount of end-grain sealed. After 16 h, an average of 70.7 ± 2.5% of the initial concentration remained in the treated space when end-grains were sealed, whereas only 47.3 ± 2.5% remained when unsealed. During aeration, MB was released from logs, initially ranging from 2.8 to 8.8 g · h m(-3) , depending on the treatment. The rate of desorption quickly decreased during aeration. The surface area of a log is the most important factor influencing MB sorption and desorption rates, with greater surface area resulting in greater (de)sorption rates. Sorption data can now be combined with insect toxicity data to estimate a minimum effective dose of MB for further evaluation, while desorption data can be combined with fumigant plume modelling to assess worker safety. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Thickness and roughness measurements for air-dried longleaf pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2015-01-01

    Bark thicknesses for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) were investigated using disks collected from trees harvested on a 70-year-old plantation. Maximum inner bark thickness was relatively constant along the tree bole whereas maximum outer bark thickness showed a definite decrease from the base of the tree to the top. The minimum whole bark thickness followed the...

  2. Oviposition stimulants for the beetle,Monochamus alternatus hope, in inner bark of pine.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, T; Sakai, M; Miyawaki, S

    1989-02-01

    Field and laboratory ovipositional responses ofMonochamus alternatus Hope, respectively, to methanol and water extracts from pine inner bark were examined in comparison with those to pine inner bark, especially using a laboratory-built apparatus for the latter bioassay. Irrespective of the existence of volatiles from paraquat-induced lightwood, pine inner bark and its methanol and water extracts stimulated ovipositional response only in the presence of free moisture.

  3. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  5. Bark temperature patterns in ponderosa pine stands and their possible effects on mountain pine beetle behavior

    Treesearch

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; R. A. Schmidt

    1991-01-01

    Bark temperatures on the north and south sides of five ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) in each of four growing stock levels in two areas in the Black Hills of South Dakota were monitored periodically from May through August 1989. Temperatures were significantly different among growing stock levels and between sides of the tree. The magnitude of differences...

  6. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Treesearch

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  7. Conversion of Milled Pine Wood by Manganese Peroxidase from Phlebia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Hofrichter, Martin; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele

    2001-01-01

    Purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was found to convert in vitro milled pine wood (MPW) suspended in an aqueous reaction solution containing Tween 20, Mn2+, Mn-chelating organic acid (malonate), and a hydrogen peroxide-generating system (glucose-glucose oxidase). The enzymatic attack resulted in the polymerization of lower-molecular-mass, soluble wood components and in the partial depolymerization of the insoluble bulk of pine wood, as demonstrated by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The surfactant Tween 80 containing unsaturated fatty acid redsidues promoted the disintegration of bulk MPW. HPSEC showed that the depolymerization yielded preferentially lignocellulose fragments with a predominant molecular mass of ca. 0.5 kDa. MnP from P. radiata (MnP3) turned out to be a stable enzyme remaining active for 2 days even at 37°C with vigorous stirring, and 65 and 35% of the activity applied was retained in Tween 20 and Tween 80 reaction mixtures, respectively. In the course of reactions, major part of the Mn-chelator malonate was decomposed (85 to 87%), resulting in an increase of pH from 4.4 to >6.5. An aromatic nonphenolic lignin structure (β-O-4 dimer), which is normally not attacked by MnP, was oxidizible in the presence of pine wood meal. This finding indicates that certain wood components may promote the degradative activities of MnP in a way similar to that promoted by Tween 80, unsaturated fatty acids, or thiols. PMID:11571160

  8. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited supplies of pine bark (PB) due to a number of reasons over the past several years has caused concern among many nursery producers. This study was developed to evaluate varying ratios of pine bark (PB) with clean chip residual (CCR) or WholeTree substrate (WT), in order to assist growers with...

  9. Progress in the chemistry of shortleaf and loblolly pine bark flavonoids

    Treesearch

    R.W. Hemingway

    1976-01-01

    The forest products industries of the southern United States harvest approximately 7 million dry tons of pine bark each year. This resource receives little utilization other than recovery of fuel values. approximately 2 million dry tons (30-40% of bark dry weight) of potentially valuable polyflavonoids are burned annually. Conifer bark flavonoids have potential...

  10. Grinding and classification of pine bark for use as plywood adhesive filler

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Prior efforts to incorporate bark or bark extracts into composites have met with only limited success because of poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers stemming from high levels of processing. We are currently investigating applications for southern yellow pine (SYP) bark that require intermediate levels of processing, one being the use...

  11. Partitioning of pine bark components to obtain a value-added product for plywood manufacture

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed; Chi-Leung So

    2009-01-01

    Southern yellow pine (SYP) bark particles and bark extracts have been used only to a limited extent in wood-based composites due to poor performance relative to existing products and/or economic barriers. Our efforts to identify alternative applications for this biomass resource require the development of an improved understanding of the interrelationships between bark...

  12. Strategies for improving the performance of plywood adhesive mix fillers from southern yellow pine bark

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Karen G. Reed

    2006-01-01

    Southern yellow pine bark was obtained from an industrial source and subjected to grinding and classification operations to ultimately afford finely ground bark fractions for evaluation as plywood adhesive mix fillers. Specifically, by grinding in a laboratory blender, we were able to generate a bark fraction rich in periderm tissue with its interlocking spiculate...

  13. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  14. A mild thermomechanical process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine into fermentable sugars and lignin.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Ian D; Jack, Michael W; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D; Newman, Roger H; Stuthridge, Trevor R; Torr, Kirk M; Vaidya, Alankar A

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of softwoods into sustainable fuels and chemicals is important for parts of the world where softwoods are the dominant forest species. While they have high theoretical sugar yields, softwoods are amongst the most recalcitrant feedstocks for enzymatic processes, typically requiring both more severe pretreatment conditions and higher enzyme doses than needed for other lignocellulosic feedstocks. Although a number of processes have been proposed for converting softwoods into sugars suitable for fuel and chemical production, there is still a need for a high-yielding, industrially scalable and cost-effective conversion route. We summarise work leading to the development of an efficient process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) into wood sugars. The process involves initial pressurised steaming of wood chips under relatively mild conditions (173 °C for 3-72 min) without added acid catalyst. The steamed chips then pass through a compression screw to squeeze out a pressate rich in solubilised hemicelluloses. The pressed chips are disc-refined and wet ball-milled to produce a substrate which is rapidly saccharified using commercially available enzyme cocktails. Adding 0.1% polyethylene glycol during saccharification was found to be particularly effective with these substrates, reducing enzyme usage to acceptable levels, e.g. 5 FPU/g OD substrate. The pressate is separately hydrolysed using acid, providing additional hemicellulose-derived sugars, for an overall sugar yield of 535 kg/ODT chips (76% of theoretical). The total pretreatment energy input is comparable to other processes, with the additional energy for attrition being balanced by a lower thermal energy requirement. This pretreatment strategy produces substrates with low levels of fermentation inhibitors, so the glucose-rich mainline and pressate syrups can be fermented to ethanol without detoxification. The lignin from the process remains comparatively unmodified, as

  15. Laccase modification of the physical properties of bark and pulp of loblolly pine and spruce pulp

    Treesearch

    William Kenealy; John Klungness; Mandla Tshabalala; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar; Roland Gleisner; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2004-01-01

    Pine bark, pine pulp, and spruce pulp were reacted with laccase in the presence of phenolic laccase substrates to modify the fiber surface properties. The acid-base and dispersive characteristics of these modified steam-treated thermomechanical loblolly pine pulps were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Different combinations of substrates with laccase modified...

  16. Transcriptional and computational study of expansins differentially expressed in response to inclination in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Mateluna, Patricio; Valenzuela-Riffo, Felipe; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Herrera, Raúl; Ramos, Patricio

    2017-03-09

    Plants have the ability to reorient their vertical growth when exposed to inclination. This response can be as quick as 2 h in inclined young pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings, with over accumulation of lignin observed after 9 days s. Several studies have identified expansins involved in cell expansion among other developmental processes in plants. Six putative expansin genes were identified in cDNA libraries isolated from inclined pine stems. A differential transcript abundance was observed by qPCR analysis over a time course of inclination. Five genes changed their transcript accumulation in both stem sides in a spatial and temporal manner compared with non-inclined stem. To compare these expansin genes, and to suggest a possible mechanism of action at molecular level, the structures of the predicted proteins were built by comparative modeling methodology. An open groove on the surface of the proteins composed of conserved zresidues was observed. Using a cellulose polymer as ligand the protein-ligand interaction was evaluated, with the results showing differences in the protein-ligand interaction mode. Differences in the binding energy interaction can be explained by changes in some residues that generate differences in electrostatic surface in the open groove region, supporting the participation of six members of multifamily proteins in this specific process. The data suggests participation of different expansin proteins in the dissembling and remodeling of the complex cell wall matrix during the reorientation response to inclination.

  17. Responses of the Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens (Wollaston) to pine shoot and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco

    2008-09-01

    The pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens has two dispersal phases per generation. In the first, mature adults move toward trunks of dying pines to lay eggs; in the second, callow adults move toward the shoots of healthy pines for maturation feeding. However, there is no information on the chemical stimuli that govern host selection by T. destruens adults. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the volatiles released by shoots and bark of stone pine that are behaviorally and electrophysiologically active on T. destruens; (2) to verify which blends and concentrations of such volatiles are differently active on males and females, as well as on callow and mature adults, during the two host search phases (breeding and feeding). A four-arm olfactometer was used to test the behavior of walking T. destruens adults toward various sources of volatiles including fresh shoots and bark, their collected volatiles, and two synthetic blends. For each odor, the behavior of both callow and mature males and females was recorded individually. Shoot and bark extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and tested by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) on T. destruens males and females. Two blends of two (alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene; blend A) and three (alpha-pinene, beta- myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene; blend B) synthetic compounds, chosen among those that induce EAD responses and known to be attractive for other bark beetle species, were tested in the olfactometer at five concentrations. Insect behavior was affected by the degree of sexual maturation but not by sex. Callow insects were attracted by shoots and their extracts, while mature individuals by bark and its extracts. Six extracted compounds were active on T. destruens antennae: limonene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene. alpha-Terpinolene, released only by bark, was active only on mature insects

  18. Study of biochemical and microbiological parameters during composting of pine and eucalyptus bark.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Queda, A C; Ribeiro, H M; Ramos, A; Cabral, F

    2007-12-01

    To study the possibility of some residues from pulp and paper industry being used as substrates to produce seedlings in containers, three composting experiments were carried out using eucalyptus bark, pine bark and a mixture (60:40, v:v) of pine bark+eucalyptus bark. Biochemical parameters studied were: acid and alkaline phosphatases, lipase (C10), protease, urease, beta-glucosidase and total cellulases. The microbiological populations of total aerobic bacteria, total fungi, actinomycetes, nitrifying bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were also evaluated. At the end of the process physicochemical characterization of composts was also performed. Results showed in general that the highest microbiological populations as well as for enzymatic activities occurred during the thermophilic phase (>40 degrees C) of the process. On the other hand and according to the physicochemical characteristics of composts pine bark is the most appropriate material to be used in the formulation of substrates to produce plants in containers.

  19. The Wood and Bark of Hardwoods Growing on Southern Pine Sites - A Pictorial Atlas

    Treesearch

    Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1980-01-01

    Provides a pictorial description of the structure and appearance of 23 pine-site hardwoods, an overview of hardwood anatomy, and data on the resource and certain important physical properties of stemwood and bark.

  20. Whole-tree bark and wood properties of loblolly pine from intensively managed plantations

    Treesearch

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; Bruce E. Borders; Michael B. Kane; Harold E. Burkhart

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify geographical variation in loblolly pine bark and wood properties at the whole-tree level and to quantify the responses in whole-tree bark and wood properties following contrasting silvicultural practices that included planting density, weed control, and fertilization. Trees were destructively sampled from both conventionally managed...

  1. Prescribed fire effects on bark beetle activity and tree mortality in southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    C.R. Breece; T.E. Kolb; B.G. Dickson; J.D. McMillin; K.M. Clancey

    2008-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important tool in the management of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) forests, yet effects on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) activity and tree mortality are poorly understood in the southwestern U.S. We compared bark beetle attacks and tree mortality between paired prescribed-burned and...

  2. Bark Thickness of 17-Year-Old Loblolly Pine Planted at Different Spacings

    Treesearch

    Donald P. Feduccia; William F. Mann

    1975-01-01

    Diameter at breast height was the only variable affecting double bark thickness at d.b.h. and midpoint of the merchantable stem for young loblolly pine planted at five initial spacings on plots with site indices of 77 to 111 feet. Bark thickness at the 4-inch top was not correlated with breast-height diameter.

  3. Is self-thinning in ponderosa pine ruled by Dendroctonus bark beetles?

    Treesearch

    William W. Oliver

    1995-01-01

    Stand density of even-aged stands of ponderosa pine in California seems to be ruled by Dendroctonus bark beetles, rather than the suppressioninduced mortality common for other tree species. Size-density trajectories were plotted for 155 permanent plots in both plantations and natural stands. Bark beetle kills created a limiting Stand Density Index of...

  4. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles

    Treesearch

    William Shepherd; Brian Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine...

  5. Immunolocalization of IAA and ABA in roots and needles of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) during drought and rewatering.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Rodríguez, J L; Dodd, I C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-05-01

    Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata

  6. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  7. Presence of carbaryl in the smoke of treated lodgepole and ponderosa pine bark

    Treesearch

    Chris J. Peterson; Sheryl L. Costello

    2013-01-01

    Lodgepole and ponderosa pine trees were treated with a 2% carbaryl solution at recreational areas near Fort Collins, CO, in June 2010 as a prophylactic bole spray against the mountain pine beetle. Bark samples from treated and untreated trees were collected one day following application and at 4-month intervals for one year. The residual amount of carbaryl was...

  8. Stand level impacts of Ips and Dendroctonus bark beetles in pine forest types of northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Joel McMillin; John Anhold; Jose Negron

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Extensive tree mortality occurred in ponderosa pine forests and pinon-juniper woodlands of Arizona from 2001-2004. This mortality has been attributed to a combination of an extensive drought, overstocked stands of pine, and increased bark beetle populations. A complex of Ips and Dendroctonus species worked in concert to...

  9. New introduction in California: the redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius

    Treesearch

    Deguang Liu; Michael J. Bohne; Jana C. Lee; Mary Louise Flint; Richard L. Penrose; Steven J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    An overwintering North American population of the redhaired pine bark beetle (RPBB) was first discovered in November 2000 in Rochester, New York. In July 2003 it was also detected at two locations in Los Angeles County, California near heavily urbanized areas where exotic pines of Mediterranean origin are favored landscape trees. California and New York currently have...

  10. Cellular response of loblolly pine to wound inoculation with bark beetle-associated fungi and chitosan

    Treesearch

    Kier D. Klepzig; Charles H. Walkinshaw

    2003-01-01

    We inoculated loblolly pines with bark beetle-associated fungi and a fungal cell wall component, chitosan, known to induce responses in some pines and many other plants. Trees in Florida were inoculated with Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, Ophiostoma minus, or chitosan. Trees in Louisiana were inoculated with O. minus,...

  11. Orthotomicus erosus: A new pine-infesting bark beetle in the United States

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    Established populations of yet another new exotic beetle (Scolytidae) were discovered in the United States in 2004: Othotomicus erosus. This Eurasian bark beetle, commonly called the Mediterranean pine engraver, is native to the pine (Pinus)growing areas of Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. It has also been introduced to Chile, Fiji, South Africa, and Swaziland....

  12. Pinus radiata bark extract induces caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Thamizhiniyan; Choi, Young-Woong; Mun, Sung-Phil; Kim, Young-Kyoon

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of Pinus radiata bark extract (PRE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. First, we observed that PRE induces potent cytotoxic effects in MCF-7 cells. The cell death had features of cytoplasmic vacuolation, plasma membrane permeabilization, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, absence of executioner caspase activation, insensitivity to z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), increased accumulation of autophagic markers, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). Both the inhibition of early stage autophagy flux and lysosomal cathepsins did not improve cell viability. The antioxidant, n-acetylcysteine, and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, failed to restore the lysosomal integrity indicating that PRE-induced LMP is independent of oxidative stress. This was corroborated with the absence of enhanced ROS production in PRE-treated cells. Chelation of both intracellular calcium and zinc promotes PRE-induced LMP. Geranylgeranylacetone, an inducer of Hsp70 expression, also had no significant protective effect on PRE-induced LMP. Moreover, we found that PRE induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in MCF-7 cells. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-PBA, did not restore the mitochondrial membrane integrity, whereas cathepsin inhibitors demonstrated significant protective effects. Collectively, our results suggest that PRE induces an autophagic block, LMP, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in MCF-7 cells. However, further studies are clearly warranted to explore the exact mechanism behind the anticancer activity of PRE in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

  13. Effect of pine bark extract on bond strength of brackets bonded to bleached human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Ileri, Zehra; Karacam, Nejla

    2013-11-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of pine bark (proanthocyanidin, natural antioxidant) solution on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets bonded with composite resin to human enamel after bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (HP). Sixty recently extracted premolars were divided into an experimental group (n = 45), which was bleached with 40% HP, and a control group (n = 15), which was not bleached. The experimental group was further divided into three sub-groups. Specimens in group IB (n = 15) were bonded immediately after bleaching; specimens in group SA (n = 15) were bleached, then treated with 10% sodium ascorbate and then bonded; group PB specimens (n = 15) were bleached, then treated with 5% pine bark solution and bonded. The specimens were debonded with Universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index was calculated. No significant differences in shear bond strength were noted when the pine bark treated group was compared with the control group and sodium ascorbate group (p > 0.05). Treating the bleached enamel surface with 10% sodium ascorbate or 5% pine bark solution reverses the SBS reduction. So, as a natural antioxidant and less hazardous, clinicians can choose pine bark solution instead of sodium ascorbate.

  14. Presence of carbaryl in the smoke of treated lodgepole and ponderosa pine bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Chris J.; Costello, Sheryl L.

    2013-02-01

    Lodgepole and ponderosa pine trees were treated with a 2% carbaryl solution at recreational areas near Fort Collins, CO, in June 2010 as a prophylactic bole spray against the mountain pine beetle. Bark samples from treated and untreated trees were collected one day following application and at 4-month intervals for one year. The residual amount of carbaryl was determined, and bark samples were burned to examine the smoke for the active ingredient. Smoke recovered from spiked bark samples showed a very high correlation between the treated rate and the concentration recovered from the smoke. Residual carbaryl on the bark was relatively stable throughout the study and carbaryl was detected in the smoke throughout the duration of the test.

  15. Analysis of disconnected diallel mating designs II: results from a third generation progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme.

    Treesearch

    J.N. King; M.J. Carson; G.R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters from a second generation (F2) disconnected diallel progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme are presented. Heritability estimates of growth and yield traits of 0.2 are similar to progeny test results of the previous generation (F1) generation tests. A trend of declining dominance...

  16. Resin duct characteristics associated with tree resistance to bark beetles across lodgepole and limber pines.

    PubMed

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Kane, Jeffrey M; Mitton, Jeffry B

    2014-04-01

    Bark beetles have recently killed billions of trees, yet conifer defenses are formidable and some trees resist attack. A primary anti-insect defense of pines is oleoresin from a system of resin ducts throughout the tree. Resin defense traits are heritable, and evidence suggests that resin duct characteristics are associated with resistance to insects. However, comparisons of resin ducts in trees killed by bark beetles to trees that resisted attack are unavailable. We compared vertical resin duct characteristics (number, density, and size) and growth rates from trees that were "resistant" (survived mass attack) versus "susceptible" (killed by attack) to bark beetles in lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and limber (Pinus flexilis) pines. Resistant trees of both species had significantly more resin ducts in recent growth than susceptible trees. Discriminant analysis (DA) correctly categorized 84% of lodgepole and 92% of limber pines as susceptible/resistant based on combinations of resin duct and growth characteristics from recent 5- through 20-year growth intervals. DA models using measures from only the most recent 5 years of growth correctly categorized 72 and 81% of lodgepole and limber pines, respectively. Comparing resistant to susceptible trees independent of species identity led to the correct categorization of 82% of trees based on factors from 5- to 20-year intervals, and 73% of trees using only resin duct counts from the most recent 5 years. We conclude that resin duct characteristics can be used to assess tree resistance to bark beetles across pine species, and offer a metric for management to enhance pest resistance.

  17. Fatty and Waxy Components of Southern Pine Bark-Amounts Present As Free Extractives

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1975-01-01

    Whole bark from six mature trees of each of the four major southern pines was extracted with petroleum ether and with toluene. Trees were 20 to 58 years old and 8.0 to 11.8 inches in d.b.h. Percentages of petroleum ether-solubles were: slash pine, 1.94; loblolly, 2.29; longleaf, 2.64; and shortleaf 3.05. Percentages obtained by toluene extraction were: loblolly, 3.04;...

  18. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  19. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  20. Influence of pine bark particle size and pH on cation exchange capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) describes the maximum quantity of cations a soil or substrate can hold while being exchangeable with the soil solution. While CEC has been studied for peat-based substrates, relatively little work has documented factors that affect CEC of pine bark substrates. The ob...

  1. Advances in the control and management of the southern pine bark beetles

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2004-01-01

    Management of members of the southern pine bark beetle guild, which consists of five species, is a continually evolving process. A number of management strategies and tactics have remained fairly constant over time as new ones are being added. These basic practices include doing nothing, direct control, and indirect control. This chapter focuses primarily on the latter...

  2. Change in physical properties of pine bark and switchgrass substrates over time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternatives to pine bark for nursery crop substrates have been proposed, including the use of straw materials such as switchgrass. While straw substrates can be developed with suitable physical properties measured immediately after mixing, little is known about how the physical properties of straw...

  3. Effects of bark beetle pheromones on the attraction of Monochamus alternatus to pine volatiles

    Treesearch

    Jian-Ting Fan; Daniel Miller; Long-Wa Zhang; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the attraction of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Dryocoetes luteus Blandford and Orthotomicus erosusWollaston (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol and (+)-α-pinene and the bark beetle pheromones, ipsenol and ipsdienol. M. alternatus were attracted to traps baited...

  4. Effects of a Commercial Chitosan Formulation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Resistance Parameters in Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    K. D. Klepzig; B. L. Strom

    2011-01-01

    A commercially available chitosan product, Beyond™, was evaluated for its effects on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., responses believed related to bark beetle resistance. Treatments were applied 4 times at approx. 6-wk intervals between May and November 2008. Five treatments were evaluated: ground application (soil drench), foliar application, ground...

  5. Suppression of Bark Beetles and Protection of Pines in the Urban Environment: A Case Study

    Treesearch

    Jane Leslie Hayes; James R. Meeker; John L. Foltz; Brian L. Strom

    1996-01-01

    Southern pine beetles (SPB), and associated bark beetles, have long been recognized as major pests of southern forests. Tactics used for controlling infestations in conventional forest settings have not proven effective at achieving area-wide control, nor are they suitable for the control of infestations in high-value stands such as homesites or wildlife habitat areas...

  6. Solute transport through a pine-bark based substrate under saturated and unsaturated conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of how dissolved mineral nutrient ions (solutes) move through pine bark substrates during the application of irrigation water is vital to better understand nutrient transport and leaching from containerized crops during an irrigation event. However, current theories on solute transp...

  7. Holocene records of Dendroctonus bark beetles in high elevation pine forests of Idaho and Montana, USA

    Treesearch

    Andrea Brunelle; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barbara Bentz; A. Steven Munson

    2008-01-01

    Paleoecological reconstructions from two lakes in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountain region of Idaho and Montana revealed the presence of bark beetle elytra and head capsules (cf. Dendroctonus spp., most likely D. ponderosae, mountain pine beetle). Occurrence of these macrofossils during the period of time associated with the 1920/...

  8. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  9. Numerical simulation of crown fire hazard following bark beetle-caused mortality in lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    Chad Hoffman; Russell Parsons; Penny Morgan; Ruddy Mell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how varying amounts of MPB-induced tree mortality affects the amount of crown fuels consumed and the fire intensity across a range of lodgepole pine stands of different tree density and spatial arrangements during the early stages of a bark beetle outbreak. Unlike past studies which have relied on semi-empirical or empirical...

  10. Characterisation of Ophiostoma species associated with pine bark beetles from Mexico, including O. pulvinisporum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Cibrian, David; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are common vectors of Ophiostoma species. These fungi include primary tree pathogens and important sapstain agents. In Mexico, Ips calligraphus and Dendroctonus mexicanus occur on many species of pine. Pinus maximinoi and P. pseudostrobus are the hosts of both species of insects. Little research has been done on ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine bark beetles in Mexico. We recently obtained specimens of these bark beetles and their galleries from Mexico. The aim of the study was to isolate and identify Ophiostoma species associated with the two beetle species. In total, six ophiostomatoid species were found to be associated with them. These included Ceratocystiopsis minuta, Ophiostoma pluriannulatum, an O. galeiformis-like species, two unidentified Sporothrix spp., as well as a new species similar to O. adjuncti, O. ips, and O. montium, that we name as O. pulvinisporum sp. nov.

  11. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  12. Black pine (Pinus nigra) barks as biomonitors of airborne mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Beutel, Marc W; Costagliola, Pilario; Gonnelli, Cristina; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Tree barks are relevant interfaces between plants and the external environment, and can effectively retain airborne particles and elements at their surface. In this paper we have studied the distribution of mercury (Hg) in soils and in black pine (Pinus nigra) barks from the Mt. Amiata Hg district in southern Tuscany (Italy), where past Hg mining and present-day geothermal power plants affect local atmospheric Hg concentration, posing serious environmental concerns. Barks collected in heavily Hg-polluted areas of the district display the highest Hg concentration ever reported in literature (8.6mg/kg). In comparison, barks of the same species collected in local reference areas and near geothermal power plants show much lower (range 19-803μg/kg) concentrations; even lower concentrations are observed at a "blank" site near the city of Florence (5-98μg/kg). Results show a general decrease of Hg concentration from bark surface inwards, in accordance with a deposition of airborne Hg, with minor contribution from systemic uptake from soils. Preliminary results indicate that bark Hg concentrations are comparable with values reported for lichens in the same areas, suggesting that tree barks may represent an additional useful tool for biomonitoring of airborne Hg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of flavonoid compounds from bark and wood: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds, which are extracted from bark and wood and used commercially, are flavan 3-ols as monomers and their polymers, which are called "condensed tannins". Reactions of the condensed tannins with formaldehyde are the basis for wood adhesives. In the late 1940s, tannin research for wood adhesives was begun and the world-first commercial use of wattle tannin from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark as wood adhesives occurred in Australia in the 1960s. In addition, wattle tannin-based adhesives were further developed in South Africa and the uses of these adhesives have been continuing to date. The success of wattle tannin in wood adhesives is demonstrated by the collaboration of the ACIAR with the CAF in the early 1990s. Although radiata pine bark (Pinus radiata) could be a useful resource for the production of wood adhesives, three problems prevented its use in this application: low extractive yields from the bark, variable quality of the tannin extracts and excessive viscosity of the formulated tannin adhesives. In order to overcome these problems, various extraction methods have been proposed. Studies on tannin adhesives from bark of other pine species are also described. Furthermore, the use of the tannin in the bark without extraction is described as "bark adhesives" from radiata pine and black wattle. The use of radiata tannin without formaldehyde for moulded wood products is also described. Owing to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds, bark extracts from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster, synonym P. maritima) and radiata pine have been commercialized as nutritional supplements: Pycnogenol and Enzogenol, respectively. The background and the development of Pycnogenol and the basic difference in the preparation processes between Pycnogenol and Enzogenol are described. On the basis of the discovery that the SOSA value for wattle tannin is approximately 10 times that of extracts from pine bark supplements (Pycnogenol and Enzogenol

  14. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  15. Heterogeneity of interflavanoid bond Location in loblolly pine bark procyanidins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Joseph J. Karchesy; Gerald W. McGraw; Richard A. Wielesek

    1983-01-01

    Procyanidins B-1, B-3 and B-7 were obtained from Pinus taeda phloem in yields of 0.076, 0.021 and 0.034% of unextracted dry wt. Procyanidins B-1 and B-7 were produced in relative yields of 2.4:1 by biosynthetically patterned synthesis from catechin and loblolly pine tannins. Partial acid-catalysed thiolytic cleavage of loblolly pine phloem tannins...

  16. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Treesearch

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  17. Aggregation pheromones of bark beetles, pityogenes quadridens and P. bidentatus, colonizing scotch pine: olfactory avoidance of interspecific competition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bark beetles Pityogenes bidentatus and P. quadridens (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) compete for bark areas on branches of Scotch pine, Pinus sylvestris. Hindguts and head/thoraxes of males and females of both species feeding in hosts were extracted in pentane and analyzed by gas chromat...

  18. Specific heat of ovendry spruce pine wood and bark

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1968-01-01

    Wood and bark from 72 trees of Pinus glabra Walt. were evaluated with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-1B scanning calorimeter; a total of 6,696 observations was made in the temperature range 60 to 140oC. The samples were from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama - the major commercial range of the species.

  19. Evidence of chemical reactions between di- and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roy; Freer, Juanita; Baeza, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of reacting tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark with epoxide resins of the diglycidyl and polyglycidyl ether type. To this end, gel times of aqueous tannin dispersions (40% w/w) with every one of nine selected resins (5% w/w), at previously established pH values (initial equal to 3.3, 4, 7 and 10), have been determined. Products of these reactions were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results were compared with those obtained from tannin-p-formaldehyde and (+)-catechin-p-formaldehyde systems, at the same pH values. Their mechanical properties were evaluated, by dynamic mechanical analysis, at two pH values (3.3 and 10). In general, it was concluded that tannin-epoxide resin systems behave similarly to tannin-paraformaldehyde systems, especially at basic pH values.

  20. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water

    Treesearch

    Miyoung Oh; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(ll), Zn(ll), Cd(ll). and Ni(ll) under both equilibrium...

  1. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  2. Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants: grape seed and pine bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Holly A; Hodges, Andrew E; Guthrie, Jill R; O'Brien, Brandon M; Robaugh, David; Clark, Alice P; Harris, Roger K; Algaier, Joseph W; Smith, Cynthia S

    2007-01-10

    The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses.

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of bark beetles in Chinese white pine in Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Tang, M

    2007-10-01

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of bark beetles in single tree trunks of Pinus armandi were studied in Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China. Ten species of engraver bark beetles attacked from healthy to withered Chinese white pines, but seven species were commonly detected every year in Qinling forest ecosystem. Dendroctonus armandi and Hylurgops longipilis were common species at the lower of trunks, and Ips acuminatus, Polygraphus sinensis, and Pityogenes japonicus primary distributed in the middle of trunks, whereas population densities of Cryphalus lipingensis and C. chinlingensis centralized at the upper trunks and branches of Chinese white pines. On the time series, D. armandi, as a dominant species in Chinese white pines of Qinling forest ecosystem, mainly attacked healthy and weakened trees and cooperated with blue stain fungus that resulted in the declining abruptly resistance and triggered the secondary bark beetles to attack the infected or withered host trees. Attacking and colonizing phenology of bark beetles in Qinling forest ecosystem are caused by complex interactions among spatial and trophic competition and cooperation and exhibit particular spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the view that competition and cooperation within bark beetles are a critical factor to influence bark beetles spatial and temporal distribution, and stability of bark beetles' ecosystem, D. armandi, I. acuminatus, P. japonicus, P. sinensis, C. lipingensis, C. chinlingensis, and H. longipilis in Chinese white pine of Qinling forest ecosystem.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of radiata pine branches reveals new insights into reaction wood formation with implications in plant gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinguo; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Harry X

    2013-11-08

    Formation of compression (CW) and opposite wood (OW) in branches and bent trunks is an adaptive feature of conifer trees in response to various displacement forces, such as gravity, wind, snow and artificial bending. Several previous studies have characterized tracheids, wood and gene transcription in artificially or naturally bent conifer trunks. These studies have provided molecular basis of reaction wood formation in response to bending forces and gravity stimulus. However, little is known about reaction wood formation and gene transcription in conifer branches under gravity stress. In this study SilviScan® technology was used to characterize tracheid and wood traits in radiate pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branches and genes differentially transcribed in CW and OW were investigated using cDNA microarrays. CW drastically differed from OW in tracheids and wood traits with increased growth, thicker tracheid walls, larger microfibril angle (MFA), higher density and lower stiffness. However, CW and OW tracheids had similar diameters in either radial or tangential direction. Thus, gravity stress largely influenced wood growth, secondary wall deposition, cellulose microfibril orientation and wood properties, but had little impact on primary wall expansion. Microarray gene transcription revealed about 29% of the xylem transcriptomes were significantly altered in CW and OW sampled in both spring and autumn, providing molecular evidence for the drastic variation in tracheid and wood traits. Genes involved in cell division, cellulose biosynthesis, lignin deposition, and microtubules were mostly up-regulated in CW, conferring its greater growth, thicker tracheid walls, higher density, larger MFA and lower stiffness. However, genes with roles in cell expansion and primary wall formation were differentially transcribed in CW and OW, respectively, implicating their similar diameters of tracheid walls and different tracheid lengths. Interestingly, many genes related to hormone

  5. Cross-Attraction between an Exotic and a Native Pine Bark Beetle: A Novel Invasion Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Miller, Daniel R.; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Background Aside from the ecological impacts, invasive species fascinate ecologists because of the unique opportunities that invasives offer in the study of community ecology. Some hypotheses have been proposed to illustrate the mechanisms that allow exotics to become invasive. However, positive interactions between exotic and native insects are rarely utilized to explain invasiveness of pests. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present information on a recently formed association between a native and an exotic bark beetle on their shared host, Pinus tabuliformis, in China. In field examinations, we found that 35–40% of P. tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes parallelus. In the laboratory, we found that the antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to host- and beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of the exotic D. valens in China. In addition, D. valens was attracted to volatiles produced by the native H. parallelus. Conclusions/Significance We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, which is cross-attraction. The concept of this interspecific facilitation could be explored as a novel invasive mechanism which helps explain invasiveness of not only exotic bark beetles but also other introduced pests in principle. The results reported here also have particularly important implications for risk assessments and management strategies for invasive species. PMID:18074026

  6. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes.

  7. Importance of resin ducts in reducing ponderosa pine mortality from bark beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jeffrey M; Kolb, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The relative importance of growth and defense to tree mortality during drought and bark beetle attacks is poorly understood. We addressed this issue by comparing growth and defense characteristics between 25 pairs of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees that survived and trees that died from drought-associated bark beetle attacks in forests of northern Arizona, USA. The three major findings of our research were: (1) xylem resin ducts in live trees were >10% larger (diameter), >25% denser (no. of resin ducts mm(-2)), and composed >50% more area per unit ring growth than dead trees; (2) measures of defense, such as resin duct production (no. of resin ducts year(-1)) and the proportion of xylem ring area to resin ducts, not growth, were the best model parameters of ponderosa pine mortality; and (3) most correlations between annual variation in growth and resin duct characteristics were positive suggesting that conditions conducive to growth also increase resin duct production. Our results suggest that trees that survive drought and subsequent bark beetle attacks invest more carbon in resin defense than trees that die, and that carbon allocation to resin ducts is a more important determinant of tree mortality than allocation to radial growth.

  8. Linking increasing drought stress to Scots pine mortality and bark beetle infestations.

    PubMed

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Wermelinger, Beat; Bigler, Christof; Bürgi, Matthias; Carron, Mathias; Forster, Beat; Gimmi, Urs; Rigling, Andreas

    2007-03-21

    In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied. In our study, we correlated time series of drought indices from long-term climate stations, 11-year mortality trends from a long-term research plot, and mortality probabilities modeled from tree rings (as an indicator of tree vitality) with documented occurrences of various bark beetle species and a buprestid beetle, using regional Forest Service reports from 1902 to 2003 and advisory cases of the Swiss Forest Protection Service (SFPS) from 1984 to 2005. We compared the historical findings with measured beetle emergence from a 4-year tree felling and breeding chamber experiment. The documented beetle-related pine mortality cases increased dramatically in the 1990s, both in the forest reports and the advisory cases. The incidents of beetle-related pine mortality correlated positively with spring and summer temperature, and with the tree-ring based mortality index, but not with the drought index. The number of advisory cases, on the other hand, correlated slightly with summer drought index and temperature, but very highly with tree-ring-based mortality index. The tree-ring-based mortality index and observed tree mortality increased in years following drought. This was confirmed by the beetle emergences from felled trees. Following dry summers, more than twice as many trees were colonized by beetles than following wet summers. We conclude that increased temperatures in the Swiss Rhone Valley have likely weakened Scots pines and favored phloeophagous beetle population growth. Beetles contributed to the increased pine mortality following summer drought. Among the factors not addressed in this study, changed forest use

  9. Metal retention on pine bark and blast furnace slag--on-site experiment for treatment of low strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Waara, Sylvia; Johansson Westholm, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Treatment of landfill leachate using blast furnace slag and pine bark as reactive sorbents was studied in an in situ column experiment at the Lilla Nyby landfill site in Eskilstuna, Sweden. The columns were filled with approximately 101 of each sorbent and leachate was supplied at three different flow rates during a period of 4 months. Samples of inflow and outflow were collected three times a week and were analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including concentrations of some metals, and toxicity. It was found that pine bark removed metals more efficiently than did the blast furnace slags; that Zn was most efficiently retained in the filters and that both retention time and initial concentration played an important role in the sorption process. It was also observed that the pine bark column did not release COD. No toxicity of the untreated or the treated leachate was found with the test organisms and test responses used.

  10. [Climatic effects on radial growth of Korean pines with different bark forms in Liangshui Natural Reserve, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Mao, Zi-Jun; Li, Yue; Li, Xing-Huan; Liu, Rui-Peng; Huang, Wei; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Dendrochronological techniques including correlation functions and single-years analysis were used to study the relationship between the two kinds of Korean pine radial growth in Liangshui Natural Reserve and climatic variables, and to assess the similarities and differences between Korean pine with coarse bark (Pinus koraiensis forma pachidermis) and fine bark (Pinus koraiensis forma leptodermis) in response to climate factors, the main affecting factors and whether the response relationship could be of long-term stability. The results showed that the Korean pine with fine bark was more suitable for dendrochronological study. The radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine was very sensitive to environmental variables and their climate responses had no significant differ- ences. From 1902 to 2009, meteorological factors in the growing season, especially in June were the primary factors affecting the radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine in the study area. The temperature showed a significant negative correlation and the precipitation showed a significant positive correlation. The Korean pine growing in different periods had a significantly different iresponse to meteorological factors. With the rapid rise of temperature and drought after 1970, the radial growth of the two kinds of Korean pine was more sensitive to the meteorological factors than before, which was especially more sensitive to temperature in growing season and PDSI in many seasons.

  11. Scots pine bark, topsoil and pedofauna as indicators of transport pollutions in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Marko-Worłowska, Maria; Chrzan, Anna; Łaciak, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the motorway on pollution was evaluated by determining chosen heavy metals and acid reaction (pH) in the pine bark, in forest and meadow topsoil. The content of these environmental contaminants was determined in the topsoil and in the bark of around 40 year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing right next to the soil analyzed. The pollutants were examined at localities situated around 5, 200, 1500 m away from the motorway. To evaluate influence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and the topsoil pH on pedofauna, five meadows localities situated 1, 20, 40, 150, 1550 m away from the motorway were examined. It was detected that in the forest habitats analyzed the bark was characterized by considerably higher acidity (pH 3.14-3.88) than the topsoil of the pines analyzed (pH 5.45-7.22). Except of Cd at locality 200 m and Cu at 1500 m from motorway, the higher concentration of heavy metals was noted in topsoil. In the meadow soil of the locality 150 m from the motorway the highest concentrations of Cd and Zn were detected. The greatest diversity of the meso and macrofauna and trophic relations the most resembling natural were detected in the area furthest away from the motorway, where the content of the heavy metals was the lowest. The lowest density and diversity of meso- and macrofauna were detected in the area situated 40 m, where the concentration of heavy metals was higher than at 1, 20 and 1550 m from the motorway situated localities.

  12. Leptographium tereforme, sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Treesearch

    S. Kim; T.C. Harrington; J. C. Lee; S. J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The redhaired pine bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California, in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue stain of conifer sapwood. In this study Ophiostomatales were isolated on a...

  13. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona

    Treesearch

    Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

    2008-01-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation...

  14. Association of wildfire with tree health and numbers of pine bark beetles, reproduction weevils and their associates in Florida

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; James R. Meeker; Daniel R. Miller; Edward L. Barnard

    2002-01-01

    Wildfires burned over 200,000 ha of forests in Florida from April to July 1998. This unique disturbance event provided a valuable opportunity to study the interactions of summer wildfires with the activity of pine feeding insects and their associates in the southeastern United States. We compared tree mortality with abundance of bark and ambrosia beetles, reproduction...

  15. Characterization of southern yellow pine bark layers by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2009-01-01

    The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...

  16. Dose-Dependent and Species-Specific Responses of Pine Bark Beetles (Coeoptera: Scolytidae) to Monoterpenes in Association with Phermones

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpenes affected the attraction of three sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps in stands of lodgepole pine. Catches of Ips pini(Say) in traps baited with its pheromone, ipsdienol, were directly related to the release rates of 3-carene, ß-pphellandrene, and ß-pinene. Catches of

  17. Fuel loadings 5 years after a bark beetle outbreak in south-western USA ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    Chad M. Hoffman; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Joel D. McMillin; Peter Z. Fule

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-level bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) outbreaks occurred in Arizona ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Law.) forests from 2001 to 2003 in response to severe drought and suitable forest conditions.We quantified surface fuel loadings and depths, and calculated canopy fuels based on forest structure attributes in 60 plots established 5...

  18. Dolomitic lime amendment affects pine bark substrate pH, nutrient availability, and plant growth: A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dolomitic lime (DL) is one of the most commonly used fertilizer amendments in nursery container substrates. It is used to adjust pH of pine bark substrates from their native pH, 4.1 to 5.1, up to about pH 6. Additions of DL have been shown to be beneficial, inconsequential, or detrimental dependin...

  19. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  20. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. )

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  1. DNA sequence comparisons of Ophiostoma spp., including Ophiostoma aurorae sp. nov., associated with pine bark beetles in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xudong; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are well-recognized vectors of Ophiostoma species. Three non-native bark beetle species infest various Pinus species in South Africa, and they are known to carry at least 12 different species of ophiostomatoid fungi. Some of these fungi have not been identified to species level. The aim of this study was to determine or confirm the identities of Ophiostoma species associated with bark beetles in South Africa using comparisons of DNA sequence data. Identities of Ophiostoma ips, O. floccosum, O. pluriannulatum, O. quercus and O. stenoceras were confirmed. Ophiostoma abietinum, O. piliferum and Pesotum fragrans are recognised for the first time and the new species, O. aurorae sp. nov., is described from pine-infesting bark beetles in South Africa. PMID:18490985

  2. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) Effects on Human Skin: Clinical and Molecular Evidence.

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional strategies to benefit skin health are of growing importance. Current approaches mainly involve nutritional supplements containing antioxidants which were initially designed to protect human skin against ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Within recent years, however, a growing number of studies suggests that the beneficial effects of these products clearly extend beyond photoprotection. In this review we take the nutritional supplement Pycnogenol®, which is based on an extract prepared from French marine pine bark extract, as an example to illustrate this development. Accordingly, the existing data provide compelling evidence that Pycnogenol® intake does not only provide photoprotection, but may be used to (i) reduce hyperpigmentation of human skin and (ii) improve skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis.

  3. Weaning off Bark

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine bark is the primary potting component used in container nursery production. Shifts in the forest products industry and economy have resulted in a drastic decline in pine bark availability and increase in pine bark price. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Application Technology Research Unit, Oregon ...

  4. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T; Goyer, Richard A; Klepzig, Kier D

    2005-05-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposed to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid species between male and female antennal responses to any of the three pheromones. Measurement of antennal threshold responses indicated that Pla. parallelum has increasing antennal sensitivity to ipsdienol, ipsenol, and frontalin. In contrast, Ple. transversus exhibited similar detection thresholds to all three pheromones. Pla. parallelum antennae exhibited different response amplitudes to the three pheromones at quantities above the detection threshold, while Ple. transversus had similar responses to each. Behavioral responses to the same three pheromones were evaluated for both histerid species using pedestrian olfactometer bioassays. Both species were attracted to frontalin and ipsenol, but not ipsdienol. Pla. parallelum was significantly more attracted to frontalin than ipsenol, while Ple. transversus showed no significant preference for either compound. Our results suggest that histerids that prey upon pine bark beetles may have different host or host habitat preferences, which could reduce interspecific competition.

  5. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management.

  6. Chapter 12 - Bark Beetle outbreaks in Ponderosa Pine forests: Implications for fuels, fire, and management (Project INT-F-09-01)

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Sieg; Kurt Allen; Joel McMillin; Chad Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Landscape-scale bark beetle outbreaks have occurred throughout the Western United States during recent years in response to dense forest conditions, climatic conditions, and wildfire (Fettig and others 2007, Bentz and others 2010). Previous studies, mostly conducted in moist forest types (such as lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta]) suggest that bark beetle...

  7. The biophysical controls on tree defense against attacking bark beetles in managed pine forests of the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C. F.; Denham, S. O.; Ritger, H. M.; Williams, C.; Guldin, J. M.; Bragg, D.; Coyle, D.

    2013-12-01

    Bark beetles are highly damaging pests capable of destroying large areas of southern pine forests, with significant consequences for regional timber supply and forest ecosystem carbon dynamics. A number of recent studies have shown that following bark beetle outbreak, significant effects on ecosystem carbon and water cycling can occur. Relatively few studies have explored how ecosystem carbon and water cycling interact with other factors to control the hazard or risk of bark beetle outbreaks; these interactions, and their representation in conceptual model frameworks, are the focus of this study. Pine trees defend against bark beetle attacks through the exudation of of resin - a viscous compound that deters attacking beetles through a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms. Constitutive resin flow (CRF, representing resin produced before attack) is assumed to be directly proportional to the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) according to the Growth-Differentiation Balance theory (GDB). Thus, predictions for tree mortality and bark beetle dynamics under different management and climate regimes may be more accurate if a model framework describing the biophysical controls on resin production (e.g., GDB) were employed. Here, we synthesize measurements of resin flow, bark beetle dynamics, and ecosystem C flux from three managed loblolly pine forests in the Southeastern U.S.: the Duke Forest in Durham, NC; the Savannah River DOE site near Aiken, SC; and the Crossett Experimental Forest in southern Arkansas. We also explore the relationship between CRF and induced resin flow (IRF, representing the de novo synthesis of resin following stem wounding) in the latter two sites, where IRF was promoted by a novel tree baiting approach and prescribed fire, respectively. We assimilate observations within a hierarchical Bayesian framework to 1) test whether observations conform to the GDB hypothesis, and 2) explore effects

  8. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  9. Effects of wood bark and fertilizer amendment on trace element mobility in mine soils, Broken Hill, Australia: implications for mined land reclamation.

    PubMed

    Munksgaard, N C; Lottermoser, B G

    2010-01-01

    Soil amendments can immobilize metals in soils, reducing the risks of metal exposure and associated impacts to flora, fauna and human health. In this study, soil amendments were compared, based on "closed system" water extracts, for reducing metal mobility in metal-contaminated soil from the Broken Hill mining center, Australia. Phosphatefertilizer (bovine bone meal, superphosphate, triple superphosphate, potassium orthophosphate) and pine bark (Pinus radiata) were applied to two soils (BH1, BH2) contaminated with mining waste. Both soils had near neutral to alkaline pH values, were sulfide- or sulfate-rich, and contained metal and metalloid at concentrations that pose high environmental risks (e.g., Pb = 1.25 wt% and 0.55 wt%, Zn = 0.71 wt% and 0.47 wt% for BH1 and BH2, respectively). The addition of fertilizers and/or pine bark to both soil types increased water extractable metals and metalloids concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) compared with nonamended soils. One or more of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn increased significantly in extracts of a range of different soil+pine bark and soil+fertilizer+piner+pine bark tests in response to increased pine bark doses. By contrast, Fe and Sb concentrations in extracts did not change significantly with pine bark addition. Solution pH was decreased by phosphate fertilizers (except for bovine bone meal) and pine bark, and pine bark enhanced dissolved organic carbon. At least in the short-term, the application of phosphate fertilizers and pine bark proved to be an ineffective method for controlling metal and metalloid mobility in soils that contain admixtures of polymetallic, polymineralic mine wastes.

  10. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated.

  11. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ximing; Wei, Junping; Tan, Fengsen; Zhou, Shengming; Würthwein, Gudrun; Rohdewald, Peter

    2004-01-02

    A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study was performed with 58 patients to investigate effects of French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol, on patients with hypertension. Supplementation of the patients with 100 mg Pycnogenol over a period of 12 weeks helped to reduce the dose of the calcium antagonist nifedipine in a statistically significant manner. The intake of Pycnogenol decreased endothelin-1 concentrations significantly compared to placebo while concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1a in plasma were significantly higher compared to placebo. Values for nitric oxide (NO) in plasma increased in both groups, but the differences were not significant. Angiotensin II concentrations in plasma were lowered in the placebo group to a larger extent than in the Pycnogenol group. Heart rate, electrolytes and blood urea nitrogen were not changed during treatment in both groups of patients. Unwanted effects observed in both groups were of mild and transient nature, such as gastrointestinal problems, vertigo, headache and nausea. Differences in rate of side effects were not statistically significant between the two groups. Study results support a supplementation with Pycnogenol for mildly hypertensive patients.

  12. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol(®)) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  13. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Angelika; Högger, Petra

    2007-07-01

    The standardized maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) was reported to exert clinical anti-diabetic effects after peroral intake. However, an increased insulin secretion was not observed after administration of the extract to patients. Our aim was to elucidate whether the described clinical effects of Pycnogenol are related to inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Therefore, we analyzed the inhibitory activity of Pycnogenol, green tea extract and acarbose towards alpha-glucosidase. Furthermore, we explored different fractions of Pycnogenol containing compounds of diverse molecular masses from polyphenolic monomers, dimers and higher oligomers to uncover which components exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory activity. We found that Pycnogenol exhibited the most potent inhibition (IC(50) about 5 microg/mL) on alpha-glucosidase compared to green tea extract (IC(50) about 20 microg/mL) and acarbose (IC(50) about 1mg/mL). The inhibitory action of Pycnogenol was stronger in extract fractions containing higher procyanidin oligomers. The results obtained assign a novel, local effect to oligomeric procyanidins and contribute to the explanation of glucose-lowering effects of Pycnogenol observed in clinical trials with diabetic patients.

  14. Retention of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and heavy metals from industrial waste water by using the low cost adsorbent pine bark in a batch experiment.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M; Allard, B

    2011-01-01

    Pine bark is a low cost sorbent originating from the forest industry. In recent years, it has been found to show promise as an adsorbent for metals and organic substances in contaminated water, especially landfill leachates and storm water. This study aims to investigate if pine bark can replace commercial adsorbents such as active carbon. An industrial effluent, collected from a treatment plant of a demilitarization factory, was diluted to form concentration ranges of contaminants and shaken with pine bark for 24 hours. Metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Ni) and explosives, e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), were analysed before and after treatment. The aim of the experiment was twofold; firstly, it was to investigate whether metals are efficiently removed in the presence of explosives and secondly, if adsorption of explosive substances to pine bark was possible. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe the adsorption process where this was possible. It was found that metal uptake was possible in the presence of TNT and other explosive contaminants. The uptake of TNT was satisfactory with up to 80% of the TNT adsorbed by pine bark.

  15. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  16. Wood and bark moisture contents of small-diameter hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Treesearch

    F.G. Manwiller

    1975-01-01

    Ten 6-inch trees from throughout the South were sampled from each of 22 species, of which 11 were oaks. Ranking of species remained constant regardless of whether moisture contents were determined for the entire tree, the stem with bark, branches with bark, or stem- and branchwood without bark. For ashes and hickory, the range among these various components was 46 to...

  17. Wood and bark moisture contents of small-diameter hardwoods growing on southern pine sites

    Treesearch

    Floyd G. Manwiller

    1975-01-01

    Ten 6-inch trees from throughout the south were sampled from each of 22 species, of which 11 were oaks. Ranking of species remained constant regardless of whether moisture contents were determined for the entire tree, the stem with bark, branches with bark, or stem- and branchwood without bark. For ashes and hickory, the range among these various components was 46 to...

  18. Effect of verbenone on five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    B. Staffan Lindren; Daniel R. Miller

    2002-01-01

    The response by five species of bark beetles to a range of verbenone doses were tested in bioassays using Lindgren funnel traps baited with attractant semiochemicals. The objective was to determine how these bark beetles respond to verbenone, a purported anti-aggregation pheromone of several economically significant bark beetle species. Catches of Dendroctonus...

  19. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  20. Antifeedants against Hylobius abietis pine weevils: an active compound in extract of bark of Tilia cordata linden.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Per E; Eriksson, Carina; Sjödin, Kristina

    2005-05-01

    Linden (Tilia cordata) bark was shown to contain an antifeedant effective against the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis. Soxhlet extraction of inner and outer bark resulted in an extract that showed antifeedant activity in a microfeeding assay. The extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel using gradient elution with solvents of increasing polarity. The content of the fractions obtained was monitored by thin layer- and gas chromatography. Fractions of similar chemical composition were merged. Two of the 17 fractions showed antifeedant activity in the microfeeding assay. Nonanoic acid was identified in both of these fractions. Subsequent testing in the microfeeding assay showed that nonanoic acid possessed strong antifeedant activity against H. abietis adults.

  1. Mathematical modeling of biofiltration in activated pine-bark charge of a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Vaiskunaite, Rasa; Baltrenas, Pranas; Spakauskas, Valdas

    2005-09-01

    AIM, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: Human economic activities cause emissions of various pollutants of an organic nature: butanol, butyl acetate, methanol, formaldehyde, phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. These compounds are emitted to atmosphere by various enterprises of food, chemistry, wood processing industries, from transportation means, agricultural enterprises, etc. Therefore, when purifying air from these pollutants, it is necessary to apply efficient and inexpensive air purification methods. In this dimension, the biological air purification is chosen from all possible air cleaning methods. An experimental biofilter with the activated charge of pine bark was developed at the Department of Environment Protection of the Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. In the course of the experimental investigation, it was determined that this air purification method is efficient. Filter efficiency, when purifying air of volatile organic compounds (butanol, butyl acetate and xylene), to a great extent, depending on the nature and concentrations (up to 100 mg/m3) of pollutants injected, might go up to 70-98%. The mathematical model of the biofilter was developed based on the research results and fully taking into consideration physical, chemical, and biological processes going on during its operations. The aim of this article is to determine biodegradation constant alpha, absorption capacity beta, and half empiric expressions of filter efficiency. Knowing this, it is possible to find out the dependence of the filter efficiency on the operational parameters of the filter (i.e. on the concentrations and the height of biocharge of the initial pollutants (butanol, butyl acetate, xylene) fed through it). With the help of mathematical modeling, the biodegradation constants and absorption capability of volatile organic compounds (butanol, butyl acetate, and xylene) fed into the biofilter charged with the activated pine bark and used for the cleaning of volatile organic compounds

  2. Hyperspectral interferometry: Sizing microscale surface features in the pine bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Beach, James M; Uertz, James L; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2015-10-01

    A new method of interferometry employing a Fabry-Perot etalon model was used to locate and size microscale features on the surface of the pine bark beetle. Oscillations in the reflected light spectrum, caused by self-interference of light reflecting from surfaces of foreleg setae and spores on the elytrum, were recorded using white light hyperspectral microscopy. By making the assumption that pairs of reflecting surfaces produce an etalon effect, the distance between surfaces could be determined from the oscillation frequency. Low frequencies of less than 0.08 nm(-1) were observed in the spectrum below 700 nm while higher frequencies generally occupied wavelengths from 600 to 850 nm. In many cases, two frequencies appeared separately or in combination across the spectrum. The etalon model gave a mean spore size of 3.04 ± 1.27 μm and a seta diameter of 5.44 ± 2.88 μm. The tapering near the setae tip was detected as a lowering of frequency. Spatial fringes were observed together with spectral oscillations from surfaces on the exoskeleton at higher magnification. These signals were consistent with embedded multi-layer reflecting surfaces. Possible applications for hyperspectral interferometry include medical imaging, detection of spore loads in insects and other fungal carriers, wafer surface and subsurface inspection, nanoscale materials, biological surface analysis, and spectroscopy calibration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of oscillations directly observed by microscopy in the reflected light spectra from Coleoptera, and the first demonstration of broadband hyperspectral interferometry using microscopy that does not employ an internal interferometer.

  3. Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Kenji; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakamura, Shuji; Umemura, Takashi; Jitsuiki, Daisuke; Soga, Junko; Goto, Chikara; Chayama, Kazuaki; Yoshizumi, Masao; Higashi, Yukihito

    2007-09-01

    Pycnogenol, an extract of bark from the French maritime pine, Pinus pinaster Ait., consists of a concentrate of water-soluble polyphenols. Pycnogenol contains the bioflavonoids catechin and taxifolin as well as phenolcarbonic acids. Antioxidants, such as bioflavonoids, enhance endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and subsequent NO release from endothelial cells. The purpose of this study was to determine Pycnogenol's effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo and active drug study. We evaluated forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to acetylcholine (ACh), an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an endothelium-independent vasodilator, in healthy young men before and after 2 weeks of daily oral administration of Pycnogenol (180 mg/day) (n=8) or placebo (n=8). FBF was measured by using strain-gauge plethysmography. Neither the placebo nor Pycnogenol altered forearm or systemic hemodynamics. Pycnogenol, but not placebo, augmented FBF response to ACh, from 13.1 +/- 7.0 to 18.5 +/- 4.0 mL/min per 100 mL tissue (p<0.05). SNP-stimulated vasodilation was similar before and after 2 weeks of treatment in the control and Pycnogenol groups. The administration of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, completely abolished Pycnogenol-induced augmentation of the FBF response to ACh. These findings suggest that Pycnogenol augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing in NO production. Pycnogenol would be useful for treating various diseases whose pathogeneses involve endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Host preference and attack pattern of Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): a bark beetle specialist on pine regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Guillermo; Wagner, Michael R

    2009-08-01

    Pine seedlings and saplings are seldom attacked by bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus. However, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Thomas and Bright specifically attacks pine seedlings and causes conspicuous mortality in naturally regenerated stands in the Sierra Madre Occidental, northern Mexico. We evaluated the host preference and attack of D. rhizophagus under field conditions. We tried to establish any relationship between tree growth or host size and the number of attacking beetles. Generally, only one pair of beetles attacked each of the seedlings regardless of host size; however, a significant positive linear relationship between host size and adult brood size was observed. We found that this species preferred the best growing seedlings in our study sites.

  5. Wood and bark specific gravity of small-diameter, pine-site hardwood in the south

    Treesearch

    F.G. Manwiller

    1979-01-01

    Ten small-diameter trees from each of the 22 species (220 trees) were sampled from throughout the southern United States. Mean SG was determined for stem wood and bark and the whole stem, for branch wood and bark and whole branches (to a minimum diameter of 0.05 in.), and for tree wood and bark and the whole tree. Significant differences were determined a) among the...

  6. Distribution of bark beetle attacks after whitebark pine restoration treatments: A case study

    Treesearch

    Kristen M. Waring; Diana L. Six

    2005-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), an important component of high elevation ecosystems in the western United States and Canada, is declining due to fire exclusion, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.), and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). This study was...

  7. Bugs that eat bugs: biological control research offers hope for southern pine bark beetle management

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Susan J. Branham

    1988-01-01

    The black turpentine beetle (BTB) is a native pest of pines in the southeastern United States. It is particularly injurious to trees in areas of Georgia and Florida where gum naval stores operations are an important industry. Here, slash pine and longloeaf pine are routinely attacked and killed during tupentine operations. Additionally, the BTB quickly attacks trees...

  8. Lightning Strike Simula tion for Studying Southern Pine Bark and Engraver Beetle Attacks

    Treesearch

    Mitchel C. Miller

    1983-01-01

    Endemic populations of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) and Ips spp. attacked loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) on which lightning strikes were simulated with detonating cord in the field. Southern pine beetles were reared in successive generations in these trees from fall 1981 through spring 1982; only

  9. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  10. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  11. Bark beetle pheromones and pine volatiles: attractant kairomone lure blend for longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae) in pine stands of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel R; Asaro, Chris; Crowe, Christopher M; Duerr, Donald A

    2011-08-01

    In 2006, we examined the flight responses of 43 species of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with binary lure blends of (1) ipsenol + ipsdienol, (2) ethanol + alpha-pinene, and a quaternary lure blend of (3) ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene in the southeastern United States. In addition, we monitored responses of Buprestidae, Elateridae, and Curculionidae commonly associated with pine longhorn beetles. Field trials were conducted in mature pine (Pinus pp.) stands in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Virginia. The following species preferred traps baited with the quaternary blend over those baited with ethanol + alpha-pinene: Acanthocinus nodosus (F.), Acanthocinus obsoletus (Olivier), Astylopsis arcuata (LeConte), Astylopsis sexguttata (Say), Monochamus scutellatus (Say), Monochamus titillator (F.) complex, Rhagium inquisitor (L.) (Cerambycidae), Buprestis consularis Gory, Buprestis lineata F. (Buprestidae), Ips avulsus (Eichhoff), Ips calligraphus (Germar), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), Orthotomicus caelatus (Eichhoff), and Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) (Curculionidae). The addition ofipsenol and ipsdienol had no effect on catches of 17 other species of bark and wood boring beetles in traps baited with ethanol and a-pinene. Ethanol + alpha-pinene interrupted the attraction of Ips avulsus, I. grandicollis, and Pityophthorus Eichhoff spp. (but not I. calligraphus) (Curculionidae) to traps baited with ipsenol + ipsdienol. Our results support the use of traps baited with a quaternary blend of ipsenol + ipsdienol + ethanol + alpha-pinene for common saproxylic beetles in pine forests of the southeastern United States.

  12. Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: bark beetle responses to differences in forest structure and the application of prescribed fire in interior ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Robert R. Borys; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used tools in the restoration of fire-adapted forest ecosystems. However, few studies have explored their effects on subsequent amounts of bark beetle caused tree mortality in interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws. var. ponderosa. In...

  13. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod availability for red-cockaded woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2008-01-01

    This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging 1 birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  14. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

    2008-02-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics.

  15. Environment and ontogeny modify loblolly pine response to induced acute water deficits and bark beetle attack

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Lorio; Frederick M. Stephen; Timothy D. Paine

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of tree resistance on within-tree population dynamics of southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., as affected by prevailing water regimes, acute water deficits imposed by applying dry-ice (solid CO2) collars to tree boles, and by the seasonal ontogeny of...

  16. Effects of salvage logging on fire risks after bark beetle outbreaks in Colorado lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    Bryon J. Collins; Chuck C. Rhoades; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert M. Hubbard

    2012-01-01

    Most mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forests in the central and southern Rocky Mountains originated after stand-replacing wildfires or logging (Brown 1975, Lotan and Perry 1983, Romme 1982). In recent years, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have created a widespread, synchronous disturbance (i.e.,...

  17. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  18. Facilitated cellular uptake and suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by a metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol).

    PubMed

    Uhlenhut, Klaus; Högger, Petra

    2012-07-15

    Many natural products exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing excessive nitric oxide (NO) production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol has been formerly shown to decrease nitrite generation, taken as an index for NO, but so far it was not clear which constituent of the complex flavonoid mixture mediated this effect. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the in vivo generated Pycnogenol metabolite M1 (δ-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone) displayed any activity in the context of induction of iNOS expression and excessive NO production. For the first time we show that M1 inhibited nitrite production (IC(50) 1.3 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.96-1.70) and iNOS expression (IC(50) 3.8 μg/ml, 95% CI 0.99-14.35) in a concentration-dependent fashion. This exemplifies bioactivation by metabolism because the M1 precursor molecule catechin is only weakly active. However, these effects required application of M1 in the low-micromolar range, which was not consistent with concentrations previously detected in human plasma samples after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract. Thus, we investigated a possible accumulation of M1 in cells and indeed observed high-capacity binding of this flavonoid metabolite to macrophages, monocytes, and endothelial cells. This binding was distinctly decreased in the presence of the influx inhibitor phloretin, suggesting the contribution of a facilitated M1 transport into cells. In fact, intracellular accumulation of M1 could explain why in vivo bioactivity can be observed with nanomolar plasma concentrations that typically fail to exhibit measurable activity in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins in pine needles and bark and their vegetation-air partitioning in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of considerable concern in recent years due to their high production volumes, environmental persistency and potential for long range atmospheric transport. Vegetation can take up considerable amounts of semivolatile organic compounds from the atmosphere and can act as indicators of local contamination. Paired pine needles and bark were sampled around Beijing during winter and summertime to investigate the distribution of SCCPs in urban areas. Levels in bark samples ranged 5.79-37.5 μg/g on a lipid normalized basis (lw) with a geometric mean (GM) of 16.9 μg/g lw whereas levels were 3.03-40.8 (GM 11.8) μ/g lw for needles. Average congener group abundance profiles showed equal contribution of all four carbon groups (C(10-13)) in wintertime where as higher abundances of C(10) and C(11) groups were found during summer. Uptake of SCCPs occurred mainly via kinetically limited gaseous deposition and particle bound deposition in the investigated area.

  20. Mites associated with southern pine bark beetles in Allen Parish, Louisiana

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Lawrence M. Roton

    1971-01-01

    Ninety-six species of mites were associated with the southern pine beetle and allied scolytids in an outbreak area in Allen Parish, La. the complex was evaluated to ascertain which species may be of value as biological control agents.

  1. Mites associated with Southern Pine Bark Beetles in Allen Parish, Louisiana

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; Lawrence M. Roton

    1971-01-01

    Ninety-six species of mites were associated with the southern pine beetle and allied scolytides in an outbreak area in Allen Parish, LA. The complex was evaluated to ascertain which species may be of value as biological control agents.

  2. Red-winged blackbirds searching beneath pine bark for insects in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meanley, B.

    1966-01-01

    Most observers usually associate the Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) with open country such as marshes or upland fields and their wooded or brushy borders. On the wintering grounds in the coniferous belt of the southeastern United States, however, Red-wings spend some of their time feeding in pine forests. In the course of a day's feeding they move back and forth between pine woods and harvested fields of corn, peanuts, and cotton, or weed fields. It is not unusual to see Red-wings feeding in a scattering of pine trees at the edge of a marsh or in some upland area, but I was surprised to find them in dense stands of pine and to observe their method of feeding there.

  3. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Treesearch

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  4. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  6. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  7. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  8. Kinetic sorption modelling of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr ions to pine bark and blast furnace slag by using batch experiments.

    PubMed

    Nehrenheim, E; Gustafsson, J P

    2008-04-01

    Storm water and landfill leachate can both contain significant amounts of toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni. Pine bark and blast furnace slag are both residual waste products that have shown a large potential for metal removal from contaminated water. There are however many variables that must be optimized in order to achieve efficient metal retention. One of these variables is the time of which the solution is in contact with each unit of filter material. Metal sorption was studied in two laboratory experiments to improve the knowledge of the effects of contact time. The results showed that pine bark was generally more efficient than blast furnace slag when the metal concentrations were relatively small, whereas blast furnace slag sorbed most metals to a larger extent at increased metal loads. In addition, sorption to blast furnace slag was found to be faster than metal binding to pine bark. A pseudo-second-order kinetic model was able to describe the data well within 1000 s of reaction time.

  9. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  10. Effectiveness of litter removal in preventing mortality of yellow barked ponderosa pine in northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn H. Sieg; Linda Wadleigh; Sally Haase

    2007-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine trees is commonly recommended to reduce mortality following prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. Following a pilot study, on each of four sites in northern Arizona we monitored 15-16 sets of 8...

  11. Modeling wood properties of planted Loblolly pine from pith to bark and stump to tip

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Daniels; H.E. Rechun; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souther

    2002-01-01

    Variation in wood properties follows identifiable patterns within individual trees of Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.j. Wood properties were sampled from disks cut at 1.52 m intervals from 131 mature trees across the natural range of the species. Wood property and mensurational data were used to develop predictive models describing the distribution of...

  12. Factors influencing bark beetle outbreaks after forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, María J; Ayres, Matthew P

    2011-10-01

    Fires are among the most globally important disturbances in forest ecosystems. Forest fires can be followed by bark beetle outbreaks. Therefore, the dynamic interactions between bark beetle outbreaks and fire appear to be of general importance in coniferous forests throughout the world. We tested three hypotheses of how forest fires in pine ecosystems (Pinus pinaster Alton and P. radiata D. Don) in Spain could alter the population dynamics of bark beetles and influence the probability of further disturbance from beetle outbreaks: fire could affect the antiherbivore resin defenses of trees, change their nutritional suitability, or affect top-down controls on herbivore populations. P. radiata defenses decreased immediately after fire, but trees with little crown damage soon recovered with defenses higher than before. Fire either reduced or did not affect nutritional quality of phloem and either reduced or had no effect on the abundance, diversity, and relative biomass of natural enemies. After fire, bark beetle abundance increased via rapid aggregation of reproductive adults on scorched trees. However, our results indicate that for populations to increase to an outbreak situation, colonizing beetles must initiate attacks before tree resin defenses recover, host trees must retain enough undamaged phloem to facilitate larval development, and natural enemies should be sufficiently rare to permit high beetle recruitment into the next generation. Coincidence of these circumstances may promote the possibility of beetle populations escaping to outbreak levels.

  13. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Albert, Courtney A; Dods, Patti L; Cullen, William R; Lai, Vivian W M; Elliott, John E

    2007-02-15

    The arsenic-based pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), is presently being evaluated for re-registration in Canada and the United States and has been widely used in British Columbia to help suppress Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) outbreaks. We assessed the availability and exposure of MSMA to woodpeckers and other forest birds that may prey directly on contaminated bark beetles. Total arsenic residues in MPB from MSMA treated trees ranged from 1.3-700.2 microg g(-1) dw (geometric mean 42.0 microg g(-1)) with the metabolite monomethyl arsonic acid (MMAA) contributing 90-97% to the total arsenic extracted. Live adult and larval beetles were collected from treated trees and reached concentrations up to 327 microg g(-1) dw. MPBs from reference trees had significantly lower arsenic concentrations averaging 0.19 microg g(-1) dw. Woodpeckers foraged more heavily on MSMAtreesthat contained beetles with lower arsenic residues, suggesting those trees had reduced MSMAtranslocation and possibly greater live beetle broods. Blood samples from five species of woodpeckers and other forest passerines breeding within 1 km of MSMA stands contained elevated levels of total arsenic but with large individual variability (geometric mean = 0.18 microg g(-1) dw, range 0.02-2.20 microg g(-1). The results indicate that there is significant accumulation and transfer of organic arsenic within the food chain at levels that may present a toxicity risk to avian wildlife.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  15. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis.

  16. Quality and consumer acceptability of salt and phosphate enhanced goat loin from goats fed varying levels of pine bark.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Broadway, P R; Solaiman, S; Behrends, J M

    2012-03-01

    Goat loins (n=22) were evaluated to test effects of 0, 15, and 30% dietary pine bark (PB) and salt, water, and phosphate enhancement on shelf-life, shear force (WBSF) and consumer acceptability. No interactions existed between PB and enhancement. Dietary PB did not affect objective color, but enhancement increased a* and b* values (P<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased from d 1 to d 5 of storage (P<0.0001), but were not affected by PB or enhancement. The WBSF for 30% PB was less than that of 0% PB (P=0.0199), and enhancement decreased WBSF (P=0.0010). Texture, flavor, and overall acceptability were greater (P<0.05) for 15 and 30% PB compared to 0% PB. Enhanced loin samples had greater appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability scores (P<0.05). Results indicated that enhancement improved tenderness and consumer acceptability of goat loin, and PB had minimal impact on goat loin quality.

  17. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol®) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin

    PubMed Central

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. Methods One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. Results A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Conclusion Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE. PMID:22956863

  18. Broadscale specificity in a bark beetle-fungal symbiosis: a spatio-temporal analysis of the mycangial fungi of the western pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, Ryan R; Six, Diana L

    2014-11-01

    Whether and how mutualisms are maintained through ecological and evolutionary time is a seldom studied aspect of bark beetle-fungal symbioses. All bark beetles are associated with fungi and some species have evolved structures for transporting their symbiotic partners. However, the fungal assemblages and specificity in these symbioses are not well known. To determine the distribution of fungi associated with the mycangia of the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), we collected beetles from across the insect's geographic range including multiple genetically distinct populations. Two fungi, Entomocorticium sp. B and Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi, were isolated from the mycangia of beetles from all locations. Repeated sampling at two sites in Montana found that Entomocorticium sp. B was the most prevalent fungus throughout the beetle's flight season, and that females carrying that fungus were on average larger than females carrying C. brevicomi. We present evidence that throughout the flight season, over broad geographic distances, and among genetically distinct populations of beetle, the western pine beetle is associated with the same two species of fungi. In addition, we provide evidence that one fungal species is associated with larger adult beetles and therefore might provide greater benefit during beetle development. The importance and maintenance of this bark beetle-fungus interaction is discussed.

  19. Complex interactions among host pines and fungi vectored by an invasive bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Wingfield, Michael J; Gillette, Nancy E; Mori, Sylvia R; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2010-08-01

    *Recent studies have investigated the relationships between pairs or groups of exotic species to illustrate invasive mechanisms, but most have focused on interactions at a single trophic level. *Here, we conducted pathogenicity tests, analyses of host volatiles and fungal growth tests to elucidate an intricate network of interactions between the host tree, the invasive red turpentine beetle and its fungal associates. *Seedlings inoculated with two strains of Leptographium procerum isolated from Dendroctonus valens in China had significantly longer lesions and higher mortality rates than seedlings inoculated with other fungal isolates. These two strains of L. procerum were significantly more tolerant of 3-carene than all other fungi isolated there, and the infection of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) seedlings by these two strains enhanced the production and release of 3-carene, the main attractant for D. valens, by the seedlings. *Our results raise the possibility that interactions among the fungal associates of D. valens and their pine hosts in China may confer advantages to these strains of L. procerum and, by extension, to the beetles themselves. These interactions may therefore enhance invasion by the beetle-fungal complex.

  20. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  1. Time trends in the levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in pine bark, litter, and soil after a forest fire.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-Deuk

    2014-02-01

    Forest fires are known as an important natural source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but time trends of PAH levels and patterns in various environmental compartments after forest fires have not been thoroughly studied yet. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs were analyzed for pine bark, litter, and soil samples collected one, three, five, and seven months after a forest fire in Pohang, South Korea. At the first sampling event, the highest levels of ∑16 PAHs were measured for the three types of samples (pine bark: 5,920 ng/g, litter: 1,540 ng/g, and soil: 133 ng/g). Thereafter, there were apparent decreasing trends in PAH levels; the control samples showed the lowest levels (pine bark: 124 ng/g, litter: 75 ng/g, and soil: 26 ng/g). The levels of PAHs in the litter and soil samples normalized by organic carbon (OC) fractions also showed decreasing trends, indicating a direct influence of the forest fire. Among the 16 target PAHs, naphthalene was a dominant compound for all types of samples. Light PAHs with 2-4 rings significantly contributed to the total concentration, and their contribution decreased in the course of time. Runoff by heavy precipitation, evaporation, and degradation of PAHs in the summer were probably the main reasons for the observed time trends. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio also supported that the forest fire was indeed an important source of PAHs in the study area. © 2013.

  2. Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Takagaki, Kinya; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-α. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption. PMID:21607011

  3. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  4. Current content of selected pollutants in moss, humus, soil and bark and long-term radial growth of pine trees in the Mezaparks forest in Riga.

    PubMed

    Pīrāga, Dace; Tabors, Guntis; Nikodemus, Oļģerts; Žīgure, Zane; Brūmelis, Guntis

    2015-11-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of various indicators in the assessment of environmental pollution and to determine the response of pine to changes of pollution levels. Mezaparks is a part of Riga that has been subject to various long-term effects of atmospheric pollution and, in particular, historically from a large superphosphate factory. To determine the spatial distribution of pollution, moss, pine bark and soil O and B horizons were used as sorbents in this study, as well as the additional annual increment of pine trees. The current spatial distribution of pollution is best shown by heavy metal accumulation in mosses and the long-term accumulation of P2O5 pollution by the soil O horizon. The methodological problems of using these sorbents were explored in the study. Environmental pollution and its changes could be associated with the tree growth ring annual additional increment of Mezaparks pine forest stands. The additional increment increased after the closing of the Riga superphosphate factory.

  5. Influence of bark beetle-caused mortality on fuel loadings and crown fire hazard in southwestern ponderosa pine stands

    Treesearch

    Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Peter Z. Fule

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are important biotic agents of conifer mortality in forests of western North America (Furniss and Carolin 1977) and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems (Fettig and others 2007). Bark beetle outbreaks affect subsequent fire behavior in part by influencing the spatial...

  6. Thinning Jeffrey pine stands to reduce susceptibility to bark beetle infestations in California, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Christopher J. Hayes; Karen J. Jones; Stephen R. McKelvey; Sylvia L. Mori; Sheri L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are commonly recognized as important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests of the western U.S.A.High stand density is consistently associated with bark beetle infestations in western coniferous forests, and therefore, thinning has long been advocated as a...

  7. Overshoot in Leaf Development of Ponderosa Pine in Wet Years Leads to Bark Beetle Outbreaks on Fine-Textured Soils in Drier Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, W. L.; Waring, R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of insects and diseases have been recorded in forests of western North America during the past few decades, but the distribution of these outbreaks has not been uniform. In some cases, recent climatic variations along with the age and density of forests may explain some spatial variation. Forest managers and policy makers would benefit if areas prone to disturbance could be recognized so that mitigating actions could be taken. In this paper, we used two ponderosa pine-dominated sites in western Montana, U.S.A. to apply a modelling approach that couples information from remote sensing, soil surveys, and local weather stations to assess where bark beetle outbreaks might first occur and why. There was a slight downward trend in precipitation for both sites over the period between 1998 and 2010, and, interannual variability was high. Some years showed large increases followed by sharp decreases. Both sites had similar topography and fire histories, but bark beetle activity occurred earlier and more severely on one site than the other. The initial canopy density of the two sites was also similar, with leaf area indices derived via Landsat imagery ranging between 1.6- 2.0 m2 m-2. We wondered if the difference in bark beetle activity might be related to soils that were fine-textured at site I and coarse-textured at site II. We applied a process-based stand growth model (3-PG) to analyze the data and evaluate the hypotheses.

  8. Effects of pine bark supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation, and carcass characteristics of Kiko crossbred male goats.

    PubMed

    Min, B R; Solaiman, S; Gurung, N; Behrends, J; Eun, J-S; Taha, E; Rose, J

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-two Kiko crossbred male goats (Capra hircus; initial BW = 27.5 ± 1.04 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding pine bark (PB; Pinus taeda L.) on animal performance, rumen fermentation, blood parameters, fecal egg counts (FEC), and carcass characteristics in goats. Experimental treatments included the control diet [0% PB plus 30% wheat straw (WS)], 15% PB plus 15% WS, and 30% PB plus 0% WS (on as-fed basis), where PB replaced WS. Freshly air-dried PB and WS were finely (1.5 to 3.0 mm) ground and incorporated in the grain mixes. Experimental diets provided a total of 1.9, 16.3, and 32 g of condense tannins (CT)/kg DM in 0%, 15%, and 30% PB diets, respectively. The grain mixes were fed daily at 85% of the feed offered, with remaining 15% consisting of Bermuda grass hay (Cynodon dactylon). Animals were fed once a day at 0800 h, and feed offered and refused was monitored for an 83-d performance period. Rumen and blood samples were collected at d 0, 50, and 80 of the study. Carcass traits were assessed after slaughter at the end of performance period. There was no difference in initial BW, hay, and total NDF intake among treatments; however, final BW (P = 0.06), ADG (P < 0.01), grain mix intake (P < 0.001), total DMI (P < 0.001), and G:F (P < 0.04) increased linearly as the PB increased in the diets. Rumen ammonia N, acetate, isovalerate and acetate-to-propionate ratio were reduced linearly (P < 0.05). There was no difference in carcass traits except cold carcass weight (P = 0.06), which tended to increase linearly in goats fed 15% and 30% PB. Breast, sirloin, trim trait, liver, and hide weight increased (linear; P < 0.01) with addition of PB. Blood basophils, alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, Na, and Cl concentrations decreased (linear; P < 0.02 to 0.01) as PB supplementation increased. Supplementation of PB reduced (linear; P < 0.01) average FEC. Addition of PB in the diets improved

  9. Southern Pine Beetle Competitors

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When southern pine beetles mass attack a living pine tree, if colonization is successful the tree dies and its phloem becomes immediately available to a complex of other bark beetles and long-horned beetles, all of which, in order to reproduce, compete for the new resource. In southern pines the phloem-inhabiting guild is composed of the southern pine beetle...

  10. Bugs and burns: effects of fire on ponderosa pine bark beetle (Project INT-F-07-02)

    Treesearch

    Thomas DeGomez; Thomas Kolb; Sabrina Kleinman; Kelly Williams

    2013-01-01

    Fire-damaged trees that otherwise would have survived can be killed by bark beetles (McCullough and others 1998, McHugh and others 2003). Wallin and others (2008) found that fire weakens a tree’s defense against bark beetles. An unacceptable level of tree mortality may occur after a controlled burn as a result of weakened tree defenses (Sullivan and others 2003)....

  11. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  12. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; Steven E. McKeand; Eric J. Jokela; Robert B. Rummer; Les Groom; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2013-01-01

    The southern pines (yellow or hard pines, Genus Pinus Sub-genus Pinus Section Pinus Subsection Australes) occupy an immense land-base in the southeastern region of the United States (Little and Critchfield, 1969). In addition, they are planted and managed for wood production on millions of hectares worldwide including China, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia. The...

  13. Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands

    Treesearch

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Michael A. Battaglia

    2011-01-01

    In the southern Rocky Mountains, current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks and associated harvesting have set millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forest onto new stand development trajectories. Information about immediate, post-disturbance tree regeneration will provide insight on...

  14. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Treesearch

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  15. Attraction of Southern Pine Engravers and Associated Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to Ipsenol, Ipsdienol, and Lanierone in Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; C. Asaro; C. W. Berisford

    2005-01-01

    We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulses (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (±)-ipsenol, (±)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the...

  16. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Blande, James D; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-beta-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites.

  17. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  18. Effect of purified condensed tannins from pine bark on larval motility, egg hatching and larval development of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae).

    PubMed

    Molan, Abdul-Lateef

    2014-08-01

    The effects of condensed tannins (CTs) extracted from pine bark on egg hatching, larval development and the viability of infective L3 larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) and Teladorsagia circumcincta (Stadelmann, 1894) (syn. Ostertagia circumcincta) were evaluated using in vitro bioassays. Significant inhibitory effects of CTs were obtained on the viability of the infective larvae, egg hatching and larval development of both nematodes. In all bioassays, the larval stages of Te. circumcincta were significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of CT than those of Tr. colubriformis. At 1 000 microg/ml, CTs from pine bark inhibited 48% and 69% of the infective larvae of Tr. colubriformis and Te. circumcincta, respectively, from passing through the sieve relative to the control incubations (no CT added; P < 0.0001). At the same concentration, CTs were able to inhibit 36% and 47% of the eggs of the two parasites, respectively, from hatching relative to the control incubations without CTs. Moreover, at 150 microg/ml, the CTs were able to inhibit 88% and 95% (P < 0.0001 relative to control incubation) of L1 larvae of the two nematodes, respectively, from attaining the full development to L3 larvae in comparison with the control incubations without CTs. At 200 microg/ml, CTs were able to inhibit completely the larval development in both nematodes. Addition of 2 microg polyethylene glycol (PEG; tannin inhibitor) per microg CT eliminated up to 87% of the CT activity (P < 0.0001) compared to incubations without PEG. In conclusion, this study shows that CTs are able to disrupt the life cycle of nematodes and their effects varied according to the parasite species and stage.

  19. The Mediterranean pine engraver

    Treesearch

    Jana C. Lee; Sheri L. Smith; Steven J. Seybold

    2005-01-01

    In May 2004, a new exotic bark beetle for North America was discovered in baited flight traps in Fresno, California during an annual bark beetle and woodborer survey by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. This bark beetle was identified as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), the Mediterranean pine engraver, a well-documented pest of...

  20. Systemic effects of Heterobasidion annosum on ferulic acid glucoside and lignin of presymptomatic ponderosa pine phloem, and potential effects on bark-beetle-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Gordon, Thomas R; Wood, David L; Heller, Werner

    2003-05-01

    Concentrations of soluble phenolics and lignin in the phloem of ponderosa pines inoculated with the pathogen Heterobasidion annosum were assessed over a period of 2 years in a 35-year-old plantation in northern California, USA. The major effect of the pathogen on phloem-soluble phenolics consisted of a significant accumulation of ferulic acid glucoside: 503 +/- 27 microg/g fresh weight (FW), compared with 366 +/- 26 microg/g FW for mock-treated and 386 +/- 27 microg/g FW for control trees. Lignin content was negatively correlated with ferulic acid glucoside concentration, and there was an indication of lignin reduction in the cell walls of inoculated trees. Lignin had a negative effect on the in vitro growth of two common bark beetle fungal associates. Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi and Ophiostoma minus. For this reason it, is hypothesized that lower lignification may facilitate the growth of beetle-associated fungi, resulting in greater susceptibility of the presymptomatic host to bark beetle colonization.

  1. Near infrared spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, J. B.; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on near infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred carbon in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark and pine wood) and char from these materials created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450??C) were studied. Near infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols as determined by titration) were available for 56 different samples (Not all samples charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature and duration of charring. Examination of spectra and correlation plots indicated that changes in the constituents of the materials in question, such as loss of OH groups in carbohydrates, rather than direct determination of typical products produced by charring, such as carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols, were the basis for the spectral changes. Finally, while the spectral changes resulting from charring appeared to be relatively unique to each material, PLS calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones and phenols were successfully created (with R2 of 0.991, 0.943, 0.931 and 0.944, respectively) indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific set of charring conditions (i.e. material, temperature and time of heating). ?? IM Publications 2007.

  2. Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopic examination of charred pine wood, bark, cellulose, and lignin: Implications for the quantitative determination of charcoal in soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, J. B.; McCarty, G.W.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Fires in terrestrial ecosystems produce large amounts of charcoal that persist in the environment and represent a substantial pool of sequestered carbon in soil. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of charring on mid-infrared spectra of materials likely to be present in forest fires in order to determine the feasibility of determining charred organic matter in soils. Four materials (cellulose, lignin, pine bark, and pine wood) and char from these materials, created by charring for various durations (1 to 168 h) and at various temperatures (200 to 450 ??C), were studied. Mid-infrared spectra and measures of acidity (total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols as determined by titration) were determined for 56 different samples (not all samples were charred at all temperatures/durations). Results showed spectral changes that varied with the material, temperature, and duration of charring. Despite the wide range of spectral changes seen with the differing materials and length/temperature of charring, partial least squares calibrations for total acids, carboxylic acids, lactones, and phenols were successfully created (coefficient of determination and root mean squared deviation of 0.970 and 0.380; 0.933 and 0.227; 0.976 and 0.120; and 0.982 and 0.101 meq/g, respectively), indicating that there is a sufficient commonality in the changes to develop calibrations without the need for unique calibrations for each specific material or condition of char formation. ?? 2008 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  3. De novo biosynthesis of the aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by the pine bark beetles Ips paraconfusus Lanier and Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed Central

    Seybold, S J; Quilici, D R; Tillman, J A; Vanderwel, D; Wood, D L; Blomquist, G J

    1995-01-01

    The California five-spined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, produces the myrcene-derived acyclic monoterpene alcohols ipsenol (2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol) and ipsdienol (2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadien-4-ol) as components of its aggregation pheromone. The pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Say), produces only ipsdienol. Previous studies have shown that myrcene, a monoterpene in the pines colonized by these beetles, is a direct precursor to these pheromone components. In vivo radiolabeling studies reported here showed that male I. paraconfusus incorporated [1-14C]acetate into ipsenol, ipsdienol, and amitinol (trans-2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol), while male I. pini incorporated [1-14C]acetate into ipsdienol and amitinol. Females of these species produced neither labeled nor unlabeled pheromone components. The purified radiolabeled monoterpene alcohols from-males were identified by comparison of their HPLC and GC retention times with those of unlabeled standards. HPLC-purified fractions containing the individual radiolabeled components were analyzed by GC-MS and were shown to include only the pure alcohols. To further confirm that ipsdienol and ipsenol were radiolabeled, diastereomeric ester derivatives of the isolated alcohols were synthesized and analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. After derivatization of the radiolabeled alcohols, the HPLC analysis demonstrated expected shifts in retention times with conservation of naturally occurring stereochemistry. The results provide direct evidence for de novo biosynthesis of ipsenol, ipsdienol, and amitinol by bark beetles. PMID:11607576

  4. Determining the vulnerability of Mexican pine forests to bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Y. Salinas-Moreno; A. Ager; C.F. Vargas; J.L. Hayes; G. Zuniga

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are natural inhabitants of forests; under particular conditions some species of this genus can cause large-scale tree mortality. However, only in recent decades has priority been given to the comprehensive study of these insects in Mexico. Mexico possesses high ecological diversity in Dendroctonus-...

  5. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  6. Segregating wood and bark chips by photosorting.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos; Douglas B. Brumm

    1978-01-01

    Spectral transmittance measurements on aspen, sugar maple, and loblolly pine wood and bark chips resulted in peak wood-to-bark transmission ratio ranges from 10 to 50. Preliminary segregation results from an experimental photosorter indicate than 70 to 80% of the wood fiber can be recovered with less than a 2% bark content.

  7. Bark structure of southern upland oaks

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1977-01-01

    Bark structure of eleven oak species commonly found on southern pine sites was examined and described. In inner bark (phloem), groups of thick-walled lignified fibers and sclereids are interspersed among thin-walled cellulosic elements (parenchyma, sieve tube members, and companion cells). These fibers and sclereids greatly influence the bark's density, hardness,...

  8. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  9. Use of a bark thickness—tree diameter relationship for estimating past diameters of ponderosa pine trees.

    Treesearch

    Floyd A. Johnson

    1956-01-01

    Whenever past diameters of ponderosa pine trees are required for growth studies or for other purposes they can be estimated with these formulas: (1) trees 10 inches and over in diameter at breast height Dp=Dn - Wg (1.121) Where Dp...

  10. Resiliency of an interior ponderosa pine forest to bark beetle infestations following fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments

    Treesearch

    Christopher J Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest...

  11. Verbenone: Dose-Dependent Interruption of Pheromone-Based Attraction of Three Sympatric Species of Pine Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden; B. Staffan Lindgren

    1995-01-01

    Verbenone significantly reduced catches of Ips latidens (LeConte), I. pini (Say), and Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins in multiple-funnel traps, baited with aggregation pheromones, in stands of lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia. Interruption of attraction was dose dependent for all three species. There...

  12. Pissodes castaneus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the bark pine weevil: a pest or a biological indicator?

    Treesearch

    Edson Tadeu Iede; Wilson Reis Filho; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Scheila Messa. Zaleski

    2011-01-01

    The risk of introduction of exotic forest pests is a global problem, evidenced by records of interceptions even in countries that have a quite effective system of plant protection. The banded pine weevil, Pissodes castaneus, is native to Europe and North Africa and was introduced into Argentina and Uruguay and recently into Brazil where it was first...

  13. Role of plant enemies in the forestry of indigenous vs. nonindigenous pines.

    PubMed

    Lombardero, María J; Vázquez-Mejuto, Patricia; Ayres, Matthew P

    2008-07-01

    Plantations of rapidly growing trees are becoming increasingly common because the high productivity can enhance local economies, support improvements in educational systems, and generally improve the quality of life in rural communities. Landowners frequently choose to plant nonindigenous species; one rationalization has been that silvicultural productivity is enhanced when trees are separated from their native herbivores and pathogens. The expectation of enemy reduction in nonindigenous species has theoretical and empirical support from studies of the enemy release hypothesis (ERH) in the context of invasion ecology, but its relevance to forestry has not been evaluated. We evaluated ERH in the productive forests of Galicia, Spain, where there has been a profusion of pine plantations, some with the indigenous Pinus pinaster, but increasingly with the nonindigenous P. radiata. Here, one of the most important pests of pines is the indigenous bark beetle, Tomicus piniperda. In support of ERH, attacks by T. piniperda were more than twice as great in stands of P. pinaster compared to P. radiata. This differential held across a range of tree ages and beetle abundance. However, this extension of ERH to forestry failed in the broader sense because beetle attacks, although fewer on P. radiata, reduced productivity of P. radiata more than that of P. pinaster (probably because more photosynthetic tissue is lost per beetle attack in P. radiata). Productivity of the nonindigenous pine was further reduced by the pathogen, Sphaeropsis sapinea, which infected up to 28% of P. radiata but was absent in P. pinaster. This was consistent with the forestry axiom (antithetical to ERH) that trees planted "off-site" are more susceptible to pathogens. Fungal infections were positively correlated with beetle attacks; apparently T. piniperda facilitates S. sapinea infections by creating wounds and by carrying fungal propagules. A globally important component in the diminution of indigenous

  14. Potting Media Affect Growth and Disease Development of Container-Grown Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    William H. Pawuk

    1981-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) seedlings grew best in equal parts of peat and vermiculite with a low pH. Seedlings grew better in shredded pine cone media than pine bark media. Growth increased when soil or vermiculite was added to cone or bark chips. Commercial bark-vermiculite...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi mediate indirect effects of a bark beetle outbreak on secondary chemistry and establishment of pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Karst, Justine; Erbilgin, Nadir; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Najar, Ahmed; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-11-01

    Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of Pinus contorta in western North America with subsequent effects on stand conditions, including changes in light intensity, needle deposition, and the composition of fungal community mutualists, namely ectomycorrhizal fungi. It is unknown whether these changes in stand conditions will have cascading consequences for the next generation of pine seedlings. To test for transgenerational cascades on pine seedlings, we tested the effects of fungal inoculum origin (beetle-killed or undisturbed stands), light intensity and litter (origin and presence) on seedling secondary chemistry and growth in a glasshouse. We also tracked survival of seedlings over two growing seasons in the same stands from which fungi and litter were collected. Fungal communities differed by inoculum origin. Seedlings grown with fungi collected from beetle-killed stands had lower monoterpene concentrations and fewer monoterpene compounds present compared with seedlings grown with fungi collected from undisturbed stands. Litter affected neither monoterpenes nor seedling growth. Seedling survival in the field was lower in beetle-killed than in undisturbed stands. We demonstrate that stand mortality caused by prior beetle attacks of mature pines have cascading effects on seedling secondary chemistry, growth and survival, probably mediated through effects on below-ground mutualisms. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar

    2013-03-01

    Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (P<0.05) the production of IL-8 and NO compared with digested samples. ROS production increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested commercial red fruit juice (86.8±1.3%) compared with fresh juice (77.4±0.8%) and increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested enriched red fruit juice (82.6±1.6%) compared with the fresh enriched juice (55.8±6%). The anti-inflammatory properties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  18. Gastrointestinal Bacterial and Methanogenic Archaea Diversity Dynamics Associated with Condensed Tannin-Containing Pine Bark Diet in Goats Using 16S rDNA Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Min, Byeng R; Solaiman, Sandra; Shange, Raymon; Eun, Jong-Su

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats (n = 6) were used to collect gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria and methanogenic archaea for diversity measures when fed condensed tannin-containing pine bark (PB). Three dietary treatments were tested: control diet (0% PB and 30% wheat straw (WS); 0.17% condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)); 15% PB and 15% WS (1.6% CT DM), and 30% PB and 0% WS (3.2% CT DM). A 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing technique was used to characterize and elucidate changes in GI bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity among the diets. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in goats with mean relative abundance values ranging from 39.7 (30% PB) to 46.5% (control) and 47.1% (15% PB). Other phyla individually accounted for fewer than 25% of the relative abundance observed. Predominant methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively. Among methanogens, Methanobrevibacter was linearly decreased (P = 0.05) with increasing PB supplementation. These results indicate that feeding PB selectively altered bacteria and methanogenic archaeal populations in the GI tract of goats.

  19. Gastrointestinal Bacterial and Methanogenic Archaea Diversity Dynamics Associated with Condensed Tannin-Containing Pine Bark Diet in Goats Using 16S rDNA Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byeng R.; Solaiman, Sandra; Shange, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen Kiko-cross meat goats (n = 6) were used to collect gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria and methanogenic archaea for diversity measures when fed condensed tannin-containing pine bark (PB). Three dietary treatments were tested: control diet (0% PB and 30% wheat straw (WS); 0.17% condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)); 15% PB and 15% WS (1.6% CT DM), and 30% PB and 0% WS (3.2% CT DM). A 16S rDNA bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing technique was used to characterize and elucidate changes in GI bacteria and methanogenic archaea diversity among the diets. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in goats with mean relative abundance values ranging from 39.7 (30% PB) to 46.5% (control) and 47.1% (15% PB). Other phyla individually accounted for fewer than 25% of the relative abundance observed. Predominant methanogens were Methanobrevibacter (75, 72, and 49%), Methanosphaera (3.3, 2.3, and 3.4%), and Methanobacteriaceae (1.2, 0.6, and 0.7%) population in control, 15, and 30% PB, respectively. Among methanogens, Methanobrevibacter was linearly decreased (P = 0.05) with increasing PB supplementation. These results indicate that feeding PB selectively altered bacteria and methanogenic archaeal populations in the GI tract of goats. PMID:24669219

  20. French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima Lam.) extract (Flavangenol) prevents chronic UVB radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis in melanin-possessing hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yoshiyuki; Sumiyoshi, Maho

    2010-01-01

    A French maritime pine bark extract, Flavangenol, is widely used as a nutritional supplement for protection against atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, etc. Chronic exposure to solar UV radiation damages skin, increasing cutaneous thickness, wrinkling and pigmentation, as well as reducing elasticity, and causes skin cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of flavangenol on skin damage and the incidence of skin tumors caused by long-term UVB irradiation in melanin-possessing hairless mice. The oral administration of flavangenol (60, 200 or 600 mg kg(-1), twice daily) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness, and the formation of wrinkles and melanin granules, as well as increases in the diameter and length of skin blood vessels. Furthermore, it prevented increases in numbers of apoptotic, Ki-67-positive and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)-positive cells, and the expression of skin vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by chronic UVB irradiation. The effect on these biomarkers was associated with a reduction in the incidence of tumors in mice. The antiphotoaging and anticarcinogenetic activities of flavangenol may be due to inhibition of the expression of Ki-67, 8-OHdG and VEGF through a scavenging effect on reactive oxygen species.

  1. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  2. Attraction of southern pine engravers and associated bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone in southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Asaro, C; Berisford, C W

    2005-12-01

    We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the southeastern United States. Catches of I. avulsus and I. grandicollis to baited multiple-funnel traps were increased by (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina. In all four localities, the highest numbers of I. avulsus were caught in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone. In Florida, the highest numbers of I. grandicollis were captured in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). In the remaining three localities, the largest catches of I. grandicollis occurred in traps baited with (+/-)-ipsenol alone or the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). (+/-)-Ipsdienol was the only consistent attractant for I. calligraphus and I. pini. Attraction of I. pini in North Carolina to (+/-)-ipsdienol-baited traps was synergized by lanierone but interrupted with (+/-)-ipsenol. The interruptive effect of (+/-)-ipsenol on attraction of I. pini to (+/-)-ipsdienol was negated by lanierone. (+/-)-Ipsdienol was attractive to black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier), in Florida but not North Carolina, whereas (+/-)-ipsdienol was attractive to I. calligraphus in Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. Both (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol affected catches of Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) in North Carolina. Trap catches of Hylurgops rugipennis pinifex (Fitch), Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff, and Hylastes tenuis Eichhoff were unaffected by the pheromone treatments. The combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone may be a cost-effective general lure for I. avulsus, I. grandicollis, and I. pini.

  3. Germacranolides from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    El Hassany, B; El Hanbali, F; Akssira, M; Mellouki, F; Haidour, A; Barrero, A F

    2004-09-01

    The aerial parts of Anvillea radiata yielded a new germacranolide, 8alpha,9alpha-epoxyparthenolide (3), together with two known compounds, 9alpha-hydroxyparthenolide (1) and parthenolid-9-one (2). The structures of the compounds were elucidated from IR, HRMS, 1H and 13C-NMR, COSY, HETCOR, HMBC and HOHAHA spectral data. The major component 1 was tested for its cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

  4. Mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Sandy Kegley; Barbara Bentz

    2009-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a member of a group of insects known as bark beetles. Its entire life cycle is spent beneath the bark of host trees, except when adults emerge from brood trees and fly in search of new host trees.

  5. Chronic oral administration of pine bark extract (flavangenol) attenuates brain and liver mRNA expressions of HSPs in heat-exposed chicks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Han, Guofeng; Zhang, Rong; Tagashira, Hideki; Tsubata, Masahito; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a high ambient temperature (HT) can cause heat stress, which has a huge negative impact on physiological functions. Cellular heat-shock response is activated upon exposure to HT for cellular maintenance and adaptation. In addition, antioxidants are used to support physiological functions under HT in a variety of organisms. Flavangenol, an extract of pine bark, is one of the most potent antioxidants with its complex mixture of polyphenols. In the current study, chronic (a single daily oral administration for 14 days) or acute (a single oral administration) oral administration of flavangenol was performed on chicks. Then the chicks were exposed to an acute HT (40±1°C for 3h) to examine the effect of flavangenol on the mRNA expression of heat-shock protein (HSP) in the brain and liver. Rectal temperature, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), a marker of liver damage, and plasma corticosterone as well as metabolites were also determined. HSP-70 and -90 mRNA expression, rectal temperature, plasma AAT and corticosterone were increased by HT. Interestingly, the chronic, but not the acute, administration of flavangenol caused a declining in the diencephalic mRNA expression of HSP-70 and -90 and plasma AAT in HT-exposed chicks. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA expression of HSP-90 was also significantly decreased by chronic oral administration of flavangenol in HT chicks. These results indicate that chronic, but not acute, oral administration of flavangenol attenuates HSP mRNA expression in the central and peripheral tissues due to its possible role in improving cellular protective functions during heat stress. The flavangenol-dependent decline in plasma AAT further suggests that liver damage induced by heat stress was minimized by flavangenol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace gas emissions from a chronosequence of bark beetle-infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, U.; Pendall, E.; Ewers, B. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2011-12-01

    Severe outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) and associated blue stain fungi have killed millions of hectares of coniferous forests in Western North America. This unprecedented disturbance has critically impacted ecosystem biogeochemistry and net carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes. However, the effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and drivers of biogeochemical processes that trigger GHG emissions following MPB infestations are not well understood. Such information can help assess regional-level changes in ecosystem C and N budgets and large-scale disturbance impacts on gas exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem. The overall objective of this research was to assess the immediate responses of GHG fluxes and soil C and N mineralization rates along a chronosequence of recently infested (1-yr, 3-yr and 4-yr ago) and uninfested (150-yr, 20-yr and 15-yr old) lodgepole pine stands in Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. We hypothesize that MPB-induced tree mortality significantly changes stand-level hydrology, soil organic matter quality and chemistry of aboveground and belowground plant inputs. Consequently, these modifications influence nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and methane (CH4) assimilation. Biweekly GHG measurements using static chambers were carried out during three consecutive snow-free growing seasons. Our results suggest that a stand infested within a year already shows a 20% increase in spring N2O production and a small decline in summer CH4 assimilation when compared to uninfested stands. Stands infested three and four years prior to our measurements produce over three times more N2O and assimilate three to five times less CH4 when compared to uninfested stands. In addition, a notable increase in soil moisture content and soil mineral N concentrations following early onset of the MPB infestation was also observed. An overall increase in N2O production and decline in CH4 assimilation following MPB infestation may

  7. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus to volatiles from host pines and conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; Armendáriz-Toledano, Francisco; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2012-05-01

    The bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus is endemic to northwestern Mexico where it kills immature pines < 3 m tall. We report the first investigation of the chemical ecology of this pest of forest regeneration. We used GC-EAD to assess olfactory sensitivity of this species to volatile compounds from: resin of a major host, Pinus arizonica; mid/hindguts of single, gallery-initiating females; and mate-paired males within galleries of attacked host trees in the field. Antennae of both sexes responded to monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene as well as to the beetle-derived oxygenated monoterpenes fenchyl alcohol, myrtenal, cis-verbenol, trans-verbenol, verbenone, and myrtenol. These monoterpenes were quantified from pre-emerged D. rhizophagus adults forced to attack host tissue in the laboratory, and from individuals dissected from naturally-attacked hosts at different stages of colonization. In both bioassays, myrtenol and trans-verbenol were the most abundant volatiles, and trans-verbenol was the only one produced in significantly greater quantities by females than males in a naturally-colonized host. Two field experiments were performed to evaluate behavioral responses of D. rhizophagus to antennally-active monoterpenes. Results show that 3-carene was significantly attractive either alone or in a ternary (1:1:1) combination with α-pinene and β-pinene, whereas neither α-pinene nor β-pinene alone were attractive. None of the beetle-associated oxygenated monoterpenes enhanced the attractiveness of the ternary mixture of monoterpenes, while verbenone either alone or combined with the other five oxygenated terpenes reduced D. rhizophagus attraction to the ternary mixture. The results suggest that attraction of D. rhizophagus to the host tree P. arizonica is mediated especially by 3-carene. There was no conclusive evidence for an aggregation or sex attractant pheromone.

  8. Southern Pine Beetle Behavior and Semiochemistry

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) feeds both as adults and larvae within the inner bark of pine trees, which invariably die as a result of colonization. Populations of the SPB erupt periodically and produce catastrophic losses of pines, while at other times the beetles persist almost undetectably in the environment. The southern pine beetle has evolved behaviors that...

  9. Association genetics of oleoresin flow in loblolly pine: discovering genes and predicting phenotype for improved resistance to bark beetles and bioenergy potential

    Treesearch

    Jared W. Westbrook; Marcio F. R. Resende Jr.; Patricio Munoz; Alejandro R. Walker; Jill L. Wegrzyn; C. Dana Nelson; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Salvador A. Gezan; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, outbreaks of bark beetles in coniferous forests of North America have caused unprecedented tree mortality and economic losses (Nowak et al., 2008; van Mantgem et al., 2009; Waring et al., 2009), converting forests that were previously atmospheric carbon sinks into carbon sources (Kurz et al., 2008). Native species of bark beetle rapidly kill healthy...

  10. Bark beetles and dwarf mistletoe interact to alter downed woody material, canopy structure, and stand characteristics in northern Colorado ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Russell D. Beam; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreaks of bark beetles in western U.S.A., research has focused on the effects of tree mortality on forest conditions, such as fuel complexes and stand structure. However, most studies have addressed outbreak populations of bark beetles only and there is a lack of information on the effect of multiple endemic, low level populations of biotic...

  11. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of North-Central Arizona

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Hayes; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold

    2008-01-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study...

  12. Evaluation of micron-sized wood and bark particles as filler in thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    David P. Harper; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2010-01-01

    Micron-sized particles, prepared from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) wood and bark, were evaluated for use in wood-plastic composites (WPCs). Particles were also prepared from hard (periderm) and soft (obliterated phloem) components in the bark and compared to whole wood (without bark) filler commonly used by the WPC industry. All bark fillers had...

  13. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  14. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    PubMed

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-03-14

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and (1)H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL(-)(1)). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties.

  15. Impact of industrial source on the chemical composition of loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2012-01-01

    The chemical compositions of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) bark samples from two industrial sources were determined for whole bark as well as the inner and outer bark components. Differences in extractive contents of the whole bark samples were primarily attributed to the different debarking methods which afforded different proportions of inner and outer bark....

  16. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior in salvage logged and untreated lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    B. J. Collins; C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; R. M. Hubbard

    2012-01-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestations have resulted in widespread tree mortality and the accumulation of dead woody fuels across the Rocky Mountain region, creating concerns over future forest stand conditions and fire behavior. We quantified how salvage logging influenced tree regeneration and fuel loads relative to nearby, uncut stands for 24 lodgepole pine...

  17. Inducibility of chemical defences by two chewing insect herbivores in pine trees is specific to targeted plant tissue, particular herbivore and defensive trait.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Lundborg, Lina; Zas, Rafael; Carrillo-Gavilán, Amparo; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Sampedro, Luis

    2013-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that plants can react to biotic aggressions with highly specific responses. However, few studies have attempted to jointly investigate whether the induction of plant defences is specific to a targeted plant tissue, plant species, herbivore identity, and defensive trait. Here we studied those factors contributing to the specificity of induced defensive responses in two economically important pine species against two chewing insect pest herbivores. Juvenile trees of Pinus pinaster and P. radiata were exposed to herbivory by two major pest threats, the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (a bark-feeder) and the pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (a folivore). We quantified in two tissues (stem and needles) the constitutive (control plants) and herbivore-induced concentrations of total polyphenolics, volatile and non-volatile resin, as well as the profile of mono- and sesquiterpenes. Stem chewing by the pine weevil increased concentrations of non-volatile resin, volatile monoterpenes, and (marginally) polyphenolics in stem tissues. Weevil feeding also increased the concentration of non-volatile resin and decreased polyphenolics in the needle tissues. Folivory by the caterpillar had no major effects on needle defensive chemistry, but a strong increase in the concentration of polyphenolics in the stem. Interestingly, we found similar patterns for all these above-reported effects in both pine species. These results offer convincing evidence that induced defences are highly specific and may vary depending on the targeted plant tissue, the insect herbivore causing the damage and the considered defensive compound.

  18. Mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine: Comparing methods for rating susceptibility

    Treesearch

    David C. Chojnacky; Barbara J. Bentz; Jesse A. Logan

    2000-01-01

    Two empirical methods for rating susceptibility of mountain pine beetle attack in ponderosa pine were evaluated. The methods were compared to stand data modeled to objectively rate each sampled stand for susceptibly to bark-beetle attack. Data on bark-beetle attacks, from a survey of 45 sites throughout the Colorado Plateau, were modeled using logistic regression to...

  19. Isolation and extreme sex-specific expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, following feeding on the phloem of host ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    PubMed

    Huber, D P W; Erickson, M L; Leutenegger, C M; Bohlmann, J; Seybold, S J

    2007-06-01

    We have identified cDNAs and characterized the expression of 13 novel cytochrome P450 genes of potential importance in host colonization and reproduction by the California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus. Twelve are of the Cyp4 family and one is of the Cyp9 family. Following feeding on host Pinus ponderosa phloem, bark beetle transcript levels of several of the Cyp4 genes increased or decreased in males only or in both sexes. In one instance (IparaCyp4A5) transcript accumulated significantly in females, but declined significantly in males. The Cyp9 gene (Cyp9T1) transcript levels in males were > 85 000 x higher at 8 h and > 25 000 x higher at 24 h after feeding compared with nonfed controls. Transcript levels in females were approximately 150 x higher at 24 h compared with nonfed controls. Cyp4G27 transcript was present constitutively regardless of sex or feeding and served as a better housekeeping gene than beta-actin or 18S rRNA for the real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression patterns of Cyp4AY1, Cyp4BG1, and, especially, Cyp9T1 in males suggest roles for these genes in male-specific aggregation pheromone production. The differential transcript accumulation patterns of these bark beetle P450s provide insight into ecological interactions of I. paraconfusus with its host pines.

  20. Nucleotide variation in genes invloved in wood formation in two pine species

    Treesearch

    David Pot; Lisa McMillan; Craig Echt; Gregoire Le Provost; Pauline Garnier-Gere; Sheree Cato; Christophe Plomion

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide diversity in eight genes related to wood formation was investigated in two pine species, Pinus pinaster and P. radiata. The nucleotide diversity patterns observed and their properties were compared between the two species according to the specific characteristics of the samples analysed. A lower diversity was observed in P. radiata...

  1. Effectiveness of permethrin plus-C (Masterline®) and carbaryl (Sevin SL®) for protecting individual, high-value pines from bark beetle attack

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Thomas E. DeGomez; Kenneth E. Gibson; Christopher J. Dabney; Robert R. Borys

    2006-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) are commonly recognized as the most important mortality agent in western coniferous forests. High value trees, such as those located in residential, recreational, or administrative sites, are particularly susceptible to attack. Regardless of landowner objectives, tree losses in these unique environments generally have a...

  2. Length of multiple-funnel traps affects catches of smoke bark and wood boring beetles in a slash pine stand in Northern Florida

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Christopher M. Crowe

    2010-01-01

    The multiple-funnel trap has gained broad acceptance for catching bark and ambrosia beetles since the trap was developed more than 25 years ago (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Lindgren 1983). The trap consists of black plastic funnels aligned vertically over each other, allowing for intercepted beetles to fall through the funnels into a wet or dry collection cup located on...

  3. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Mason; Kier D. Klepzig; Brian J. Kopper; Philip J. Kersten; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2015-01-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle -fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene...

  4. Managing slash to minimize colonization of residual leave trees by Ips and other bark beetle species following thinning in southwestern ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    T. DeGomez; C.J. Fettig; J.D. McMillin; J.A. Anhold; C.J. Hayes

    2008-01-01

    Due to high fire hazard and perceived reductions in forest health, thinning of small diameter trees has become a prevalent management activity particularly in dense stands. Creation of large amounts of logging slash, however, has created large quantities of habitat for bark beetles primarily in the Ips genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae,...

  5. Mechanical Control of Southern Pine Beetle Infestations

    Treesearch

    Ronald F. Billings

    2011-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of the southern pine beetle (SPB) may affect thousands of acres of commercial pine forests in the Southeastern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Accordingly, this species is the target of more aggressive and effective suppression programs than any other bark beetle pest in the world. The strategy for controlling the southern pine beetle...

  6. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  7. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Allender; Karen M. Clancy; Tom E. DeGomez; Joel D. McMillin; Scott A. Woolbright; Paul Keim; David M. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these...

  8. Forest mortality in high-elevation whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests of eastern California, USA; influence of environmental context, bark beetles, climatic water deficit, and warming

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; Robert D. Westfall; Diane L. Delany; Matthew J. Bokach; Alan L. Flint; Lorraine E. Flint

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) in subalpine zones of eastern California experienced significant mortality from 2007 to 2010. Dying stands were dense (mean basal area 47.5 m2/ha), young (mean 176 years), and even-age; mean stand mortality was 70%. Stands were at low elevations (mean 2993 m), on northerly aspects, and...

  9. Chapter 8 optimized test design for identification of the variation of elastic stiffness properties of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) pith to bark

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann; John Considine; F. Pierron

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the design optimization of an un-notched Iosipescu test specimen whose goal is the characterization of the material elastic stiffnesses of a Loblolly (Pinus taeda) or Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) sample in one single test. A series of finite element (FE) and grid simulations were conducted to determine displacement and strain fields for various...

  10. Residual activity of carbaryl protected lodgepole pine against mountain pine beetle, Dillon, Colorado, 1982 and 1983

    Treesearch

    Marion Page; Michael I. Haverty; Charles E. Richmond

    1985-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most destructive insect that attacks lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.), a species valued for multiple uses throughout North America. The effective residual life of carbaryl, applied as a 2 percent suspension of Sevimol to the bark of lodgepole pine to prevent...

  11. Opportunities to use bark polyphenols in specialty chemical markets

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    Current forestry practice in North America is to transport pulpwood and logs from the harvest site to the mill with the bark on the wood. Approximately 18 percent of the weight of logs from conifers such as southern pine is bark. The majority of this bark is burned as hog fuel, but its fuel value is low. When compared with natural gas at an average of $2.50/MBTU or...

  12. Attraction of the bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) to host-associated olfactory cues

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Eva M. Pettersson; Katja C. Seltmann; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to identify host location cues used by Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg), a larval/pupal parasitoid of bark beetles. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, female R. xylophagorum were attracted to infested bark (i.e., phloem, cambium, and outer corky bark tissues) removed from bolts of loblolly pine,...

  13. Reconsidering the conservation of monterey pine

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1998-01-01

    Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) is a well known and much loved rare endemic of California and Raja California. Over the past two million years, its distribution has fluctuated regularly in response to climate change, Today, the species is contained in five small disjunct native populations: at Point Año Nuevo, the Monterey Peninsula, and Cambria in...

  14. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  15. The usability of tree barks as long term biomonitors of atmospheric radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Belivermiş, Murat; Kiliç, Onder; Cotuk, Yavuz; Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kalayci, Gülşah; Peştreli, Didem

    2010-12-01

    In view of the lower radionuclide activities of moss and lichen, tree barks can be used as biomonitors of radioactive contamination, regardless of the contribution of soil uptake. The present study was conducted to determine the activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U in the barks of pine (Pinus nigra) and oak (Quercus petraea) trees collected from the Thrace region in Turkey. By considering the previous studies carried out in the same region, it is noticed that among lichen, moss, oak bark and pine bark, oak bark is the best accumulator of (137)Cs and natural radionuclides.

  16. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from six developing xylem libraries in Pinus radiata D. Don

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Dillon, Shannon K; Southerton, Simon G

    2009-01-01

    Background Wood is a major renewable natural resource for the timber, fibre and bioenergy industry. Pinus radiata D. Don is the most important commercial plantation tree species in Australia and several other countries; however, genomic resources for this species are very limited in public databases. Our primary objective was to sequence a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in radiata pine. Results Six developing xylem cDNA libraries were constructed from earlywood and latewood tissues sampled at juvenile (7 yrs), transition (11 yrs) and mature (30 yrs) ages, respectively. These xylem tissues represent six typical development stages in a rotation period of radiata pine. A total of 6,389 high quality ESTs were collected from 5,952 cDNA clones. Assembly of 5,952 ESTs from 5' end sequences generated 3,304 unigenes including 952 contigs and 2,352 singletons. About 97.0% of the 5,952 ESTs and 96.1% of the unigenes have matches in the UniProt and TIGR databases. Of the 3,174 unigenes with matches, 42.9% were not assigned GO (Gene Ontology) terms and their functions are unknown or unclassified. More than half (52.1%) of the 5,952 ESTs have matches in the Pfam database and represent 772 known protein families. About 18.0% of the 5,952 ESTs matched cell wall related genes in the MAIZEWALL database, representing all 18 categories, 91 of all 174 families and possibly 557 genes. Fifteen cell wall-related genes are ranked in the 30 most abundant genes, including CesA, tubulin, AGP, SAMS, actin, laccase, CCoAMT, MetE, phytocyanin, pectate lyase, cellulase, SuSy, expansin, chitinase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Based on the PlantTFDB database 41 of the 64 transcription factor families in the poplar genome were identified as being involved in radiata pine wood formation. Comparative analysis of GO term abundance revealed a distinct transcriptome in juvenile earlywood formation compared to other stages of wood development

  17. Geographic isolation of Diplodia scrobiculata and its association with native Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Treena I; Gordon, Thomas R; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2004-12-01

    Diplodia pinea (syn. Sphaeropsis sapinea) is a well-known latent pathogen of Pinus spp. with a worldwide distribution. As such, this fungus is native where pines are endemic in the northern hemisphere and it has been introduced into all countries of the Southern Hemisphere where pines are exotic. The newly described D. scrobiculata (formerly known as the B morphotype of D. pinea) is thought to have a much more limited distribution. D. scrobiculata was first reported as an endophyte and weak pathogen of P. banksiana, where it was found to coexist with D. pinea. Diplodia scrobiculata is now known to have a much broader distribution in Northern America and Europe. In this study, seven Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity and gene flow between populations of D. scrobiculata. Results indicate a strong geographic isolation between populations of D. scrobiculata from different regions in North America, with unique alleles fixed in the different populations. The data fits the isolation by distance model indicating limited dispersal. Geographic isolation in combination with isolation by distance suggests prolonged reproductive isolation. Intensive collections of endophytes from native P. radiata in California have yielded only D. scrobiculata and not the significantly more pathogenic D. pinea. SSR analysis of three populations of D. scrobiculata from native P. radiata identified many shared alleles among the populations and moderate to high gene flow between them. The three Californian populations are distant and distinct from populations of D. scrobiculata from elsewhere. Under stress conditions, P. radiata is known to be very susceptible to D. pinea in plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Native P. radiata is currently experiencing severe stress due to pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum. Such stress would provide ideal conditions for an associated outbreak of D. pinea. Thus, it is critical to prevent the movement of D

  18. The push–pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; David L. Wood; Nadir Erbilgin; Donald R. Owen

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (...

  19. Species composition and succession in yellow pine stands following southern pine beetle outbreaks in Tennessee-preliminary results

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Jason R. Meade

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) is a bark beetle that is native to the Southern United States, including Tennessee. The beetle is periodically epidemic and can cause high levels of mortalityduring epidemic years, particularly in dense or aging pine (Pinus spp.) stands. An epidemic outbreak of the Southern pine...

  20. Differences in Monterey pine pest populations in urban and natural forests

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride

    1992-01-01

    Monterey pines (Pinus radiata D. Don) planted along streets (i.e. street trees) within Carmel, California and its immediate vicinity, and naturally grown Monterey pine within adjacent native stands, were sampled with regard to intensity of visual stress characteristics, western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum f. typicum...

  1. Effects of low molecular weight procyanidin rich extract from french maritime pine bark on cardiovascular disease risk factors in stage-1 hypertensive subjects: Randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Valls, Rosa-M; Llauradó, Elisabet; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Puiggrós, Francesc; Solà, Rosa; Arola, Lluis; Pedret, Anna

    2016-11-15

    Oligopin(ۚ) (OP) is a quantified extract from French Maritime Pine bark (FMPB) with low molecular weight procyanidins. The cardioprotective effects of OP need to be tested in human clinical intervention trials with an appropriate design. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of subchronic consumption of OP on cardiovascular disease risk factors such as lipid profile, systolic blood pressure (BP) and oxidized-Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in stage-1-hypertensive subjects. Between February 14 and May 31, 2014, eligible subjects were recruited from the outpatient clinics of Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus, Spain). A total of 24 participants (mean age ± DS; 57.36 ± 11.25; 17 men) with stage-1-hypertension who were not receiving BP-lowering medication and LDL cholesterol < 4.88 mmol/l were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The subjects received 2 capsules/day with 75 mg of OP or placebo for 5-weeks. At 5-weeks, compared to the placebo, OP raised High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) by 14.06% (p = 0.012) and apolipoprotein A-1 by 8.12% (p = 0.038) and reduced the ratio of apolipoprotein B-100/A-1 by 10.26% (p = 0.046). Moreover, at 5-weeks, compared to the baseline, OP reduced the systolic BP by 6.36 mmHg (p = 0.014), and decreased ox-LDL concentrations by 31.72 U/l (p = 0.015). At 5-weeks, the consumption of 150 mg/day of OP improve lipid cardiovascular profile and represents one of the scarce ways to increase HDL-c in stage-1-hypertensive subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02063477. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. Quantitative association of bark beetles with pitch canker fungus and effects of verbenone on their semiochemical communication in Monterey pine forests in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Gibson, Ken; Lindgren, B Staffan; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-08-01

    The association between 11 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) with the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell, was determined by crushing beetles on selective medium and histone H3 gene sequencing. Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsham) (25.00%), Hylurgops palliatus (Gyllenhal) (11.96%), Ips sexdentatus (Börner) (8.57%), Hypothenemus eruditus Westwood (7.89%), Hylastes attenuatus Erichson (7.40%), and Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (2.73%) were found to carry the inoculum. In addition, the root weevil Brachyderes incanus L. (14.28%) had the second highest frequency of occurrence of the fungus. The responses of the insects to a range of verbenone doses were tested in field bioassays using funnel traps. Catches of P. pubescens, a species colonizing branch tips of live trees, were significantly reduced in a log-linear dose-dependent relationship. Catches of I. sexdentatus, an opportunistic species normally attacking fresh dead host material, were also gradually reduced with increasing verbenone dose. Catches of Tomicus piniperda L., O. erosus, Dryocoetes autographus (Ratzeburg), H. eruditus, Xyleborus dryographus (Ratzeburg), Hylastes ater (Paykull), Hylurgus ligniperda (F.), H. attenuatus, and B. incanus were not significantly affected by verbenone. The effects of verbenone were consistent with differences in host-age preference. Semiochemical disruption by verbenone in P. pubescens and I. sexdentatus could represent an integrated pest management strategy for the prevention of the spread of pitch canker disease between different stands. However, several species associated with F. circinatum were unaffected by verbenone, not supporting this compound for prevention of the establishment of potential vectors in Northern Spain.

  3. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Treesearch

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  4. A soil-site evaluation index of productivity in intensively managed Pinus radiata (D. Don) plantations in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, I D; Boardman, R; Fitzpatrick, R W

    1996-01-01

    A limiting-factor, environmental model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata (D. Don)) has been developed using landform and soil morphological features that influence site productivity. The model focuses on soil and landscape constraints to productivity and predicts the native productivity of land and tree species. It permits the integration of land-use objectives for a catchment through forest management and use of silvicultural practices which increase productivity. The soil site evaluation index (SSEI) is an index of forest productivity found when silviculture extends only to the minimum amount of site disturbance needed to establish a plantation of radiata pine. The impacts of intensive silvicultural practices were deducted from the 'Site Quality' productivity survey rating to calculate the unimproved yield class (uYC). We calculated SSEI by range standardising uYC values from 0 to 1. SSEI was correlated with the environmental factors in a regression tree model using readily available analytical software. The model accurately predicts unimproved forest productivity from observed soil horizon and land surface properties. The environmental constraints in low lying areas relate to waterlogging, soil sodicity and gravel content. In elevated areas, plant available water storage, rock weathering, landform, ironstone gravel and aspect are recognised factors for pine growth.

  5. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees

    Treesearch

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  6. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Kevin C. Ryan

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the...

  7. Field test of lindane against overwintering broods of the western pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Lyon; Kenneth M. Swain

    1968-01-01

    The insecticide lindane, applied on bark any time of the year, can effectively destroy broods of the western pine beetle. It may also be effective the year round on the mountain pine beetle, the California five-spined ips, and probably other California species of bark beetles. In tests on the Sierra National Forest, lindane sprays formulated at 1.5 percent...

  8. Stock size affects early growth of a loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    David B. South; Al Lyons; Russ Pohl

    2015-01-01

    For decades, forest researchers in the South have known that early gains in survival and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) can be achieved by planting large-diameter seedlings (South 1993; Wakeley 1949). For P. radiata, increasing size of planting stock also increases early growth of both seedlings (Mason and others 1996) and cuttings (South and others 2005)....

  9. Description of Histiostoma Conjuncta (New Comb.) (Acari: Anoetidae), An Associate of Central American Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    J. P. Woodring; John C. Moser

    1975-01-01

    The adult female and male plus the tritonymph of Histiostoma conjuncta (Woodring and Moser, 1970) (new comb.) and described. The species is known to be associated with various pine bark beetles from Honduras, Guatemala, and Louisiana.

  10. Semiochemicals From Fungal Associates of Bark Beetles May Mediate Host Location Behavior of Parasitoids

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; C. Wayne Berisford

    2004-01-01

    In laboratory olfactometer bioassays, females of two hymenopteran parasitoid species, Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Spathius pallidus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), were attracted to odors from bark or bolts of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., colonized by bluestain fungi (genus ...

  11. Prescribed fire effects on wintering, bark-foraging birds in northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Theresa L. Pope; William M. Block; Paul Beier

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of prescribed fire on 3 wintering, bark-foraging birds, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), pygmy nuthatches (Sitta pygmaea), and white-breasted nuthatches (S. carolinensis), in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. During winters of 2004-2006, we compared bird density, foraging behavior, and bark beetle activity...

  12. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Dr. K. Grodzinska

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (Scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (Southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (North-Eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air...

  13. Loblolly Pine Responds to Mechanical Wounding with Increased Resin Flow

    Treesearch

    Jonathan J. Ruel; Matthew P. Ayres; Peter L. Lorio

    1998-01-01

    The oleoresin produced by many conifers has a deleterious effect on numerous associated herbivores, including bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and may have evolved as a plant defense mechanism. Three experiments with juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) used mechanical wounding to drain resin reserves and assess the effects of prior bark wounding on...

  14. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  15. Bark And Its Possible Uses

    Treesearch

    J. M. Harkin; J. W. Rowe

    1971-01-01

    What to do with bark is a major question facing the wood conversion industries. Optimum utilization of bark residues demands appreciation of the complexity of bark and the extreme variation in chemical and physical properties between barks of different wood species. This report discusses bark structure, past and present utilization, and methods of upgrading bark both...

  16. Technique for Rearing Mite-Free Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Adults

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; J. Robert Bridges

    1983-01-01

    Southern pine beetles can be reared free of phoretic mites from naturally infested bark if the bark is removed from the tree and air dried. Bark removal does not reduce the number of beetles that emerge. On the average fewer than 1% of the beetles emerging from removed bark carried one or fewer mites, and 85% of the beetles emerging from attacked bard carried one or...

  17. Influence of ozone and nitrogen deposition on bark beetle activity under drought conditions

    Treesearch

    Michele Eatough Jones; Timothy D. Paine; Mark E. Fenn; Mark A. Poth

    2004-01-01

    Four years of severe drought from 1999 through 2003 led to unprecedented bark beetle activity in ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. Pines in the San Bernardino Mountains also were heavily impacted by ozone and nitrogenous pollutants originating from urban and agricultural areas in the Los Angeles basin. We...

  18. Cation exchange capacity of pine bark substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is an important soil and substrate chemical property. It describes a substrate's ability to retain cation nutrients. Higher CEC values for a substrate generally result in greater amounts of nutrients retained in the substrate and available for plant uptake, and great...

  19. Wood and Bark Properties of Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    F. G. Manwiller

    1972-01-01

    Weighted stem averagees were determined for wood and bard of 72 trees representing the commercial range of Pinus glabra Walt. The trees were stratified into three age classes (15, 30, and 45 years) and two growth rates (averaging 4.9 and 9.0 rings per inch). Within-stem variation was determined from 1,269 earlywood and alte wood sampling points in...

  20. Comparison of Arthropod Prey of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers on the Boles of Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J.

    2002-01-01

    Use of knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf and loblolly pine to determine which harbored the greater abundance of potential prey. Alterations of longleaf pine bark surface to determine whether bark structure may affect arthropods residing on a tree's bole. Recovery revealed fewer arthropods from scraped trees. Results suggest the bark structure and not the chemical nature of the bark is responsible for differences in arthropod abundance and biomass. Retaining or restoring longleaf pine in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats should increase arthropod availability for this endangered bird and other back-foraging species.

  1. How to control the white pine weevil with a hand sprayer

    Treesearch

    David Crosby

    1954-01-01

    The white pine weevil is the most serious insect enemy of white pine in the Northeast, where more than 75 percent of these valuable trees are weeviled. Weevil larvae feed just beneath the bark; this kills the leader, causing folks, crooks, and a subsequent degrade of timber. In fact, widespread damage by the weevil has reduced the demand for white pine planting stock...

  2. Validation of Volume and Taper Equations For Loblolly Shortleaf and Slash Pine

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; V. Clark Baldwin

    1999-01-01

    Inside-bark diameter measurements at 6.64 intervals of 137 loblolly, 52 shortleaf, and 64 slash pines were used to calculate the actual volume and taper of each species for comparison with volumes and tapers predicted from published equations. The loblolly pine were cut in Texas (TX) and Louisiana (LA) while the shortleaf was sampled only in TX. The slash pine were...

  3. Formaldehyde condensation products of model phenols for conifer bark tannins

    Treesearch

    R.W. Hemingway; G.W. McGraw

    1978-01-01

    Gel permeation chromatograpy of the condensation products of phenols and formaldehyde proved effective in understanding the reactions of condensed tannins with formaldehyde. Rates of condensation of phloroglucinols, resorcinols, catechols, (+)catechin, and (-)epicatechin were examined to determine if methylol-tannins from southern pine bark could be prepared as resin...

  4. Formaldehyde condensation products of model phenols for conifer bark tannins

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; Gerald W. McGraw

    1978-01-01

    Gel permeation chromatography of the condensation products of phenols and formaldehyde proved effective in understanding the reactions of condensed tannins with formaldehyde. Rates of condensation of phloroglucinols, resorcinols, catechols, (+)catechins, and (-)epicatechin were examined to determine if methylol-tannins from southern pine bark could be prepared as resin...

  5. Rooting Rose Cuttings in Whole Pine Tree Substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased demand for alternatives to pine bark (PB) and peat moss (P) has led to extensive research on wood-based substrates, such as processed whole pine trees (WPT), for nursery and greenhouse crop production. Limited information is available on how WPT may perform as a rooting substrate for cutti...

  6. Mountain pine beetle dynamics and reproductive success in post-fire lodgepole and ponderosa pine forests in northeastern Utah

    Treesearch

    Andrew P. Lerch; Jesse A. Pfammatter; Barbara J. Bentz; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three...

  7. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  8. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Treesearch

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  9. Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Fred P. Hain; Adrian J. Duehl; Micah J. Gardner; Thomas L. Payne

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a tree killer of southern yellow pines. All life stages—eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults—infest the inner bark or phloem tissue of the host tree. Adult beetles overcome the tree’s defenses through a mass-attack phenomenon. They are attracted to the tree by a pheromone system consisting of volatiles produced by the beetles and the host....

  10. Use of acoustics to deter bark beetles from entering tree material.

    PubMed

    Aflitto, Nicholas C; Hofstetter, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic technology is a potential tool to protect wood materials and eventually live trees from colonization by bark beetles. Bark beetles such as the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, western pine beetle D. brevicomis and pine engraver Ips pini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) use chemical and acoustic cues to communicate and to locate potential mates and host trees. In this study, the efficacy of sound treatments on D. frontalis, D. brevicomis and I. pini entry into tree materials was tested. Acoustic treatments significantly influenced whether beetles entered pine logs in the laboratory. Playback of artificial sounds reduced D. brevicomis entry into logs, and playback of stress call sounds reduced D. frontalis entry into logs. Sound treatments had no effect on I. pini entry into logs. The reduction in bark beetle entry into logs using particular acoustic treatments indicates that sound could be used as a viable management tool. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Xylem monoterpenes of pines: distribution, variation, genetics, function

    Treesearch

    Richard Smith

    2000-01-01

    The monoterpenes of about 16,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) speciesand hybrids—largely from the western United States—were analyzed in this long-term study of the resistance of pines to attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), with special emphasis on resistance to the western pine beetle(Dendroctonus brevicomis). The samples were analyzed by gas liquid...

  12. Pheromone-mediated mate location and discrimination by two syntopic sibling species of Dendroctonus bark beetles in Chiapas, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Alicia Nino-Dominguez; Brian T. Sullivan; Jose H. Lopez-Urbina; Jorge E. Macias-Samano

    2015-01-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus...

  13. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  14. Pitch canker disease of pines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T R

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting pines in many locations throughout the world. The pathosystem was originally described in the southeastern (SE) United States and was identified in California in 1986. Limited vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity in the California population of F. circinatum, relative to the SE United States, suggests the former is a recently established and clonally propagating population. Although the much greater VCG diversity found in the SE United States is suggestive of out-crossing, molecular markers indicate that many vegetatively incompatible isolates are clonally related. This implies that VCG diversity may derive, at least in part, from somatic mutations rather than sexual reproduction. Pitch canker is damaging to many pine species and one at particular risk is Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), which is widely grown in plantations and is highly susceptible to pitch canker. However, some Monterey pines are resistant to pitch canker and some severely diseased trees have been observed to recover. The absence of new infections on these trees reflects the operation of systemic induced resistance, apparently in response to repeated infection by the pitch canker pathogen.

  15. Landscape dynamics of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Robin M. Reich

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and urgency of current mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States and Canada have resulted in numerous studies of the dynamics and impacts of these insects in forested ecosystems. This paper reviews some of the aspects of the spatial dynamics and landscape ecology of this bark beetle. Landscape heterogeneity influences dispersal patterns...

  16. Predictors of southern pine beetle flight activity

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; T.R. Dell

    1979-01-01

    An equation based on weather data explained differences in capture counts of pine bark beetles trapped twice weekly for an entire year at a single infestation and contributed to the udnerstanding of some aspects of beetle dynamics. The proportion of the beetles that reached the traps increased with maximum temperature and decreased with heavy rain. Production of adults...

  17. Biological Control of Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen; C. Wayne Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Exotic invasive forest insects are frequently managed through classical biological control, which involves searching for, introducing, and establishing their exotic natural enemies. Biological control of native bark beetles, including the southern pine beetle (SPB), has been primarily attempted by conserving and manipulating their natural enemies. Knowledge of the role...

  18. Latent infection by Fusarium circinatum influences susceptibility of monterey pine seedlings to pitch canker

    Treesearch

    Cassandra L. Swett; Thomas R. Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a serious disease affecting Pinus radiata D. Don (Monterey pine) in nurseries, landscapes, and native forests. A typical symptom of pitch canker is canopy dieback resulting from girdling lesions on terminal branches (Gordon et al. 2001). More extensive dieback can result from...

  19. The California closed cone pines (subsection Oocarpae Little and Critchfield): A taxonomic history and review

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    Of the seven pines that compose subsection Oocarpae (Little and Critchfield) in the genus Pinus, only the three Californian species form a coherent group, while the other four differ from each other and from the Californian species. Traits of the Californian species (Pinus radiata, P. muricata...

  20. Enantiospecific responses of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) and its clerid predator, Thanasimus dubius, to a-pinene.

    Treesearch

    Jenny C. Staeben; Brian Sullivan; John T. Nowak; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-trophic interactions between pine bark beetles, their host trees, and predators are mediated in part by volatile terpenes in host tree oleoresin that can influence aggregation and/or host finding by both prey and predator species. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, mass-attacks pine trees in response to its aggregation pheromone combined...

  1. Depositional characteristics of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers on tree barks

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Man Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to determine the depositional characteristics of several tree barks, including Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), Pine (Pinus densiflora), Platanus (Platanus), and Metasequoia (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). These were used as passive air sampler (PAS) of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Methods Tree barks were sampled from the same site. PBDEs were analyzed by highresolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometer, and the lipid content was measured using the gravimetric method by n-hexane extraction. Results Gingko contained the highest lipid content (7.82 mg/g dry), whereas pine (4.85 mg/g dry), Platanus (3.61 mg/g dry), and Metasequoia (0.97 mg/g dry) had relatively lower content. The highest total PBDEs concentration was observed in Metasequoia (83,159.0 pg/g dry), followed by Ginkgo (53,538.4 pg/g dry), Pine (20,266.4 pg/g dry), and Platanus (12,572.0 pg/g dry). There were poor correlations between lipid content and total PBDE concentrations in tree barks (R2=0.1011, p =0.682). Among the PBDE congeners, BDE 206, 207 and 209 were highly brominated PBDEs that are sorbed to particulates in ambient air, which accounted for 90.5% (84.3-95.6%) of the concentration and were therefore identified as the main PBDE congener. The concentrations of particulate PBDEs deposited on tree barks were dependent on morphological characteristics such as surface area or roughness of barks. Conclusions Therefore, when using the tree barks as the PAS of the atmospheric PBDEs, samples belonging to same tree species should be collected to reduce errors and to obtain reliable data. PMID:25116365

  2. Ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for detecting and monitoring bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia; Christopher M. Crowe

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the need for separate traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (–)-α-pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands of the southeastern U.S. Eight trapping experiments were conducted in stands of mature pine in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina.

  3. Modeling bark beetles and fuels on landscapes: A demonstration of ArcFuels and a discussion of possible model enhancements

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. McMahan; Alan A. Ager; Helen Maffei; Jane L. Hayes; Eric L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The Westwide Pine Beetle Model and the Fire and Fuels Extension were used to simulate a mountain pine beetle outbreak under different fuel treatment scenarios on a 173,000 acre landscape on the Deschutes National Forest. The goal was to use these models within ArcFuels to analyze the interacting impacts of bark beetles and management activities on landscape fuel...

  4. Effects of prescribed fire and other plant community restoration treatments on tree mortality, bark beetles, and other saproxylic coleoptera of longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill., on the coastal plain of Alabama

    Treesearch

    Joshua W. Campbell; James L. Hanula; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2008-01-01

    Treatments to restore understory plant communities of mature (50-80-year old) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and reduce risks of wildfire were applied to 10 ha plots that had a substantial shrub layer due to lack of fire. Plots were located in the Coastal Plain of Alabama and treatments consisted of: (1) untreated control, (2) growing season...

  5. Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp. (Acarina: Dermanyssidae, Laelapinae) associated with southern pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Preston E. Hunter; John C. Moser

    1978-01-01

    Adults and nymphal stages of Pseudoparasitus thatcheri n. sp., a mite associated with beetles occurring under bark of southern pine trees in Louisiana are described. Generic placement of the species is discussed

  6. Beech Bark Disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  7. Beech bark disease

    Treesearch

    David R. Houston

    1998-01-01

    In forests of North America the beech bark disease (BBD) complex affects American beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. BBD begins when bark tissues, attacked by the exotic beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind. are rendered susceptible to killing attacks by fungi of the genus Nectria. The principal fungus,...

  8. Strategies of a bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus, in an olfactory landscape.

    PubMed

    Byers, J A; Zhang, Q H; Birgersson, G

    2000-11-01

    Volatiles from leaves or bark of nonhost birch (Betula pendula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) dramatically reduced the attraction of the bark beetle, Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to their aggregation pheromone components (cis-verbenol and grandisol) in the field. In addition, odors from both the needles and bark of the host Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) similarly inhibited attraction. Monoterpenes of pine and spruce (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, terpinolene, and 3-carene) as well as ethanol, chalcogran and some nonhost green leaf alcohols [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and 1-hexanol], also reduced catches. Collections of volatiles from the field-tested plant tissues indicated they released monoterpenes in amounts similar to the synthetics that inhibited responses. The various plant and insect sources of these inhibitory compounds indicate that P. bidentatus bark beetles have evolved several strategies to increase their fitness by avoiding nonhost and unsuitable host trees in a complex olfactory landscape.

  9. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  10. Remedial treatment of lodgepole pine infested with mountain pine beetle: efficacy of three insecticides

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Tilden

    1985-01-01

    Lindane is registered for remedial control of bark beetles; however, forestry uses are controversial and alternative chemicals are needed. Chlorpyrifos (Dursban 4E), carbaryl (Sevimol 4), and fenitrothion (Sumithion 8E) at 1, 2, and 4 pct active ingredient, and lindane at the registered dosage of 0.6 pct were sprayed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  11. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Treesearch

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  12. Coexistence and competition between Tomicus Yunnanensis and T. minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in yunnan pine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...

  13. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide.

  14. Barking and mobbing.

    PubMed

    Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Coppinger, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    Barking is most often associated with the domestic dog Canis familiaris, but it is a common mammalian and avian vocalization. Like any vocalization, the acoustic character of the bark is likely to be a product of adaptation as well as an expression of the signaler's internal motivational state. While most authors recognize that the bark is a distinct signal type, no consistent description of its acoustic definition or function is apparent. The bark exhibits considerable variability in its acoustic form and occurs in a wide range of behavioral contexts, particularly in dogs. This has led some authors to suggest that dog barking might be a form of referential signaling, or an adaptation for heightened capability to communicate with humans. In this paper we propose a general 'canonical' acoustic description of the bark. Surveying relevant literature on dogs, wild canids, other mammals and birds, we explore an alternative functional hypothesis, first suggested by [Morton, E.S., 1977. On the occurrence and significance of motivation-structural rules in some bird and mammal sounds. Am. Nat. 111, 855-869] and consistent with his motivational-structural rules theory: that barking in many animals, including the domestic dog, is associated with mobbing behavior and the motivational states that accompany mobbing.

  15. Area-wide application of verbenone-releasing flakes reduces mortality of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis caused by the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; Nadir Erbilgin; David L. Wood

    2012-01-01

    DISRUPT Micro-Flake Verbenone Bark Beetle Anti-Aggregant flakes (Hercon Environmental, Inc., Emigsville, Pennsylvania) were applied in two large-scale tests to assess their efficacy for protecting whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis Engelm. from attack by mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) (MPB). At two locations, five...

  16. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (P-53)

    Treesearch

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We compared the resin composition of trees...

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  18. Estimating past diameters of ponderosa pine in northern California

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    1969-01-01

    Past outside bark diameters (d.o.b.) of ponderosa pine in northern California can be estimated from the relation of bark thickness to stem diameter. An equation for estimating past d.o.b.'s has been developed. The relationship appears to be linear between 1 and 20 inches d.o.b. and differs from ratios reported for the species in other areas. Site quality and crown...

  19. Damaged to knobcone x monterey pine hybrids and parents ... by red band needle blight in California redwood sites.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1971-01-01

    The knobcone X Monterey pine hybrid (Pinus attenuata Lemm. X P. radiata D. Don) has been outplanted in many places in California, among them the Redwood Experimental Forest and vicinity in north coastal California. Survival and growth in the early years were satisfactory. In 1966, red band needle blight was found to be infecting...

  20. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Abigail J. Walter; Stephen A. Kells; Robert C. Venette; Steven J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus...

  1. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  2. Evaluation of the effect of pollution and fungal disease on Pinus radiata pollen allergenicity.

    PubMed

    García-Gallardo, María Victoria; Algorta, Jaime; Longo, Natividad; Espinel, Santiago; Aragones, Ana; Lombardero, Manuel; Bernaola, Gonzalo; Jauregui, Ignacio; Aranzabal, Ascensión; Albizu, María Victoria; Gastaminza, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants and other stressing factors like mold infection might increase the production of pathogen-related proteins in plants. Since this is invoked as one of the causes for the high prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries, we aimed to determine the potential effect of environmental pollution, with or without mold infection of the trees, on the allergenic potency of pine pollen (Pinus radiata). Pine pollen samples were recovered from three selected areas: low polluted (A), highly polluted (B) and highly polluted and infected with fungi (Spheropsis sapinea) (C). The allergenic potency of pollen from areas A, B or C were compared in vivo in 35 pine pollen-allergic patients by skin prick test and specific IgE (sIgE) quantification. Pollen was also analyzed in vitro by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting, RAST inhibition and cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) to compare differences in proteins and mRNA expression. The allergenic potency measured by prick test, sIgE and RAST inhibition was greater in pollen A, which was exposed to smaller amounts of NO(x), PM(10) and SO(2) but greater amounts of O(3). No differences were found in IgE-binding bands in immunoblotting or densitometry of the bands. In cDNA-AFLP, three homologous transcript-derived fragments were expressed in samples B only, with an expressed sequence tag related with stress-regulated gene expression. A greater allergenic potency, in terms of skin tests and sIgE, is observed in pine pollen coming from unpolluted areas. We consider that this fact might be related to a higher exposure to ozone, resulting in a greater expression of allergenic proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Susceptibility of loblolly x slash pine interspecific F1 hybrids to tip moth infestation and fusiform rust infection in a south Mississippi planting

    Treesearch

    M.T. Highsmith; L.H. Lott; C.D. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Tip moth damage and fusiform rust incidence among families of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parent trees from Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas that were selected for southern pine bark beetle resistance and three slash pines (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti) selected for different levels of fusiform rust resistance, and five of their interspecific...

  4. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Treesearch

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  5. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  6. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  7. Variable-retention harvesting as a silvicultural option for lodgepole pine

    Treesearch

    Christopher R. Keyes; Thomas E. Perry; Elaine K. Sutherland; David K. Wright; Joel M. Egan

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle-induced mortality in forested landscapes of structurally uniform, even-aged lodgepole pine stands has inspired a growing interest in the potential of silvicultural treatments to enhance resilience by increasing spatial and vertical complexity. Silvicultural treatments can simulate mixed-severity disturbances that create multiaged lodgepole pine stands,...

  8. Eleventh-year results of fertilization, herbaceous, and woody plant control in a loblolly pine plantation

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1990-01-01

    Through 11 years, fertilization at planting significantly increased the stemwood volume (outside bark) per loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on an intensively prepared moderately well-drained fine sandy loam site in northern Louisiana. Four years of herbaceous plant control significantly increased pine survival, and because herbaceous plant control...

  9. Effect of rotation age and physiographic region on weight per cubic foot of planted loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Richard F. Daniels; Bruce E. Borders

    2006-01-01

    Most harvested southern pine is sold by weight. We discuss how the weight of wood and bark per cubic foot of wood (the weight scaling factor) for plantation-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) varies with tree age across the coastal and inland regions of the Southern United States. To determine the weight scaling factor for plantation trees in the...

  10. Evaluating Pyemotes dryas (Vitzthum 1923)(Acari: Pyemotidae) as a parasite of the southern pine beetle

    Treesearch

    John C. Moser; B. Kielczewski; J. Wisniewski; S. Balazy

    1978-01-01

    Populations of Pyemotes dryas (Vitzthum 1923) from Poland were bioassayed for potential use in the biological control of the southern pine beetle in the United States. The mite apparently rides and attacks a wide range of European bark beetles that attack conifers and readily consumes brood of the southern pine beetle. However, it is not phoretic on...

  11. No impact of transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Burgess, E P J; Barraclough, E I; Kean, A M; Walter, C; Malone, L A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the biosafety to insects of transgenic Pinus radiata D. Don containing the antibiotic resistance marker gene nptII and the reproductive control gene leafy, bioassays were conducted with an endemic lepidopteran pest of New Zealand plantation pine forests and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid. Larvae of the common forest looper, Pseudocoremia suavis (Butler), were fed from hatching on P. radiata needles from either one of two nptII-leafy transgenic clones, or an isogenic unmodified control line. For both unparasitized P. suavis and those parasitized by Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), consuming transgenic versus control pine had no impact on larval growth rate or mass at any age, larval duration, survival, pupation or successful emergence as an adult. Total larval duration was 1 d (3%) longer in larvae fed nptII-2 than nptII-1, but this difference was considered trivial and neither differed from the control. In unparasitized P. suavis larvae, pine type consumed did not affect rate of pupation or adult emergence, pupal mass, or pupal duration. Pine type had no effect on the duration or survival of M. pulchricornis larval or pupal stages, mass of cocoons, stage at which they died, adult emergence, or fecundity. Parasitism by M. pulchricornis reduced P. suavis larval growth rate, increased the duration of the third larval stadium, and resulted in the death of all host larvae before pupation. The lack of impact of an exclusive diet of nptII-leafy transgenic pines on the life history of P. suavis and M. pulchricornis suggests that transgenic plantation pines expressing nptII are unlikely to affect insect populations in the field.

  12. The use of plants as regular food in ancient subarctic economies: a case study based on Sami use of Scots pine innerbark.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingela; Östlund, Lars; Zackrisson, Olle

    2004-01-01

    This study combines ethnological, historical, and dendroecological data from areas north of the Arctic Circle to analyze cultural aspects of Sami use of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) inner bark as regular food. Bark was peeled in June when trees were at the peak of sapping, leaving a strip of undamaged cambium so the tree survived. As a result, it is possible to date bark-peeling episodes using dendrochronology. The paper argues that the use of Scots pine inner bark reflects Sami religious beliefs, ethical concerns, and concepts of time, all expressed in the process of peeling the bark. A well-developed terminology and a set of specially designed tools reveal the technology involved in bark peeling. Consistent patterns with respect to the direction and size of peeling scars found across the region demonstrate common values and standards. Peeling direction patterns and ceremonial meals relating to bark probably reflect ritual practices connected to the sun deity, Biejvve.

  13. Effect of bark beetle infestation on secondary organic aerosol precursor emissions.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hardik; Atkins, P Tyson; Russo, Rachel S; Brown, Aaron W; Sive, Barkley; Hallar, A Gannet; Huff Hartz, Kara E

    2012-06-05

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosystems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled i.) from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) trees and ii.) from sites with and without active mountain pine beetle infestation. The emissions from the trunk and the canopy were collected via sorbent traps. After collection, the sorbent traps were extracted with hexane, and the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Canister samples were also collected and analyzed by a multicolumn gas chromatographic system. The samples from bark beetle infested lodgepole pine trees suggest a 5- to 20-fold enhancement in total VOCs emissions. Furthermore, increases in the β-phellandrene emissions correlated with bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions can be used to identify bark beetle infestation but, more importantly, can lead to increases in secondary organic aerosol from these forests as potent SOA precursors are produced.

  14. A decade of streamwater nitrogen and forest dynamics after a mountain pine beetle outbreak at the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Treesearch

    Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Kelly Elder

    2017-01-01

    Forests of western North America are currently experiencing extensive tree mortality from a variety of bark beetle species, and insect outbreaks are projected to increase under warmer, drier climates. Unlike the abrupt biogeochemical changes typical after wildfire and timber harvesting, the outcomes of insect outbreaks are poorly understood. The mountain pine bark...

  15. A small-bolt method for screening tree protectants against bark beetles (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    Treesearch

    B.L. Strom; L.M. Roton

    2009-01-01

    A simple, small-bolt method was developed and refi ned for evaluating and screening treatments being considered as prophylactics against bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Using this method, 4 insecticide products (3 active ingredients) were evaluated against the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, intermittently during a period...

  16. Hylurgus ligniperda (Scolytidae): a new exotic bark beetle in New York State

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; E. Richard Hoebeke; Therese M. Poland

    2003-01-01

    An established population of the red-haired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was found in the United States in November 2000 near Rochester, NY (Hoebeke 2001). During surveys in 2001, H. ligniperda was detected in three counties in New York.

  17. Ethanol and (-)-?-pinene: attratant kairomones for bark ad ambrosia beetles in the Southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (?)-?-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with...

  18. Ethanol and (-)-a-pinene: attractants for bark and ambrosia beetles in southeastern USA.

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; R. J. Rabaglia

    2009-01-01

    In 2002–2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (−)-α-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South...

  19. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Treesearch

    David E. Reed; Brent E. Ewers; Elise Pendall; John Frank; Robert Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous...

  20. Longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer; Donald W. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Abstract:This report describes the longleaf pine forest type and the characteristics of both tree and forest that can affect management decisions.Longleaf pine is highly adaptable to a range of management goals and silvicultural systems.Management options and appropriate silvicultural methods for the regeneration and management of this species are...

  1. Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    William Dent Sterrett

    1920-01-01

    Jack pine is a very frugal tree in its climatic and soil requirements. The northern limit of its natural range is within 14 degrees of the Arctic Circle and the southern is marked by the southern shores of Lake Michigan. No other North American pine grows naturally so far north and all the others grow farther south. It develops commercial stands and reproduces itself...

  2. Triplet-repeat microsatellites shared among hard and soft pines.

    PubMed

    Kutil, B L; Williams, C G

    2001-01-01

    Vascular plant species have shown a low level of microsatellite conservation compared to many animal species. Finding trans-specific microsatellites for plants may be improved by using a priori knowledge of genome organization. Fifteen triplet-repeat microsatellites from hard pine (Pinus taeda L.) were tested for trans-specific amplification across seven hard pines (P. palustris Mill., P. echinata Mill., P. radiata D. Don., P. patula Schiede et Deppe, P. halepensis Mill., P. kesiya Royle), a soft pine (P. strobus L.), and Picea rubens Sargent. Seven of 15 microsatellites had trans-specific amplification in both hard and soft pine subgenera. Two P. taeda microsatellites had conserved flanking regions and repeat motifs in all seven hard pines, soft pine P. strobus, and P. rubens. Perfect triplet-repeat P. taeda microsatellites appear to be better candidates for trans-specific polymorphism than compound microsatellites. Not all perfect triplet-repeat microsatellites were conserved, but all conserved microsatellites had perfect repeat motifs. Persistent microsatellites PtTX2123 and PtTX3020 had highly conserved flanking regions and a conserved repeat motif composition with variable repeat unit numbers. Using trinucleotide microsatellites improved trans-specific microsatellite recovery among hard and soft pine species.

  3. UVB Stimulates the Expression of Endothelin B Receptor in Human Melanocytes via a Sequential Activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB/MITF Pathway Which Can Be Interrupted by a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract through a Direct Inactivation of MSK1

    PubMed Central

    Tagashira, Hideki; Miyamoto, Aki; Kitamura, Sei-ichi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    Melanogenesis is the physiological process by which melanin is synthesized to protect the skin from UV damage. While paracrine interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes are crucial for regulating epidermal pigmentation, the endothelin (EDN)-endothelin B-receptor (EDNRB) interaction is one of the key linkages. In this study, we found that a single exposure of normal human melanocytes (NHMs) with UVB stimulates the expression of EDNRB and its upstream transcription factor microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) at the transcriptional and translational levels. That stimulation can be abrogated by post-irradiation treatment with a French maritime pine bark extract (PBE). UVB stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK, followed by the increased phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. The post-irradiation treatment with PBE did not affect the increased phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, but distinctly abrogated the phosphorylation of MSK1 and CREB. Post-irradiation treatment with the MSK1 inhibitor H89 significantly down-regulated the increased gene expression of MITF and EDNRB in UVB-exposed NHMs. Our findings indicate for the first time that the increased expression of MITF that leads to the up-regulation of melanocyte-specific proteins in UVB-exposed NHMs is mediated via activation of the p38/MSK1/CREB pathway but not the ERK/RSK/CREB pathway. The mode of action by PBE demonstrates that interrupting MSK1 activation is a new target for antioxidants including PBE which can serve as anti-pigmenting agents in a reactive oxygen species-depletion-independent manner. PMID:26030901

  4. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  5. Interactions among the mountain pine beetle, fires, and fuels

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon; Christopher J. Fettig; Wesley G. Page; Barbara J. Bentz

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires are principal drivers of change in western North American forests, and both have increased in severity and extent in recent years. These two agents of disturbance interact in complex ways to shape forest structure and composition. For example, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, epidemics alter forest fuels with...

  6. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  7. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  8. Key Mites Commonly Associated With the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    D.N. Kinn

    1976-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of preparing mites for microscopic examination and contains a simple key to the 15 species of mites commonly associated with the southern pine bark beetle. Research workers wanting to identify these mites and others curious about them, but untrained in acarology, should find little difficulty in making identifications.

  9. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    PubMed

    Avtzis, Dimitrios N; Bertheau, Coralie; Stauffer, Christian

    2012-05-07

    Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km² of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree's defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi) or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi). Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava). A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel techniques will provide a more detailed insight into the genome of scolytids facilitating at the same time the

  10. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    PubMed Central

    Avtzis, Dimitrios N.; Bertheau, Coralie; Stauffer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi) or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi). Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava). A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel techniques will provide a more detailed insight into the genome of scolytids facilitating at the same time the

  11. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  13. Amate Bark Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a beautiful bookmark one of the author's students made for him as a gift, he began a lesson exploring the vibrant bark paintings popular all over Mexico. The majority of his students have Mexican ancestry, so exploring the arts of Mexico is always popular and well received. Amate paintings can also be a great way to introduce the…

  14. Cold tolerance of mountain pine beetle among novel eastern pines: A potential for trade-offs in an invaded range?

    Treesearch

    Derek W. Rosenberger; Brian H. Aukema; Robert C. Venette

    2017-01-01

    Novel hosts may have unforeseen impacts on herbivore life history traits. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America but constrained by cold temperatures in the northern limits of its distribution. In recent years, this insect has spread north and east of its historical...

  15. Composition of the bacterial community in the gut of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coloptera) colonizing red pine

    Treesearch

    Italo Jr. Delalibera; Archana Vasanthakumar; Benjamin J. Burwitz; Patrick D. Schloss; Kier D. Klepzig; Jo Handelsman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacterial community of a bark beetle, the pine engraver Ips pini (Say), was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria from individual guts of larvae, pupae and adults were cultured and DNA was extracted from samples of pooled larval guts. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the gut...

  16. Monoterpene emissions from bark beetle infested Engelmann spruce trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Hardik S.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley; Richard Hoebeke, E.; Dodson, Craig; McCubbin, Ian B.; Gannet Hallar, A.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

    2013-06-01

    Bark beetle infestation impacts the health of coniferous forests, which are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. The types and amounts of VOCs emitted from forests can influence secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and impact overall air quality. In this initial work, the impact of bark beetle infestation on SOA precursors from Engelmann spruce is assessed. The VOCs emitted from the trunk of infested and healthy spruce trees were sampled using both sorbent traps and evacuated canisters that were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The samples from the infested spruce tree suggest a nine-fold enhancement in the total VOC emissions. The dominant VOCs in the infested spruce trees were 3-carene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The increase observed in VOCs sampled at the trunk of the infested spruce was consistent with increases observed at infested lodgepole pine trunks. However, the types and amounts of VOCs emitted from Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine are different, which suggests that additional measures of VOC emissions are needed to characterize the impact of bark beetle infestation on VOC emissions and SOA precursors.

  17. Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata--a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility.

    PubMed

    Höfig, Kai P; Möller, Ralf; Donaldson, Lloyd; Putterill, Joanna; Walter, Christian

    2006-05-01

    A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic pollen first developed abnormally, tobacco anthers from six different developmental stages were assayed microscopically. Following the release of pollen grains from tetrads, transgenic pollen displayed an increasingly flake-like structure, which gradually rounded up during the maturation process. We further investigated whether STS expression may have resulted in an impaired flavonol or sporopollenin formation. A specific flavonol aglycone stain was used to demonstrate that significant amounts of these substances were produced only in late stages of normal pollen development, therefore excluding a diminished flavonol aglycone production as a reason for pollen ablation. A detailed analysis of the exine layer by transmission electron microscopy revealed minor structural changes in the exine layer of ablated pollen, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the biochemistry of sporopollenin production was unaffected. The promoter-STS construct may be useful for the ablation of pollen formation in coniferous gymnosperms and male sterility may potentially be viewed as a prerequisite for the commercial use of transgenic conifers.

  18. Mismatch between herbivore behavior and demographics contributes to scale-dependence of host susceptibility in two pine species

    Treesearch

    Tiina Ylioja; Daniel H. Slone; Matthew P. Ayres

    2005-01-01

    The impacts on forests of tree-killing bark beetles can depend on the species composition of potential host trees. Host susceptibility might be an intrinsic property of tree species, or it might depend on spatial patterning of alternative host species. We compared the susceptibility of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (P. ...

  19. Responses of Ips pini (Say), Pityogenes knechteli Swaine and Associated Beetles (Coleoptera) to Host Monoterpenes in Stands of Lodgepole Pine

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2003-01-01

    We conducted seven experiments in stands of mature lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia to elucidate the role of host volatiles in the semiochemical ecology of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with particular reference to the behavioral responses of predators and competing species of bark beetles. Our results demonstrated that the...

  20. Acetophenone superior to verbenone for reducing attraction of western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis to its aggregation pheromone

    Treesearch

    Nadir Erbilgin; Nancy E. Gillette; Donald R. Owen; Sylvia R. Mori; Andrew S. Nelson; Fabian C.C. Uzoh; David L. Wood

    2008-01-01

    The western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of ponderosa pines Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. & C. Lawson in Western U.S.A. We compared the effect of verbenone, a well known bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, with that...

  1. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America

    Treesearch

    Derek W. Rosenberger; Robert C. Venette; Mitchell P. Maddox; Brian H. Aukema; Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine...

  2. Maturity selection versus improvement selection: lessons from a mid-20th century controversy in the silviculture of ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara; Andy Youngblood; Kristen M. Waring

    2010-01-01

    Two rival silvicultural systems for promoting multiaged ponderosa pine stands emerged in the 1930s and 1940s. Maturity selection was developed to move the vast ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) acreage in eastern Oregon and Washington into regulation to limit bark beetle losses. In the Southwest, improvement selection was designed to improve...

  3. Bark factors for Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Floyd. Johnson

    1966-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the measurement of upper stem tree diameters with optical dendrometers has directed attention to procedures for converting these outside-bark diameters to inside-bark diameters. One procedure that has been used requires an assumption that the ratio of diameter inside bark to diameter outside bark (henceforth called bark factor) remains the same up...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  6. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  7. Two new amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2009-06-01

    Two new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, named lycoranines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 was a new-type alkaloid, which provided a new insight into the biosynthesis of alkaloids in Amaryllidaceae plants.

  8. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  9. Novel forest decline triggered by multiple interactions among climate, an introduced pathogen and bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carmen M; Daniels, Lori D

    2017-05-01

    Novel forest decline is increasing due to global environmental change, yet the causal factors and their interactions remain poorly understood. Using tree ring analyses, we show how climate and multiple biotic factors caused the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in 16 stands in the southern Canadian Rockies. In our study area, 72% of whitebark pines were dead and 18% had partially dead crowns. Tree mortality peaked in the 1970s; however, the annual basal area increment of disturbed trees began to decline significantly in the late 1940s. Growth decline persisted up to 30 years before trees died from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Ips spp. bark beetles or non-native blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). Climate-growth relations varied over time and differed among the healthy and disturbed subpopulations of whitebark pine. Prior to the 1940s, cool temperatures limited the growth of all subpopulations. Growth of live, healthy trees became limited by drought during the cool phase (1947 -1976) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and then reverted to positive correlations with temperature during the subsequent warm PDO phase. In the 1940s, the climate-growth relations of the disturbed subpopulations diverged from the live, healthy trees with trees ultimately killed by mountain pine beetle diverging the most. We propose that multiple factors interacted over several decades to cause unprecedented rates of whitebark pine mortality. Climatic variation during the cool PDO phase caused drought stress that may have predisposed trees to blister rust. Subsequent decline in snowpack and warming temperatures likely incited further climatic stress and with blister rust reduced tree resistance to bark beetles. Ultimately, bark beetles and blister rust contributed to tree death. Our findings suggest the complexity of whitebark pine decline and the importance of considering multiway drought-disease-insect interactions over various timescales when

  10. A DEF/GLO-like MADS-box gene from a gymnosperm: Pinus radiata contains an ortholog of angiosperm B class floral homeotic genes.

    PubMed

    Mouradov, A; Hamdorf, B; Teasdale, R D; Kim, J T; Winter, K U; Theissen, G

    1999-09-01

    The specification of floral organ identity during development depends on the function of a limited number of homeotic genes grouped into three classes: A, B, and C. Pairs of paralogous B class genes, such as DEF and GLO in Antirrhinum, and AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis, are required for establishing petal and stamen identity. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of petals and stamens, we have looked for orthologs of B class genes in conifers. Here we report cDNA cloning of PrDGL (Pinus radiata DEF/GLO-like gene) from radiata pine. We provide phylogenetic evidence that PrDGL is closely related to both DEF- and GLO-like genes of angiosperms, and is thus among the first putative orthologs of floral homeotic B function genes ever reported from a gymnosperm. Expression of PrDGL is restricted to the pollen strobili (male cones) and was not detected in female cones. PrDGL expression was first detected in emergent male cone primordia and persisted through the early stages of pollen cone bud differentiation. Based on the results of our phylogeny reconstructions and expression studies, we suggest that PrDGL could play a role in distinguishing between male (where expression is on) and female reproductive structures (where expression is off) in radiata pine. We speculate that this could be the general function of DEF/GLO-like genes in gymnosperms that may have been recruited for the distinction between stamens and carpels, the male and female reproductive organs of flowering plants, during the evolution of angiosperms out of gymnosperm-like ancestors. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Toxicity of Pine Monoterpenes to Mountain Pine Beetle.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Christine C; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2017-08-18

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) is an eruptive bark beetle species affecting pine forests of western North America. MPB are exposed to volatile monoterpenes, which are important host defense chemicals. We assessed the toxicity of the ten most abundant monoterpenes of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), a major host in the current MPB epidemic, against adult MPB from two locations in British Columbia, Canada. Monoterpenes were tested as individual volatiles and included (-)-β-phellandrene, (+)-3-carene, myrcene, terpinolene, and both enantiomers of α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene. Dose-mortality experiments identified (-)-limonene as the most toxic (LC50: 32 μL/L), and (-)-α-pinene (LC50: 290 μL/L) and terpinolene (LC50: >500 μL/L) as the least toxic. MPB body weight had a significant positive effect on the ability to survive most monoterpene volatiles, while sex did not have a significant effect with most monoterpenes. This study helps to quantitatively define the effects of individual monoterpenes towards MPB mortality, which is critical when assessing the variable monoterpene chemical defense profiles of its host species.

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the colonization of Pinus radiata by Fusarium circinatum, of conidiophora development in the pith and of traumatic resin duct formation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Espinel, Santiago; Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Ortíz, Amaia; González-Murua, Carmen; Duñabeitia, Miren K

    2013-06-01

    · Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease in a wide range of pine trees, including Pinus radiata, with devastating economic consequences. · To assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of growth of this pathogen in radiata pine, we examined the process of infection using both real-time PCR to quantify fungal biomass inside the plant host, and confocal microscopy using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of F. circinatum. · Pathogen growth exhibited three distinct phases: an initial exponential increase in fungal biomass, concomitant with pathogen colonization of the cortex and phloem; a slowdown in fungal growth coincident with sporulating hyphae deep within the host; and stabilization of the fungal biomass when the first wilting symptoms appeared. The number of resin ducts in the xylem was found to increase in response to infection and the fungus grew inside both constitutive and traumatic resin ducts. · These results indicate that conidiation may contribute to the spatial or temporal dissemination of the pathogen. Moreover, the present findings raise the intriguing possibility that the generation of traumatic resin ducts may be of more benefit to the fungus than to the plant.

  13. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.

  14. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  15. Forest health and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    C. J. Fettig

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bark beetles have caused significant tree mortality in the Sierra Nevada, rivaling mortality caused by wildfire in some locations. This chapter addresses two important questions: How can managers prepare for and influence levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality given current forest conditions and future climate uncertainties? and How would the...

  16. Description of Phloeosinus laricionis sp. n. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), a new bark beetle species from southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Sidoti, Agatino

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of pine bark beetle, Phloeosinus laricionis, associated with a pine decline recently affecting young plantations of Pinus nigra ssp. laricio Poiret growing on the Etna volcano, Sicily (South Italy). The new species is morphologically close to the group species of P. cedri Brisout, P. acatayi Schedl, and P. pfefferi Knížek, having all odd interstriae on the declivity of elytra bearing small, individual, sparse, more or less sharply pointed tubercles in males, or with smaller sparse blunt, nippled tubercles in females. While the other species of the same group live on cedars, the new species is the only Palaearctic Phloeosinus known from pine.

  17. New Introduction: The Red-haired Bark Beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), NA-PR-03-02

    Treesearch

    US Forest service, Northeastern Area, State & Private Forestry

    2002-01-01

    Discovery: An overwintering colony of adult Red-haired Bark Beetles (Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius) was discovered in November 2000 near Rochester, New York. These European beetles were found during an evaluation of white pine root decline in a Christmas tree plantation. Hylurgus ligniperda was intercepted 169 times at ports of entry in the United States between 1985...

  18. The role of multimodal signals in species recognition between tree-killing bark beetles in a narrow sympatric zone.

    Treesearch

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian Sullivan; Kristen A. Potter

    2016-01-01

    When related species coexist, selection pressure should favor evolution of species recognition mechanisms to prevent interspecific pairing and wasteful reproductive encounters. We investigated the potential role of pheromone and acoustic signals in species recognition between two species of tree-killing bark beetles, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  19. A population genetic model of evolution of host-mate attraction and nonhost repulsion in a bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies have shown that the bark beetle Pityogenes bidentatus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) avoids volatiles of nonhost trees (Norway spruce, birch, and oak) and healthy host Scotch pine when orienting to aggregation pheromone. A population genetic model of two behavioral genes was hypothe...

  20. Bark beetles, pityogenes bidentatus, orienting to aggregation pheromone avoid conifer monoterpene odors when flying but not when walking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have provided evidence that monoterpene odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) and non-host Norway spruce (Picea abies) significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, to their aggregation pheromone components (grandisol and cis-ver...

  1. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  2. Application of composted pulp and paper mill sludge to a young pine plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.J.; Line, M.A.; Wilson, S.; Hetherington, S.J.

    2000-04-01

    Disposing of sludge recovered from the effluent stream of pulp and paper mills has traditionally involved landfilling. Shortages in landfill space and increasingly stringent environmental regulations in many countries have forced the industry to seek alternative disposal options. The authors assessed the feasibility of compost-recycling a primary pulp and paper mill sludge (PMS) for use as a nutrient-releasing mulch in plantation forestry. The effects of the composted PMS on the growth, nutrition, water relations, and week suppression in a 3-yr-old plantation of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) on an infertile sandy soil in southern Tasmania were assessed. Compost was applied to the surface without incorporation in 0.5-m wide bands in tree rows at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 metric t ha{sup {minus}1} (dry matter). One year after application of compost, the percentage increase in stem diameter was 40 to 66% greater than that achieved in untreated plots, with better growth at the highest compost application rate. Improved growth of radiata pine after application of compost was primarily attributable to a 17 to 37% increase in the concentration of foliar N and to decreased water stress in amended plots. Nitrogen released from the compost was mostly absorbed by plant roots within the first 20 cm of the soil profile, with no significant movement beyond this depth range. Application of compost prepared from PMS to young stands of radiata pine was found to be acceptable recycling alternative for this material, capable of improving plantation productivity.

  3. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kosior, G; Kempers, A J

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring of serious heavy metal pollution was investigated. In the examined area current and previous year pine needles can be considered suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution for Cu and Zn and bark for only Cu. Bioaccumulation abilities of Cd and Cu in P. schreberi and P. sylvestris current and previous year needles were similar. Current and previous year needles were better accumulators of Mn, Ni, and Zn compared to the moss P. schreberi. Bark was a better accumulator of Cd, Cu, and Ni and an inferior accumulator of Mn compared to P. schreberi in the examined area.

  4. Limited response of ponderosa pine bole defenses to wounding and fungi.

    PubMed

    Gaylord, Monica L; Hofstetter, Richard W; Kolb, Thomas E; Wagner, Michael R

    2011-04-01

    Tree defense against bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and their associated fungi generally comprises some combination of constitutive (primary) and induced (secondary) defenses. In pines, the primary constitutive defense against bark beetles consists of preformed resin stored in resin ducts. Induced defenses at the wound site (point of beetle entry) in pines may consist of an increase in resin flow and necrotic lesion formation. The quantity and quality of both induced and constitutive defenses can vary by species and season. The inducible defense response in ponderosa pine is not well understood. Our study examined the inducible defense response in ponderosa pine using traumatic mechanical wounding, and wounding with and without fungal inoculations with two different bark beetle-associated fungi (Ophiostoma minus and Grosmannia clavigera). Resin flow did not significantly increase in response to any treatment. In addition, necrotic lesion formation on the bole after fungal inoculation was minimal. Stand thinning, which has been shown to increase water availability, had no, or inconsistent, effects on inducible tree defense. Our results suggest that ponderosa pine bole defense against bark beetles and their associated fungi is primarily constitutive and not induced.

  5. Estimating bark thicknesses of common Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the thickness of bark along the stem of a tree is critical to accurately estimate residue and, more importantly, estimate the volume of solid wood available. Determining the volume or weight of bark for a log is important because bark and wood mass are typically separated while processing logs, and accurate determination of volume is problematic. Bark thickness...

  6. Processing hardwood bark residues by screening

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1978-01-01

    Most of the hardwood bark residues removed by floating-cutterhead or rosserhead debarkers can be processed into acceptable bark products by screening alone. And by prescreening bark residues, operators of bark processing plants can use smaller hammermills than otherwise are required, thus lowering investment and energy costs.

  7. Ipsenol, ipsdienol, ethanol, and á-pinene: trap lure blend for Cerambycidae and Buprestidae (Coleoptera) in pine forests of eastern North America

    Treesearch

    D. R. Miller; C. M. Crowe; K. J. Dodds; L. D. Galligan; P. de Groot; E. R. Hoebeke; A. E. Mayfield; T. M. Poland; K. F. Raffa; J. D. Sweeney

    2015-01-01

    In 2007-2008, we examined the flight responses of wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol, and apinene [85% (–)], and the bark beetle pheromones, racemic ipsenol and racemic ipsdienol. Experiments were conducted in mature pine stands in Canada (Ontario and New Brunswick) and the...

  8. Effects of Grosmannia clavigera and Leptographium longiclavatum on Western White Pine seedlings and the fungicidal activity of Alamo®, Arbotect®, and TREE-age®

    Treesearch

    Stephen A. Wyka; Joseph J. Doccola; Brian L. Strom; Sheri L. Smith; Douglas W. McPherson; Srdan G. Acimovic; Kier D. Klepzig

    2016-01-01

    Bark beetles carry a number of associated organisms that are transferred to the host tree upon attack that are thought to play a role in tree decline. To assess the pathogenicity to western white pine (WWP; Pinus monticola) of fungi carried by the mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae), and to evaluate the...

  9. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (P<0.001) of which the essential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations. PMID:27051433

  10. Cork Containing Barks - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, Carla; Pereira, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Tree barks are among the less studied forest products notwithstanding their relevant physiological and protective role in tree functioning. The large diversity in structure and chemical composition of barks makes them a particularly interesting potential source of chemicals and bio-products, at present valued in the context of biorefineries. One of the valuable components of barks is cork (phellem in anatomy) due to a rather unique set of properties and composition. Cork from the cork oak (Quercus suber) has been extensively studied, mostly because of its economic importance and worldwide utilization of cork products. However, several other species have barks with substantial cork amounts that may constitute additional resources for cork-based bioproducts. This paper makes a review of the tree species that have barks with significant proportion of cork and on the available information regarding their bark structural and chemical characterization. A general integrative appraisal of the formation and types of barks and of cork development is also given. The knowledge gaps and the potential interesting research lines are identified and discussed, as well as the utilization perspectives.

  11. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  12. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  13. Interim Taper and Cubic-Foot Volume Equations For Young Longleaf Pine Plantations in Southwest Georgia

    Treesearch

    John R. Brooks; Stacey Martin; Jeff Jordan; Chris Sewell

    2002-01-01

    Outside bark diameter measurements were taken at 0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.5, 6.0, 16.6 and 4 foot height intervals above 6 foot to a 2 inch dob top diameter on 42 longleaf pine trees selected from intensively managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations in Dougherty and Worth Counties in southwest Georgia. Trees were sampled from unthinned,...

  14. Light quality treatments enhance somatic seedling production in three southern pine species.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Scott A; Montello, Paul M; Xia, Xiuqin; Upchurch, Bruce L; Smith, Dale R

    2006-02-01

    Embryogenic cultures of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and slash pine x longleaf pine hybrids were initiated from immature seeds on an initiation medium containing 13.57 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.22 microM benzylaminopurine. Embryogenic cultures proliferated and somatic embryos developed, matured and germinated following a modified protocol and media originally developed for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) somatic seedling production. A discrete, light-sensitive pre-germination stage and a later germination (radicle emergence) stage were identified by the differential response of somatic embryos to light of different wavelengths. Different light quality treatments were applied during the pre-germination and germination steps, using cool white fluorescent bulbs or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or both. In general, red wavelengths provided by LEDs during these steps resulted in higher frequencies of somatic embryo germination (up to 64%) and conversion (up to 50%), longer tap roots and more first-order lateral roots than the standard cool white fluorescent treatments or treatment with blue wavelengths from LEDs. In addition, exposure to red light allowed germination of somatic embryos of some clones that failed to produce germinants under fluorescent light. Germination and conversion were further enhanced by sequential application of cool white fluorescent light and red light, resulting in up to 100% germination and conversion in one experiment. Longleaf pine somatic embryos were especially responsive to the light quality treatments, resulting in the first report of somatic seedling production for this species.

  15. Fuel and stand characteristics in ponderosa pine infested with mountain pine beetle, Ips spp., and southwestern dwarf mistletoe in Colorado's northern Front Range

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Gene Klutsch

    2008-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbances, such as bark beetles and dwarf mistletoes, on fuel dynamics is important for understanding forest dynamics and heterogeneity. Fuel loads and other fuel parameters were assessed in areas of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) infested with southwestern dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium vaginatum...

  16. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  17. Ion Beam Analyses Of Bark And Wood In Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2011-06-01

    A large number of wood and bark samples have been analysed utilizing particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. Samples of common tree species like Scots Pine, Norway Spruce and birch were collected from a large number of sites in Southern and Southwestern Finland. Some of the samples were from a heavily polluted area in the vicinity of a copper-nickel smelter. The samples were dry ashed at 550 °C for the removal of the organic matrix in order to increase the analytical sensitivity of the method. The sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of 50 for wood and slightly less for bark. The ashed samples were pressed into pellets and irradiated as thick targets with a millimetre-sized proton beam. By including the ashing procedure in the method, the statistical dispersion due to elemental heterogeneities in wood material could be reduced. As a by-product, information about the elemental composition of ashes was obtained. By comparing the concentration of an element in bark ash to the concentration in wood ash of the same tree useful information from environmental point of view was obtained. The obtained ratio of the ashes was used to distinguish between elemental contributions from anthropogenic atmospheric sources and natural geochemical sources, like soil and bedrock.

  18. Steaming Chips Facilitates Bark Removal

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1976-01-01

    Whole tree chipping is a productive and economical harvesting system. The resultant product, however, is barky chips. THis paper outlines a promising method for removing the bark particles from whole tree chips.

  19. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  20. Pre-visual detection of stress in pine forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-visual, or early, detection of forest stress with particular reference to detection of attacks by pine bark beetles is discussed. Preliminary efforts to obtain early detection of attacks by pine bark beetles, using MSS data from the ERIM M-7 scanner, were not sufficiently successful to demonstrate an operational capability, but indicate that joint processing of the 0.71 to 0.73, 2.00 to 2.60, and 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer bands holds some promise. Ratio processing of transformed data from the 0.45 to 0.52, 1.55 to 2.60, and 4.5 to 5.5 or 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer regions appears even more promising.

  1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  2. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  3. Selection cutting reduces ponderosa pine losses at Pringle Falls.

    Treesearch

    Edwin L. Mowat

    1948-01-01

    One of the aims of selection cutting in ponderosa pine forests is to reduce the heavy mortality, from bark beetle attack and other causes that is common in most virgin stands. How much the loss can be reduced is shown by a 10-year record at the Pringle Falls Experimental Forest in central Oregon. Here selection cutting has reduced loss on cutting areas to only about...

  4. Aboveground Biomass of Choctawhatchee Sand Pine in Northwest Florida

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Taras

    1980-01-01

    Choctawhatchee sand pine trees 4 to 14 inches d.b.h. were selected from a natural, uneven-aged stand in northwest Florida to determine the weight and volume of above ground biomass. On the average, 85 percent of the green weight of the total tree was wood, 11 percent bark. and 4 percent needles. The average tree sampled had 82 percent of its wood in the stem and 18...

  5. Whole-tree harvesting of pines with taproot attached

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1974-01-01

    The taproot of a 15- to 3O-yearold slash pine, with lateral roots pruned away, weighs about 20% as much as the bark-free merchantable stem to a four-inch top (dry-weight basis). Maximum taproot diameter, a few inches below ground level, is 1.5 to two times stem diameter at breast height. Length in sandy loam soils is commonly three to five feet.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts

    Treesearch

    E. T. Howard

    1973-01-01

    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0, needles 4.0, and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasted when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  7. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1972-01-01

    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0 , needles 4.0 and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasten when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  8. Dimensions of Attention Associated With the Microstructure of Corona Radiata White Matter.

    PubMed

    Stave, Elise A; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Steven R; Woolley, Donald P; Chang, Suk Ki; Chen, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Mirsky proposed a model of attention that included these dimensions: focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, encode, and shift. The neural correlates of these dimensions were investigated within corona radiata subregions in healthy youth. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted in 79 healthy, right-handed youth aged 4-17 years. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were analyzed using standardized parcellation methods. Partial Pearson correlations between neuropsychological standardized scores, representing these attention dimensions, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of corona radiata subregions were calculated after adjusting for gender and IQ. Significant correlations were found between the focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, and shift dimensions and imaging metrics in hypothesized corona radiata subregions. Results suggest that greater microstructural white matter integrity of the corona radiata is partly associated with attention across 4 attention dimensions. Findings suggest that white matter microstructure of the corona radiata is a neural correlate of several, but not all, attention dimensions.

  9. Mountain pine beetle host selection between lodgepole and ponderosa pines in the southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jenny S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negron, Jose F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle ( Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  11. Seeding and planting pines

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Willard; L. Max Schmollinger

    1989-01-01

    Pines that occur naturally in parts of the region, as well as those that do not, have been introduced throughout. Pines usually produce greater volumes of wood faster than hardwoods, but in many parts of the region there is no market for pine stumpage or logs. Aside from wood production, pines are established for Christmas trees, windbreaks, landscaping, erosion...

  12. Contamination of Pinus radiata Seeds in California by Fusarium circinatum

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fugus, Fusarium circinatum (= F. subglutinans f sp. pini), causes several serious diseases of pines. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at diierent stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. In addition to producing resinous cankers on the...

  13. Nutritional and pathogenic fungi associated with the pine engraver beetle trigger comparable defenses in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Villari, Caterina; Battisti, Andrea; Chakraborty, Sourav; Michelozzi, Marco; Bonello, Pierluigi; Faccoli, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Conifer bark beetles are often associated with fungal complexes whose components have different ecological roles. Some associated species are nutritionally obligate fungi, serving as nourishment to the larvae, whereas others are pathogenic blue-stain fungi known to be involved in the interaction with host defenses. In this study we characterized the local and systemic defense responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) against Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum Math. (a blue-stain pathogen) and Hyalorhinocladiella macrospora (Franke-Grosm.) Harr. (a nutritional fungus). These fungi are the principal associates of the pine engraver beetle, Ips acuminatus (Gyll.). Host responses were studied following inoculation with the fungi, singly and as a fungal complex, and by identifying and quantifying terpenoids, phenolic compounds and lignin. Although the length of the necrotic lesions differed between control (wound) and fungal treatments, only two compounds (pinosylvin monomethyl ether and (+)-α-pinene) were significantly affected by the presence of the fungi, indicating that Scots pine has a generic, rather than specific, induced response. The fact that both nutritional and blue-stain fungi triggered comparable induced defense responses suggests that even a non-pathogenic fungus may participate in exhausting host plant defenses, indirectly assisting in the beetle establishment process. Our findings contribute to the further development of current theory on the role of associated fungal complexes in bark beetle ecology.

  14. Efficacy of systemic insecticides for protection of loblolly pine against southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W

    2006-02-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point.

  15. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  16. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive ‘tree killing’ bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  17. Pine embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Tillman-Sutela, Eila; Kauppi, Anneli; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism that controls normal growth and development as well as many defence responses. At present, research on PCD in different plant species is actively carried out due to the possibilities offered by modern methods in molecular biology and the increasing amount of genome data. The pine seed provides a favourable model for PCD because it represents an interesting inheritance of seed tissues as well as an anatomically well-described embryogenesis during which several tissues die via morphologically different PCD processes. PMID:19826239

  18. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  19. Coexistence and competition between tomicus yunnanensis and T. minor (Coeoptera: Scolytidae)in yunnan pine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the competition and cooperation between Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) when they coexist together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) growing in Yunnan province in southwest China. We observed that T. yunnanensis bark beetles beg...

  20. Estimating past diameters of several species in the ponderosa pine subregion of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Benjamin. Spada

    1960-01-01

    In certain kinds of forest growth studies, an estimate of diameter outside bark is required for trees as of some previous date. Previously, papers were published by this Station regarding estimation of past diameters of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine. Since they were issued, new and more complete data have been collected for most of the major species in the ponderosa...

  1. A Compatible Stem Taper-Volume-Weight System For Intensively Managed Fast Growing Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Yugia Zhang; Bruce E. Borders; Robert L Bailey

    2002-01-01

    eometry-oriented methodology yielded a compatible taper-volume-weight system of models whose parameters were estimated using data from intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the lower coastal plain of Georgia. Data analysis showed that fertilization has significantly reduced taper (inside and outside bark) on the upper...

  2. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned...

  3. Compatible taper and volume equations for young longleaf pine plantations in southwest Georgia

    Treesearch

    Lichun Jiang; John R. Brooks; Alexander Clark

    2010-01-01

    Inside and outside bark taper equations as well as compatible cubic foot volume equations were developed from felled tree data selected from young longleaf pine plantations that are part of an existing growth and yield study located in the Flint River drainage of southwest Georgia. A Max-Burkhart taper model was selected as the basic model form due to the accuracy...

  4. Distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine/bitterbrush ecosystems in central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Susan N. Little; Laurl J. Shainsky

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of biomass and nutrients in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murryana Dougl.) ecosystems on pumice soils in south-central Oregon. Sixty-three trees were sampled to develop equations for estimating dry weights of tree crowns, boles, bark, and coarse roots from diameter at breast height and...

  5. Identification and evaluation of defects in eastern white pine logs and trees

    Treesearch

    M.D. Ostrander; M.D. Ostrander

    1971-01-01

    The grade of eastern white pine lumber is determined primarily by the condition, size, and frequency of natural blemishes characteristic of the species. These include bark pockets, cross grain, rot, knots, pitch pockets, and shake. Mismanufacture and seasoning defects also affect lumber grade. This guide, based on our latest knowledge about the identification and...

  6. Interactions of Hylastes Species (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with Leptographium Species Associated with Loblolly Pine Decline

    Treesearch

    Lori G. Eckhardt; Richard A. Goyer; Kier Klepzig; John P. Jones

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Hylastes spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)were evaluated as potential vectors of Leptographium spp. fungi. Bark beetles were trapped from stands of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., exhibiting a range of decline symptoms in central Alabama. Under controlled conditions, field-collected adult...

  7. Air pollution indications and growth of spruce and pine near a sulfite plant

    Treesearch

    Lars Westman

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study has been made around a sulfite plant in the north of Sweden. The emission of sulfur dioxide increased considerably in 1950 as a consequence of the introduction of lye-burning. Using the pH in pine bark and two common lichen epiphytes as indicators, the resistant Parmelia physodes and the very sensitive Alectoria implexa...

  8. Western pine beetle populations in Arizona and California differ in the composition of their aggregation pheromones

    Treesearch

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian T. Sullivan; Amanda M. Grady; Cavell Brownie

    2016-01-01

    When related species coexist, selection pressure should favor evolution of species recognition mechanisms to prevent interspecific pairing and wasteful reproductive encounters. We investigated the potential role of pheromone and acoustic signals in species recognition between two species of tree-killing bark beetles, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  9. Modeling the effect of initial planting density on within tree variation of stiffness in loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Lewis Jordan; Richard F. Daniels; Alex Clark

    2012-01-01

    Context Modulus of elasticity (MOE) is an important mechanical property determining the end-use and value of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) lumber. Aim In this study, a model was developed to predict the within tree variation of MOE, from pith-to-bark and stumpto- tip, using data collected...

  10. Insect infestation and residential property values: A hedonic analysis of the mountain pine beetle epidemic

    Treesearch

    James I. Price; Daniel W. McCollum; Robert P. Berrens

    2010-01-01

    In recent years mountain pine beetles (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae, along with several other bark beetle species, have severely damaged coniferous forests in the western United States (U.S.) and Canada (Morris and Walls, 2009). Colorado provides one example of a region that has been heavily affected. The Colorado State Forest Service estimates that 769,000ha of...

  11. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Treesearch

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  12. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  13. Four New Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Lycoris radiata and Their Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ang, Song; Liu, Xia-Mei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Four new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, named lycoranines C-F (1-4), together with seven known ones (5-11) were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Their structures with absolute configurations were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectra, modified Mosher's method, and molecular modeling calculation. Compounds 6, 7, 10, and 11 exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on A549 and LoVo cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.97 ± 0.36 to 17.37 ± 1.57 µM.

  14. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Johnson, Paula J; Besselsen, David G

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinical presentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  15. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    J Doane Paula J Johnson And David G Besselsen, Cynthia

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinicalpresentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  16. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  17. Testing for linkage disequilibrium in the New Zealand radiata pine breeding population

    Treesearch

    S. Kumar; Craig Echt; P.L. Wilcox; T.E. Richardson

    2004-01-01

    Linkage analysis is commonly uscd to find marker-trait associations within the full-sib families of forest tree and other species. Study of marker-trait associations at the population level is termed linkage-disequilibrium (LD) mapping. A female-tester design comprising 200 full-sib families generated by crossing 40 pollen parents with five female parents was used to...

  18. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  19. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  20. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-10-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm{sup 3} sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of {sup 137}CS and {sup 90}Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and I.5% of the {sup 90}Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and 4.5% of the {sup 90}Sr. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils.

  1. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi.

    PubMed

    Klepzig, Kier D; Flores-Otero, J; Hofstetter, R W; Ayres, M P

    2004-02-01

    Competitive, interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus, Entomocorticium sp. A and Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus, we utilized artificial media with water potentials of 0, -5, -10, and -20 MPa. Growth of all three fungi, when grown alone, decreased on media with lower water potentials. Growth rates of all three fungi were likewise reduced in competition experiments. At -5 to -10 MPa, C. ranaculosus (a fungus with beneficial effects toward southern pine beetle) was nearly equal in competitive ability to O. minus (a fungus with antagonistic effects towards southern pine beetle). This was not true on control media, nor at other water potentials tested. The range of water potentials used in our assays was similar to the range of water potentials we measured in loblolly pines within a southern pine beetle infestation. This study indicates that water potential may alter the outcome of competitive interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi in ways that favour bark beetle success.

  2. Impact of cogongrass management strategies on generalist predators in cogongrass-infested longleaf pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Sells, Sallie M; Held, David W; Enloe, Stephen F; Loewenstein, Nancy J; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2015-03-01

    Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica Beav.) is an aggressive, invasive weed with a global distribution. In North America, it threatens the integrity of southeastern pine agroecosystems, including longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). While studies have examined the impacts of cogongrass and various vegetation management strategies on longleaf pine understory plant communities, little is known about how they impact associated insect communities. To understand the effect of cogongrass management strategies on arthropod natural enemies and bark beetles, a split-plot design was used to test fire (whole-plot) and four subplot treatments (control, herbicide, seeding and herbicide plus seeding). Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps and sweep samples. After 2 years of sampling, total natural enemies were not significantly affected by subplot treatment but were affected by burn treatment. Upon subdividing natural enemies into groups, only spiders were significantly affected by subplot treatment, but predatory beetles and ants were significantly affected by burn treatment. The abundance of root-feeding bark beetles (Hylastes spp.) was not significant by subplot or whole-plot treatments. Multiple applications of herbicide remain the most effective way to manage cogongrass in longleaf pine. In this study, we found limited evidence that cogongrass management with herbicides would negatively impact arthropod natural enemies associated with longleaf pine or locally increase root-feeding bark beetles. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  4. Power mulchers can apply hardwood bark mulch

    Treesearch

    David M. Emanuel

    1971-01-01

    Two makes of power mulchers were evaluated for their ability to apply raw or processed hardwood bark mulch for use in revegetating disturbed soils. Tests were made to determine the uniformity of bark coverage and distance to which coverage was obtained. Moisture content and particle-size distribution of the barks used were also tested to determine whether or not these...

  5. Estimating sugar maple bark thickness and volume.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Stayton; Michael Hoffman

    1970-01-01

    Sugar maple bark thickness and volume were estimated using first a published method, then equations developed by the authors. Both methods gave estimates that compared closely with measured values. Information is also presented on variation in bark thickness and on weight and volume of bark as a percentage of total merchantable stem weight and volume.

  6. Limber Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Jane E. Taylor; Robert L. Mathiason

    1999-01-01

    Limber pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum (A. Nelson ex Rydberg) Coulter & Nelson) is a damaging parasite of limber pine (Pinus flexilis James), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.), Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey). Limber pine dwarf mistletoe occurs in the Rocky...

  7. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  8. Water-deficit and fungal infection can differentially affect the production of different classes of defense compounds in two host pines of mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Lusebrink, Inka; Najar, Ahmed; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Sherwood, Patrick; Enrico Bonello, Pierluigi; Evenden, Maya L

    2017-03-01

    Bark beetles are important agents of tree mortality in conifer forests and their interaction with trees is influenced by host defense chemicals, such as monoterpenes and phenolics. Since mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has expanded its host range from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. (var. latifolia Engelm.))-dominated forests to the novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forests in western Canada, studies investigating the jack pine suitability as a host for this beetle have exclusively focused on monoterpenes, and whether phenolics affect jack pine suitability to mountain pine beetle and its symbiotic fungus Grosmannia clavigera is unknown. We investigated the phenolic and monoterpene composition in phloem and foliage of jack and lodgepole pines, and their subsequent change in response to water deficit and G. clavigera inoculation treatments. In lodgepole pine phloem, water deficit treatment inhibited the accumulation of both the total and richness of phenolics, but had no effect on total monoterpene production or richness. Fungal infection also inhibited the total phenolic production and had no effect on phenolic or monoterpene richness, but increased total monoterpene synthesis by 71%. In jack pine phloem, water deficit treatment reduced phenolic production, but had no effect on phenolic or monoterpene richness or total monoterpenes. Fungal infection did not affect phenolic or monoterpene production. Lesions of both species contained lower phenolics but higher monoterpenes than non-infected phloem in the same tree. In both species, richness of monoterpenes and phenolics was greater in non-infected phloem than in lesions. We conclude that monoterpenes seem to be a critical component of induced defenses against G. clavigera in both jack and lodgepole pines; however, a lack of increased monoterpene response to fungal infection is an important evolutionary factor defining jack pine suitability to the mountain pine beetle

  9. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  10. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Treesearch

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  11. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  12. Integrated Physiological, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Analysis of Ultra Violet (UV) Stress Responses and Adaptation Mechanisms in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jesús; Cañal, María Jesús; Escandón, Mónica; Meijón, Mónica; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Valledor, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Globally expected changes in environmental conditions, especially the increase of UV irradiation, necessitate extending our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating tree species adaptation to this stress. This is crucial for designing new strategies to maintain future forest productivity. Studies focused on environmentally realistic dosages of UV irradiation in forest species are scarce. Pinus spp. are commercially relevant trees and not much is known about their adaptation to UV. In this work, UV treatment and recovery of Pinus radiata plants with dosages mimicking future scenarios, based on current models of UV radiation, were performed in a time-dependent manner. The combined metabolome and proteome analysis were complemented with measurements of + physiological parameters and gene expression. Sparse PLS analysis revealed complex molecular interaction networks of molecular and physiological data. Early responses prevented phototoxicity by reducing photosystem activity and the electron transfer chain together with the accumulation of photoprotectors and photorespiration. Apart from the reduction in photosynthesis as consequence of the direct UV damage on the photosystems, the primary metabolism was rearranged to deal with the oxidative stress while minimizing ROS production. New protein kinases and proteases related to signaling, coordination, and regulation of UV stress responses were revealed. All these processes demonstrate a complex molecular interaction network extending the current knowledge on UV-stress adaptation in pine. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  14. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  15. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  16. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  17. Ecology of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) occupies the broadest natural range of all the southern pines, and is found across a diverse range of geography, soils, topography, and habitats. Individual shortleaf trees achieve their best developmnet on deep, well-drained soils of the Upper Coastal Plain, but shortleaf pine communities are most prominent in the Ouachita...

  18. Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Patrick J. Barry

    1982-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) is one of pine's most destructive insect enemies in the Southern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Because populations build rapidly to outbreak proportions and large numbers of trees are killed, this insect generates considerable concern among managers of southern pine forests. The beetle...

  19. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  20. Pine Tortoise Scale

    Treesearch

    Harvey J. MacAloney

    1961-01-01

    The pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella numismaticum (P. & M.)) is a soft scale that periodically causes a noticeable amount of mortality of hard pines. Although it was not described until 1920, when it was found on Scotch pine, in northern Wisconsin, there is evidence that it had caused injury much earlier in a number of localities in this and other States. Scale...

  1. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  2. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were < 2% of annual atmospheric inputs. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were unaffected by beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  3. Olfactory experience modifies semiochemical responses in a bark beetle predator.

    PubMed

    Costa, Arnaud; Reeve, John D

    2011-11-01

    A typical feature of forest insect pests is their tendency to undergo large fluctuations in abundance, which can jeopardize the persistence of their predaceous natural enemies. One strategy that these predators may adopt to cope with these fluctuations would be to respond to sensory cues for multiple prey species. Another possible adaptation to temporal variation in the prey community could involve the learning of prey cues and switching behavior. We conducted three experiments to investigate the ability of the generalist bark beetle predator Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) to respond to different prey signals and to investigate the effect of olfactory experience. We first conducted a field choice test and a wind tunnel experiment to examine the kairomonal response of individual predators toward prey pheromone components (frontalin, ipsenol, ipsdienol, sulcatol) along with the pine monoterpene α-pinene, which is a volatile compound from the host of the prey. We also presented semiochemically naive predators with two prey pheromone components, frontalin and ipsenol, alone or associated with a reward. Our results showed that T. dubius populations are composed of generalists that can respond to a broad range of kairomonal signals. Naive T. dubius also were more attracted to ipsenol following its association with a reward. This work constitutes the first evidence that the behavior of a predatory insect involved in bark beetle population dynamics is influenced by previous olfactory experience, and provides a potential explanation for the pattern of prey switching observed in field studies.

  4. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  5. The Mobile Bark Blower: An Evaluation of Performance and Costs

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles; David M. Emanuel

    1977-01-01

    A custom-built bark blower truck (MOBLOW) developed in Oregon was tested for its effectiveness in applying bark mulches, sawdust, and shavings in the eastern United States. Tests determined the bark blower's performance and cost in mulching grass-legume seedings and shrub beds with 10 bark products or wood residues. Bark blower trucks built to MOBLOW...

  6. Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Geddes, Barbara; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John

    2015-05-12

    Conifers (softwoods) naturally lack syringyl units in their lignins, rendering lignocellulosic materials from such species more difficult to process than syringyl-rich hardwood species. Using a transformable Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system as an experimental platform, we investigated whether metabolic engineering can be used to create syringyl lignin in conifers. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR analysis of P. radiata TE cultures transformed to express ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from Liquidambar styraciflua confirmed the production and incorporation of sinapyl alcohol into the lignin polymer. Transformation with F5H was sufficient for the production of syringyl lignin in TEs, but cotransformation with COMT improved its formation. In addition, lower levels of the pathway intermediate 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol were evidenced in cotransformation experiments, indicating that the introduction of the COMT overcame the inefficiency of the native pine methyltransferases for supporting sinapyl alcohol production.Our results provide the proof of concept that it is possible to generate a lignin polymer that contains syringyl units in softwood species such as P. radiata, suggesting that it might be possible to retain the outstanding fiber properties of softwoods while imbuing them with the lignin characteristics of hardwoods that are more favorable for industrial processing.

  7. Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Geddes, Barbara; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John

    2015-01-01

    Conifers (softwoods) naturally lack syringyl units in their lignins, rendering lignocellulosic materials from such species more difficult to process than syringyl-rich hardwood species. Using a transformable Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system as an experimental platform, we investigated whether metabolic engineering can be used to create syringyl lignin in conifers. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR analysis of P. radiata TE cultures transformed to express ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from Liquidambar styraciflua confirmed the production and incorporation of sinapyl alcohol into the lignin polymer. Transformation with F5H was sufficient for the production of syringyl lignin in TEs, but cotransformation with COMT improved its formation. In addition, lower levels of the pathway intermediate 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol were evidenced in cotransformation experiments, indicating that the introduction of the COMT overcame the inefficiency of the native pine methyltransferases for supporting sinapyl alcohol production.Our results provide the proof of concept that it is possible to generate a lignin polymer that contains syringyl units in softwood species such as P. radiata, suggesting that it might be possible to retain the outstanding fiber properties of softwoods while imbuing them with the lignin characteristics of hardwoods that are more favorable for industrial processing. PMID:25902506

  8. Syringyl lignin production in conifers: Proof of concept in a Pine tracheary element system

    DOE PAGES

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; ...

    2015-04-20

    Conifers (softwoods) naturally lack syringyl units in their lignins, rendering lignocellulosic materials from such species more difficult to process than syringyl-rich hardwood species. Using a transformable Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system as an experimental platform, we investigated whether metabolic engineering can be used to create syringyl lignin in conifers. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR analysis of P. radiata TE cultures transformed to express ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from Liquidambar styraciflua confirmed the production and incorporation of sinapyl alcohol into the lignin polymer. Transformation with F5H was sufficient for the production of syringyl lignin in TEs, but cotransformationmore » with COMT improved its formation. In addition, lower levels of the pathway intermediate 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol were evidenced in cotransformation experiments, indicating that the introduction of the COMT overcame the inefficiency of the native pine methyltransferases for supporting sinapyl alcohol production. In conclusion, our results provide the proof of concept that it is possible to generate a lignin polymer that contains syringyl units in softwood species such as P. radiata, suggesting that it might be possible to retain the outstanding fiber properties of softwoods while imbuing them with the lignin characteristics of hardwoods that are more favorable for industrial processing.« less

  9. Nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics of lodgepole pine dying from mountain pine beetle attack.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Erin; Rogers, Bruce J; Hodgkinson, Robert; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are an important cause of tree death, but the process by which trees die remains poorly understood. The effect of beetle attack on whole-tree nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics is particularly unclear, despite the potential role of carbohydrates in plant defense and survival. We monitored NSC dynamics of all organs in attacked and protected lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) during a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in British Columbia, starting before beetle flight in June 2011 through October 2012, when most attacked trees had died. Following attack, NSC concentrations were first reduced in the attacked region of the bole. The first NSC reduction in a distant organ appeared in the needles at the end of 2011, while branch and root NSC did not decline until much later in 2012. Attacked trees that were still alive in October 2012 had less beetle damage, which was negatively correlated with initial bark sugar concentrations in the attack region. The NSC dynamics of dying trees indicate that trees were killed by a loss of water conduction and not girdling. Further, our results identify locally reduced carbohydrate availability as an important mechanism by which stressors like drought may increase tree susceptibility to biotic attack. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  11. Streamwater Chemistry and Nutrient Export During Five Years of Bark Beetle Infestation of Subalpine Watersheds at the Fraser Experimental Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Elder, K.; Hubbard, R.; Porth, L.

    2008-12-01

    Forested watersheds of western North America are currently undergoing rapid and extensive canopy mortality caused by a variety of insect species. The mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) began to attack lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at the USFS Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado in 2002. By 2007, bark beetles had killed 78% of the overstory pine in Fraser research watersheds on average. The hydrologic, climatic, biogeochemical and vegetation records at the Fraser Experimental Forest provide a unique opportunity to quantify the impacts of this widespread, but poorly understood forest disturbance relative to a multi-decade pre-disturbance period. Here we compare seasonal streamwater chemistry and annual nutrient export for the five years since the bark beetle outbreak began with the pre- attack record. Patterns in post-outbreak streamwater biogeochemistry are compared to changes is species composition and proportional loss of overstory basal area for four basins. The influence of the outbreak will depend upon an aggregate of short (i.e. halted overstory water and nutrient use) and longer-term (i.e. altered canopy interception, windthrow, and understory growth) processes, so the hydrologic and biogeochemical implications of current beetle activity will not be fully realized for decades.

  12. Characterization of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann

    Treesearch

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Italo Delalibera; Jo Handelsman; Kier D. Klepzig; Patrick D. Schloss; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2006-01-01

    We report the first study of gut-associated bacteria of bark beetles using both culture dependent and culture-independent methods. These insects are major pests of pine trees but also contribute to important ecological functions such as nutrient cycling. We found members of the

  13. Climate and weather influences on spatial temporal patterns of mountain pine beetle populations in Washington and Oregon

    Treesearch

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alan A. Ager; Jane L. Hayes

    2012-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of mountain pine beetle in North America have drawn the attention of scientists, forest managers, and the public. There is strong evidence that climate change has contributed to the extent and severity of recent outbreaks. Scientists are interested in quantifying relationships between bark beetle population dynamics and trends in climate. Process...

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of recent mountain pine beetle and western spruce budworm outbreaks across the Pacific Northwest Region, USA

    Treesearch

    Garrett W. Meigs; Robert E. Kennedy; Andrew N. Gray; Matthew J. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Across the western US, the two most prevalent native forest insect pests are mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae; a bark beetle) and western spruce budworm (WSB; Choristoneura freemani; a defoliator). MPB outbreaks have received more forest management attention than WSB outbreaks, but studies to date have not compared their cumulative mortality impacts...

  15. Walking response of the Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus, to novel plant odors host in a laboratory olfactometer

    Treesearch

    A. J. Walter; R. C. Venette; S. A. Kells; S. J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    When an herbivorous insect enters a new geographic area, it will select host plants based on short and long distance cues. A conifer-feeding bark beetle that has been recently introduced to North America, the Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), has a potentially wide host range, especially among members of the Pinaceae....

  16. Mountain pine beetle, a major disturbance agent in US western coniferous forests: A synthesis of the state of knowledge

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented in the scientific and popular literature that large-scale bark beetle outbreaks are occurring across many coniferous forests in the western United States. One of the major species exhibiting extensive eruptive populations resulting in high levels of tree mortality is the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins) (Negron et al. 2008...

  17. Moisture content and specific gravity of the four major southern pines under the same age and site conditions

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Gibson; Charles W. McMillin; Eugene Shoulders

    1986-01-01

    Slash, loblolly, longleaf, and shortleaf pines in northern Louisiana were examined for differences in moisture content (MC) and basic specific gravity (SG) of wood and bark in the complete tree, root, stem, and branches and differences in diameter at breast height (dbh), total height, and taproot length of trees in even-aged plantations under identical site conditions...

  18. Fuel loads and simulated fire behavior in "old-stage" beetle-infested ponderosa pine of the Colorado Plateau

    Treesearch

    E. Matthew Hansen; Morris C. Johnson; Barbara J. Bentz; James C. Vandygriff; A. Steven. Munson

    2015-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have led to concerns regarding changes in fuel profiles and associated changes in fire behavior. Data are lacking for a range of infestation severities and time since outbreak, especially for relatively arid cover types. We surveyed fuel loads and simulated fire behavior for ponderosa pine stands of the...

  19. Six-year post-fire mortality and health of relict ponderosa pines in the Bob Marshall Wilderness Area, Montana

    Treesearch

    Signe B. Leirfallom; Robert E. Keane

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, lightning-caused fires burned through relict ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, after decades of fire exclusion. Since many trees in these stands had Native American bark-peeling scars, concern arose about the adverse fire effects on this cultural and ecological resource. In 2004, Keane and others (2006) began a...

  20. AUTOSAW simulations of lumber recovery for small-diameter Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine from southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Dean L. Parry; John Punches; John Forsman; Robert. Ross

    2003-01-01

    Small-diameter (5- to 10-inch diameter at breast height) Douglas-fi r (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) trees were assessed for product potential by diagramming the location, size, and type of knots visible on the wood surface (inside bark) and using the AUTOSAW sawing simulator to evaluate...

  1. Effects of elevated tropospheric ozone and fluctuating moisture supply on loblolly pine seedlings inoculated with root infecting ophiostomatoid fungi

    Treesearch

    Jeff Chieppa; Lori Eckhardt; Art Chappelka

    2016-01-01

    Southern Pine Decline is a cause of premature mortality of Pinus species in the Southeastern United States. While the pathogenicity of ophiostomatoid fungi, associated with declining Pinus species, has been observed both in the laboratory and the field the driving mechanisms for success of fungal infection, as well as the bark-...

  2. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul R; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  3. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul R.; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  4. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Derek W; Venette, Robert C; Maddox, Mitchell P; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death.

  5. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Venette, Robert C.; Maddox, Mitchell P.; Aukema, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death. PMID:28472047

  6. Experimental investigation of surface litter ignition by bark firebrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filkov, Alexander; Kasymov, Denis; Zima, Vladislav; Matvienko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Probability and conditions for ignition of surface litter (pine needles) caused by firebrands is studied in the laboratory conditions. For modeling of firebrands, pine bark of various sizes 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30 mm2 and 5 mm in thickness is used. The experiment was conducted in the absence of wind and at different wind velocities: 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 m/s. To conduct investigations, an experimental setup was constructed for generation of firebrands and their impact on surface litter. The results of experiments have shown that the increase in air velocity leads to the increase in probability of surface litter ignition. Thus, wind plays a role of catalyst in the ignition process, bringing an oxidizing agent to firebrands and supporting the process of smoldering. However, if the wind velocity is insufficient for ignition, then there is only the process of smoldering. The area of "uncertainty", where there is smoldering of surface litter without transition to ignition, is found to decrease with increasing the wind velocity. Based on the received results, it can be concluded that the ignition curve of surface liter by firebrands is nonlinear and depends on the wind velocity. At the same time, there is no smoldering and ignition of surface litter for all the wind velocities and the particles with a size of 10 × 10 mm2, regardless of their number.

  7. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  8. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Youngblood, Andrew; Grace, James B; McIver, James D

    2009-03-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin + burn), and control. Burn and thin + burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which

  9. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, R. Maxwell; Klutsch, Jennifer G.; Kanekar, Sanat S.; Hussain, Altaf; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs) help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle’s fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success. PMID:27583519

  10. Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Michael J; Carbone, Ignazio; Kirisits, Thomas; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-09-01

    Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its movement or genetic diversity in many of the countries where it is found. In this study we determined the global population diversity and structure of 458 isolates of D. septosporum from 14 countries on six continents using microsatellite markers. Populations of the pathogen in the Northern Hemisphere, where pines are native, displayed high genetic diversities and included both mating types. Most of the populations from Europe showed evidence for random mating, little population differentiation and gene flow between countries. Populations in North America (USA) and Asia (Bhutan) were genetically distinct but migration between these continents and Europe was evident. In the Southern Hemisphere, the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum reflected the anthropogenic history of the introduction and establishment of plantation forestry, particularly with Pinus radiata. Three introductory lineages in the Southern Hemisphere were observed. Countries in Africa, that have had the longest history of pine introductions, displayed the greatest diversity in the pathogen population, indicating multiple introductions. More recent introductions have occurred separately in South America and Australasia where the pathogen population is currently reproducing clonally due to the presence of only one mating type.

  11. Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Michael J; Carbone, Ignazio; Kirisits, Thomas; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-01-01

    Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its movement or genetic diversity in many of the countries where it is found. In this study we determined the global population diversity and structure of 458 isolates of D. septosporum from 14 countries on six continents using microsatellite markers. Populations of the pathogen in the Northern Hemisphere, where pines are native, displayed high genetic diversities and included both mating types. Most of the populations from Europe showed evidence for random mating, little population differentiation and gene flow between countries. Populations in North America (USA) and Asia (Bhutan) were genetically distinct but migration between these continents and Europe was evident. In the Southern Hemisphere, the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum reflected the anthropogenic history of the introduction and establishment of plantation forestry, particularly with Pinus radiata. Three introductory lineages in the Southern Hemisphere were observed. Countries in Africa, that have had the longest history of pine introductions, displayed the greatest diversity in the pathogen population, indicating multiple introductions. More recent introductions have occurred separately in South America and Australasia where the pathogen population is currently reproducing clonally due to the presence of only one mating type. PMID:25478155

  12. Concurrent measurements of change in the bark and xylem diameters of trees reveal a phloem-generated turgor signal.

    PubMed

    Mencuccini, Maurizio; Hölttä, Teemu; Sevanto, Sanna; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2013-06-01

    · Currently, phloem transport in plants under field conditions is not well understood. This is largely the result of the lack of techniques suitable for the measurement of the physiological properties of phloem. · We present a model that interprets the changes in xylem diameter and live bark thickness and separates the components responsible for such changes. We test the predictions from this model on data from three mature Scots pine trees in Finland. The model separates the live bark thickness variations caused by bark water capacitance from a residual signal interpreted to indicate the turgor changes in the bark. · The predictions from the model are consistent with processes related to phloem transport. At the diurnal scale, this signal is related to patterns of photosynthetic activity and phloem loading. At the seasonal scale, bark turgor showed rapid changes during two droughts and after two rainfall events, consistent with physiological predictions. Daily cumulative totals of this turgor term were related to daily cumulative totals of canopy photosynthesis. Finally, the model parameter representing radial hydraulic conductance between phloem and xylem showed a temperature dependence consistent with the temperature-driven changes in water viscosity. · We propose that this model has potential for the continuous field monitoring of tree phloem function. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Examining Patterns of Carbon Assimilation and Allocation to Defense Processes in a Restored Southern Pine Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritger, H.; Novick, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Southern pine forests provide many important ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and softwood timber production, which is a vital component of local economies in the American South. However, all southern pine forests are sensitive to damage from infestations of bark beetles and drought events, which can lead to declines in productivity that may cause mortality in extreme cases, and which may increase in frequency in the future due to ongoing climate change. This study explores how southern pine management for restored, old-growth like conditions, in contrast with management for timber production, affects stand scale drought response and tree resistance to bark beetle herbivory by leveraging a suite of data from a new eddy covariance flux monitoring site in a 65-year-old restored loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (Pinus echinata) pine forest situated in the Crossett Experimental Forest (Arkansas, USA). The sensitivity of ecosystem scale fluxes of CO2 and H2O to drought is interpreted through a synthesis with other long-running Ameriflux sites located in southern pine forests. The effects of the management regime on resin production, which is the pine trees' main defense against beetle attacks, are assessed by comparing monthly resin flow observations collected over the course of the 2013 growing season in the restored stand and in a co-located stand of even-age planted loblolly pines managed for timber production. Results show that loblolly in the uneven-aged stand consistently produced much larger amounts of resin than loblolly in the even-aged stand, and shortleaf pines were the lowest producers throughout the growing season. No significant relationship between resin flow and diameter at breast height was observed within or across species and sites; thus, species and management effects are independent of their effect on tree size.

  14. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  15. Susceptibility to the pinewood nematode (PWN) of four pine species involved in potential range expansion across Europe.

    PubMed

    Nunes da Silva, Marta; Solla, Alejandro; Sampedro, Luis; Zas, Rafael; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2015-09-01

    The pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) Nickle, is one of the most serious threats to pine forests worldwide. Here we studied several components of susceptibility to PWN infection in a model group of pine species widely distributed in Europe (Pinus pinaster Ait., P. pinea L., P. sylvestris L. and P. radiata D. Don), specifically concerning anatomical and chemical traits putatively related to nematode resistance, whole-plant nematode population after experimental inoculation, and several biochemical and physiological traits indicative of plant performance, damage and defensive responses 60 days post inoculation (dpi) in 3-year-old plants. Pinus pinaster was the most susceptible species to PWN colonization, with a 13-fold increase in nematode population size following inoculation, showing up to 35-fold more nematodes than the other species. Pinus pinea was the most resistant species, with an extremely reduced nematode population 60 dpi. Axial resin canals were significantly wider in P. pinaster than in the other species, which may have facilitated nematode dispersal through the stem and contributed to its high susceptibility; nevertheless, this trait does not seem to fully determinate the susceptible character of a species, as P. sylvestris showed similar nematode migration rates to P. pinaster but narrower axial resin canals. Nematode inoculation significantly affected stem water content and polyphenolic concentration, and leaf chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation in all species. In general, P. pinaster and P. sylvestris showed similar chemical responses after infection, whereas P. radiata, which co-exists with the PWN in its native range, showed some degree of tolerance to the nematode. This work provides evidence that the complex interactions between B. xylophilus and its hosts are species-specific, with P. pinaster showing a strong susceptibility to the pathogen, P. pinea being the most

  16. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang

    2017-06-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  17. Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on species composition, biomass, and nutrient distribution in a mixed deciduous forest

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Henderson, G.S.; Harris, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    The increment of forest biomass and nutrient content on Walker Branch Watershed, Tennessee, from 1967 to 1983 was interrupted by two bark beetle outbreaks. An outbreak of the southern pine beetle in the early 1970s and an outbreak of the hickory borer in the late 1970s, early 1980s killed a number of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and hickory (Carya spp.) respectively. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) growth increased over this 16-year period, especially in response to the mortality of shortleaf pine. The net result of these events was little change in total biomass but a substantial shift in species composition (from pine to yellow-poplar) in the Pine forest type over this period. No species has yet responded to the mortality of hickory. Due to the shift in species composition in the Pine type, calcium and magnesium accumulation rates in biomass increased but foliage biomass decreased over the inventory period. There was little change in foliage biomass or nutrient content in other forest types. The beetle attacks, combined with apparently natural self-thinning, caused a large increase in standing dead biomass and in nutrient return via tree fall. This increased rate of return will substantially alter forest floor nutrient content and availability, especially with regard to calcium and nitrogen.

  18. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  19. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future.

  20. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Treesearch

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  1. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Treesearch

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  2. What's in your Douglas-fir bark?

    Treesearch

    M. Gabriela Buamscha; James E. Altland

    2008-01-01

    Douglas-fir bark is a common waste product of forest industry, and has potential use as a substrate in container nurseries. Douglas-fir bark (DFB) is strongly acidic and contains amounts of phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper and manganese within or above the levels recommended for growing container crops. As the pH of DFB decreases, electrical conductivity and amounts...

  3. Absorption of sound by tree bark

    Treesearch

    G. Reethof; L. D. Frank; O. H. McDaniel

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted with a standing wave tube to measure the acoustic absorption of normally incident sound by the bark of six species of trees. Twelve bark samples, 10 cm in diameter, were tested. Sound of seven frequencies between 400 and 1600 Hz was used in the measurements. Absorption was generally about 5 percent; it exceeded 10 percent for only three...

  4. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  5. Neuroprotective compounds from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Yu, Heng-Yi; Wang, Zhuo-Yi; Pi, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Peng; Ruan, Han-Li

    2013-07-01

    Three new alkaloids (1-3) and one new phenolic glycoside (4), together with twenty five known alkaloids (5-29), were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata collected from Huaihua county of Hunan province, China. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against CoCl2, H2O2 and Aβ(25-35)-induced SH-SY5Y cell injuries. Compounds 1-3 showed significant neuroprotective effects against H2O2 or CoCl2-induced SH-SY5Y cell death, while compound 3 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against Aβ(25-35)-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. The known alkaloids 5-29 also exhibited similar bioactivities of different degrees. These findings highlight the fact that the over 100 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids may have a big potential to neuroprotective activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new Amaryllidaceae alkaloid from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Dian; Zhang, Yu; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shi-Fei; Tang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Duo-Zhi; Cao, Ming-Ming; DI, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2013-07-01

    To study the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. In addition, the antiviral activities of alkaloids 1-10 were evaluated using flu virus A. One new homolycorine-type alkaloid 2α-methoxy-6-O-ethyloduline (1), together with nine known alkaloids 2α-methoxy-6-O-methyloduline (2), trispherine (3), 8-O-demethylhomolycorine (4), homolycorine (5), 9-O-demethylhomolycorine (6), oduline (7), lycorenine (8), 6α-O-methyllycorenine (9) and O-ethyllycorenine (10) were obtained. Alkaloid 1 is a new compound, and 1-3 were major alkaloids in this plant. Alkaloids 1-3 showed weak antiviral activities against flu virus A with IC50 values of 2.06, 0.69, and 2.71 μg·mL-1 and CC50 values of 14.37, 4.79, and 80.12 μg·mL-1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Observed Bark Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality in Western United States and British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Ferguson, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Outbreaks of aggressive bark beetle species cause widespread tree mortality, affecting wildlife habitat, wildfire risk, forest recovery, biogeochemical cycling, and biophysical processes. As a result, agencies responsible for forest management in the US and British Columbia are concerned about monitoring outbreaks and so conduct aerial surveys to map these forest disturbances. Here, we describe a gridded product of bark beetle disturbances for the western conterminous United States (1997-2009) and British Columbia (2001-2009). We converted aerial survey polygon data into 1-km2 grids for each combination of host type (e.g., lodgepole pine) and bark beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle) available in the US, and for each bark beetle species available in British Columbia. Polygon data are considered "affected area" because the polygons include live and killed trees. We converted affected area to mortality area within each grid cell for each year. We compared the number of killed trees from the US data set with high-resolution classified imagery in Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico, finding that the number of trees reported by the aerial surveys in these locations was substantially underestimated. We adjusted mortality area for the US and found better matches with the spatial patterns and severity of the British Columbia mortality area. As a result, we produced US grids for lower (from the original aerial survey) and upper (with adjustment) estimates. Bark beetle mortality occurred across the entire study domain and temporal and spatial patterns differed among bark beetle species. The calculated mortality area from all bark beetles combined was 0.42 million ha for the lower estimate and 5.04 million ha for the upper estimate in the western conterminous US from 1997 to 2009, and 5.07 million ha in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009. The analyses suggest that mortality area caused by bark beetles in the western conterminous US exceeded the British Columbia mortality

  8. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  9. Chemical induction of resinosis in southern pines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Outcalt, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Research studies in the use of paraquat, a contact herbicide, for lightwood induction; i.e., the accumulation of oleoresin in the boles of living southern pine trees are summarized. The objectives of this research were to determine oleoresin yields as influenced by treatment factors, to estimate treatment costs, to uncover technical problems, both in the field and processng plants, and to assess the problem of bark beetle attacks on treated trees. Two pulp and paper mill trials using paraquat-treated wood were conducted, one with loblolly and one with slash pine. The loblolly trial yielded 40 percent more tall oil, or an extra 27.2 pounds/cord of wood. Due to limited turpentine condenser capacity, no additional turpentine was recovered. However, there is evidence to believe that an additional one gal./cord could have been realized.

  10. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  11. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bark functional ecology: evidence for tradeoffs, functional coordination, and environment producing bark diversity.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Julieta A; Gleason, Sean; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Chang, Yvonne; Westoby, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The causes underlying bark diversity are unclear. Variation has been frequently attributed to environmental differences across sites. However, variation may also result from tradeoffs and coordination between bark's multiple functions. Bark traits may also covary with wood and leaf traits as part of major dimensions of plant variation. To assess hypotheses regarding tradeoffs and functional coordination, we measured bark traits reflecting protection, storage, mechanics, and photosynthesis in branches of 90 species spanning a wide phylogenetic and environmental range. We also tested associations between bark, wood, and leaf traits. We partitioned trait variation within species, and within and across communities to quantify variation associated with across-site differences. We observed associations between bark mechanics and storage, density and thickness, and thickness and photosynthetic activity. Increasing bark thickness contributed significantly to stiffer stems and greater water storage. Bark density, water content, and mechanics covaried strongly with the equivalent wood traits, and to a lesser degree with leaf size, xylem conductivity, and vessel diameter. Most variation was observed within sites and had low phylogenetic signal. Compared with relatively minor across-site differences, tradeoffs and coordination among functions of bark, leaves, and wood are likely to be major and overlooked factors shaping bark ecology and evolution.

  13. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  14. Diplodia Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    The fungus Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx is most damaging to plantings of both exotic and native pine species in the United States. The fungus is seldom found in natural pine stands. Diplodia pinea kills current-year shoots, major branches, and ultimately entire trees. The effects of this disease are most severe in landscape, windbreak, and park plantings in the Central...

  15. Longleaf pine seedling production

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects and pathogens, and produces quality solid-wood products, but regeneration of the species has been difficult. Natural regeneration is feasible only on a small portion of the area considered to be longleaf pine type. Therefore, artificial regeneration must become a reliable means of regenerating the...

  16. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  17. Western Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Clarence J. Jr. DeMars; Bruce H. Roettgering

    1982-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages and vigor classes that are 6 inches (15 cm) or larger in diameter, including apparently healthy trees. Group killing of trees is common in dense, overstocked stands of pure, even-aged, young sawtimber (fig. 1), but also occurs among...

  18. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  19. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  20. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.