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Sample records for radiating leg pain

  1. Radiating leg pain and positive straight leg raising in spondylolysis in children.

    PubMed

    Halperin, N; Copeliovitch, L; Schachner, E

    1983-09-01

    Three children presented with low back pain radiating to the leg and with spasm of the hamstring and paravertebral muscles. Since the pain could not be ascribed to trauma, it was necessary to exclude the presence of infection or tumors. All the signs--localization of the pain, tenderness on one side of the back, X-ray film findings of unilateral or bilateral spondylolysis, and localized positive bone scan--pointed to spondylolysis as the cause of pain. All three children exhibited symptoms resembling those found in the facet syndrome described by Mooney and Robertson.

  2. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  3. [Low back pain vs. leg dominant pain].

    PubMed

    Kovac, Ida

    2011-01-01

    There are two patterns of back pain: 1) back-dominant pain and 2) leg pain dominant, greater than back pain. The causes of back pain are very different and numerous, but mostly are due to vertebral, mechanical etiology, and rarely because of non vertebral, visceral etiology. Leg pain greater than back pain is mostly disease of spinal nerve root, generally presented by radicular pain in a dermatomal distribution. Mechanical compression of spinal roots, caused by disc herniation or by spinal stenosis, results in radicular symptoms. Rarely, in about 1% of patients, there are some other reasons except vertebral mechanical cause, like infection, tumor or fracture. There are several causes of pseudoradicular pain like periferal neuropathy, myifascial syndromes, vascular diseases, osteoarthritis. Spondylarthropathies should be taken in cosideration as well. A complete history and physical examination is important to determine further diagnostic evaluation and to provide eficient therapy.

  4. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  5. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... are visible just under the surface of the skin Spinal stenosis —narrowing in the spine, causing pressure on the nerves and spine, with resulting numbness and pain Lumbar disease Osteoarthritis QUESTIONS TO ASK YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER Does my medical history raise my risk for P.A.D.? Do ...

  6. [Pseudo-radicular referred leg pain].

    PubMed

    von Heymann, W

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-radicular leg pain as initially described by Bruegger more than 55 years ago was at that time a genius explanation for so many non-radicular pain syndromes that needed not any kind of surgical intervention but in first line a manual treatment or a treatment by therapeutic local anesthetics. Today we describe this pain as a "referred pain" originating from other anatomic structures that may occur during the development of chronic pain. Nevertheless this pain is found in many patients and it still seems to be a big problem for many physicians and surgeons. Imaging does not help either. The history and the clinical symptoms, the examinations, the chain reactions in the motor system as well as the treatment options from the point of view of manual medicine are described.

  7. Leg symptoms associated with sacroiliac joint disorder and related pain.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Eiichi; Aizawa, Toshimi; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Noguchi, Kyoko

    2017-06-01

    The symptoms of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are usually detected in the buttock and groin, and occasionally referred to the thigh and leg. However, lumbar disorders also cause symptoms in these same body regions. The presence of a characteristic, symptomatic pattern in the legs would be useful for diagnosing SIJ disorders. This study aimed to identify specific leg symptoms in patients with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament and determine the rate of occurrence of these symptoms. The source population consisted of 365 consecutive patients from February 2005 to December 2007. One hundred patients were diagnosed with SIJ pain by a periarticular SIJ injection (42 males and 58 females, average age 46 years, age range, 18-75 years). A leg symptom map was made by subtracting the symptoms after a periarticular SIJ injection from the initial symptoms, and evaluating the rate of each individual symptom by area. Ninety-four patients reported pain at or around the posterior-superior iliac spine (PSIS). Leg symptoms comprised pain and a numbness/tingling sensation; ≥60% of the patients had these symptoms. Pain was mainly detected in the back, buttock, groin, and thigh areas, while numbness/tingling was mainly detected in the lateral to posterior thigh and back of the calf. Leg symptoms associated with SIJ pain originating from the posterior sacroiliac ligament include both pain and numbness, which do not usually correspond to the dermatome. These leg symptoms in addition to pain around the PSIS may indicate SIJ disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Agreement and correlation between the straight leg raise and slump tests in subjects with leg pain.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jeremy; Hall, Toby

    2009-01-01

    The straight leg raise (SLR) and slump tests have traditionally been used to identify nerve root compression arising from disk herniation. However, they may be more appropriate as tests of lumbosacral neural tissue mechanosensitivity. The aim of this study was to determine agreement and correlation between the SLR and slump tests in a population presenting with back and leg pain. This was an observational, cross-sectional study design. Forty-five subjects with unilateral leg pain were recruited from an outpatient Back Pain Screening Clinic at a large teaching hospital in Ireland. The SLR and slump tests were performed on each side. In the event of symptom reproduction, the ankle was dorsiflexed. Reproduction of presenting symptoms, which were intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, was interpreted as a positive test. An inclinometer was used to measure range of motion (ROM). There was substantial agreement between SLR and slump test interpretation (kappa = 0.69) with good correlation in ROM between the 2 tests (r = 0.64) on the symptomatic side. In subjects who had positive results, ROM for both tests was significantly reduced compared to ROM on the contralateral side and ROM in subjects who had negative results. When the SLR and slump tests are interpreted as positive in the event of reproduction of presenting leg pain that are intensified by ankle dorsiflexion, these tests show substantial agreement and good correlation in the leg pain population. When interpreted in this way, these tests may be appropriate tests of neural tissue mechanosensitivity, but further criteria must be met before a definitive conclusion in relation to neural tissue mechanosensitivity may be drawn.

  9. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    PubMed

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  10. Reliability among clinicians diagnosing low back-related leg pain.

    PubMed

    Stynes, Siobhán; Konstantinou, Kika; Dunn, Kate M; Lewis, Martyn; Hay, Elaine M

    2016-09-01

    To investigate agreement and reliability among clinicians when diagnosing low back-related leg pain (LBLP) in primary care consulters. Thirty-six patients were assessed by one of six physiotherapists and diagnosed as having either leg pain due to nerve root involvement (sciatica) or referred leg pain. Assessments were video recorded. In part one, the physiotherapists each viewed videos of six patients they had not assessed. In part two, videos were viewed by another six health professionals. All clinicians made an independent differential diagnosis and rated their confidence with diagnosis (range 50-100 %). In part one agreement was 72 % with fair inter-rater reliability (K = 0.35, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.63). Results for part two were almost identical (K = 0.34, 95 % CI 0.02, 0.69). Agreement and reliability indices improved as diagnostic confidence increased. Reliability was fair among clinicians from different backgrounds when diagnosing LBLP but improved substantially with high confidence in clinical diagnosis.

  11. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology – which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention. PMID:21522213

  12. Association of restless legs syndrome, pain, and mood disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Qureshi, Abdul Rehman M; Rahman, Labiba; Jesudasan, Ajantha; Hafez, Kevin K; Rana, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to analyze the association between Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, and to explore the relationship between mood disorder comorbidity (anxiety and depression), pain, and restless legs syndrome. This study included 123 Parkinson's disease patients and 123 non-Parkinson's disease patients matched for age and gender, and evaluated for anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence. This was performed using semi-structured interviews and a neurological examination through the restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria and the following inventories; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Pain Disability Index. Parkinson's disease patients had significantly greater anxiety severity, depression severity, pain severity, pain interference, pain disability, and restless legs syndrome prevalence in comparison to controls. In addition, Parkinson's disease patients' comorbid for anxiety and depression had significantly greater pain severity, pain interference, and pain disability, but not RLS prevalence, in comparison to Parkinson's disease only, Parkinson's disease anxiety, and Parkinson's disease depression patients. Pain interference, pain severity, and pain disability is greater among Parkinson's disease patients with anxiety and depression, in comparison to Parkinson's disease patients without anxiety and depression. On the contrary, the prevalence of restless legs syndrome was not found to be relevant.

  13. Pain, opioids, and sleep: implications for restless legs syndrome treatment.

    PubMed

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Högl, Birgit

    2017-03-01

    Opioid receptor agonists are known to relieve restless legs syndrome (RLS) symptoms, including both sensory and motor events, as well as improving sleep. The mechanisms of action of opioids in RLS are still a matter of speculation. The mechanisms by which endogenous opioids contribute to the pathophysiology of this polygenetic disorder, in which there are a number of variants, including developmental factors, remains unknown. A summary of the cellular mode of action of morphine and its (partial) antagonist naloxone via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and the involvement of dendritic spine activation is described. By targeting pain and its consequences, opioids are the first-line treatment in many diseases and conditions with both acute and chronic pain and have thus been used in both acute and chronic pain conditions over the last 40 years. Addiction, dependence, and tolerability of opioids show a wide variability interindividually, as the response to opioids is influenced by a complex combination of genetic, molecular, and phenotypic factors. Although several trials have now addressed opioid treatment in RLS, hyperalgesia as a complication of long-term opioid treatment, or opioid-opioid interaction have not received much attention so far. Therapeutic opioids may act not only on opioid receptors but also via histamine or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. In patients with RLS, one of the few studies investigating opioid bindings found that possible brain regions involved in the severity of RLS symptoms are similar to those known to be involved in chronic pain, such as the medial pain system (medial thalamus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate gyrus, insular cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex). The results of this diprenorphine positron emission tomography study suggested that the more severe the RLS, the greater the release of endogenous opioids. Since 1993, when the first small controlled study was performed with

  14. Exercise performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease who have different types of exertional leg pain.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S; Afaq, Azhar

    2007-07-01

    This study compared the exercise performance of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) who have different types of exertional leg pain. Patients with PAD were classified into one of four groups according to the San Diego Claudication Questionnaire: intermittent claudication (n = 406), atypical exertional leg pain causing patients to stop (n = 125), atypical exertional leg pain in which patients were able to continue walking (n = 81), and leg pain on exertion and rest (n = 103). Patients were assessed on the primary outcome measures of ankle-brachial index (ABI), treadmill exercise measures, and ischemic window. All patients experienced leg pain consistent with intermittent claudication during a standardized treadmill test. The mean (+/- SD) initial claudication distance (ICD) was similar (P = .642) among patients with intermittent claudication (168 +/- 160 meters), atypical exertional leg pain causing patients to stop (157 +/- 130 meters), atypical exertional leg pain in which patients were able to continue walking (180 +/- 149 meters), and leg pain on exertion and rest (151 +/- 136 meters). The absolute claudication distance (ACD) was similar (P = .648) in the four respective groups (382 +/- 232, 378 +/- 237, 400 +/- 245, and 369 +/- 236 meters). Similarly, the ischemic window, expressed as the area under the curve (AUC) after treadmill exercise, was similar (P = .863) in these groups (189 +/- 137, 208 +/- 183, 193 +/- 143, and 199 +/- 119 AUC). PAD patients with different types of exertional leg pain, all limited by intermittent claudication during a standardized treadmill test, were remarkably similar in ICD, ACD, and ischemic window. Thus, the presence of ambulatory symptoms should be of primary clinical concern in evaluating PAD patients regardless of whether they are consistent with classic intermittent claudication.

  15. Are differences in leg length predictive of lateral patello-femoral pain?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Mary; Wilkerson, Jerry

    2007-03-01

    Lateral patello-femoral pain can shorten an athletic career and generally decrease an individual's physical activity and functional level, such as preventing stair climbing and reducing the ability to rise from a chair. Leg length inequality is associated with patello-femoral pain. A leg length test that best distinguishes the difference between people who have lateral patello-femoral pain and those who do not would have clinical utility. The purpose of the present study was, first, to determine if unilateral, lateral patello-femoral pain was associated with the longer leg when inequality of leg lengths existed and, second, to determine if leg length direct measurement, indirect measurement or quadriceps angle (Q angle) could correctly classify participants according to the presence or absence of patello-femoral pain. The study used an ex post facto, two-group quasi-experimental design. A volunteer sample of 52 participants (14 males, 38 females), ranged in age from 18 to 52 years. Three methods were used to measure leg lengths: palpation meter (PALM) on anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) while participants maintained centred weight-bearing position on a high resolution pressure mat; tape measurement from ASIS to medial malleolus (supine); tape measurement from ASIS to lateral malleolus (supine). Additionally, Q angle was measured in supine position. Patellar grind test, medial retinacular and lateral patellar palpation screened for patello-femoral pain. Logistic regression analysis determined correctness of membership in painful and non-painful patello-femoral groups. The PALM method of indirect measurement of leg length differences overall correctly classified approximately 83 % of the participants. Tape measure to medial and lateral malleoli as well as Q angle did not yield significant results. The results suggested that the PALM method of measuring leg length differences may have clinical utility in differentiating between patients who are likely to sustain

  16. Back pain was less explained than leg pain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging in low back pain patients with and without radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole Kudsk; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Sørensen, Joan Solgaard; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2015-12-03

    Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between lumbar degenerative manifestations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low back pain (LBP). Disc herniations and other degenerative manifestations, however, frequently occur in asymptomatic individuals. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to analyze for associations between pain intensity and degenerative manifestations and other pain variables in patients for whom prognostic factors have been published previously. Included were 141 consecutive patients with and without radiculopathy, all sick-listed 1-4 months due to low back pain and subsequently examined by MRI of the lumbar spine. Using different methods of grouping the degenerative manifestations, linear regression analyses were performed with the intensity of back + leg pain, back pain and leg pain as dependent variables covering actual pain and pain the preceding 2 weeks. The clinical classification into +/- radiculopathy was established before and independently of the standardised description of MRI findings. Radiculopathy was present in 43 % of the patients. Pain was best explained using rank-ordered degenerative manifestations on MRI. Back pain and leg pain were differently associated, and back pain was less explained than leg pain in the multivariate analyses (15 % vs. 31 % of the variation). Back pain intensity was higher in patients with type 1 Modic changes and in some patients with nerve root touch, but was not associated with disc herniations. Leg pain intensity was well explained by disc herniations causing MRI nerve root compromise and radiculopathy. In patients with radiculopathy, nerve root touch caused as much leg pain as nerve root displacement or compression. High intensity zones and osteophytes were not associated with back pain, but only associated with leg pain in patients with radiculopathy. Tender points explained some of the back pain, and widespread pain explained leg pain in some of the patients without

  17. Acute experimental hip muscle pain alters single-leg squat balance in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Anna L; Crossley, Kay M; Hug, François; Bouma, James; Ha, Bonnie; Spaulding, Kara L; Tucker, Kylie

    2015-05-01

    Clinical musculoskeletal pain commonly accompanies hip pathology and can impact balance performance. Due to the cross-sectional designs of previous studies, and the multifactorial nature of musculoskeletal pain conditions, it is difficult to determine whether pain is a driver of balance impairments in this population. This study explored the effects of experimentally induced hip muscle pain on static and dynamic balance. Twelve healthy adults (4 women, mean[SD]: 27.1[3] years) performed three balance tasks on each leg, separately: single-leg standing (eyes closed), single-leg squat (eyes open), forward step (eyes open); before and after hypertonic saline injection (1ml, 5% NaCl) into the right gluteus medius. Range, standard deviation (SD), and velocity of the centre of pressure (CoP) in medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were considered. During the single-leg squat task, experimental hip pain was associated with significantly reduced ML range (-4[13]%, P=0.028), AP range (-14[21]%, P=0.005), APSD (-15[28]%, P=0.009), and AP velocity (-6[13]%, P=0.032), relative to the control condition, in both legs. No effect of pain was observed during single-leg standing and forward stepping. Significant between-leg differences in ML velocity were observed during the forward stepping task (P=0.034). Pain is a potentially modifiable patient-reported outcome in individuals with hip problems. This study demonstrates that acute hip muscle pain alone, without interference of musculoskeletal pathology, does not lead to the same impairments in balance as exhibited in clinical populations with hip pathologies. This is the first step in understanding how and why balance is altered in painful hip pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients’ self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica. PMID:19488793

  19. The bothersomeness of sciatica: patients' self-report of paresthesia, weakness and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens Ivar; Grotle, Margreth

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how patients with sciatica due to disc herniation rate the bothersomeness of paresthesia and weakness as compared to leg pain, and how these symptoms are associated with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 411 patients with clinical signs of radiculopathy. Items from the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (0 = none to 6 = extremely) were used to establish values for paresthesia, weakness and leg pain. Associations with socio-demographic and clinical variables were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Mean scores (SD) were 4.5 (1.5) for leg pain, 3.4 (1.8) for paresthesia and 2.6 (2.0) for weakness. Women reported higher levels of bothersomeness for all three symptoms with mean scores approximately 10% higher than men. In the multivariate models, more severe symptoms were associated with lower physical function and higher emotional distress. Muscular paresis explained 19% of the variability in self-reported weakness, sensory findings explained 10% of the variability in paresthesia, and straight leg raising test explained 9% of the variability in leg pain. In addition to leg pain, paresthesia and weakness should be assessed when measuring symptom severity in sciatica.

  20. Classification of patients with low back-related leg pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stynes, Siobhán; Konstantinou, Kika; Dunn, Kate M

    2016-05-23

    The identification of clinically relevant subgroups of low back pain (LBP) is considered the number one LBP research priority in primary care. One subgroup of LBP patients are those with back related leg pain. Leg pain frequently accompanies LBP and is associated with increased levels of disability and higher health costs than simple low back pain. Distinguishing between different types of low back-related leg pain (LBLP) is important for clinical management and research applications, but there is currently no clear agreement on how to define and identify LBLP due to nerve root involvement. The aim of this systematic review was to identify, describe and appraise papers that classify or subgroup populations with LBLP, and summarise how leg pain due to nerve root involvement is described and diagnosed in the various systems. The search strategy involved nine electronic databases including Medline and Embase, reference lists of eligible studies and relevant reviews. Selected papers were appraised independently by two reviewers using a standardised scoring tool. Of 13,358 initial potential eligible citations, 50 relevant papers were identified that reported on 22 classification systems. Papers were grouped according to purpose and criteria of the classification systems. Five themes emerged: (i) clinical features (ii) pathoanatomy (iii) treatment-based approach (iv) screening tools and prediction rules and (v) pain mechanisms. Three of the twenty two systems focused specifically on LBLP populations. Systems that scored highest following quality appraisal were ones where authors generally included statistical methods to develop their classifications, and supporting work had been published on the systems' validity, reliability and generalisability. There was lack of consistency in how LBLP due to nerve root involvement was described and diagnosed within the systems. Numerous classification systems exist that include patients with leg pain, a minority of them focus

  1. Neuroleptic-induced "painful legs and moving toes" syndrome: successful treatment with clonazepam and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1990-12-01

    The syndrome of "painful legs and moving toes" is characterised by spontaneous causalgic pain in the lower extremities associated with peculiar involuntary movements of the toes and feet. It has been observed after a variety of lesions affecting the posterior nerve roots, the spinal ganglia and the peripheral nerves. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is unknown. I report a patient who developed the syndrome during treatment for schizophrenia with the antipsychotic agent molindone hydrochloride. The patient's response to the combination of clonazepam and baclofen suggests that the pathophysiology of the "painful legs and moving toes" may be linked to impairment of spinal serotonergic and GABA functions.

  2. Back pain and leg complaints that revealed non-small cell carcinoma: a case study.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Casey A; Pierce, Angela N

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this case study is to describe the clinical presentation of a patient with a chief complaint of low back and leg pain with no prior diagnosis of lung cancer. A 48-year-old man with a history of back pain presented to a chiropractic office with a complaint of low back and left leg pain. Abnormal examination and radiographic findings were discovered. The patient was immediately referred to the pulmonologist for co-management. Through the use of advanced imaging and biopsy, stage 4 lung cancer was diagnosed. Low back pain recurrence in an established patient should constitute a reevaluation of the problem. The cause cannot be assumed to be musculoskeletal in origin even though this may have been the case with the initial complaint. Metastatic disease should be considered with any type of recurrent low back pain. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Back pain and leg complaints that revealed non–small cell carcinoma: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Casey A.; Pierce, Angela N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the clinical presentation of a patient with a chief complaint of low back and leg pain with no prior diagnosis of lung cancer. Clinical Features A 48-year-old man with a history of back pain presented to a chiropractic office with a complaint of low back and left leg pain. Intervention and Outcome Abnormal examination and radiographic findings were discovered. The patient was immediately referred to the pulmonologist for co-management. Through the use of advanced imaging and biopsy, stage 4 lung cancer was diagnosed. Conclusion Low back pain recurrence in an established patient should constitute a reevaluation of the problem. The cause cannot be assumed to be musculoskeletal in origin even though this may have been the case with the initial complaint. Metastatic disease should be considered with any type of recurrent low back pain. PMID:22014908

  4. Leg pain and psychological variables predict outcome 2-3 years after lumbar fusion surgery.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Allan D; Tyni-Lenné, Raija; Hedlund, Rune

    2011-10-01

    Prediction studies testing a thorough range of psychological variables in addition to demographic, work-related and clinical variables are lacking in lumbar fusion surgery research. This prospective cohort study aimed at examining predictions of functional disability, back pain and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) 2-3 years after lumbar fusion by regressing nonlinear relations in a multivariate predictive model of pre-surgical variables. Before and 2-3 years after lumbar fusion surgery, patients completed measures investigating demographics, work-related variables, clinical variables, functional self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, fear of movement/(re)injury, mental health and pain coping. Categorical regression with optimal scaling transformation, elastic net regularization and bootstrapping were used to investigate predictor variables and address predictive model validity. The most parsimonious and stable subset of pre-surgical predictor variables explained 41.6, 36.0 and 25.6% of the variance in functional disability, back pain intensity and HRQOL 2-3 years after lumbar fusion. Pre-surgical control over pain significantly predicted functional disability and HRQOL. Pre-surgical catastrophizing and leg pain intensity significantly predicted functional disability and back pain while the pre-surgical straight leg raise significantly predicted back pain. Post-operative psychomotor therapy also significantly predicted functional disability while pre-surgical outcome expectations significantly predicted HRQOL. For the median dichotomised classification of functional disability, back pain intensity and HRQOL levels 2-3 years post-surgery, the discriminative ability of the prediction models was of good quality. The results demonstrate the importance of pre-surgical psychological factors, leg pain intensity, straight leg raise and post-operative psychomotor therapy in the predictions of functional disability, back pain and HRQOL-related outcomes.

  5. Low back related leg pain: an investigation of construct validity of a new classification system.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Axel G M; Hall, Toby M; Rolke, Roman; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Lüdtke, Kerstin; Mallwitz, Joachim; Briffa, Kathryn N

    2014-01-01

    Leg pain is associated with back pain in 25-65% of all cases and classified as somatic referred pain or radicular pain. However, distinction between the two may be difficult as different pathomechanisms may cause similar patterns of pain. Therefore a pathomechanism based classification system was proposed, with four distinct hierarchical and mutually exclusive categories: Neuropathic Sensitization (NS) comprising major features of neuropathic pain with sensory sensitization; Denervation (D) arising from significant axonal compromise; Peripheral Nerve Sensitization (PNS) with marked nerve trunk mechanosensitivity; and Musculoskeletal (M) with pain referred from musculoskeletal structures. To investigate construct validity of the classification system. Construct validity was investigated by determining the relationship of nerve functioning with subgroups of patients and asymptomatic controls. Thus somatosensory profiles of subgroups of patients with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) and healthy controls were determined by a comprehensive quantitative sensory test (QST) protocol. It was hypothesized that subgroups of patients and healthy controls would show differences in QST profiles relating to underlying pathomechanisms. 77 subjects with LBRLP were recruited and classified in one of the four groups. Additionally, 18 age and gender matched asymptomatic controls were measured. QST revealed signs of pain hypersensitivity in group NS and sensory deficits in group D whereas Groups PNS and M showed no significant differences when compared to the asymptomatic group. These findings support construct validity for two of the categories of the new classification system, however further research is warranted to achieve construct validation of the classification system as a whole.

  6. Prognostic Factors for Persistent Leg-Pain in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Sciatica.

    PubMed

    Fjeld, Olaf; Grotle, Margreth; Siewers, Vibeke; Pedersen, Linda M; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-03-01

    Prospective cohort study. To identify potential prognostic factors for persistent leg-pain at 12 months among patients hospitalized with acute severe sciatica. The long-term outcome for patients admitted to hospital with sciatica is generally unfavorable. Results concerning prognostic factors for persistent sciatica are limited and conflicting. A total of 210 patients acutely admitted to hospital for either surgical or nonsurgical treatment of sciatica were consecutively recruited and received a thorough clinical and radiographic examination in addition to responding to a comprehensive questionnaire. Follow-up assessments were done at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Potential prognostic factors were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks. The impact of these factors on leg-pain was analyzed by multiple linear regression modeling. A total of 151 patients completed the entire study, 93 receiving nonrandomized surgical treatment. The final multivariate models showed that the following factors were significantly associated with leg-pain at 12 months: high psychosocial risk according to the Örebro Musculosceletal Pain Questionnaire (unstandardized beta coefficient 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-2.38, P < 0.001), not receiving surgical treatment (1.11, 95% CI 0.29-1.93, P = 0.01), not actively employed upon admission (1.47, 95% CI 0.63-2.31, P < 0.01), and self-reported leg-pain recorded 6 weeks posthospital admission (0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.63, P < 0.001). Interaction analysis showed that the Örebro Musculosceletal Pain Questionnaire had significant prognostic value only on the nonsurgically treated patients (3.26, 95% CI 1.89-4.63, P < 0.001). The results suggest that a psychosocial screening tool and the implementation of a 6-week postadmission follow-up has prognostic value in the hospital management of severe sciatica. 2.

  7. Older Age and Leg Pain Are Good Predictors of Pain and Disability Outcomes in 2710 Patients Who Receive Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad E; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Radcliff, Kristen; Karikari, Isaac; Isaacs, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Identifying appropriate candidates for lumbar spine fusion is a challenging and controversial topic. The purpose of this study was to identify baseline characteristics related to poor/favorable outcomes at 1 year for a patient who received lumbar spine fusion. The aims of this study were to describe baseline characteristics of those who received lumbar surgery and to identify baseline characteristics from a spine repository that were related to poor and favorable pain and disability outcomes for patient who received lumbar fusion (with or without decompression), who were followed up for 1 full year and discriminate predictor variables that were either or in contrast to prognostic variables reported in the literature. This study analyzed data from 2710 patients who underwent lumbar spine fusion. All patient data was part of a multicenter, multi-national spine repository. Ten relatively commonly captured data variables were used as predictors for the study. Univariate/multivariate logistic regression analyses were run against outcome variables of pain/disability. Multiple univariate findings were associated with pain/disability outcomes at 1 year including age, previous surgical history, baseline disability, baseline pain, baseline quality of life scores, and leg pain greater than back pain. Notably significant multivariate findings for both pain and disability include older age, previous surgical history, and baseline mental summary scores, disability, and pain. Leg pain greater than back pain and older age may yield promising value when predicting positive outcomes. Other significant findings may yield less value since these findings are similar to those that are considered to be prognostic regardless of intervention type.

  8. Endofibrosis: an unusual cause of leg pain in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anas; Murney, Sean; Jordan, Kim; Laperna, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery can occur as a rare complication of high endurance physical activities, particularly cycling, running, and rowing. Symptoms mimic claudication and typically occur with vigorous exercise and improve with rest. Patients can experience thigh pain, swelling and paresthesias in the affected extremity. The diagnosis of endofibrosis is often delayed given the patient's overall normal appearance and lack of significant medical history. This report outlines the presentation and evaluation of a case of endofibrosis of the external iliac artery in an otherwise healthy 42-year-old healthy woman. Her diagnosis was delayed for two years before appropriate diagnostic testing and subsequent surgical intervention allowed for return to a normal, active lifestyle.

  9. A prospective study of gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain.

    PubMed

    Willems, T M; De Clercq, D; Delbaere, K; Vanderstraeten, G; De Cock, A; Witvrouw, E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP) in 400 physical education students. Static lower leg alignment was determined, and 3D gait kinematics combined with plantar pressure profiles were collected. After this evaluation, all sports injuries were registered by the same sports physician during the duration of the study. Forty six subjects developed ERLLP and 29 of them developed bilateral symptoms thus giving 75 symptomatic lower legs. Bilateral lower legs of 167 subjects who developed no injuries in the lower extremities served as controls. Cox regression analysis revealed that subjects who developed ERLLP had an altered running pattern before the injury compared to the controls and included (1) a significantly more central heel-strike, (2) a significantly increased pronation, accompanied with more pressure underneath the medial side of the foot, and (3) a significantly more lateral roll-off. These findings suggest that altered biomechanics play a role in the genesis of ERLLP and thus should be considered in prevention and rehabilitation.

  10. Prior leg massage decreases pain responses to heel stick in preterm babies.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sunil; Kumar, Praveen; McMillan, Douglas D

    2006-09-01

    Leg massage could inhibit the transmission of pain by 'closing the gate' or by activating the endogenous opioid pathway to decrease nociceptive transmission of pain associated with heel stick. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of massage therapy prior to heel stick on responses assessed by the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) (primary outcome), heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation (secondary outcomes) in infants who required a heel stick for blood sampling. This randomised, double-blind, crossover trial with infants from 1 to 7 days post birth excluded those with prior surgery, septicaemia, current assisted ventilation or an analgesic within 48 h. After informed consent, 13 infants received a 2-min massage of the ipsilateral leg prior to heel stick on the first study sampling and no massage on the next sampling 2-7 days later and 10 infants had the reverse order. The bedside nurse, blinded to the intervention, measured NIPS, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation prior to massage, after massage, and 5 min after heel stick. Serum cortisol was measured with the blood sampling. In 23 infants (birthweight 795-2507 g), there were no adverse physiologic effects of massage. After heel stick, NIPS (P < 0.001) and heart rate (P = 0.03) were increased in the no-massage group compared with the massage group. Respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and serum cortisol were not significantly different. Gentle massage of the leg prior to heel stick is safe and decreases pain responses in preterm infants.

  11. Leg pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 81. Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, ... Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 112. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. ...

  12. Clinical course, characteristics and prognostic indicators in patients presenting with back and leg pain in primary care. The ATLAS study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low-back related leg pain with or without nerve root involvement is associated with a poor prognosis compared to low back pain (LBP) alone. Compared to the literature investigating prognostic indicators of outcome for LBP, there is limited evidence on prognostic factors for low back-related leg pain including the group with nerve root pain. This 1 year prospective consultation-based observational cohort study will describe the clinical, imaging, demographic characteristics and health economic outcomes for the whole cohort, will investigate differences and identify prognostic indicators of outcome (i.e. change in disability at 12 months), for the whole cohort and, separately, for those classified with and without nerve root pain. In addition, nested qualitative studies will provide insights on the clinical consultation and the impact of diagnosis and treatment on patients' symptom management and illness trajectory. Methods Adults aged 18 years and over consulting their General Practitioner (GP) with LBP and radiating leg pain of any duration at (n = 500) GP practices in North Staffordshire and Stoke-on-Trent, UK will be invited to participate. All participants will receive a standardised assessment at the clinic by a study physiotherapist and will be classified according to the clinically determined presence or absence of nerve root pain/involvement. All will undergo a lumbar spine MRI scan. All participants will be managed according to their clinical need. The study outcomes will be measured at 4 and 12 months using postal self-complete questionnaires. Data will also be collected each month using brief postal questionnaires to enable detailed description of the course of low back and leg pain over time. Clinical observations and patient interviews will be used for the qualitative aspects of the study. Discussion This prospective clinical observational cohort will combine self-reported data, comprehensive clinical and MRI assessment, together with

  13. Steadiness of Spinal Regions during Single-Leg Standing in Older Adults with and without Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yi-Liang; Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Chiang, Pei-Tzu; Lee, Pei-Yun; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the steadiness index of spinal regions during single-leg standing in older adults with and without chronic low back pain (LBP) and to correlate measurements of steadiness index with the performance of clinical balance tests. Thirteen community-dwelling older adults (aged 55 years or above) with chronic LBP and 13 age- and gender-matched asymptomatic volunteers participated in this study. Data collection was conducted in a university research laboratory. Measurements were steadiness index of spinal regions (trunk, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvis) during single-leg standing including relative holding time (RHT) and relative standstill time (RST), and clinical balance tests (timed up and go test and 5-repetition sit to stand test). The LBP group had a statistically significantly smaller RHT than the control group, regardless of one leg stance on the painful or non-painful sides. The RSTs on the painful side leg in the LBP group were not statistically significantly different from the average RSTs of both legs in the control group; however, the RSTs on the non-painful side leg in the LBP group were statistically significantly smaller than those in the control group for the trunk, thoracic spine, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant intra-group differences were found in the RHTs and RSTs between the painful and non-painful side legs in the LBP group. Measurements of clinical balance tests also showed insignificant weak to moderate correlations with steadiness index. In conclusion, older adults with chronic LBP demonstrated decreased spinal steadiness not only in the symptomatic lumbar spine but also in the other spinal regions within the kinetic chain of the spine. When treating older adults with chronic LBP, clinicians may also need to examine their balance performance and spinal steadiness during balance challenging tests. PMID:26024534

  14. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome: a 76-patient case series.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Anhar; Mateen, Farrah J; Coon, Elizabeth A; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2012-08-01

    To better characterize the clinical features, electrophysiologic features, and treatment outcomes of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT) syndrome. Large case series. Neurology outpatient clinic at a tertiary referral center, 1983-2011. All cases of PLMT seen at our institution during an 18-year period were identified using our medical record linkage system. Key demographic, clinical, imaging, and electrophysiologic features of PLMT. Treatment outcomes and long-term follow-up are also reported. Of 76 cases identified (including 50 women [66%]), the mean age at onset was 58 years (range, 24-86 years) and at neurologic evaluation was 63 years (range, 26-88 years). Pure lower limb involvement was most common (69 patients [91%]), and 44 cases (58%) were bilateral. The most frequently diagnosed causes were peripheral neuropathy (21 cases [28%]), previous trauma (8 [11%]), and radiculopathy (7 [9%]); 32 cases (42%) were cryptogenic. Electromyography consistently showed irregular 50-millisecond to 1-second bursts of normal motor unit potential firing at 2 to 200 Hz accompanying the movements. Pain occurred first in nearly all cases and was more distressing to patients than the movements. Both components were difficult to treat, with no consistent benefit from a variety of drugs and therapeutic modalities. The syndrome persisted in most patients (83%) during the mean follow-up of 4.6 years, suggesting low likelihood of spontaneous resolution. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome is a debilitating clinical syndrome, not because of the movements but rather because of the pain, which often is refractory to treatment. Segmental lower limb involvement is most common, and neurophysiologic findings support a pathophysiologic process localizing to a central generator at the spinal cord or brainstem level.

  15. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with

  16. Trigger point-related sympathetic nerve activity in chronic sciatic leg pain: a case study.

    PubMed

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Pawelec, Wiktoria; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica has classically been associated with irritation of the sciatic nerve by the vertebral disc and consequent inflammation. Some authors suggest that active trigger points in the gluteus minimus muscle can refer pain in similar way to sciatica. Trigger point diagnosis is based on Travel and Simons criteria, but referred pain and twitch response are significant confirmatory signs of the diagnostic criteria. Although vasoconstriction in the area of a latent trigger point has been demonstrated, the vasomotor reaction of active trigger points has not been examined. We report the case of a 22-year-old Caucasian European man who presented with a 3-year history of chronic sciatic-type leg pain. In the third year of symptoms, coexistent myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed. Acupuncture needle stimulation of active trigger points under infrared thermovisual camera showed a sudden short-term vasodilatation (an autonomic phenomenon) in the area of referred pain. The vasodilatation spread from 0.2 to 171.9 cm(2) and then gradually decreased. After needling, increases in average and maximum skin temperature were seen as follows: for the thigh, changes were +2.6°C (average) and +3.6°C (maximum); for the calf, changes were +0.9°C (average) and +1.4°C (maximum). It is not yet known whether the vasodilatation observed was evoked exclusively by dry needling of active trigger points. The complex condition of the patient suggests that other variables might have influenced the infrared thermovision camera results. We suggest that it is important to check if vasodilatation in the area of referred pain occurs in all patients with active trigger points. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Management of nerves during leg amputation--a neglected area in our understanding of the pathogenesis of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, S; Kehlet, H

    2007-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain after leg amputation is a significant problem, with a reported incidence during the first year as high as 70%. Intra-operative handling of the nerves during amputation has not been discussed in the literature on post-amputation pain and, in major textbooks, it is recommended that the ischial nerve be ligated, despite the fact that the experimental literature uses nerve ligations to produce neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical practice of nerve handling during leg amputation. Trainees with at least 2 years of practice received a questionnaire regarding handling of the nerves during leg amputation; 128 of 149 questionnaires sent (86%) were returned. Ligation of the nerves was used by 31% of surgeons. There is no consistency in the management of the large nerves during lower leg amputation. The recommendations in major textbooks may not be appropriate when compared with the experimental literature on nerve ligature models to produce neuropathic pain. Future studies on post-amputation pain should consider intra-operative nerve management.

  18. Predictors of pain relief following spinal cord stimulation in chronic back and leg pain and failed back surgery syndrome: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rod S; Desai, Mehul J; Rigoard, Philippe; Taylor, Rebecca J

    2014-07-01

    We sought to assess the extent to which pain relief in chronic back and leg pain (CBLP) following spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is influenced by patient-related factors, including pain location, and technology factors. A number of electronic databases were searched with citation searching of included papers and recent systematic reviews. All study designs were included. The primary outcome was pain relief following SCS, we also sought pain score (pre- and post-SCS). Multiple predictive factors were examined: location of pain, history of back surgery, initial level of pain, litigation/worker's compensation, age, gender, duration of pain, duration of follow-up, publication year, continent of data collection, study design, quality score, method of SCS lead implant, and type of SCS lead. Between-study association in predictive factors and pain relief were assessed by meta-regression. Seventy-four studies (N = 3,025 patients with CBLP) met the inclusion criteria; 63 reported data to allow inclusion in a quantitative analysis. Evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) in level of pain relief following SCS was noted. The mean level of pain relief across studies was 58% (95% CI: 53% to 64%, random effects) at an average follow-up of 24 months. Multivariable meta-regression analysis showed no predictive patient or technology factors. SCS was effective in reducing pain irrespective of the location of CBLP. This review supports SCS as an effective pain relieving treatment for CBLP with predominant leg pain with or without a prior history of back surgery. Randomized controlled trials need to confirm the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCS in the CLBP population with predominant low back pain. © 2013 The Authors Pain Practice Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of World Institute of Pain.

  19. Effects of functional training on pain, leg strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of 18-week functional training (FT) program consisting in two sessions a week of in-water exercise and one of on-land exercise on pain, strength, and balance in women with fibromyalgia. A sample consisting of 36 fibromyalgia patients was included in the study. The patients were allocated randomly into the experimental group (EG, n = 20), and control group (CG, n = 16). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand and handgrip strength) and agility/dynamic balance and static balance. Fibromyalgia impact and pain were analyzed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), tender points (TPs), visual analog scale (VAS). We observed a significant reduction in the FIQ (p = 0.042), the algometer scale of TP (p = 0.008), TP (p < 0.001), and VAS (p < 0.001) in the EG. The EG shows better results in leg strength (p < 0.001), handgrip strength (p = 0.025), agility/dynamic balance (p = 0.032) and balance (p = 0.006). An 18-week intervention consisting in two sessions of in-water exercise and one session of on-land exercise of FT reduces pain and improves functional capacity in FM patients. These results suggested that FT could play an important role in maintaining an independent lifestyle in patients with FM.

  20. Movement of the sacroiliac joint during the Active Straight Leg Raise test in patients with long-lasting severe sacroiliac joint pain.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Röhrl, Stephan M; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt

    2017-08-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Tantalum markers were inserted in the dorsal sacrum and ilium of 12 patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain scheduled for sacroiliac joint fusion surgery. Two to three weeks later movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise was measured with radiostereometric analysis. Small movements were detected. There was larger movement of the sacroiliac joint of the rested leg's sacroiliac joint compared to the lifted leg's side. A mean backward rotation of 0.8° and inward tilt of 0.3° were seen in the rested leg's sacroiliac joint. The movements of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise are small. There was a small backward rotation of the innominate bone relative to sacrum on the rested leg's side. Our findings contradict an earlier understanding that a forward rotation of the lifted leg's innominate occur while performing the Active Straight Leg Raise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Kinematic and electromyographic analysis in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome during single leg triple hop test.

    PubMed

    Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-09-01

    Possible delays in pre-activation or deficiencies in the activity of the dynamic muscle stabilizers of the knee and hip joints are the most common causes of the patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of the study was to compare kinematic variables and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles between patients with PFPS and health subjects during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). This study included 14 female with PFPS (PFPS group) and 14 female healthy with no history of knee pain (Healthy group). Kinematic and EMG data ware collected through participants performed a single session of the SLTHT. The PFPS group exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) in the EMG activity of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles, when compared with the healthy group in pre-activity and during the stance phase. This same result was also found for the vastus lateralis muscle (p<0.05) when analyzing the EMG activity during the eccentric phase of the stance phase. In kinematic analysis, no significant differences were found between the groups. These results indicate that biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles mainly during the pre-activation phase and stance phases of the SLTHT are more active in PFPS group among healthy group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alterations in Pain Responses in Treated and Untreated Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome: Associations with Sleep Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Robert R; Quartana, Phillip J.; Allen, Richard P; Greenbaum, Seth; Earley, Christopher J; Smith, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Objective There has been recent interest in characterizing potential abnormalities of pain processing in patients with sleep disorders such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). The aim of this study was to evaluate psychophysical responses to noxious heat and pressure stimuli in both treated and untreated RLS patients, compared to matched controls. Methods This study is a cross-sectional group comparison of RLS patients with matched controls. A total of 31 patients (15 treated, 16 untreated) with a confirmed diagnosis of RLS were compared to 18 controls with no history of RLS or related sleep disorders. Results RLS patients (both treated and untreated) demonstrated reduced pain thresholds and reported greater clinical pain relative to controls. Moreover, RLS patients demonstrated enhanced temporal summation of heat pain (p< .05), which may reflect aberrant central nervous system facilitation of pain transmission. Both treated and untreated RLS patients reported disrupted sleep relative to controls, and mediation analyses suggested that the reduced pain thresholds in RLS were attributable to sleep disturbance. However, the effect of RLS on the magnitude of temporal summation of heat pain was independent of sleep disturbance. Conclusions These findings suggest that central nervous system pain processing may be amplified in RLS, perhaps partially as a consequence of sleep disruption. RLS patients, even those whose symptoms are managed pharmacologically, may be at elevated long-term risk for the development or maintenance of persistent pain conditions. Further studies in larger samples could help to improve the prospects for pain management in RLS patients. PMID:21570347

  3. Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Severin, Anna C; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R; Wiegand, Aaron N; Sayers, Mark G L

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pain during movement typically results in changes in technique. However, the physical properties of water, such as flotation, means that water-based exercise may not only reduce compensatory movement patterns but also allow pain sufferers to complete exercises that they are unable to perform on land. The purpose of this study was to assess bilateral kinematics during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain. A secondary aim was to quantify bilateral asymmetry in both environments in affected and unaffected individuals using a symmetry index. Twenty individuals with unilateral knee pain and twenty healthy, matched controls performed body weight double- and single-leg squats in both environments while inertial sensors (100 Hz) recorded trunk and lower body kinematics. Repeated-measures statistics tested for environmental effects on movement depths and peak angles within the anterior knee pain group. Differences in their inter-limb symmetry in each environments was compared to the control group using analysis of variance tests. Water immersion allowed for greater movement depths during both exercises (double-leg squat: +7 cm, p  = 0.032, single-leg squat: +9 cm, p  = 0.002) for the knee pain group. The double-leg squat was symmetrical on land but water immersion revealed asymmetries in the lower body frontal plane movements. The single-leg squat revealed decreased hip flexion and frontal plane shank motions on the affected limb in both environments. Water immersion also affected the degree of lower limb asymmetry in both groups, with differences also showing between groups. Individuals with anterior knee pain achieved increased squat depth during both exercises whilst in water. Kinematic differences between the affected and unaffected limbs were often increased in water. Individuals with unilateral anterior knee pain appear to utilise different kinematics in the affected

  4. The effect of foot orthotic use on exercise related leg pain in cross country athletes.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F; Hayes, Ann M; Austin, Tricia M

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of this research were to (1) investigate the effect of foot orthotic use on exercise related leg pain (ERLP) in cross-country (XC) athletes, and (2) determine if an association between foot type and foot orthotic use exists. Prospective cohort design. High schools and colleges in a Midwestern metropolitan region. 213 high school and college XC athletes (107 male, 106 female). Participants were seen before the fall XC season for classification of foot type, visual orthotic inspection, and questionnaire completion regarding foot orthotic use and ERLP. Statistical analysis of relationships (chi-square) was conducted. 37 of the 213 XC athletes (17.4%) used foot orthotics; 31 of the 37 athletes using foot orthotics (83.8%) reported a history of ERLP. Of these 31 athletes, 17 (54.8%) were using orthotics for ERLP and 15 reported a decrease in ERLP with orthotic use. Fourteen athletes were using orthotics for a reason other than ERLP and only 2 reported a decrease in ERLP with orthotic use. Athletes using orthotics included all three foot types (pronated, neutral, supinated) with no relationship between orthotic use and foot type. One-sixth of the XC athletes used foot orthotics and most using orthotics for ERLP reported a decrease in ERLP symptoms. The majority of athletes using orthotics for reasons other than ERLP reported no change in ERLP symptoms. There was no association between foot type and orthotic use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical diagnostic model for sciatica developed in primary care patients with low back-related leg pain

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, Kika; Ogollah, Reuben; Hay, Elaine M.; Dunn, Kate M.

    2018-01-01

    Background Identification of sciatica may assist timely management but can be challenging in clinical practice. Diagnostic models to identify sciatica have mainly been developed in secondary care settings with conflicting reference standard selection. This study explores the challenges of reference standard selection and aims to ascertain which combination of clinical assessment items best identify sciatica in people seeking primary healthcare. Methods Data on 394 low back-related leg pain consulters were analysed. Potential sciatica indicators were seven clinical assessment items. Two reference standards were used: (i) high confidence sciatica clinical diagnosis; (ii) high confidence sciatica clinical diagnosis with confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging findings. Multivariable logistic regression models were produced for both reference standards. A tool predicting sciatica diagnosis in low back-related leg pain was derived. Latent class modelling explored the validity of the reference standard. Results Model (i) retained five items; model (ii) retained six items. Four items remained in both models: below knee pain, leg pain worse than back pain, positive neural tension tests and neurological deficit. Model (i) was well calibrated (p = 0.18), discrimination was area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.95 (95% CI 0.93, 0.98). Model (ii) showed good discrimination (AUC 0.82; 0.78, 0.86) but poor calibration (p = 0.004). Bootstrapping revealed minimal overfitting in both models. Agreement between the two latent classes and clinical diagnosis groups defined by model (i) was substantial, and fair for model (ii). Conclusion Four clinical assessment items were common in both reference standard definitions of sciatica. A simple scoring tool for identifying sciatica was developed. These criteria could be used clinically and in research to improve accuracy of identification of this subgroup of back pain patients. PMID:29621243

  6. Chiropractic and self-care for back-related leg pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is a common variation of low back pain (LBP), with lifetime prevalence estimates as high as 40%. Often disabling, BRLP accounts for greater work loss, recurrences, and higher costs than uncomplicated LBP and more often leads to surgery with a lifetime incidence of 10% for those with severe BRLP, compared to 1-2% for those with LBP. In the US, half of those with back-related conditions seek CAM treatments, the most common of which is chiropractic care. While there is preliminary evidence suggesting chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy is beneficial for patients with BRLP, there is insufficient evidence currently available to assess the effectiveness of this care. Methods/Design This study is a two-site, prospective, parallel group, observer-blinded randomized clinical trial (RCT). A total of 192 study patients will be recruited from the Twin Cities, MN (n = 122) and Quad Cities area in Iowa and Illinois (n = 70) to the research clinics at WHCCS and PCCR, respectively. It compares two interventions: chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise program (HEP) to HEP alone (minimal intervention comparison) for patients with subacute or chronic back-related leg pain. Discussion Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is a costly and often disabling variation of the ubiquitous back pain conditions. As health care costs continue to climb, the search for effective treatments with few side-effects is critical. While SMT is the most commonly sought CAM treatment for LBP sufferers, there is only a small, albeit promising, body of research to support its use for patients with BRLP. This study seeks to fill a critical gap in the LBP literature by performing the first full scale RCT assessing chiropractic SMT for patients with sub-acute or chronic BRLP using important patient-oriented and objective biomechanical outcome measures. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00494065 PMID:21426558

  7. Incidence of foot rotation, pelvic crest unleveling, and supine leg length alignment asymmetry and their relationship to self-reported back pain.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Gary A

    2002-02-01

    To determine the incidence of pelvic unleveling, foot rotation, and supine leg length alignment asymmetry in a nonclinical population and to examine the validity (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) of these visual tests and their relationship to self-reported back pain. Volunteers answered a questionnaire regarding back pain and were then examined by a chiropractor who was unaware of the status of their back pain. Seventy-four unscreened volunteers answered the questionnaire. The association of visual tests with back pain and their validity indices; Visual Analogue Scale ratings. Fifty-one percent (n = 74) of volunteers examined had supine leg length alignment asymmetry (LLA). Pain intensity on a Visual Analogue Scale was significantly higher (P <.001) for those demonstrating supine LLA than for those without LLA. Those with back pain and recurrent back pain were significantly (P <.001) more likely to have supine LLA. The validity indices of the supine leg check showed acceptable levels for sensitivity (74%), specificity (78%), and positive predictive value (82%) [corrected] in recurrent back pain. Findings also indicated a high incidence of supine LLA in volunteers with chronic back pain (85%). The results indicated that, in this group of volunteers, the supine leg length alignment check had clinical validity as a stand-alone test for recurring back pain. Further testing on a larger, statistically defined cross-section of the population is recommended.

  8. Patients' Attitudes Toward Nonphysician Screening of Low Back and Low Back Related Leg Pain Complaints Referred for Surgical Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Joshua; Busse, Jason W; Drew, Brian; Reddy, Kesava; Cenic, Aleksa; Kachur, Edward; Murty, Naresh; Candelaria, Henry; Moore, Ainsley E; Riva, John J

    2017-03-01

    A questionnaire survey. The aim of this study was to explore patient attitudes toward screening to assess suitability for low back surgery by nonphysician health care providers. Canadian spine surgeons have shown support for nonphysician screening to assess and triage patients with low back pain and low back related leg pain. However, patients' attitudes toward this proposed model are largely unknown. We administered a 19-item cross-sectional survey to adults with low back and/or low back related leg pain who were referred for elective surgical assessment at one of five spine surgeons' clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The survey inquired about demographics, expectations regarding wait time for surgical consultation, as well as willingness to pay, travel, and be screened by nonphysician health care providers. Eighty low back patients completed our survey, for a response rate of 86.0% (80 of 93). Most respondents (72.5%; 58 of 80) expected to be seen by a surgeon within 3 months of referral, and 88.8% (71 of 80) indicated willingness to undergo screening with a nonphysician health care provider to establish whether they were potentially a surgical candidate. Half of respondents (40 of 80) were willing to travel >50 km for assessment by a nonphysician health care provider, and 46.2% were willing to pay out-of-pocket (25.6% were unsure). However, most respondents (70.0%; 56 of 80) would still want to see a surgeon if they were ruled out as a surgical candidate, and written comments from respondents revealed concern regarding agreement between surgeons' and nonphysicians' determination of surgical candidates. Patients referred for surgical consultation for low back or low back related leg pain are largely willing to accept screening by nonphysician health care providers. Future research should explore the concordance of screening results between surgeon and nonphysician health care providers. 3.

  9. Evaluating the influence of massage on leg strength, swelling, and pain following a half-marathon.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Lance G; Dawson, Kimberley A; Tiidus, Peter M

    2004-11-01

    Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female) completed a half marathon (21.1 km) road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control) leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline) and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and soreness and leg circumference significantly elevated (p < 0.05) relative to pre-race values with no difference between legs. This suggested that exercise-induced muscle disruption did occur. Comparing the rate of return to baseline measures between the massaged and control legs, revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12

  10. Kinematic and Kinetic Analysis of the Single-Leg Triple Hop Test in Women With and Without Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Bley, André Serra; Rabelo, Nayra Deise dos Anjos; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional study. To compare the biomechanical strategies of the trunk and lower extremity during the transition period between the first and second hop of a single-leg triple hop test in women with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP). Recent literature has shown that PFP is associated with biomechanical impairments of the lower extremities. A number of studies have analyzed the position of the trunk and lower extremities for functional activities such as walking, squatting, jumping, and the step-down test. However, studies on more challenging activities, such as the single-leg triple hop test, may be more representative of sports requiring jumping movements. Women between 18 and 35 years of age (control group, n = 20; PFP group, n = 20) participated in the study. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected during the transition period between the first and second hops while participants performed the single-leg triple hop test. Compared to the control group, women with PFP exhibited greater (P<.05) anterior and ipsilateral trunk lean, contralateral pelvic drop, hip internal rotation and adduction, and ankle eversion, while exhibiting less hip and knee flexion. A significant difference (P<.05) in time to peak joint angle was also found between groups for all the variables analyzed, except anterior pelvic tilt and hip flexion. In addition, women with PFP exhibited greater (P<.05) hip and knee abductor internal moments. Compared to the control group, women with PFP exhibited altered trunk, pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics and kinetics.

  11. A 27-Year-Old Man With Acute Severe Low Back Pain and Bilateral Leg Swelling That Prompted Renting a Wheelchair for Mobility.

    PubMed

    Williams, John G; Phan, Huy; Winston, Helena R; Fugit, Randolph V; Graney, Bridget; Jamroz, Brant; English, Benjamin; Chan, Edward D

    2017-02-01

    A 27-year-old man with OSA, posttraumatic stress disorder, and chronic mechanical back pain presented with a 3-day history of acute atraumatic worsening of his low back pain as well as right groin numbness that was exacerbated by walking. He also complained of bilateral leg "heaviness," pain, and swelling, all becoming so severe that he rented a wheelchair for mobility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Referred leg pain originating from the sacroiliac joint: 6-month outcomes from the prospective randomized controlled iMIA trial.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Julius; Sturesson, Bengt; Kools, Djaya; Prestamburgo, Domenico; Cher, Daniel; van Eeckhoven, Eddie; Erk, Emanuel; Pflugmacher, Robert; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The first results from the randomized, controlled iFuse Implant System Minimally Invasive Arthrodesis (iMIA) trial showed that minimally invasive surgical management (MISM) of low back pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by placing transarticular triangular titanium implants reduced pain more effectively than conservative management (CM). We now conducted a separate analysis of the iMIA data to assess whether the referred leg pain (RLP) component of SIJ-associated pain may also be affected by MISM or CM. Data from 101 patients, recruited between June 2013 and May 2015 at nine European spine care centers, were included. Forty-nine patients were randomized to CM and 51 patients to MISM. RLP was defined as pain below the gluteal fold and assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Changes in RLP over 6 months were the primary endpoint. The prevalence of clinically significant RLP was 76.2 %. Over 6 months of follow-up, CM produced no significant change in RLP, which was 51.0 VAS points (interquartile range (IQR) 17.0-75.0) at baseline. In contrast, in the MISM cohort, we found a significant decrease in RLP from VAS 58.0 (IQR 24.5-80.0) at baseline to VAS 13.5 (IQR 0.0-39.3) after 6 months (p < 0.01). Improvement of RLP was associated only with the type of treatment (OR 5.04, p < 0.01), but not with patient age, sex, or different patterns of pain referral. Our analysis shows that RLP is a frequent phenomenon in patients with SIJ-associated pain. At 6 months of follow-up, MISM helped relieve RLP more effectively than CM. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01741025.

  13. [Observation on the transient analgesic effect of abdominal acupuncture TENS on pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhang-lian; Chen, Li-fang; Zhu, Wei-ming

    2007-09-01

    To observe on the transient analgesic effect of abdominal points transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) combined with abdominal acupuncture according to the holographic theory on pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs. One hundred and twenty cases of pain of neck, shoulder, loin and legs were randomly divided into 4 groups: abdominal acupuncture TENS group, acupoints TENS group, electroacupuneture (EA) group, non-abdominal acupuncture TENS group, 30 cases in each group. All the cases were treated by the same stimulation parameters, but different stimulation points. The VAS scores were recorded before and after treatment. The VAS scores were significantly different before and after treatment in abdominal acupuncture TENS group (P < 0.01); the total effective rate of the transient analgesic effec t was 96.7% in the abdominal acupuncture TENS group, 93.3% in the acupoints TENS group, 96.7% in the EA group with no significant difference among the 3 groups, but with a very significant difference between the abdominal acupuncture TENS group and the non-abdominal acupunctureTENS group (10.0%), P < 0.01. Abdominal acupuncture TENS has a better transient analgesic effect and can use less stimulation points to increase the analgesic effect.

  14. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale of pain assessment.

    PubMed

    Bussotti, Edna Aparecida; Guinsburg, Ruth; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain. methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%. it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%. the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP.

  15. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    PubMed

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of Hip Strengthening Exercises Compared With Leg Strengthening Exercises on Knee Pain, Function, and Quality of Life in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lun, Victor; Marsh, Andrew; Bray, Robert; Lindsay, David; Wiley, Preston

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of hip and leg strengthening exercise programs on knee pain, function, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Single-Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Patients with KOA. Male and female subjects were recruited from patients referred to the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center and from newspaper advertisements. Thirty-seven and 35 patients with KOA were randomly assigned to either a 12-week hip or leg strengthening exercise program, respectively. Both exercise programs consisted of strengthening and flexibility exercises, which were completed 3 to 5 days a week. The first 3 weeks of exercise were supervised and the remaining 9 weeks consisted of at-home exercise. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Score (KOOS) and Western Ontario McMaster Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaires, 6-minute walk test, hip and knee range of motion (ROM), and hip and leg muscle strength. Statistically and clinically significant improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC pain subscale scores were observed in both the hip and leg strengthening programs. There was no statistical difference in the change in scores observed between the 2 groups. Equal improvements in the KOOS and WOMAC function and QOL subscales were observed for both programs. There was no change in hip and knee ROM or hip and leg strength in either group. Isolated hip and leg strengthening exercise programs seem to similarly improve knee pain, function, and QOL in patients with KOA. The results of this study show that both hip and leg strengthening exercises improve pain and QOL in patients with KOA and should be incorporated into the exercise prescription of patients with KOA.

  17. Kinematic Differences During Single-Leg Step-Down Between Individuals With Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome and Individuals Without Hip Pain.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cara L; Loverro, Kari L; Khuu, Anne

    2018-04-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, case-control design. Background Despite recognition that femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a movement-related disorder, few studies have examined dynamic unilateral tasks in individuals with FAIS. Objectives To determine whether movements of the pelvis and lower extremities in individuals with FAIS differ from those in individuals without hip pain during a single-leg step-down, and to analyze kinematic differences between male and female participants within groups. Methods Individuals with FAIS and individuals without hip pain performed a single-leg step-down while kinematic data were collected. Kinematics were evaluated at 60° of knee flexion. A linear regression analysis assessed the main effects of group, sex, and side, and the interaction of sex by group. Results Twenty individuals with FAIS and 40 individuals without hip pain participated. Individuals with FAIS performed the step-down with greater hip flexion (4.9°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5°, 9.2°) and anterior pelvic tilt (4.1°; 95% CI: 0.9°, 7.3°) than individuals without hip pain. Across groups, female participants performed the task with more hip flexion (6.1°; 95% CI: 1.7°, 10.4°), hip adduction (4.8°; 95% CI: 2.2°, 7.4°), anterior pelvic tilt (5.8°; 95% CI: 2.6°, 9.0°), pelvic drop (1.4°; 95% CI: 0.3°, 2.5°), and thigh adduction (2.7°; 95% CI: 1.3°, 4.2°) than male participants. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that individuals with FAIS have alterations in pelvic motion during a dynamic unilateral task. The noted altered movement patterns in the FAIS group may contribute to the development of hip pain and may be due to impairments that are modifiable through rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(4):270-279. Epub 6 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7794.

  18. Novel approach to characterising individuals with low back-related leg pain: cluster identification with latent class analysis and 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Stynes, Siobhán; Konstantinou, Kika; Ogollah, Reuben; Hay, Elaine M; Dunn, Kate M

    2018-04-01

    Traditionally, low back-related leg pain (LBLP) is diagnosed clinically as referred leg pain or sciatica (nerve root involvement). However, within the spectrum of LBLP, we hypothesised that there may be other unrecognised patient subgroups. This study aimed to identify clusters of patients with LBLP using latent class analysis and describe their clinical course. The study population was 609 LBLP primary care consulters. Variables from clinical assessment were included in the latent class analysis. Characteristics of the statistically identified clusters were compared, and their clinical course over 1 year was described. A 5 cluster solution was optimal. Cluster 1 (n = 104) had mild leg pain severity and was considered to represent a referred leg pain group with no clinical signs, suggesting nerve root involvement (sciatica). Cluster 2 (n = 122), cluster 3 (n = 188), and cluster 4 (n = 69) had mild, moderate, and severe pain and disability, respectively, and response to clinical assessment items suggested categories of mild, moderate, and severe sciatica. Cluster 5 (n = 126) had high pain and disability, longer pain duration, and more comorbidities and was difficult to map to a clinical diagnosis. Most improvement for pain and disability was seen in the first 4 months for all clusters. At 12 months, the proportion of patients reporting recovery ranged from 27% for cluster 5 to 45% for cluster 2 (mild sciatica). This is the first study that empirically shows the variability in profile and clinical course of patients with LBLP including sciatica. More homogenous groups were identified, which could be considered in future clinical and research settings.

  19. Prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in young soldiers; a review of the literature and current practice in the Dutch Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Wes O; Helmhout, P H; Beutler, A

    2017-04-01

    Overuse injuries of the leg are a common problem for young soldiers. This article reviews the literature concerning the prevention and treatment of exercise related leg pain in military settings and presents the latest developments in proposed mechanisms and treatments. Current practice and treatment protocols from the Dutch Armed Forces are reviewed, with an emphasis on the most prevalent conditions of medial tibial stress syndrome and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. The conclusion is that exercise related leg pain in the military is an occupational problem that deserves further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Oswestry disability index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; McDonough, Christine M; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the Short Form (SF)-6D using data from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain Numeric Rating Scale (BPNRS), and the Leg Pain Numeric Rating Scale (LPNRS). Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The ODI and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. SF-36, ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were prospectively collected before surgery, at 12 and 24 months after surgery in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS, and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 +/- 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample, the mean age was 52.9 +/- 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS,and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R of 0.69 and a root mean square error of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R of 0.67 and a root mean square error of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated

  1. Subcutaneous Stimulation as an Additional Therapy to Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Low Back Pain and Leg Pain in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Four-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Hamm-Faber, Tanja E; Aukes, Hans; van Gorp, Eric-Jan; Gültuna, Ismail

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of long-term follow-up of subcutaneous stimulation (SubQ) as an additional therapy for patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with chronic refractory pain, for whom spinal cord stimulation (SCS) alone was unsuccessful in treating low back pain. Prospective case series. FBSS patients with leg and/or low back pain whose conventional therapies had failed, received a combination of SCS (8-contact Octad lead, 3877-45 cm, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) and/or SubQ (4-contact Quad Plus lead (s), 2888-28 cm, Medtronic). Initially, an Octad lead was placed in the epidural space for SCS for a trial stimulation to assess the suppression of leg and/or low back pain. Where SCS alone was insufficient in treating low back pain, lead(s) were placed superficially in the subcutaneous tissue of the lower back, exactly in the middle of the pain area. A pulse generator (Prime Advanced, 37702, Medtronic) was implanted if the patient reported more than 50% pain relief during the trial period. We investigated the long-term effect of neuromodulation on pain with the visual analog scale (VAS), and disability using the Quebec Pain Disability Scale. The results after 46 months are presented. Eleven patients, five men and six women (age 51 ± 8 years, mean ± SD) were included in the pilot study. In nine cases, SCS was used in combination with SubQ leads. Two patients received only SubQ leads. In one patient, the SCS + SubQ system was removed after nine months and these results were not taken into account for the analysis. Baseline scores for leg (N = 8) and low back pain (N = 10) were VASbl: 59 ± 15 and VASbl: 63 ± 14, respectively. The long-term follow-up period was 46 ± 4 months. SCS significantly reduced leg pain after 12 months (VAS12: 20 ± 11, p12 = 0.001) and 46 months (VAS46: 37 ± 17, p46 = 0.027). Similarly, SubQ significantly reduced back pain after 12 months(VAS12: 33 ± 16, p12 = 0.001) and 46 months

  2. Leg stiffness, valgus knee motion, and Q-angle are associated with hypertrophic soft patella tendon and idiopathic knee pain in adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Satkunskiene, Danguole; Mickevicius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Knee pain without knee degenerative symptoms is a common phenomenon among young basketball players. The aim of this study was to identify factors predisposing young basketball players to suffer from knee pain. The study involved 20 male adolescent (14-15 years) basketball players who were divided into two equal groups based on knee pain symptoms. Legs torque was tested on an isokinetic dynamometer. The length, elongation and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the patellar tendon were measured with ultrasonography. Quadriceps angle (Q-angle), knee valgus motion, and joint angular displacement in the sagittal plane were analyzed using video recording during countermovement jump. Ground reaction force was measured using a force platform. Knee pain (KP) participants had a significantly lower Q-angle (P=0.045) and lower maximum varus knee angle (P=0.035), and a greater knee inside displacement (P=0.039) during squat phase. In the KP group, the CSA at the top of the tendon was significantly greater than in the middle (P=0.006) and at the bottom (P=0.039). Absolute tendon stiffness (P=0.013) and Young's modulus (P=0.034) were significantly lower in the KP group compared with controls. Leg stiffness during landing was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.015). Leg stiffness, valgus knee motion, and Q-angle are associated with hypertrophic soft patella tendon and idiopathic knee pain in adolescent basketball players.

  3. Propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Bley, Andre Serra; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF) joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT), which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GMed), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress.

  4. Propulsion Phase of the Single Leg Triple Hop Test in Women with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bley, Andre Serra; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Reis, Amir Curcio Dos; Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF) joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT), which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GMed), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress. PMID:24830289

  5. Hamstring Elongation Quantified Using Ultrasonography During the Straight Leg Raise Test in Individuals With Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Ellinoudis, Athanasios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Although the straight leg raise (SLR) test frequently is used to assess hamstring extensibility in individuals with low back pain (LBP), evidence relating LBP, SLR, and hamstring extensibility remains unclear. The SLR measures the angle between the lifted leg and the horizontal, however, and, as such, it is not a direct measure of the elongation capacity of the hamstrings. To examine the differences in hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography) and SLR score between individuals with LBP and asymptomatic controls and to determine the relationship between hamstring elongation, SLR, and functional disability scores. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. Forty men and women with chronic LBP (mean ± SD, age 43.51 ± 3.71 years and 40 control subjects (age 45.11 ± 4.01 years) participated in this study. Passive SLR, elongation assessed via ultrasonography, and functional disability. SLR score, elongation of tendinous tissue within the semitendinosus muscle, and Oswestry Disability Index. Two-way analysis of variance tests indicated a significantly lower SLR score and a greater Oswestry score in LBP group compared with control subjects (P < .05). In contrast, there were no significant group differences in hamstring elongation (P > .05). Gender did not have an effect on all dependent measures (P > .05). Hamstring elongation showed a low correlation with SLR score and a minimal correlation with Oswestry score. These results indicate that the SLR score is not determined by hamstring elongation (quantified via ultrasonography). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Treatment Results of Low Back and Leg Pain Considering Para-Lumbar Spine Disease and Peripheral Nerve Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Naotaka; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Morimoto, Daijiro; Matsumoto, Juntaro; Yamazaki, Kazuyoshi; Chiba, Yasuhiro; Isobe, Masanori

    2018-06-01

    Here we report our treatment results of low back and leg pain(LBLP)considering para-lumbar spine disease(PLSD)and peripheral nerve neuropathy(PNN). We enrolled 103 patients who were admitted to our institute for LBLP treatment between January and December in 2014. For the treatment, we preferentially performed intensive block therapy for PLSD. Among 103 patients, 89 patients had PLSD. In 85 patients, we performed intensive block therapy and 82 patients experienced short-term improvement of symptoms. In 35 of these 82 patients, lumbar spine and/or PNN surgical treatment was required as the effect of block therapy was transient. Intensive block therapy was effective in 47 of 103 patients(45.6%), and the remaining patients required surgical treatment(PLSD and/or PNN:31 cases, lumbar spine:13 cases, both:8 cases). Among 103 patients with LBLP, intensive block therapy for PLSD and PNN was useful for short-term symptom improvement in 82 patients(79.6%), and for long-term symptom improvement in 47 patients(45.6%)as evaluated at the final follow-up. Surgical treatment of PLSD and/or PNN was required in 39 patients(37.9%). These results suggested that treatment of PLSD and PNN might yield good results for patients with LBLP.

  7. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Laura; VandenBoom, Timothy; Melian, Edward; Peterson, Anthony; Hutchens, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC. PMID:26594171

  8. Night Leg Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet or thighs might cramp as well. Forcefully stretching the contracted muscle relieves the pain. Most of ... include Drinking plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration Stretching your leg muscles or riding a stationary bicycle ...

  9. Estimating EQ-5D values from the Oswestry Disability Index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Leah Y; Bratcher, Kelly R; Das, Nandita; Nienhuis, Jacob B; Glassman, Steven D

    2014-04-15

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) can be derived from commonly available low back disease-specific health-related quality of life measures. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales (0-10) for back pain (BP) and leg pain (LP) are widely used disease-specific measures in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. Increasingly, the EQ-5D is being used as a measure of utility due to ease of administration and scoring. The EQ-5D, ODI, BP, and LP were prospectively collected in 14,544 patients seen in clinic for lumbar degenerative disorders. Pearson correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BP, LP, and EQ-5D were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the EQ-5D score from the ODI, BP, and LP. The mean age was 53.3 ± 16.4 years and 41% were male. Correlations between the EQ-5D and the ODI, BP, and LP were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of -0.77, -0.50, and -0.57, respectively. The regression equation: [0.97711 + (-0.00687 × ODI) + (-0.01488 × LP) + (-0.01008 × BP)] to predict EQ-5D, had an R2 of 0.61 and a root mean square error of 0.149. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.57 and a root mean square error of 0.156. The model using the individual ODI items had an R2 of 0.64 and a root mean square error of 0.143. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated EQ-5D score was 0.78. There was no statistically significant difference between the actual EQ-5D (0.553 ± 0.238) and the estimated EQ-5D score (0.553 ± 0.186) using the ODI, BP, and LP regression model. However, rounding off the coefficients to less than 5 decimal places produced less accurate results. Unlike previous studies showing a robust relationship between low back-specific measures and the Short Form-6D, a similar relationship was not seen between the ODI, BP, LP, and the EQ-5D. Thus, the EQ-5D cannot be

  10. Validity of the Korean Version of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale for Assessment of Pain in Dementia Patients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeonsil; Kim, Yoon Sook; Lee, Jongmin; Han, Seol Heui

    2017-11-01

    Pain is often associated with a more rapid progression of cognitive and functional decline, and behavioral disturbance in dementia. Therefore, it is essential to accurately assesses pain for proper intervention in patients with dementia. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) scale is an excellent behaviour scale which includes most of the domains that are recommended by the American Geriatrics Society to evaluate when assessing pain in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean version of the FLACC (K-FLACC) and to verify its reliability and validity in assessing pain of elderly patients with dementia. We developed the K-FLACC to consist of the five domains (face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability) with scores of 0, 1, and 2 for each domain and a total score ranging from 0 to 10 as in the original FLACC. Eighty-eight patients with dementia who visited Konkuk University Medical Center were evaluated. The K-FLACC revealed good validity as compared to the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS; r = 0.617, P < 0.001) and the Face Pain Scale (FPS; r = 0.350, P = 0.001). All of the five domains of the K-FLACC were related to the NRS and FPS, in which the activity domain showed the highest correlation. Test-retest reliability was excellent, as the intra-class correlation coefficient comparing the retest to test was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.82). Our results show that the K-FLACC is a suitable and valuable scale to assess pain in patients with dementia in Korea. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  11. Long-term quality of life improvement for chronic intractable back and leg pain patients using spinal cord stimulation: 12-month results from the SENZA-RCT.

    PubMed

    Amirdelfan, Kasra; Yu, Cong; Doust, Matthew W; Gliner, Bradford E; Morgan, Donna M; Kapural, Leonardo; Vallejo, Ricardo; Sitzman, B Todd; Yearwood, Thomas L; Bundschu, Richard; Yang, Thomas; Benyamin, Ramsin; Burgher, Abram H; Brooks, Elizabeth S; Powell, Ashley A; Subbaroyan, Jeyakumar

    2018-06-01

    Chronic axial low-back pain is a debilitating disorder that impacts all aspects of an afflicted individual's life. Effective, durable treatments have historically been elusive. Interventional therapies, such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS), have shown limited efficacy at best. Recently, a novel treatment, 10 kHz SCS, has demonstrated superior pain relief compared with traditional SCS in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In this manuscript, we report on the long-term improvements in quality of life (QoL) outcomes for subjects enrolled in this study. A prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial (SENZA-RCT) was conducted. Patients with both chronic back and leg pain were enrolled and randomized (1:1) into 10 kHz SCS or traditional SCS treatment groups. A total of 171 subjects received a permanent SCS device implant. QoL and functionality measures were collected up to 12 months. The device remote control utilization, which is an indication of patient interaction with the device for adjustments, was collected at 24-month post-implantation. At 12 months, a higher proportion of 10 kHz SCS subjects had marked improvement of their disability (Oswestry Disability Index) to a "moderate" or "minimal" impact on their daily function versus the control group. The subjects also reported better improvement in the Global Assessment of Functioning, Clinician Global Impression of Change, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, compared to traditional SCS subjects. The 10 kHz SCS subjects also reported far higher rates of both driving and sleeping with their device turned on, as well as reduced reliance on their programmers to adjust therapy settings. In addition to superior pain relief, 10 kHz SCS provides long-term improvements in quality of life and functionality for subjects with chronic low-back and leg pain. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01609972).

  12. Chronic pulmonary disease is associated with pain spreading and restless legs syndrome in middle-aged women-a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zou; Stehlik, Romana; Hedner, Jan; Ulfberg, Jan; Grote, Ludger

    2018-06-04

    Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of chronic pain conditions and restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with chronic pulmonary disease (CPD). We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors for pain and RLS in a population-based sample of females with comorbid CPD. Questionnaire-based data from 2745 women aged 18-64 years were analyzed regarding comorbid CPD status (severe bronchitis, emphysema, asthma). Pain status was assessed according to symptoms reflecting severity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS rating 0-10) and duration and spreading (limited spread or widespread) of pain. A diagnosis of RLS was defined by four validated diagnostic criteria. Anthropometrics and co-morbidities were assessed as covariates in univariate and multivariate analyses. Widespread pain was overrepresented in women with CPD (44.6 vs. 24.6%, p < 0.001). The odds ratio for widespread pain in women with CPD was 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.2, p < 0.001) in the fully adjusted model. Severe pain (VAS rating ≥ 7) was more prevalent in females with known CPD (28.8 vs. 15.4%, p < 0.001, odd ratio 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9, p = 0.029)). The prevalence of RLS was 37.4 and 23.8% in subjects with or without CPD, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, CPD was associated with a 30% risk increase for RLS (odds ratio 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7, p = 0.04)). This population-based study identified CPD as an independent risk factor for severe and widespread pain as well as for RLS. Further research addressing pathophysiological mechanisms linking CPD and chronic pain conditions/RLS is warranted.

  13. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population.

    PubMed

    Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O'Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2014-03-27

    Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20-45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an "upright standing" reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may provide important insights into injury

  14. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrade, Regiane S.; UPMC Radiation Oncology Outreach Program; Proctor, Julian W., E-mail: proctorj@upmc.ed

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Dailymore » pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.« less

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the lumbar spine in elite horseback riders: correlations with back pain, body mass index, trunk/leg-length coefficient, and riding discipline.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Clayton N; Pennekamp, Peter H; Becker, Ute; Young, Mei; Diedrich, Oliver; Lüring, Christian; von Falkenhausen, Makus

    2009-11-01

    Most orthopaedic problems experienced by competitive horseback riders are related to pain in the lower back, hip joint, and hamstring muscles. Riders-especially, show jumpers-are frequently hampered in their performance because of lumbar pain. To date, there has been no research into lumbar disk degeneration in elite competitive riders. Competitive horseback riding accelerates lumbar disk degeneration. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty-eight elite riders (18 men, 40 women; mean age, 32.4 years) and a control group of 30 nonriding volunteers (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 28.7 years) were evaluated for lumbar disk degeneration, cross-sectional area of paraspinal muscles, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of disk degeneration between the 2 groups was compared, and the relationship was investigated between low back pain (LBP), riding discipline, body mass index (BMI), trunk/leg-length coefficient, and MRI results. Eighty-eight percent of elite riders (n = 51) had a history of LBP, versus 33% of the controls (P < .05). There was no statistical difference for the prevalence of LBP among the different riding disciplines. However, there was a high rate of pathologic T2 signal intensity of the lumbar intervertebral disk among riders-specifically, dressage riders-yet no significant increase when compared with controls. History of LBP symptoms, riding discipline, BMI, and trunk/leg-length ratio had no significant effect on the development of lumbar disk degeneration. Occult fractures of the pars interarticularis and manifest spondylolysis were not seen for any rider. Two controls had spondylolisthesis Meyerding grade 1 not associated with back pain. Although riders have a high prevalence of LBP, there is no conclusive MRI evidence to suggest that the cause lies in undue disk degeneration, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or pathologic changes of the paraspinal muscles of the lumbar spine.

  16. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Oswestry Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scales for Back and Leg Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Leah Y.; Glassman, Steven D.; McDonough, Christine M.; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Objective The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. Summary of Background Data Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. Methods SF-36, ODI, BPNRS and LPNRS were prospectively collected pre-operatively, at 12 and 24 months post-operatively in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS and LPNRS and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. Results In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 ± 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample the mean age was 52.9 ± 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS and LPNRS were statistically significant (p<0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72 respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R2 of 0.69 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R2 of 0.67 and a RMSE of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated SF-6D score was 0.80. In the

  17. Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure the severity of functional limitations and reduction of sports ability in German-speaking patients with exercise-induced leg pain.

    PubMed

    Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Padhiar, Nat; King, John B

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no generally agreed measure available to quantify a subject's perceived severity of exercise-induced leg pain symptoms. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that measures the severity of symptoms that impact on function and sports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain. The exercise-induced leg pain questionnaire for German-speaking patients (EILP-G) was developed in five steps: (1) initial item generation, (2) item reduction, (3) pretesting, (4) expert meeting and (5) validation. The resulting EILP-G was tested for reliability, validity and internal consistency in 20 patients with exercise-induced leg pain, 20 asymptomatic track and field athletes serving as a population at risk and 33 asymptomatic sport students. The patient group scored the EILP-G questionnaire significantly lower than both control groups (each p<0.001). Test-retest demonstrates an excellent reliability in all tested groups (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.861-0.987). Concurrent validity of the EILP-G questionnaire showed a substantial agreement when correlated with the chronic exertional compartment syndrome classification system of Schepsis (r=-0.743; p<0.001). Internal consistency for the EILP-G questionnaire was 0.924. EILP-G questionnaire is a valid and reliable self-administered and disease-related outcome tool to measure the severity of symptoms that impact on function and sports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain. It can be recommended as a robust tool for measuring the subjectively perceived severity in German-speaking patients with exercise-induced leg pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Leg Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for degenerative spondylolisthesis associated low-back and leg pain over two years.

    PubMed

    Parker, Scott L; Adogwa, Owoicho; Bydon, Ali; Cheng, Joseph; McGirt, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) for lumbar spondylolisthesis allows for surgical treatment of back and leg pain while theoretically minimizing tissue injury and accelerating overall recovery. Although the authors of previous studies have demonstrated shorter length of hospital stay and reduced blood loss with MIS versus open-TLIF, short- and long-term outcomes have been similar. No studies to date have evaluated the comprehensive health care costs associated with TLIF procedures or assessed the cost-utility of MIS- versus open-TLIF. As such, we set out to assess previously unstudied end points of health care cost and cost-utility associated with MIS- versus open-TLIF. Thirty patients undergoing MIS-TLIF (n=15) or open-TLIF (n=15) for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis associated back and leg pain were prospectively studied. Total back-related medical resource use, missed work, and health-state values (quality-adjusted life years [QALYs], calculated from EQ-5D with U.S. valuation) were assessed after two-year follow-up. Two-year resource use was multiplied by unit costs on the basis of Medicare national allowable payment amounts (direct cost) and work-day losses were multiplied by the self-reported gross-of-tax wage rate (indirect cost). Difference in mean total cost per QALY gained for MIS- versus open-TLIF was assessed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER: COSTmis-COSTopen/QALYmis-QALYopen). MIS versus open-TLIF cohorts were similar at baseline. By two years postoperatively, patients undergoing MIS- versus open-TLIF reported similar mean QALYs gained (0.50 vs. 0.41, P=0.17). Mean total two-year cost of MIS- and open-TLIF was $35,996 and $44,727, respectively. The $8,731 two-year cost savings of MIS- versus open-TLIF did not reach statistical significance (P=0.18) for this sample size. Although our limited sample size prevented statistical significance, MIS- versus open-TLIF was associated with reduced costs over

  20. The Accuracy of the VISA-P Questionnaire, Single-Leg Decline Squat, and Tendon Pain History to Identify Patellar Tendon Abnormalities in Adult Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Luciana de Michelis; Ocarino, Juliana Melo; Bittencourt, Natália Franco Netto; Fernandes, Ludmila Maria Oliveira; Verhagen, Evert; Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional clinical assessment. Background Patellar tendinopathy is not always accompanied by patellar tendon abnormalities (PTAs). Thus, clinical screening tools to help identify patients with patellar tendon pain who have PTAs could enhance clinical decision making and patient prognosis. Objectives To test the diagnostic accuracy of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P) questionnaire, a single-leg decline squat (SLDS), tendon pain history, age, and years of sports participation to identify athletes with symptomatic patellar tendons who have PTAs confirmed on imaging. Methods Data provided by ultrasound examination, the VISA-P questionnaire, the SLDS, tendon pain history, age, and years of sport participation were collected in 43 athletes. A classification and regression tree (CART) model was developed to verify variables associated with PTA occurrence. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed for positive and negative tests. Results The SLDS, VISA-P questionnaire, and tendon pain history were associated with PTA occurrence. Athletes with negative results on all 3 tests (CART model) had a lower likelihood of having PTAs (negative LR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2, 0.5). The isolated use of the SLDS or tendon pain history (positive LR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3, 7.14 and 4.5; 95% CI: 1.8, 11.1, respectively) had similar influence on probability of PTA presence compared to the CART model (positive LR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.5, 6.3). Conclusion Although the objective was to investigate a clinical test to identify PTAs, the combined use of the tests had greater accuracy to identify individuals without PTAs. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 3b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):673-680. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6192.

  1. A systematic review of the passive straight leg raising test as a diagnostic aid for low back pain (1989 to 2000).

    PubMed

    Rebain, Richard; Baxter, G David; McDonough, Suzanne

    2002-09-01

    A systematic review. This systematic review sought papers (January 1989-January 2000) on the passive straight leg raising test (PSLR) as a diagnostic component for low back pain (LBP) to identify, summarize, and assess developments in the test procedure, the factors influencing PSLR outcome, and the clinical significance of that outcome. Previous studies suggested that the PSLR tractioned the sciatic nerve and that diminished leg elevation with reproduced pain indicated low lumbar intervertebral disc pathology. Searches on six computerized bibliographic databases identified publications written about the PSLR. Papers were excluded if they were published before January 1989, were non-English language papers, or employed either an active SLR or a PSLR for purposes other than LBP diagnosis. The references of qualifying papers (and the references of references) were searched. Contact with primary authors, and others known to be active in this field, was attempted. The PSLR procedure remains unchanged. The influence of hip rotation during the PSLR was discussed without consensus. Biomechanical devices improved intra- and interobserver reliability and so increased test reproducibility. Hamstrings were found to have a defensive role in protecting nerve roots by limiting PSLR range in cases of nerve root inflammation. A small diurnal variation in the PSLR may imply a poorer prognosis. A positive PSLR at 4 months after lumbar intervertebral disc surgery predicted poor reoperative outcome, and a negative 4-month PSLR predicted excellent outcome. The influence of psychosocial factors was not discussed, neither was the diagnostic significance of a negative PSLR outcome. There remains no standard PSLR procedure, no consensus on interpretation of results, and little recognition that a negative PSLR test outcome may be of greater diagnostic value than a positive one. The causal link between LBP pathology and hamstring action remains unclear. There is a need for research into the

  2. The relationship between isotonic plantar flexor endurance, navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain in a cohort of collegiate cross-country runners.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jason E; Reinking, Mark F; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2-38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1-48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. 2b.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  4. Determining the activation of gluteus medius and the validity of the single leg stance test in chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

    PubMed

    Penney, Tracy; Ploughman, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Behm, David G; Byrne, Jeannette M

    2014-10-01

    To determine the activation of the gluteus medius in persons with chronic, nonspecific low back pain compared with that in control subjects, and to determine the association of the clinical rating of the single leg stance (SLS) with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and gluteus medius weakness. Cohort-control comparison. Academic research laboratory. Convenience sample of people (n=21) with CLBP (>12wk) recruited by local physiotherapists, and age- and sex-matched controls (n=22). Subjects who received specific pain diagnoses were excluded. Not applicable. Back pain using the visual analog scale (mm); back-related disability using the Oswestry Back Disability Index (%); strength of gluteus medius measured using a hand dynamometer (N/kg); SLS test; gluteus medius onset and activation using electromyography during unipedal stance on a forceplate. Individuals in the CLBP group exhibited significant weakness in the gluteus medius compared with controls (right, P=.04; left, P=.002). They also had more pain (CLBP: mean, 20.50mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 13.11-27.9mm; control subjects: mean, 1.77mm; 95% CI, -.21 to 3.75mm) and back-related disability (CLBP: mean, 18.52%; 95% CI, 14.46%-22.59%; control subjects: mean, .68%; 95% CI, -.41% to 1.77%), and reported being less physically active. Weakness was accompanied by increased gluteus medius activation during unipedal stance (R=.50, P=.001) but by no difference in muscle onset times. Although greater gluteus medius weakness was associated with greater pain and disability, there was no difference in muscle strength between those scoring positive and negative on the SLS test (right: F=.002, P=.96; left: F=.1.75, P=.19). Individuals with CLBP had weaker gluteus medius muscles than control subjects without back pain. Even though there was no significant difference in onset time of the gluteus medius when moving to unipedal stance between the groups, the CLBP group had greater gluteus medius activation. A key finding was that

  5. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Moriya, Erika T U; Maciel, Carlos D; Serrão, Fábio V

    2012-06-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a cross-sectional design. To determine whether there are any differences between the sexes in trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during the performance of a single-leg squat in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and control participants. Though there is a greater incidence of PFPS in females, PFPS is also quite common in males. Trunk kinematics may affect hip and knee function; however, there is a lack of studies of the influence of the trunk in individuals with PFPS. Eighty subjects were distributed into 4 groups: females with PFPS, female controls, males with PFPS, and male controls. Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics and gluteal muscle activation were evaluated during a single-leg squat. Hip abduction and external rotation eccentric strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Group differences were assessed using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (sex by PFPS status). Compared to controls, subjects with PFPS had greater ipsilateral trunk lean (mean ± SD, 9.3° ± 5.3° versus 6.7° ± 3.0°; P = .012), contralateral pelvic drop (10.3° ± 4.7° versus 7.4° ± 3.8°; P = .003), hip adduction (14.8° ± 7.8° versus 10.8° ± 5.6°; P<.0001), and knee abduction (9.2° ± 5.0° versus 5.8° ± 3.4°; P<.0001) when performing a single-leg squat. Subjects with PFPS also had 18% less hip abduction and 17% less hip external rotation strength. Compared to female controls, females with PFPS had more hip internal rotation (P<.05) and less muscle activation of the gluteus medius (P = .017) during the single-leg squat. Despite many similarities in findings for males and females with PFPS, there may be specific sex differences that warrant consideration in future studies and when clinically evaluating and treating females with PFPS.

  6. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Charles B.; Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Vapiwala, Neha

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lungmore » (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.« less

  7. Quality of Life in Relation to Pain Response to Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, Paulien G., E-mail: p.g.westhoff@umcutrecht.nl; Graeff, Alexander de; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    Purpose: To study quality of life (QoL) in responders and nonresponders after radiation therapy for painful bone metastases; and to identify factors predictive for a pain response. Patients and Methods: The prospectively collected data of 956 patients with breast, prostate, and lung cancer within the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study were used. These patients, irradiated for painful bone metastases, rated pain, QoL, and overall health at baseline and weekly afterward for 12 weeks. Using generalized estimating equations analysis, the course of QoL was studied, adjusted for primary tumor. To identify predictive variables, proportional hazard analyses were performed, taking into account death asmore » a competing risk, and C-statistics were calculated for discriminative value. Results: In total, 722 patients (76%) responded to radiation therapy. During follow-up, responders had a better QoL in all domains compared with nonresponders. Patients with breast or prostate cancer had a better QoL than patients with lung cancer. In multivariate analysis, baseline predictors for a pain response were breast or prostate cancer as primary tumor, younger age, good performance status, absence of visceral metastases, and using opioids. The discriminative ability of the model was low (C-statistic: 0.56). Conclusions: Responding patients show a better QoL after radiation therapy for painful bone metastases than nonresponders. Our model did not have enough discriminative power to predict which patients are likely to respond to radiation therapy. Therefore, radiation therapy should be offered to all patients with painful bone metastases, aiming to decrease pain and improve QoL.« less

  8. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  9. Broken Leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices into the broken bone to maintain proper alignment during healing. Other injuries may be treated with ... that extend into the joint and poor bone alignment can cause osteoarthritis years later. If your leg ...

  10. The risk of radiation exposure to the eyes of the interventional pain physician.

    PubMed

    Fish, David E; Kim, Andrew; Ornelas, Christopher; Song, Sungchan; Pangarkar, Sanjog

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eyewear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them.

  11. The Risk of Radiation Exposure to the Eyes of the Interventional Pain Physician

    PubMed Central

    Fish, David E.; Kim, Andrew; Ornelas, Christopher; Song, Sungchan; Pangarkar, Sanjog

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the use of medical imaging continues to grow across the globe as does the concern for radiation safety. The danger of lens opacities and cataract formation related to radiation exposure is well documented in the medical literature. However, there continues to be controversy regarding actual dose thresholds of radiation exposure and whether these thresholds are still relevant to cataract formation. Eye safety and the risk involved for the interventional pain physician is not entirely clear. Given the available literature on measured radiation exposure to the interventionist, and the controversy regarding dose thresholds, it is our current recommendation that the interventional pain physician use shielded eyewear. As the breadth of interventional procedures continues to grow, so does the radiation risk to the interventional pain physician. In this paper, we attempt to outline the risk of cataract formation in the scope of practice of an interventional pain physician and describe techniques that may help reduce them. PMID:22091381

  12. Comparative functional analyses of ultrabithorax reveal multiple steps and paths to diversification of legs in the adaptive radiation of semi-aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Khila, Abderrahman; Abouheif, Ehab; Rowe, Locke

    2014-08-01

    Invasion of new ecological habitats is often associated with lineage diversification, yet the genetic changes underlying invasions and radiations are poorly understood. Over 200 million years ago, the semi-aquatic insects invaded water surface from a common terrestrial ancestor and diversified to exploit a wide array of niches. Here, we uncover the changes in regulation and function of the gene Ultrabithorax associated with both the invasion of water surface and the subsequent diversification of the group. In the common ancestor of the semi-aquatic insects, a novel deployment of Ubx protein in the mid-legs increased their length, thereby enhancing their role in water surface walking. In derived lineages that specialize in rowing on the open water, additional changes in the timing of Ubx expression further elongated the mid-legs thereby facilitating their function as oars. In addition, Ubx protein function was selectively reversed to shorten specific rear-leg segments, thereby enabling their function as rudders. These changes in Ubx have generated distinct niche-specialized morphologies that account for the remarkable diversification of the semi-aquatic insects. Therefore, changes in the regulation and function of a key developmental gene may facilitate both the morphological change necessary to transition to novel habitats and fuel subsequent morphological diversification. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  14. Benzydamine hydrochloride in prevention and management of pain in oral mucositis associated with radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, J.B.; Stevenson-Moore, P.

    1986-08-01

    Benzydamine hydrochloride rinse reduced pain associated with radiation mucositis when it was used during the course of radiation therapy. Fewer patients using benzydamine rinse required systemic analgesics. All patients using benzydamine tolerated the rinse well and continued with regular rinsing throughout the course of radiation therapy. Benzydamine hydrochloride is currently undergoing clinical trials in the United States for application for approval from the Food and Drug Administration.

  15. [Replantation at lower leg level].

    PubMed

    Daigeler, A; Fansa, H; Westphal, T; Schneider, W

    2003-11-01

    Replantation in reconstructive surgery is an established procedure due to microsurgical techniques. It can be routinely performed in unilateral lower leg amputation. In some cases of bilateral amputation, in which orthotopic replantation is not possible due to the complex trauma, heterotopic replantation is a therapeutic option. This avoids prosthetic fitting. We report five cases of orthotopic and two of heterotopic lower limb replantations. Functional outcome concerning sensibility, mobility, pain, and aesthetic result were assessed clinically and using a questionnaire. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction were good. The psychological situation of the patients as well as mobility and stability of the replanted limbs were satisfying. Heterotopically replanted patients found the replanted legs superior to the prostheses. We conclude that, in lower leg amputation, attempts should be made to replant the extremity. In bilateral lower leg amputations, at least one limb should be reconstructed, even if "only" a heterotopic replantation can be performed.

  16. Tactile allodynia in patients with lumbar radicular pain (sciatica).

    PubMed

    Defrin, Ruth; Devor, Marshall; Brill, Silviu

    2014-12-01

    We report a novel symptom in many patients with low back pain (LBP) that sheds new light on the underlying pain mechanism. By means of quantitative sensory testing, we compared patients with radicular LBP (sciatica), axial LBP (LBP without radiation into the leg), and healthy controls, searching for cutaneous allodynia in response to weak tactile and cooling stimuli on the leg and low back. Most patients with radicular pain (~60%) reported static and dynamic tactile allodynia, as well as cooling allodynia, on the leg, often extending into the foot. Some also reported allodynia on the low back. In axial LBP, allodynia was almost exclusively on the back. The degree of dynamic tactile allodynia correlated with the degree of background pain. The presence of allodynia suggests that the peripheral nerve generators of background leg and back pain have also induced central sensitization. The distal (foot) location of the allodynia in patients who have it indicates that the nociceptive drive that maintains the central sensitization arises paraspinally (ectopically) in injured ventral ramus afferents; this is not an instance of somatic referred pain. The presence of central sensitization also provides the first cogent account of shooting pain in sciatica as a wave of activity sweeping vectorially across the width of the sensitized dorsal horn. Finally, the results endorse leg allodynia as a pain biomarker in animal research on LBP, which is commonly used but has not been previously validated. In addition to informing the underlying mechanism of LBP, bedside mapping of allodynia might have practical implications for prognosis and treatment. How can you tell whether pain radiating into the leg in a patient with sciatica is neuropathic, ie, due to nerve injury? Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Paraesthesia in the legs].

    PubMed

    Eisensehr, Ilonka

    2007-10-18

    Paraesthesia in the legs can have numerous causes. In addition to the restless legs syndrome, other primary causes include venous insufficiency in the leg, propriospinal myoclonus, nocturnal leg cramps, peripheral polyneuropathy that affects mostly the legs or neuroleptic drug-induced akathisia. Through detailed questioning of the patient, restless legs syndrome can be specifically distinguished from the other named differential diagnoses.

  18. Leg Swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... painful swelling. Sterns RH. Pathophysiology and etiology of edema in adults. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 29, 2016. Edema. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/ ...

  19. Idiopathic epidural lipomatosis as a cause of pain and neurological symptoms attributed initially to radiation damage.

    PubMed

    Millwater, C J; Jacobson, I; Howard, G C

    1992-09-01

    Epidural lipomatosis is a rare condition in which overgrowth of extradural fat can lead to back pain, spinal cord compression and radiculopathy. A 51-year-old man developed back pain and reduced mobility following a standard course of radiotherapy for a Stage I seminoma. His symptoms and radiological appearances were initially attributed to radiation fibrosis. Further investigations and operative intervention revealed epidural lipomatosis. The excess lipomatous tissue was removed with complete resolution of his symptoms.

  20. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-10-07

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor' deltaT/SAR. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur.

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grademore » 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus.« less

  2. WE-E-BRE-09: Investigation of the Association Between Radiation-Induced Pain and Radiation Dose in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, H; Dyk, P; Mullen, D

    Purpose: Patients with head and neck cancer who undergo radiotherapy often experience several undesirable side-effects, including xerostomia, trismus, and pain in the head and neck area, but little is know about the dose-volume predictors of such pain. We investigated the association between radiation dose and both throat and esophagus pain during radiotherapy. Methods: We analyzed 124 head and neck patients who received radiotherapy at the Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis. For these patients, weekly PROs were recorded, including 16 pain and anatomical location questions. In addition, 17 observational symptoms were recorded. Patients were asked to describe theirmore » pain at each site according to a four-level scale: none (0), mild (1), moderate (2), and severe (3). We explored the association between throat pain and the mean dose received in oral cavity and between esophageal pain and the mean dose received in the esophagus. The severity of pain was determined by the difference between the baseline (week 1) pain score and the maximum pain score during treatment. The baseline pain score was defined as the first available pain score before receiving 10 Gy because radiotherapy pain originates later during treatment. Dose-volume metrics were extracted from treatment plans using CERR. To evaluate the correlation between pain and radiation dose, Spearman's correlation coefficient (Rs) was used. Results: The associations between throat pain and the mean dose to the oral cavity, and between esophagus pain and the mean dose to the esophagus, were both statistically significant, with Rs=0.320 (p=0.003) and Rs=0.424 (p<0.0001), respectively. Mean dose, for each structure, was a better predictor of pain than total integral dose. Conclusion: We demonstrated that pain during radiotherapy in head and neck patients highly correlates with the dose delivered. We will further investigate the association between other pain locations and relevant normal

  3. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Researchers Describe Specialized Neurons That Play a Unique Role in Mechanical Pain ( August 16, 2017 ) ... Funding for Pain Initiatives Current Funding Opportunities Research on the Impact of Creative Arts in Military ...

  4. A randomized controlled trial of gabapentin for chronic low back pain with and without a radiating component.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J Hampton; Slater, Mark A; Capparelli, Edmund V; Patel, Shetal M; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Abramson, Ian S; Wallace, Mark S; Funk, Stephen D; Rutledge, Thomas R; Wetherell, Julie L; Matthews, Scott C; Zisook, Sidney; Garfin, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Gabapentin is prescribed for analgesia in chronic low back pain, yet there are no controlled trials supporting this practice. This randomized, 2-arm, 12-week, parallel group study compared gabapentin (forced titration up to 3600 mg daily) with inert placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change in pain intensity from baseline to the last week on treatment measured by the Descriptor Differential Scale; the secondary outcome was disability (Oswestry Disability Index). The intention-to-treat analysis comprised 108 randomized patients with chronic back pain (daily pain for ≥6 months) whose pain did (43%) or did not radiate into the lower extremity. Random effects regression models which did not impute missing scores were used to analyze outcome data. Pain intensity decreased significantly over time (P < 0.0001) with subjects on gabapentin or placebo, reporting reductions of about 30% from baseline, but did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.423). The same results pertained for disability scores. In responder analyses of those who completed 12 weeks (N = 72), the proportion reporting at least 30% or 50% reduction in pain intensity, or at least "Minimal Improvement" on the Physician Clinical Global Impression of Change did not differ significantly between groups. There were no significant differences in analgesia between participants with radiating (n = 46) and nonradiating (n = 62) pain either within or between treatment arms. There was no significant correlation between gabapentin plasma concentration and pain intensity. Gabapentin appears to be ineffective for analgesia in chronic low back pain with or without a radiating component.

  5. Painful acute radiation thyroiditis induced by 131I treatment of Graves’ disease

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kinjal K; Tarasova, Valentina; Davidian, Michael; Anderson, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, chronic smoker with Graves’ disease was treated with radioactive iodine ablation (RAI). One week after the treatment, she presented with severe pain in the anterior neck with radiation to the angle of the jaw associated with fatigue, tremor and odynophagia. Physical examination demonstrated an asymmetric and exquisitely tender thyroid gland. There was no laboratory evidence of thyrotoxicosis. Acute radiation thyroiditis was diagnosed. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hydrocodone-acetaminophen started initially were ineffective for pain control. Prednisone provided relief and was continued for 1 month with a tapering dose. Symptoms completely resolved after 1 month at which time the thyroid remained diffusely enlarged and non-tender. Three months following RAI ablation she developed hypothyroid symptoms. Levothyroxine was initiated. The patient has remained asymptomatic on continued follow-up care. PMID:25576511

  6. Painful acute radiation thyroiditis induced by 131I treatment of Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kinjal K; Tarasova, Valentina; Davidian, Michael; Anderson, Robert J

    2015-01-09

    A 44-year-old woman, chronic smoker with Graves' disease was treated with radioactive iodine ablation (RAI). One week after the treatment, she presented with severe pain in the anterior neck with radiation to the angle of the jaw associated with fatigue, tremor and odynophagia. Physical examination demonstrated an asymmetric and exquisitely tender thyroid gland. There was no laboratory evidence of thyrotoxicosis. Acute radiation thyroiditis was diagnosed. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hydrocodone-acetaminophen started initially were ineffective for pain control. Prednisone provided relief and was continued for 1 month with a tapering dose. Symptoms completely resolved after 1 month at which time the thyroid remained diffusely enlarged and non-tender. Three months following RAI ablation she developed hypothyroid symptoms. Levothyroxine was initiated. The patient has remained asymptomatic on continued follow-up care. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Urethral Pain Among Prostate Cancer Survivors 1 to 14 Years After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, Niclas, E-mail: niclas.pettersson@vgregion.se; Olsson, Caroline; Tucker, Susan L.

    Purpose: To investigate how treatment-related and non-treatment-related factors impact urethral pain among long-term prostate cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: Men treated for prostate cancer with radiation therapy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Goeteborg, Sweden from 1993 to 2006 were approached with a study-specific postal questionnaire addressing symptoms after treatment, including urethral burning pain during urination (n=985). The men had received primary or salvage external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or EBRT in combination with brachytherapy (BT). Prescribed doses were commonly 70 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions for primary and salvage EBRT and 50 Gy plus 2 Multiplication-Sign 10.0 Gy for EBRT +more » BT. Prostatic urethral doses were assessed from treatment records. We also recruited 350 non-pelvic-irradiated, population-based controls matched for age and residency to provide symptom background rates. Results: Of the treated men, 16% (137 of 863) reported urethral pain, compared with 11% (27 of 242) of the controls. The median time to follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-14.3 years). Prostatic urethral doses were similar to prescription doses for EBRT and 100% to 115% for BT. Fractionation-corrected dose and time to follow-up affected the occurrence of the symptom. For a follow-up {>=}3 years, 19% of men (52 of 268) within the 70-Gy EBRT + BT group reported pain, compared with 10% of men (23 of 222) treated with 70 Gy primary EBRT (prevalence ratio 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.0). Of the men treated with salvage EBRT, 10% (20 of 197) reported urethral pain. Conclusions: Survivors treated with EBRT + BT had a higher risk for urethral pain compared with those treated with EBRT. The symptom prevalence decreased with longer time to follow-up. We found a relationship between fractionation-corrected urethral dose and pain. Among long-term prostate cancer survivors, the occurrence of pain was not increased above the background rate for prostatic

  8. Fear of movement, passive coping, manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of sick leave due to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Anna P; Schluter, Philip J; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon; Turner, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Sick leave due to low back pain (LBP-SL) is costly and compromises workforce productivity. The fear-avoidance model asserts that maladaptive pain-related cognitions lead to avoidance and disuse, which can perpetuate ongoing pain. Staying home from work is an avoidant behavior, and hence pain-related psychological features may help explain LBP-SL. We examined the relative contribution of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and pain coping (active and passive) in LBP-SL in addition to pain characteristics and other psychosocial, occupational, general health, and demographic factors. Two-way interactions between age and gender and candidate exposures were also considered. Our sample comprised 2164 working nurses and midwives with low back pain in the preceding year. Binary logistic regression was performed on cross-sectional data by manual backward stepwise elimination of nonsignificant terms to generate a parsimonious multivariable model. From an extensive array of exposures assessed, fear of movement (women, odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.08; men, OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), passive coping (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11), pain severity (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50-1.72), pain radiation (women, OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.92; men, OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.15-7.95), and manual handling frequency (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) increased the likelihood of LBP-SL in the preceding 12 months. Administrators and managers were less likely to report LBP-SL (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71), and age had a protective effect in individuals in a married or de facto relationship (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98). In summary, fear of movement, passive coping, frequent manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of LBP-SL. Gender-specific responses to pain radiation and fear of movement are evident. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Legs Syndrome Condition Restless Legs Syndrome Share Print Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Diagnosis4. Treatment5. Questions Overview ... twitch when you try and sleep (also called periodic limb movements of sleep or PLMS). Diagnosis How ...

  10. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... are important for motion and standing. Playing sports, running, falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. ...

  11. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-27

    sweeps the leg during stance, and the third places the foot during flight and controls body attitude during stance. Each of the three methods elucidates...secondary strategy has been to examine systems with springy legs, so that the role of resonant oscillatory leg behavior might be better understood. ’ The ...body attitude : I lopping _leit: ’ The control system rcgulate:; hopping height by manlil)Lulating hopping energy. The leg is springy, so hopping is a

  12. A randomized controlled trial of gabapentin for chronic low back pain with and without a radiating component

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, J. Hampton; Slater, Mark A.; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Patel, Shetal M.; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Abramson, Ian S.; Wallace, Mark S.; Funk, Stephen D.; Rutledge, Thomas R.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Matthews, Scott C.; Zisook, Sidney; Garfin, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Gabapentin is prescribed for analgesia in chronic low back pain, yet there are no controlled trials supporting this practice. This randomized, two-arm, 12-week, parallel group study compared gabapentin (forced titration up to 3600 mg daily) to inert placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change in pain intensity from baseline to the last week on treatment measured by the Descriptor Differential Scale; the secondary outcome was disability (Oswestry Disability Index). The intention-to-treat analysis comprised 108 randomized chronic back pain patients (daily pain for ≥ 6 months) whose pain did (43%) or did not radiate into the lower extremity. Random effects regression models which did not impute missing scores were used to analyze outcome data. Pain intensity decreased significantly over time (p < .0001) with subjects on gabapentin or placebo reporting reductions of about 30% from baseline, but did not differ significantly between groups (p = .423). The same results pertained for disability scores. In responder analyses of those who completed 12 weeks (N=72), the proportion reporting at least 30% or 50% reduction in pain intensity, or at least “Minimal Improvement” on the Physician Clinical Global Impression of Change did not differ significantly between groups. There were no significant differences in analgesia between participants with radiating (n = 46) and non-radiating (n = 62) pain either within or between treatment arms. There was no significant correlation between gabapentin plasma concentration and pain intensity. Gabapentin appears to be ineffective for analgesia in chronic low back pain with or without a radiating component. PMID:26963844

  13. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  14. KILT (Kidney and IVC Abnormalities with Leg Thrombosis) Syndrome in a 41-Years-Old Man with Loin Pain and Fever.

    PubMed

    Fung, James Kiujing; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wan

    2017-05-01

    KILT syndrome is a rare condition composing the triad of kidney and inferior vena cava anomaly and extensive venous thrombosis. We present a case of newly diagnosed KILT syndrome in a 41-years-old gentleman presenting with loin pain and fever. Reviewing previous case reports, KILT syndrome is usually an incidental finding on imaging studies and there is a wide scope of initial clinical presentations. However, recent evidence suggests IVC anomaly may have caused subsequent renal hypoplasia. Identification of the underlying etiology may be helpful in planning early vascular intervention to treat the condition.

  15. The role of obesity and physical activity in non-specific and radiating low back pain: the Young Finns study.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Solovieva, Svetlana; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Telama, Risto; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2013-06-01

    To study the effects of obesity, physical activity, and change in physical activity on the incidence of low back pain and explore whether obesity modifies the effects of physical activity. As part of the ongoing Young Finns Study, 1224 subjects aged 24-39 years free from low back pain during the preceding 12 months at baseline in 2001 were included. Obesity was defined based on the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, and physical activity was assessed by the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) index in 2001 and 2007. Abdominal obesity, defined by an increased waist circumference, was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.7), while it had no effect on non-specific low back pain. BMI was associated neither with the incidence of radiating low back pain nor with non-specific low back pain. Compared with subjects who stayed active during follow-up, those with a low level of physical activity (adjusted OR = 2.0 and 95% CI 1.1-3.5) and active subjects who further increased their physical activity during follow-up (OR = 3.1 and 95% CI 1.5-6.7) had a higher incidence of radiating low back pain. Low level of physical activity was associated with an increased incidence of radiating low back pain in obese (OR = 3.3 and 95% 1.1-10.4), but not in non-overweight subjects (OR = 1.1 and 95% CI 0.6-1.9). Physical activity was not associated with non-specific low back pain. Our findings indicate that both obesity and low level of physical activity are independent risk factors of radiating low back pain. The current findings propose a U-shaped relation between physical activity and radiating low back pain. Moderate level of physical activity is recommended for the prevention of low back pain, especially in obese individuals. In all, our findings imply that obese individuals should stay physically active, even if they may not lose weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  16. Managing leg ulceration in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulceration is a long-term condition commonly associated with lower-limb injecting and chronic venous hypertension caused by collapsed veins, incompetent valves, deep vein thrombosis and reflux. It is not usually a medical emergency, but intravenous (IV) drug users with leg ulcers can attend emergency departments (EDs) with a different primary complaint such as pain or because they cannot access local primary care or voluntary services. Leg ulceration might then be identified during history taking, so it is important that ED nurses know how to assess and manage these wounds. This article explains how to assess and manage chronic venous leg ulcers in patients with a history of IV drug use, and highlights the importance of referral to specialist services when required, and to local primary care or voluntary services, before discharge to prevent admission and re-attendance.

  17. Evaluation of the impact of the urinary symptoms on quality of life of patients with painful bladder syndrome/chronic pelvic pain and radiation cystitis: EURCIS study.

    PubMed

    Rapariz-González, M; Castro-Díaz, D; Mejía-Rendón, D

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of urinary symptoms of Painful Bladder/Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis (PBCPPS) on the Quality of Life, and self-esteem of the patient. An observational, multicenter, epidemiological and cross-sectional study was performed on patients with Painful Bladder/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis. Data was recorded on severity of urinary symptoms and QoL impairment using the PUF Score. The patients evaluated the QoL deterioration grade through the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and the level of their anxiety and self-esteem with the Goldberg's Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. Post-hoc comparisons were performed between the results of the KHQ of this study and a sample of patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Results on RSES were analyzed with data from the general population and from patients with erectile dysfunction. A total of 530 cases, mostly female patients, who had been diagnosed with PBCPPS, were analyzed. High levels of deterioration in QoL were described: KHQ scores were significantly higher when compared with patients with UI (P<.01). Involvement of self-esteem was higher in patients with RC and men, who obtained scores similar to those of patients with erectile dysfunction. Patients with Painful Bladder Syndrome/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Radiation Cystitis present high levels of anxiety, and significant reductions in both quality of life and self-esteem. Especially for men, this affectation is similar to that caused by erectile dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. An Easy Tool to Predict Survival in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, Paulien G., E-mail: p.g.westhoff@umcutrecht.nl; Graeff, Alexander de; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases have a widely varying survival. A reliable estimation of survival is needed for appropriate treatment strategies. Our goal was to assess the value of simple prognostic factors, namely, patient and tumor characteristics, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and patient-reported scores of pain and quality of life, to predict survival in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: In the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study, 1157 patients were treated with radiation therapy for painful bone metastases. At randomization, physicians determined the KPS; patients rated general health on a visual analogue scale (VAS-gh), valuation of life on amore » verbal rating scale (VRS-vl) and pain intensity. To assess the predictive value of the variables, we used multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses and C-statistics for discriminative value. Of the final model, calibration was assessed. External validation was performed on a dataset of 934 patients who were treated with radiation therapy for vertebral metastases. Results: Patients had mainly breast (39%), prostate (23%), or lung cancer (25%). After a maximum of 142 weeks' follow-up, 74% of patients had died. The best predictive model included sex, primary tumor, visceral metastases, KPS, VAS-gh, and VRS-vl (C-statistic = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.70-0.74). A reduced model, with only KPS and primary tumor, showed comparable discriminative capacity (C-statistic = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.69-0.72). External validation showed a C-statistic of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.70-0.73). Calibration of the derivation and the validation dataset showed underestimation of survival. Conclusion: In predicting survival in patients with painful bone metastases, KPS combined with primary tumor was comparable to a more complex model. Considering the amount of variables in complex models and the additional burden on patients, the simple model is preferred for daily use. In addition, a risk table for survival is

  19. Characterization of skin reactions and pain reported by patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer at different sites.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Walker, Joanna; Heckler, Charles E; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2013-12-01

    Skin reactions and pain are commonly reported side effects of radiation therapy (RT). To characterize RT-induced symptoms according to treatment site subgroups and identify skin symptoms that correlate with pain. A self-report survey-adapted from the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and the McGill Pain Questionnaire--assessed RT-induced skin problems, pain, and specific skin symptoms. Wilcoxon Sign Ranked tests compared mean severity or pre- and post-RT pain and skin problems within each RT-site subgroup. Multiple linear regression (MLR) investigated associations between skin symptoms and pain. Survey respondents (N = 106) were 58% female and on average 64 years old. RT sites included lung, breast, lower abdomen, head/neck/brain, and upper abdomen. Only patients receiving breast RT reported significant increases in treatment site pain and skin problems (P < or = .007). Patients receiving head/neck/brain RT reported increased skin problems (P < .0009). MLR showed that post-RT skin tenderness and tightness were most strongly associated with post-RT pain (P = .066 and P = .122, respectively). Small sample size, exploratory analyses, and nonvalidated measure. Only patients receiving breast RT reported significant increases in pain and skin problems at the RT site while patients receiving head/neck/brain RT had increased skin problems but not pain. These findings suggest that the severity of skin problems is not the only factor that contributes to pain and that interventions should be tailored to specifically target pain at the RT site, possibly by targeting tenderness and tightness. These findings should be confirmed in a larger sampling of RT patients.

  20. Characterization of skin reactions and pain reported by patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer at different sites

    PubMed Central

    Gewandter, Jennifer S.; Walker, Joanna; Heckler, Charles E.; Morrow, Gary R.; Ryan, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin reactions and pain are commonly reported side effects of radiation therapy (RT). Objective To characterize RT-induced symptoms according to treatment site subgroups and identify skin symptoms that correlate with pain. Methods A self-report survey, adapted from the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, assessed RT-induced skin problems, pain, and specific skin symptoms. Wilcoxon Sign Ranked tests compared mean severity of pre- and post-RT pain and skin problems within each RT-site subgroup. Multiple linear regression (MLR) investigated associations between skin symptoms and pain. Results Survey respondents (n=106) were 58% female and on average 64 years old. RT sites included lung, breast, lower abdomen, head/neck/brain, and upper abdomen. Only patients receiving breast RT reported significant increases in treatment site pain and skin problems (p≤0.007). Patients receiving head/neck/brain RT reported increased skin problems (p<0.0009). MLR showed that post-RT skin tenderness and tightness were most strongly associated with post-RT pain (p=0.066 and p=0.122, respectively). Limitations Small sample size, exploratory analyses, and non-validated measure. Conclusions Only patients receiving breast RT reported significant increases in pain and skin problems at the RT site, while patients receiving head/neck/brain RT had increased skin problems, but not pain. These findings suggest that the severity of skin problems is not the only factor that contributes to pain, and interventions should be tailored to specifically target pain at the RT site, possibly by targeting tenderness and tightness. These findings should be confirmed in a larger sampling of RT patients. PMID:24645338

  1. Painful bone metastasis in elderly treated with radiation therapy: Single- or multiple-fraction regimen? A multicentre retrospective observational analysis.

    PubMed

    Falivene, S; Pezzulla, D; Di Franco, R; Giugliano, F M; Esposito, E; Scoglio, C; Amato, B; Borzillo, V; D'Aiuto, M; Muto, P

    2017-02-01

    Bone metastases are a frequent complication of advanced oncologic disease. Pain associated to bone metastasis is a major cause of morbidity in cancer patients, especially in elderly. The aim of this multicentric retrospective observational study is to evaluate the efficacy of different schedules of radiation therapy in elderly patients in terms of pain relief. 206 patients over the age of 60 were enrolled in 1 year time for a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients were treated with palliative purposes for painful bone metastases. Pain intensity difference (PID) was found in 72% of patients. Reported PID was statistically significant for p < 0.01. Pain intensity measured by a point numeric rating scale was statistically significant reduced for p < 0.05 by one-fraction regimen compared to other two regimens. In recent years, numerous studies have evaluated the most appropriate regimen of fractionation in individual cases, despite this, a consensus about the best schedule is still debated. On our analysis, single-fractionation scheme (8 Gy) confirmed to be statistical significant effective in providing pain reduction due to bone metastases. Radiation therapy provides significant pain relief of symptomatic bone metastases, but appropriate radiotherapy scheduled is needed in order to get significant response to treatment. Multidisciplinary approach is warranted to value the balance between the therapeutic objectives and the patient quality of life.

  2. Role of Gabapentin in Managing Mucositis Pain in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy to the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Milazzo-Kiedaisch, Carol Ann; Itano, Joanne; Dutta, Pinaki R

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful and debilitating side effect that affects 80%-100% of patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. This dose-limiting side effect may potentially lead to pain, dehydration, malnutrition, infection, and treatment breaks. Treatment breaks can lead to decreased disease control and suboptimal patient outcomes. No primary prevention exists for OM, and management is focused on pain control. Compelling evidence exists that OM pain has somatic and neuropathic components. This article reviews the existing literature on the use of gabapentin (Neurontin®) as a co-analgesic in treating the neuropathic pain in OM. A literature search was performed using CINAHL® and PubMed with the search terms gabapentin and oral mucositis. The selected articles were briefly screened for relevance, and three were included in this review. No systematic reviews exist on the role of gabapentin for neuropathic pain in radiation-induced OM. Two retrospective studies concluded that gabapentin reduced escalation of opioid doses and unplanned treatment breaks. One retrospective study demonstrated favorable swallowing outcomes. Pain and OM are nursing-sensitive outcomes that can be significantly affected by evidence-based nursing interventions.

  3. [Acute leg compartment syndrome after exertion].

    PubMed

    Misović, Sidor; Kronja, Goran; Ignjatović, Dragan; Tomić, Aleksandar

    2005-03-01

    A case of a 22-year old soldier, with a history of pain in the leg during heavy exercise, which desisted at rest, was presented. One day before admission, the patient had felt an extreme exertion-induced pain in his right leg which had not lessenned at rest. At the same time, the patient noticed persistent severe leg edema. On physical examination, the intracompartmental pressure was 62 mmHg (> 30 mmHg). The patient was urgently operated on, and fasciotomy according to Mubarak was used. At second surgery, the debridement of the muscles of the posterior group of the leg, and the evacuation of hemathoma from the anterior and lateral group of the right leg muscles were perfomed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Fasciotomy wounds were closed within 14 days of the surgery. The complete physical treatment was done. Follow-up examinations 1, 3, and 6 months afterwards were satisfactory. The soldier completed his compulsory military service without any sequelae. Laboratory results were normal. Overlooked, unrecognized or surgically untreated compartment syndrome can cause severe damage, including even the loss of the extremity.

  4. Predictive Nomogram for the Durability of Pain Relief From Gamma Knife Radiation Surgery in the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, John T., E-mail: johnthomas75@gmail.com; Nida, Adrian M.; Isom, Scott

    Purpose: To determine factors associated with the durability of stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials: Between 1999 and 2008, 446 of 777 patients with TN underwent SRS and had evaluable follow-up in our electronic medical records and phone interview records. The median follow-up was 21.2 months. The Barrow Neurologic Institute (BNI) pain scale was used to determine pre- and post-SRS pain. Dose-volume anatomical measurements, Burchiel pain subtype, pain quality, prior procedures, and medication usage were included in this retrospective cohort to identify factors impacting the time to BNI 4-5 pain relapse by using Cox proportionalmore » hazard regression. An internet-based nomogram was constructed based on predictive factors of durable relief pre- and posttreatment at 6-month intervals. Results: Rates of freedom from BNI 4-5 failure at 1, 3, and 5 years were 84.5%, 70.4%, and 46.9%, respectively. Pain relief was BNI 1-3 at 1, 3, and 5 years in 86.1%, 74.3%, and 51.3% of type 1 patients; 79.3%, 46.2%, and 29.3% of type 2 patients; and 62.7%, 50.2%, and 25% of atypical facial pain patients. BNI type 1 pain score was achieved at 1, 3, and 5 years in 62.9%, 43.5%, and 22.0% of patients with type 1 pain and in 47.5%, 25.2%, and 9.2% of type 2 patients, respectively. Only 13% of patients with atypical facial pain achieved BNI 1 response; 42% of patients developed post-Gamma Knife radiation surgery (GKRS) trigeminal dysfunction. Multivariate analysis revealed that post-SRS numbness (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; P<.0001), type 1 (vs type 2) TN (HR, 0.6; P=.02), and improved post-SRS BNI score at 6 months (HR, 0.009; P<.0001) were predictive of a durable pain response. Conclusions: The durability of SRS for TN depends on the presenting Burchiel pain type, the post-SRS BNI score, and the presence of post-SRS facial numbness. The durability of pain relief can be estimated pre- and posttreatment by using

  5. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... to match its length. Proper timing of this treatment is important for best results. Certain health conditions can lead to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight ( ...

  6. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... flow, which can injure nerves and other tissues. Causes PAD is caused by "hardening of the arteries." ... small arteries Coronary artery disease Impotence Open sores (ischemic ulcers on the lower legs) Tissue death (gangrene) ...

  7. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... anything that contains metal into the scanner room. Considerations Tests that may be done instead of an ... Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg Patient Instructions Femur fracture repair - discharge Hip fracture - discharge ...

  8. Randomized trial of standard pain control with or without gabapentin for pain related to radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoko; Kiyota, Naomi; Shimada, Takanobu; Funakoshi, Yohei; Chayahara, Naoko; Toyoda, Masanori; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Komori, Takahide; Sasaki, Ryohei; Mukohara, Toru; Minami, Hironobu

    2016-12-01

    Radiation-induced mucositis (RIM) in chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) causes severe pain and worsens CRT compliance, QOL and outcome. Following retrospective reports, we conducted a randomized trial of the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for RIM-associated pain during CRT. HNC patients (pts) receiving CRT were randomized to standard pain control (SPC) with acetaminophen and opioids, or SPC plus gabapentin (SPC+G). Gabapentin was maintained at 900mg/day for 4 weeks after CRT. Primary endpoint was maximum visual analogue scale (VAS) score during CRT, and secondary endpoints were total opioid dose, changes in QOL (EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HN 35) from baseline to 4 weeks after CRT, and adverse events. Twenty-two eligible Stage III or IV pts were randomly assigned to SPC or SPC+G (n=11 each). Twelve were treated in a locally advanced setting and 10 in a postoperative setting. Median maximum VAS scores, median total dose of opioids at maximum VAS and total dose of opioids at 4 weeks after CRT tended to be higher in the SPC+G arm (47 in SPC vs. 74 in SPC+G, p=0.517; 215mg vs. 745.3mg, p=0.880; and 1260mg vs. 1537.5mg, p=0.9438, respectively), without significance. QOL analysis showed significantly worse scores in the SPC+G arm for weight gain (p=0.005). Adverse events related to gabapentin were manageable. This pilot study is the first prospective randomized trial of gabapentin for RIM-related pain. Gabapentin had no apparent beneficial effect. Further research into agents for RIM-related pain is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Reflexology on the Pain-Insomnia-Fatigue Disturbance Cluster of Breast Cancer Patients During Adjuvant Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tarrasch, Ricardo; Carmel-Neiderman, Narin N; Ben-Ami, Sarah; Kaufman, Bella; Pfeffer, Raphi; Ben-David, Merav; Gamus, Dorit

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of reflexology treatment on quality of life, sleep disturbances, and fatigue in breast cancer patients during radiation therapy. A total of 72 women with breast cancer (stages 1-3) scheduled for radiation therapy were recruited. Women were allocated upon their preference either to the group receiving reflexology treatments once a week concurrently with radiotherapy and continued for 10 weeks or to the control group (usual care). The Lee Fatigue Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, and Multidimensional Quality of Life Scale Cancer were completed by each patient in both arms at the beginning of the radiation treatment, after 5 weeks, and after 10 weeks of reflexology treatment. The final analysis included 58 women. The reflexology treated group demonstrated statistically significant lower levels of fatigue after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (p < 0.001), compared to the control group. It was also detected that although the quality of life in the control group deteriorated after 5 and 10 weeks of radiation therapy (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), it was preserved in the reflexology group, which also demonstrated a significant improvement in the quality of sleep after 10 weeks of radiation treatment (p < 0.05). Similar patterns were obtained in the assessment of the pain levels experienced by the patients. The results of the present study indicate that reflexology may have a positive effect on fatigue, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life in breast cancer patients during radiation therapy. Reflexology prevented the decline in quality of life and significantly ameliorated the fatigue and quality of sleep of these patients. An encouraging trend was also noted in amelioration of pain levels.

  10. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  11. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesicmore » intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.« less

  12. Dynamic leg length asymmetry during gait is not a valid method for estimating mild anatomic leg length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Leporace, Gustavo; Batista, Luiz Alberto; Serra Cruz, Raphael; Zeitoune, Gabriel; Cavalin, Gabriel Armondi; Metsavaht, Leonardo

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) during gait as a radiation-free screening method for measuring anatomic leg length discrepancy (ALLD). Thirty-three subjects with mild leg length discrepancy walked along a walkway and the dynamic leg length discrepancy (DLLD) was calculated using a motion analysis system. Pearson correlation and paired Student t -tests were applied to calculate the correlation and compare the differences between DLLD and ALLD (α = 0.05). The results of our study showed DLLD is not a valid method to predict ALLD in subjects with mild limb discrepancy.

  13. Low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Alcidi, L; Beneforti, E; Maresca, M; Santosuosso, U; Zoppi, M

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the analgesic effect of low power radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF) in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. In a randomized study on 40 patients the analgesic effect of RF was compared with the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). RF and TENS applications were repeated every day for a period of 5 days. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by Lequesne's index: tests were performed before, immediately after and 30 days after therapy. RF therapy induced a statistically significant and long lasting decrease of VAS and of Lequesne's index; TENS induced a decrease of VAS and of Lequesne's index which was not statistically significant. A therapeutic effect of RF was therefore demonstrated on pain and disability due to knee OA. This effect was better than the effect of TENS, which is a largely used analgesic technique. Such a difference of the therapeutic effect may be due to the fact that TENS acts only on superficial tissues and nerve terminals, while RF acts increasing superficial and deep tissue temperature.

  14. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  15. Mammography with and without radiolucent positioning sheets: Comparison of projected breast area, pain experience, radiation dose and technical image quality.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Janine; Voorde, Marloes Ten; Engen, Ruben E van; Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary van; Pijnappel, Ruud; Greve, Kitty Droogh-de; Heeten, Gerard J den; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2015-10-01

    To compare projected breast area, image quality, pain experience and radiation dose between mammography performed with and without radiolucent positioning sheets. 184 women screened in the Dutch breast screening programme (May-June 2012) provided written informed consent to have one additional image taken with positioning sheets. 5 cases were excluded (missing data). Pain was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale. Radiation dose was estimated using the Dance model and projected breast area using computer software. Two radiologists and two radiographers assessed image quality. With positioning sheets significantly more pectoral muscle, lateral and medial breast tissue was projected (CC-views) and more and deeper depicted pectoral muscle (MLO-views). In contrast, visibility of white and darker areas was better on images without positioning sheets, radiologists were therefore better able to detect abnormalities (MLO-views). Women experienced more pain with positioning sheets (MLO-views only, mean difference NRS 0.98; SD 1.71; p=0,00). Mammograms with positioning sheets showed more breast tissue. Increased breast thickness after compression with sheets resulted in less visibility of white and darker areas and thus reduced detection of abnormalities. Also, women experienced more pain (MLO-views) due to the sheet material. A practical consideration is the fact that more subcutaneous fat tissue and skin are being pulled forward leading to folds in the nipple area. On balance, improvement to the current design is required before implementation in screening practice can be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  17. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  18. Pain and pain management in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Beiteke, Ulrike; Bigge, Stefan; Reichenberger, Christina; Gralow, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that 23 million Germans suffer from chronic pain. A recent survey has revealed that 30 % of chronic pain patients are dissatisfied with their pain management. Furthermore, five million Germans suffer from neuropathic pain, 20 % of whom are inadequately treated. Pain is also a symptom of many dermatologic diseases, which is mostly somatic and may be classified as mild in the majority of cases. Nevertheless, research on the quality of life (QoL) has increasingly shown a marked impairment of QoL by moderate pain such as in psoriatic arthritis. -Severe pain is associated with herpes zoster (shingles), leg ulcers, and pyoderma gangrenosum. This article addresses the basics of pain classification and, in a short excerpt, pain transduction/transmission and modulation. The use of standardized diagnostic -scales is recommended for the purpose of recording and monitoring pain intensity, which allows for the optimization of therapy and consistent interdisciplinary -communication. Any dermatology residency program includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills in pain management. This review therefore aims to present fundamental therapeutic concepts based on the expanded WHO analgesic ladder, and describes a step-wise therapeutic approach and combination therapies. The article focuses on the pain management of the above-mentioned severely painful, conservatively treated dermatoses. Besides well-established therapeutic agents and current -therapeutic standards, it discusses specific options based on guidelines (where available). Current knowledge on peri- and postoperative pain management is briefly outlined. This article addresses: ▸ The fundamentals of the classification and neurophysiology of pain; ▸ Standards for pain documentation in children and adults; ▸ General standards for pharmaceutical pain management; ▸ Current specific treatment options for postherpetic neuralgia, leg ulcers, and -pyoderma gangrenosum in conjunction with the expanded WHO

  19. Leg lengthening - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as Legg-Perthes disease Previous injuries or bone fractures that may stimulate excessive bone growth Abnormal spinal ... in the bone to be lengthened; usually the lower leg bone (tibia) or upper ... small steps, usually over the course of several months.

  20. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Karl; Ulfberg, J

    2009-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensory-motor disorder that is characterized by intense restlessness and unpleasant creeping sensations deep inside the lower legs. Symptoms appear when the legs are at rest and are worst in the evening and at night. They force patients to keep moving their legs, and often to get out of bed and wander about. Periodic limb movements (PLMS) are also common during sleep amongst those suffering from RLS, and sleep efficiency is severely reduced. There are idiopathic as well as symptomatic forms of RLS, the latter being associated with e.g. pregnancy, iron deficiency and chronic renal failure. A family history of RLS is very common and pedigrees in these cases suggest an autosomal-dominant transmission with high penetrance. Genetic investigations have been performed in order to identify genes associated with RLS. Several loci have been found (on chromosomes 12q, 14q, 9p, 2q, 20p and 16p). Pathophysiology of RLS remains incompletely understood. However, advanced brain imaging studies and positive results of dopaminergic treatment suggest that RLS may be generated by dopamine dysfunction locally within the central nervous system. At present, there is a wide range of treatment options including levodopa, dopamine agonists, opioids, benzodiazepines, antiepileptic drugs and iron supplements.

  1. Making Better Lives: Patient-Focused Care for Low Back Pain (LBP)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-26

    Chronic Low Back Pain; Hip Ostearthritis; Myofascial Pain Syndrome; Fibromyalgia; Depression; Maladaptive Coping; Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; Insomnia; Sacroiliac Joint Pain; Lateral Hip and Thigh Pain; Anxiety; Dementia; Recent Leg Length Discrepancy

  2. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 31. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician . 2013;88( ...

  3. The Effects of Pain, Gender, and Age on Sleep/Wake and Circadian Rhythm Parameters in Oncology Patients at the Initiation of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buffum, David; Koetters, Theresa; Cho, Maria; Macera, Liz; Paul, Steven M.; West, Claudia; Aouizerat, Bradley; Dunn, Laura; Dodd, Marylin; Lee, Kathryn; Cooper, Bruce; Wara, William; Swift, Patrick; Miaskowski, Christin

    2010-01-01

    To date, no studies have evaluated for differences in subjective and objective measures of sleep disturbance in oncology outpatients with and without pain. This descriptive study recruited 182 patients from two radiation therapy (RT) departments at the time of the patient’s simulation visit. Approximately 38% of the sample reported moderate to severe pain (i.e., worst pain intensity of 6.2 ± 2.4). After controlling for age, patients with pain reported worse sleep quality and more sleep disturbance using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. With the General Sleep Disturbance Scale, patients with pain reported poorer sleep quality, increased use of sleep medications, and more daytime sleepiness. In addition using an objective measure of sleep disturbance (i.e., actigraphy), significant Gender × Pain interactions were found for sleep onset latency, percentage of time awake at night, wake duration, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. While no differences were found in female patients, males with pain had worse scores than males without pain. Findings from this study suggest that pain and sleep disturbance are prevalent in oncology outpatients and that a patient’s age and gender need to be considered in any evaluation of the relationship between pain and sleep. Perspective: The effects of pain on subjective and objective sleep parameters appear to be influenced by both patients’ age and gender. PMID:21146465

  4. CT-angiography protocol with low dose radiation and low volume contrast medium for non-cardiac chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tokgoz, Safiye; Karabay, Esra; Ucan, Berna; Akdogan, Melek Pala; Basak, Muzaffer

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the diagnostic quality of a new multiple detector-row computed tomography angiography (MDCT-A) protocol using low dose radiation and low volume contrast medium techniques for evaluation of non-cardiac chest pain. Methods Forty-five consecutive patients with clinically suspected noncardiac chest pain and requiring contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT) were examined. The patients were assigned to the protocol, with 80 kilovolt (peak) (kV[p]) and 150 effective milliampere-second (eff mA-s). In our study group, 40 mL of low osmolar contrast material was administered at 3.0 mL/s. Results In the study group, four patients with pulmonary embolism, four with pleural effusion, two with ascending aortic aneurysm and eight patients with pneumonic consolidation were detected. The mean attenuation of the pulmonary truncus and ascendant aortic locations was considered 264±44 and 249±51 HU, respectively. The mean effective radiation dose was 0.83 mSv for MDCT-A. Conclusions Pulmonary artery and the aorta scanning simultaneously was significantly reduced radiation exposure with the mentioned dose saving technique. Additionally, injection of low volume (40 cc) contrast material may reduce the risk of contrast induced nephropathy, therefore, facilitate the diagnostic approach. This technique can be applied to all cases and particularly patients at high risk of contrast induced nephropathy due to its similar diagnostic quality with a low dose and high levels of arteriovenous enhancement simultaneously. PMID:25392818

  5. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  6. Dynamically Stable Legged Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    the laboratory. Harry Asada, Wayne Book, Nancy Cornelius, Sesh Murthy and Ivan Sutherland read various drafts of this report, for which we are...particularly helpful in providing an atmosphere where things could get started. Craig Fields and Clint Kelly deserve special credit for letting the idea of...legged technology capture their imaginations, even before we could show them tangible results. We are especially indebted to Ivan Sutherland for his

  7. Aches and pains during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... between 18 and 24 weeks. When you feel stretching or pain, move slowly or change positions. Mild ... common in the last months of pregnancy. Sometimes stretching your legs before bed will reduce the cramps. ...

  8. Dose-volume parameters predict for the development of chest wall pain after stereotactic body radiation for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Robert W; Liu, Fan; Abreu, Andres; Yorke, Ellen; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2012-04-01

    Chest wall (CW) pain has recently been recognized as an important adverse effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a dose-volume model to predict the development of this toxicity. A total of 126 patients with primary, clinically node-negative NSCLC received three to five fractions of SBRT to doses of 40-60 Gy and were prospectively followed. The dose-absolute volume histograms of two different definitions of the CW as an organ at risk (CW3cm and CW2cm) were examined for all 126 patients. With a median follow-up of 16 months, the 2-year estimated actuarial incidence of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain was 39%. The median time to onset of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0) was 9 months. There was no predictive advantage for biologically corrected dose over physical dose. Neither fraction number (p = 0.07) nor prescription dose (p = 0.07) were significantly correlated with the development of Grade ≥ 2 CW pain. Cox Proportional Hazards analysis identified significant correlation with a broad range of dose-volume combinations, with the CW volume receiving 30 Gy (V30) as one of the strongest predictors (p < 0.001). CW2cm consistently enabled better prediction of CW toxicity. When a physical dose of 30 Gy was received by more than 70 cm(3) of CW2cm, there was a significant correlation with Grade ≥ 2 CW pain (p = 0.004). CW toxicity after SBRT is common and long-term follow-up is needed to identify affected patients. A volume of CW ≥ 70 cm(3) receiving 30 Gy is significantly correlated with Grade ≥ 2 CW pain. We are currently applying this constraint at our institution for patients receiving thoracic SBRT. An actuarial atlas of our data is provided as an electronic supplement to facilitate data-sharing and meta-analysis relating to CW pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose-Volume Parameters Predict for the Development of Chest Wall Pain After Stereotactic Body Radiation for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, Robert W.; Liu Fan; Abreu, Andres

    Purpose: Chest wall (CW) pain has recently been recognized as an important adverse effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We developed a dose-volume model to predict the development of this toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 126 patients with primary, clinically node-negative NSCLC received three to five fractions of SBRT to doses of 40-60 Gy and were prospectively followed. The dose-absolute volume histograms of two different definitions of the CW as an organ at risk (CW3cm and CW2cm) were examined for all 126 patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 16 months, themore » 2-year estimated actuarial incidence of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain was 39%. The median time to onset of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0) was 9 months. There was no predictive advantage for biologically corrected dose over physical dose. Neither fraction number (p = 0.07) nor prescription dose (p = 0.07) were significantly correlated with the development of Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. Cox Proportional Hazards analysis identified significant correlation with a broad range of dose-volume combinations, with the CW volume receiving 30 Gy (V30) as one of the strongest predictors (p < 0.001). CW2cm consistently enabled better prediction of CW toxicity. When a physical dose of 30 Gy was received by more than 70 cm{sup 3} of CW2cm, there was a significant correlation with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain (p = 0.004). Conclusions: CW toxicity after SBRT is common and long-term follow-up is needed to identify affected patients. A volume of CW {>=} 70 cm{sup 3} receiving 30 Gy is significantly correlated with Grade {>=} 2 CW pain. We are currently applying this constraint at our institution for patients receiving thoracic SBRT. An actuarial atlas of our data is provided as an electronic supplement to facilitate data-sharing and meta-analysis relating to CW pain.« less

  10. UVB radiation generates sunburn pain and affects skin by activating epidermal TRPV4 ion channels and triggering endothelin-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carlene; Cevikbas, Ferda; Pasolli, H. Amalia; Chen, Yong; Kong, Wei; Kempkes, Cordula; Parekh, Puja; Lee, Suk Hee; Kontchou, Nelly-Ange; Yeh, Iwei; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Fuchs, Elaine; Steinhoff, Martin; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2013-01-01

    At our body surface, the epidermis absorbs UV radiation. UV overexposure leads to sunburn with tissue injury and pain. To understand how, we focus on TRPV4, a nonselective cation channel highly expressed in epithelial skin cells and known to function in sensory transduction, a property shared with other transient receptor potential channels. We show that following UVB exposure mice with induced Trpv4 deletions, specifically in keratinocytes, are less sensitive to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli than control animals. Exploring the mechanism, we find that epidermal TRPV4 orchestrates UVB-evoked skin tissue damage and increased expression of the proalgesic/algogenic mediator endothelin-1. In culture, UVB causes a direct, TRPV4-dependent Ca2+ response in keratinocytes. In mice, topical treatment with a TRPV4-selective inhibitor decreases UVB-evoked pain behavior, epidermal tissue damage, and endothelin-1 expression. In humans, sunburn enhances epidermal expression of TRPV4 and endothelin-1, underscoring the potential of keratinocyte-derived TRPV4 as a therapeutic target for UVB-induced sunburn, in particular pain. PMID:23929777

  11. UVB radiation generates sunburn pain and affects skin by activating epidermal TRPV4 ion channels and triggering endothelin-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carlene; Cevikbas, Ferda; Pasolli, H Amalia; Chen, Yong; Kong, Wei; Kempkes, Cordula; Parekh, Puja; Lee, Suk Hee; Kontchou, Nelly-Ange; Yeh, Iwei; Ye, Iwei; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Fuchs, Elaine; Steinhoff, Martin; Liedtke, Wolfgang B

    2013-08-20

    At our body surface, the epidermis absorbs UV radiation. UV overexposure leads to sunburn with tissue injury and pain. To understand how, we focus on TRPV4, a nonselective cation channel highly expressed in epithelial skin cells and known to function in sensory transduction, a property shared with other transient receptor potential channels. We show that following UVB exposure mice with induced Trpv4 deletions, specifically in keratinocytes, are less sensitive to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli than control animals. Exploring the mechanism, we find that epidermal TRPV4 orchestrates UVB-evoked skin tissue damage and increased expression of the proalgesic/algogenic mediator endothelin-1. In culture, UVB causes a direct, TRPV4-dependent Ca(2+) response in keratinocytes. In mice, topical treatment with a TRPV4-selective inhibitor decreases UVB-evoked pain behavior, epidermal tissue damage, and endothelin-1 expression. In humans, sunburn enhances epidermal expression of TRPV4 and endothelin-1, underscoring the potential of keratinocyte-derived TRPV4 as a therapeutic target for UVB-induced sunburn, in particular pain.

  12. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  13. Clinical Characteristics of Mixed Arteriovenous Leg Ulcers: A Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Marin, Joseph A; Woo, Kevin Y

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers (MLU) that differentiated them from venous leg ulcers (VLU). Secondary analysis of data from larger electronic database. The sample comprised 1007 persons with lower extremity ulcers. Two hundred sixty three individuals with MLU were compared to 744 individuals with VLU; their ankle brachial indices were 0.51-0.90 and 0.91-.30 respectively. Subjects were drawn from community care settings from across Canada. Data concerning baseline demographic and pertinent clinical characteristics including ulcer history were collected using multiple validated instruments. The Leg Ulcer Assessment Tool was used to collect demographic and pertinent medical history, The Short Form Health Survey 12 and the Euro Wuol 5D (EQ-5D) were used to measure health related quality of life, the numeric pain scales was used to measure character and intensity of pain. Groups were compared using χ or Mann-Whitney U. Individuals with MLU were significantly older, has lower body mass index, a history of smoking, and more comorbid conditions than subjects with VLU. In many cases, clinical presentation was indicative of significant arterial insufficiency including cool extremities, shiny, cracked and inelastic skin, impaired capillary refill, and weak pedal pulses. Ulcer pain was highly prevalent, but overall pain rating was similar between groups. Mixed arteriovenous leg ulcers were associated with lower health related quality of life, greater mobility impairments, and more deficits in self-care and usual activities. Greater knowledge and understanding of the distinct characteristics of MLU is critical for appropriate screening, prevention, assessment and management of persons with this form of leg ulcer. Pain and health related quality of life factors are important considerations when evaluating and managing these patients.

  14. Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrew; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Zeng, Liang

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesicmore » intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.« less

  15. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  16. Associations between disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and disability in chronic mechanical low back pain: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perera, Romain Shanil; Dissanayake, Poruwalage Harsha; Senarath, Upul; Wijayaratne, Lalith Sirimevan; Karunanayake, Aranjan Lional; Dissanayake, Vajira Harshadeva Weerabaddana

    2017-05-15

    Radiographic features of lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) are common findings in patients with chronic mechanical low back pain; however, its role in disability and intensity of pain is debatable. This study aims to investigate the associations of the x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis with severity of disability and intensity of pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 439 patients with chronic mechanical low back pain who attended the rheumatology clinic, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, from May 2012 to May 2014. Severity of disability was measured using Modified Oswestry Disability Index and intensity of pain was assessed using numeric rating scale (0-100). X-ray features of LDD (disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD) and spondylolisthesis were assessed in lateral recumbent lumbar x-rays (L1/L2 to L5/S1) and graded by a consultant radiologist blinded to clinical data. Generalised linear model with linear response was used to assess the associations of x-ray features of LDD with severity of disability and intensity of pain adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and pain radiating into legs. Mean age was 48.99 ± 11.21 and 323 (73.58%) were females. 87 (19.82%) were obese. Mean severity of disability was 30.95 ± 13.67 and mean intensity of pain was 45.50 ± 20.37. 69 (15.72%), 26 (5.92%) and 85 (19.36%) patients had grade 2 disc space narrowing, anterior osteophytes and overall LDD, respectively. 51 (11.62%) patients had lumbar spondylolisthesis. Grade of disc space narrowing and overall LDD were not associated with severity of disability or intensity of pain. The presence of lumbar spondylolisthesis was associated with severity of disability. Female gender and pain radiating into legs were associated with severity of disability and intensity of pain. Advancing age was associated with x-ray features of LDD and lumbar spondylolisthesis. Lumbar spondylolisthesis is associated with severity of

  17. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... But do this slowly, increasing the amount of time you do the sports activity a little at a time. Talk to ... 20 seconds. Do the exercise 6 to 10 times and then switch legs. Citations Management of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome by S Dixit, M.D., ...

  18. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  19. Getting Your Sea Legs.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning.

  20. Lower Extremity Limb Salvage with Cross Leg Pedicle Flap, Cross Leg Free Flap, and Cross Leg Vascular Cable Bridge Flap.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Bishop, Sarah N; Ciudad, Pedro; Adabi, Kian; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Moran, Steven L; Huang, Tony; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2018-05-16

     Lower extremity salvage following significant soft tissue loss can be complicated by lack of recipient vessel for free tissue transfer. We describe our experience in lower limb salvage for patients with no recipient vessels with the use of pedicle, free and cable bridge flaps.  A retrospective review from 1985 to 2017 of patients undergoing lower limb salvage using a contralateral pedicle cross leg (PCL) flaps, free cross leg (FCL) flaps, or free cable bridge (FCB) flaps was conducted. Demographics, etiology of the reconstruction, type of flap used, donor-site vessels, defect size, operating time, time of pedicle division, length of hospital stay, time to ambulation, and complications were analyzed.  A total of 53 patients (48 males and 5 females) with an average age of 35 years (range, 29-38 years) were identified. The etiology for the reconstruction was trauma in 52 patients and oncological resection in 1 patient. There were 18 PCL, 25 FCL, and 10 FCB completed. The recipient vessels for all flaps were the posterior tibial artery and vein. The average operating room times for PCL, FCL, and FCB flaps were 4, 9, and 10 hours, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5 weeks and average time to ambulation was 4 weeks. The average follow-up time was 7.5 years (range, 3-12 years). Complications encountered were hematoma (six), prolonged pain (six), total flap loss (two), reoperation (five), and infection (four). Limb salvage rates were 96.2%.  When ipsilateral limb vessels are not available, and other reconstructive options have been exhausted, cross leg flaps can be a viable option for limb salvage in the setting of extensive defects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake on Positron Emission Tomography Is a Useful Predictor of Long-Term Pain Control After Palliative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Painful Bone Metastases: Results of a Single-Institute Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, Takatoshi, E-mail: taka.t-may7@med.Tottori-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide

    Purpose: To determine whether fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) before and after palliative radiation therapy (RT) can predict long-term pain control in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients with bone metastases who received RT were prospectively included. Forty painful metastatic treatment fields were evaluated. All patients had undergone pre-RT and post-RT PET/CT scanning. We evaluated the relationships between the pre-RT, post-RT, and changes in maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and the pain response, and between SUV{sub max} and pain relapse of the bone metastases in the treatment field. In addition, we compared the SUV{sub max}more » according to the length of time from the completion of RT to pain relapse of the bone metastases. Results: Regarding the pain response at 4 weeks after the completion of RT, there were 36 lesions of 27 patients in the responder group and 4 lesions of 4 patients in the nonresponder group. Changes in the SUV{sub max} differed significantly between the responder and nonresponder groups in both the early and delayed phases (P=.0292 and P=.0139, respectively), but no relationship was observed between the pre-RT and post-RT SUV{sub max} relative to the pain response. The responder group was evaluated for the rate of relapse. Thirty-five lesions of 26 patients in the responder group were evaluated, because 1 patient died of acute renal failure at 2 months after RT. Twelve lesions (34%) showed pain relapse, and 23 lesions (66%) did not. There were significant differences between the relapse and nonrelapse patients in terms of the pre-RT (early/delayed phases: P<.0001/P<.0001), post-RT (P=.0199/P=.0261), and changes in SUV{sub max} (P=.0004/P=.004). Conclusions: FDG-PET may help predict the outcome of pain control in the treatment field after palliative RT for painful bone metastases.« less

  2. Outcomes and radiation exposure of emergency department patients with chest pain and shortness of breath and ultralow pretest probability: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Shapiro, Nathan I; Jones, Alan E; Hernandez, Jackeline; Hogg, Melanie M; Troyer, Jennifer; Nelson, R Darrell

    2014-03-01

    Excessive radiation exposure remains a concern for patients with symptoms suggesting acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism but must be judged in the perspective of pretest probability and outcomes. We quantify and qualify the pretest probability, outcomes, and radiation exposure of adults with both chest pain and dyspnea. This was a prospective, 4-center, outcomes study. Patients were adults with dyspnea and chest pain, nondiagnostic ECGs, and no obvious diagnosis. Pretest probability for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism was assessed with a validated method; ultralow risk was defined as pretest probability less than 2.5% for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Patients were followed for diagnosis and total medical radiation exposure for 90 days. Eight hundred forty patients had complete data; 23 (3%) had acute coronary syndrome and 15 (2%) had pulmonary embolism. The cohort received an average of 4.9 mSv radiation to the chest, 48% from computed tomography pulmonary angiography. The pretest probability estimates for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism were less than 2.5% in 227 patients (27%), of whom 0 of 277 (0%; 95% confidence interval 0% to 1.7%) had acute coronary syndrome or pulmonary embolism and 7 of 227 (3%) had any significant cardiopulmonary diagnosis. The estimated chest radiation exposure per patient in this ultralow-risk group was 3.5 mSv, including 26 (3%) with greater than 5 mSv radiation to the chest and no significant cardiopulmonary diagnosis. One quarter of patients with chest pain and dyspnea had ultralow risk and no acute coronary syndrome or pulmonary embolism but were exposed to an average of 3.5 mSv radiation to the chest. These data can be used in a clinical guideline to reduce radiation exposure. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to synovial cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cyst–induced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosis–generated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836

  4. CT angiography - arms and legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007675.htm CT angiography - arms and legs To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. CT angiography combines a CT scan with the injection ...

  5. Pain as social glue: shared pain increases cooperation.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Jetten, Jolanda; Ferris, Laura J

    2014-11-01

    Even though painful experiences are employed within social rituals across the world, little is known about the social effects of pain. We examined the possibility that painful experiences can promote cooperation within social groups. In Experiments 1 and 2, we induced pain by asking some participants to insert their hands in ice water and to perform leg squats. In Experiment 3, we induced pain by asking some participants to eat a hot chili pepper. Participants performed these tasks in small groups. We found evidence for a causal link: Sharing painful experiences with other people, compared with a no-pain control treatment, promoted trusting interpersonal relationships by increasing perceived bonding among strangers (Experiment 1) and increased cooperation in an economic game (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings shed light on the social effects of pain, demonstrating that shared pain may be an important trigger for group formation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Leg pairs as virtual wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Russel; Duttweiler, Mark; Khanlian, Luke; Setrakian, Mark

    2005-05-01

    We propose the use of virtual wheels as the starting point of a new vehicle design. Each virtual wheel incorporates a pair of simple legs that, by simulating the rotary motion and ground contact of a traditional wheel, combine many of the benefits of legged and wheeled motion. We describe the use of virtual wheels in the design of a robotic mule, presenting an analysis of the mule's mobility the results of our efforts to model and build such a device.

  7. Ocean Drilling Program: Completed Legs

    Science.gov Websites

    . Austin Leg summary Repository Wolfgang Schlager 102 14-Mar-85 25-Apr-85 Miami, Florida 418 Bermuda Rise Lisbon, Portugal 902-906 New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Peter Blum Gregory Mountain Leg summary Repository , Nova Scotia 1071-1073 Continuing the New Jersey Sea-Level Transect Mitchell J. Malone James A. Austin

  8. Interexaminer reliability of the electromagnetic radiation receiver for determining lumbar spinal joint dysfunction in subjects with low back pain

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmell, H.A.; Jacobson, B.H.; Edwards, S.W.

    Twenty subjects (6 male, 14 female) with low back pain were examined by two experienced and licensed chiropractic doctors (E1 and E2). Both examiners examined the patients using a Toftness Electromagnetic Radiation Receiver (EMRR) and by manual palpation (MP) of the spinous processes. Interexaminer reliability was calculated at three sites (L3, L4, L5) for the following combinations: (a) E1,MP--E2,MP; (b) E1,EMRR--E2,EMRR; (c) E1,MP--E2,EMRR; and (d) E2,MP--E1,EMRR, and intraexaminer reliability was calculated for the following variables: (e) E1,MP--E1,EMRR; and (f) E2,MP--E2,EMRR. Results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for interexaminer reliability of the stated combinations and at the specific sites were: (a)more » -0.071, 0.400, 0.200; (b) -0.013, 0.100, -0.120; (c) 0.286, 0.300, 0.200; (d) -0.081, 0.000, 0.048. These results predominantly indicate a poor to fair interexaminer reliability. The results of a Kappa coefficient analysis for intraexaminer reliability of the stated combinations were: (e) 0.111, 0.400, 0.737; (f) 0.000, 0.100, 0.368. These results indicate a poor to fair reliability. It was concluded that in subjects with low back pain the EMRR may not be a reliable indicator of spinal joint dysfunction.« less

  9. Quality assurance experience with the randomized neuropathic bone pain trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group, 96.05).

    PubMed

    Roos, Daniel E; Davis, Sidney R; Turner, Sandra L; O'Brien, Peter C; Spry, Nigel A; Burmeister, Bryan H; Hoskin, Peter J; Ball, David L

    2003-05-01

    Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.05 is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing a single 8 Gy with 20 Gy in five fractions of radiotherapy (RT) for neuropathic pain due to bone metastases. This paper summarizes the quality assurance (QA) activities for the first 234 patients (accrual target 270). Independent audits to assess compliance with eligibility/exclusion criteria and appropriateness of treatment of the index site were conducted after each cohort of approximately 45 consecutive patients. Reported serious adverse events (SAEs) in the form of cord/cauda equina compression or pathological fracture developing at the index site were investigated and presented in batches to the Independent Data Monitoring Committee. Finally, source data verification of the RT prescription page and treatment records was undertaken for each of the first 234 patients to assess compliance with the protocol. Only one patient was found conclusively not to have genuine neuropathic pain, and there were no detected 'geographical misses' with RT fields. The overall rate of detected infringements for other eligibility criteria over five audits (225 patients) was 8% with a dramatic improvement after the first audit. There has at no stage been a statistically significant difference in SAEs by randomization arm. There was a 22% rate of RT protocol variations involving ten of the 14 contributing centres, although the rate of major dose violations (more than +/-10% from protocol dose) was only 6% with no statistically significant difference by randomization arm (P=0.44). QA auditing is an essential but time-consuming component of RT trials, including those assessing palliative endpoints. Our experience confirms that all aspects should commence soon after study activation.

  10. Transitional Vertebra and Spina Bifida Occulta Related with Chronic Low Back Pain in a Young Patient.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Maryam; Habib, Maham; Babar, Sumbal; Kundi, Asif K; Assad, Salman; Sheikh, Amjad

    2016-10-19

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) must be considered as a differential diagnosis in a young patient presenting with low back pain (LBP). We present a case of a 26-year-old male complaining of mild chronic LBP for six years, radiating to his left thigh for the past six months. He has been taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with skeletal muscle relaxants for pain relief. The X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imagings showed congenital enlargement of the left transverse process of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebra forming pseudo-articulation with the sacrum and unilateral pars interarticularis defect at the L4 level on the left side, respectively. He has managed with gabapentin 100 mg three times a day for his neuropathic left leg pain. On follow-up, the patient reported that his pain has improved with gabapentin and it decreased from 8/10 to 4/10 on the visual analogue scale.

  11. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  12. Comparison of Chest Pain Protocols for Electrocardiography-Gated Dual-Source Cardiothoracic CT in Children and Adults: The Effect of Tube Current Saturation on Radiation Dose Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare radiation doses between conventional and chest pain protocols using dual-source retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated cardiothoracic computed tomography (CT) in children and adults and assess the effect of tube current saturation on radiation dose reduction. Materials and Methods This study included 104 patients (16.6 ± 7.7 years, range 5–48 years) that were divided into two groups: those with and those without tube current saturation. The estimated radiation doses of retrospectively ECG-gated spiral cardiothoracic CT were compared between conventional, uniphasic, and biphasic chest pain protocols acquired with the same imaging parameters in the same patients by using paired t tests. Dose reduction percentages, patient ages, volume CT dose index values, and tube current time products per rotation were compared between the two groups by using unpaired t tests. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The volume CT dose index values of the biphasic chest pain protocol (10.8 ± 3.9 mGy) were significantly lower than those of the conventional protocol (12.2 ± 4.7 mGy, p < 0.001) and those of the uniphasic chest pain protocol (12.9 ± 4.9 mGy, p < 0.001). The dose-saving effect of biphasic chest pain protocol was significantly less with a saturated tube current (4.5 ± 10.2%) than with unsaturated tube current method (14.8 ± 11.5%, p < 0.001). In 76 patients using 100 kVp, patient age showed no significant differences between the groups with and without tube current saturation in all protocols (p > 0.05); the groups with tube current saturation showed significantly higher volume CT dose index values (p < 0.01) and tube current time product per rotation (p < 0.001) than the groups without tube current saturation in all protocols. Conclusion The radiation dose of dual-source retrospectively ECG-gated spiral cardiothoracic CT can be reduced by approximately 15% by using the biphasic chest pain protocol instead of the

  13. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  14. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  15. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1991-04-02

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing. between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair laying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is widemore » and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.« less

  16. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawlmore » through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.« less

  17. Effect of leg dominance, gender and age on sensory responses to structural differentiation of straight leg raise test in asymptomatic subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Torres Lacomba, María; de la Villa Polo, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To assess the effect of structural differentiation on sensory responses of asymptomatic individuals to standard neurodynamic tests of straight leg raise (SLR) and to evaluate the relevance of leg dominance, gender, and age. Background SLR test is a well-known neurodynamic test among physical therapists; no studies to date have investigated the influence of gender, age, and leg dominance to the sensory responses of this neurodynamic test and its structured differentiating maneuver. Methods Thirty (16 women) asymptomatic individuals enrolled in this study. Dominancy test was performed for each participant. Pain intensity using visual analogue scale (VAS), symptoms location in a body chart, nature of symptoms evoked, and hip range of motion (ROM) were recorded and compared at ankle neutral position (N-SLR) and dorsiflexion (DF-SLR) in both legs at the point of pain tolerance during SLR (P2). In addition, hip ROM was recorded at the onset of pain (P1). Results There was a statistically significant sex main effect for P1 and P2 between N-SLR and DF-SLR (p < 0.05). Mean hip ROM during the SLR was more than 10° greater in women than men. There was no statistically significant interaction between leg dominance and age group in N-SLR, DF-SLR, and VAS. Pain intensity was moderate for each SLR test. Symptoms most often described were stretch (96.7%), followed by tightness (70%) in the posterior thigh and leg. Conclusions SLR hip ROM is influenced by sex in asymptomatic individuals, leading to a greater hip ROM in SLR in women. Age and limb dominance are not relevant to SLR hip ROM or pain intensity. PMID:28559668

  18. Impact of Fractionation and Dose in a Multivariate Model for Radiation-Induced Chest Wall Pain

    SciTech Connect

    Din, Shaun U.; Williams, Eric L.; Jackson, Andrew

    Purpose: To determine the role of patient/tumor characteristics, radiation dose, and fractionation using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model to predict stereotactic body radiation therapy–induced grade ≥2 chest wall pain (CWP2) in a larger series and develop clinically useful constraints for patients treated with different fraction numbers. Methods and Materials: A total of 316 lung tumors in 295 patients were treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy in 3 to 5 fractions to 39 to 60 Gy. Absolute dose–absolute volume chest wall (CW) histograms were acquired. The raw dose-volume histograms (α/β = ∞ Gy) were converted via the LQ model to equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (normalizedmore » total dose, NTD) with α/β from 0 to 25 Gy in 0.1-Gy steps. The Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was used in univariate and multivariate models to identify and assess CWP2 exposed to a given physical and NTD. Results: The median follow-up was 15.4 months, and the median time to development of CWP2 was 7.4 months. On a univariate CPH model, prescription dose, prescription dose per fraction, number of fractions, D83cc, distance of tumor to CW, and body mass index were all statistically significant for the development of CWP2. Linear-quadratic correction improved the CPH model significance over the physical dose. The best-fit α/β was 2.1 Gy, and the physical dose (α/β = ∞ Gy) was outside the upper 95% confidence limit. With α/β = 2.1 Gy, V{sub NTD99Gy} was most significant, with median V{sub NTD99Gy} = 31.5 cm{sup 3} (hazard ratio 3.87, P<.001). Conclusion: There were several predictive factors for the development of CWP2. The LQ-adjusted doses using the best-fit α/β = 2.1 Gy is a better predictor of CWP2 than the physical dose. To aid dosimetrists, we have calculated the physical dose equivalent corresponding to V{sub NTD99Gy} = 31.5 cm{sup 3} for the 3- to 5-fraction groups.« less

  19. Ruling out coronary artery disease in women with atypical chest pain: results of calcium score combined with coronary computed tomography angiography and associated radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    van der Zant, Friso M; Wondergem, Maurits; Lazarenko, Sergiy V; Geenen, Remy W F; Umans, Victor A; Cornel, Jan-Hein; Knol, Remco J J

    2015-07-01

    To assess the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in women with atypical chest pain with low or intermediate risk for significant CAD by means of calcium scoring (CaSc) combined with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and to estimate the equivalent radiation dose in women. From December 2011 until July 2013, all consecutively performed cardiac CTs in women with atypical chest pain were included prospectively in the present study. Both CaSc and CCTA were obtained by a dual source flying focal spot 2×64 slice Somatom Definition Flash. Absence of CAD was defined as CaSc 0 and absence of noncalcified plaques. Presence of CAD was determined as CaSc>0 and/or presence of noncalcified plaques. The impact on patient management was also scored within our patient cohort. A total of 1033 procedures in 1014 women (mean age 59±10 years; mean BMI 26±8) were analyzed. In 520 (51%) women, CAD was absent. In 494 (49%) women, CAD was diagnosed, and in this subgroup the mean CaSc was 137±229. Thirty-seven (7%) of 494 women with CAD showed only noncalcified plaques. The mean equivalent radiation dose for the cardiac CTs of 1014 women was 2.2±1.6 mSv. Combined CaSc and CCTA excludes CAD in approximately 50% of women with atypical chest pain, and delivers a modest radiation dose of 2.2±1.6 mSv. CCTA has a substantial impact on patient management and can thus be advocated as first diagnostic tool in excluding CAD in women with atypical chest pain in terms of latest generation equipment with emphasize on radiation reduction techniques.

  20. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactormore » (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.« less

  1. Comparison of a flexible versus a rigid breast compression paddle: pain experience, projected breast area, radiation dose and technical image quality.

    PubMed

    Broeders, Mireille J M; Ten Voorde, Marloes; Veldkamp, Wouter J H; van Engen, Ruben E; van Landsveld-Verhoeven, Cary; 't Jong-Gunneman, Machteld N L; de Win, Jos; Greve, Kitty Droogh-de; Paap, Ellen; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2015-03-01

    To compare pain, projected breast area, radiation dose and image quality between flexible (FP) and rigid (RP) breast compression paddles. The study was conducted in a Dutch mammographic screening unit (288 women). To compare both paddles one additional image with RP was made, consisting of either a mediolateral-oblique (MLO) or craniocaudal-view (CC). Pain experience was scored using the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Projected breast area was estimated using computer software. Radiation dose was estimated using the model by Dance. Image quality was reviewed by three radiologists and three radiographers. There was no difference in pain experience between both paddles (mean difference NRS: 0.08 ± 0.08, p = 0.32). Mean radiation dose was 4.5 % lower with FP (0.09 ± 0.01 p = 0.00). On MLO-images, the projected breast area was 0.79 % larger with FP. Paired evaluation of image quality indicated that FP removed fibroglandular tissue from the image area and reduced contrast in the clinically relevant retroglandular area at chest wall side. Although FP performed slightly better in the projected breast area, it moved breast tissue from the image area at chest wall side. RP showed better contrast, especially in the retroglandular area. We therefore recommend the use of RP for standard MLO and CC views.

  2. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. Lower Leg Anterior and Lateral Intracompartmental Pressure Changes Before and After Classic Versus Skate Nordic Rollerskiing

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Katherine M.; Petron, David J.; Shultz, Barry B.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a debilitating condition resulting in loss of function and a decrease in athletic performance. Cases of CECS are increasing among Nordic skiers; therefore, analysis of intracompartmental pressures (ICPs) before and after Nordic skiing is warranted. Objective To determine if lower leg anterior and lateral ICPs and subjective lower leg pain levels increased after a 20-minute Nordic rollerskiing time trial and to examine if differences existed between postexercise ICPs for the 2 Nordic rollerskiing techniques, classic and skate. Design Crossover study. Setting Outdoor paved loop. Patients or Other Participants Seven healthy Division I Nordic skiers (3 men, 4 women; age = 22.71 ± 1.38 y, height = 175.36 ± 6.33 cm, mass = 70.71 ± 6.58 kg). Intervention(s) Participants completed two 20-minute rollerskiing time trials using the classic and skate technique in random order. The time trials were completed 7 days apart. Anterior and lateral ICPs and lower leg pain scores were obtained at baseline and at minutes 1 and 5 after rollerskiing. Main Outcome Measure(s) Anterior and lateral ICPs (mm Hg) were measured using a Stryker Quic STIC handheld monitor. Subjective measures of lower leg pain were recorded using the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale. Results Increases in both anterior (P = .000) and lateral compartment (P = .002) ICPs were observed, regardless of rollerskiing technique used. Subjective lower leg pain increased after the classic technique for the men from baseline to 1 minute postexercise and after the skate technique for the women. Significant 3-way interactions (technique × time × sex) were observed for the anterior (P = .002) and lateral (P = .009) compartment ICPs and lower leg pain (P = .005). Conclusions Postexercise anterior and lateral ICPs increased compared with preexercise ICPs after both classic and skate rollerskiing techniques. Lower leg pain is a primary symptom of CECS. The subjective

  4. Lower Leg Anterior and Lateral Intracompartmental Pressure Changes Before and After Classic Versus Skate Nordic Rollerskiing.

    PubMed

    Woods, Katherine M; Petron, David J; Shultz, Barry B; Hicks-Little, Charlie A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a debilitating condition resulting in loss of function and a decrease in athletic performance. Cases of CECS are increasing among Nordic skiers; therefore, analysis of intracompartmental pressures (ICPs) before and after Nordic skiing is warranted. To determine if lower leg anterior and lateral ICPs and subjective lower leg pain levels increased after a 20-minute Nordic rollerskiing time trial and to examine if differences existed between postexercise ICPs for the 2 Nordic rollerskiing techniques, classic and skate. Crossover study. Outdoor paved loop. Seven healthy Division I Nordic skiers (3 men, 4 women; age = 22.71 ± 1.38 y, height = 175.36 ± 6.33 cm, mass = 70.71 ± 6.58 kg). Participants completed two 20-minute rollerskiing time trials using the classic and skate technique in random order. The time trials were completed 7 days apart. Anterior and lateral ICPs and lower leg pain scores were obtained at baseline and at minutes 1 and 5 after rollerskiing. Anterior and lateral ICPs (mm Hg) were measured using a Stryker Quic STIC handheld monitor. Subjective measures of lower leg pain were recorded using the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale. Increases in both anterior (P = .000) and lateral compartment (P = .002) ICPs were observed, regardless of rollerskiing technique used. Subjective lower leg pain increased after the classic technique for the men from baseline to 1 minute postexercise and after the skate technique for the women. Significant 3-way interactions (technique × time × sex) were observed for the anterior (P = .002) and lateral (P = .009) compartment ICPs and lower leg pain (P = .005). Postexercise anterior and lateral ICPs increased compared with preexercise ICPs after both classic and skate rollerskiing techniques. Lower leg pain is a primary symptom of CECS. The subjective lower leg pain 11-point Numeric Rating Scale results indicate that increases in lower leg ICPs sustained during Nordic

  5. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  6. Quality of Life After Palliative Radiation Therapy for Patients With Painful Bone Metastases: Results of an International Study Validating the EORTC QLQ-BM22

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Liang; Chow, Edward, E-mail: edward.chow@sunnybrook.ca; Bedard, Gillian

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) is an effective method of palliating painful bone metastases and can improve function and reduce analgesic requirements. In advanced cancer patients, quality of life (QOL) is the primary outcome of interest over traditional endpoints such as survival. The purpose of our study was to compare bone metastasis-specific QOL scores among patients who responded differently to palliative RT. Methods and Materials: Patients receiving RT for bone metastases across 6 countries were prospectively enrolled from March 2010-January 2011 in a trial validating the QLQ-BM22 and completed the QLQ-BM22 and the core measure (QLQ-C30) at baseline and after 1more » month. Pain scores and analgesic intake were recorded, and response to RT was determined according to the latest published guidelines. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric and Wilcoxon rank sum tests compared changes in QOL among response groups. A Bonferroni-adjusted P<.003 indicated statistical significance. Results: Of 79 patients who received palliative RT, 59 were assessable. Partial response, pain progression, and indeterminate response were observed in 22, 8, and 29 patients, respectively; there were no patients with a complete response. Patients across all groups had similar baseline QOL scores apart from physical functioning (patients who progressed had better initial functioning). One month after RT, patients who responded had significant improvements in 3 of 4 QLQ-BM22 domains (painful site, P<.0001; painful characteristic, P<.0001; and functional interference, P<.0001) and 3 QLQ-C30 domains (physical functioning, P=.0006; role functioning, P=.0026; and pain, P<.0001). Patients with progression in pain had significantly worse functional interference (P=.0007) and pain (P=.0019). Conclusions: Patients who report pain relief after palliative RT also have better QOL with respect to bone metastasis-specific issues. The QLQ-BM22 and QLQ-C30 are able to discriminate among patients with

  7. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training

  8. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different…

  9. [Tips for taking history of pain].

    PubMed

    Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2012-11-01

    Pain is physiologically classified as nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, and psychogenic pain. Nociceptive pain is further divided into visceral pain, somatic pain, and referred pain. Visceral pain is dull, and it is difficult to locate the origin of such pain. Somatic pain is sharp, severe, and well localized. On receiving visceral input for pain, it affects somatic nerve inputting to the same spinal segments, then referred pain is felt in the skin and muscles supplied by it. Referred pain is felt in an area that is located at a distance from its cause. History taking is the most important factor for determining the cause of pain. Generally, all the necessary information regarding pain can be acquired if pain-related history is obtained using the "OPQRST" mnemonic, that is, onset, provocation/palliative factor, quality, region/radiation/related symptoms, severity, and time characteristics.

  10. Patients with chronic pain after abdominal surgery show less preoperative endogenous pain inhibition and more postoperative hyperalgesia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Oliver Hamilton; Schreyer, Tobias; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain is common and undesirable after surgery. Progression from acute to chronic pain involves altered pain processing. The authors studied relationships between presence of chronic pain versus preoperative descending pain control (diffuse noxious inhibitory controls; DNICs) and postoperative persistence and spread of skin and deep tissue hyperalgesia (change in electric/pressure pain tolerance thresholds; ePTT/pPTT) up to 6 months postoperatively. In 20 patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery under standardized anesthesia, we determined ePTT/pPTT (close to [abdomen] and distant from [leg] incision), eDNIC/pDNIC (change in ePTT/pPTT with cold pressor pain task; only preoperatively), and a 100 mm long pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm = no pain, 100 mm = worst pain imaginable), both at rest and on movement preoperatively, and 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Patients reporting chronic pain 6 months postoperatively had more abdominal and leg skin hyperalgesia over the postoperative period. More inhibitory preoperative eDNIC was associated with less late postoperative pain, without affecting skin hyperalgesia. More inhibitory pDNIC was linked to less postoperative leg deep tissue hyperalgesia, without affecting pain VAS. This pilot study for the first time links chronic pain after surgery, poorer preoperative inhibitory pain modulation (DNIC), and greater postoperative degree, persistence, and spread of hyperalgesia. If confirmed, these results support the potential clinical utility of perioperative pain processing testing.

  11. Active and Inactive Leg Hemodynamics during Sequential Single-Leg Interval Cycling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nicole; Abbiss, Chris R; Ihsan, Mohammed; Maiorana, Andrew J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2018-06-01

    Leg order during sequential single-leg cycling (i.e., exercising both legs independently within a single session) may affect local muscular responses potentially influencing adaptations. This study examined the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle hemodynamic responses during double-leg and sequential single-leg cycling. Ten young healthy adults (28 ± 6 yr) completed six 1-min double-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery and, on a separate occasion, 12 (six with one leg followed by six with the other leg) 1-min single-leg intervals interspersed with 1 min of passive recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle oxygenation, muscle blood volume, and power output were measured throughout each session. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and power output were not different between sets of single-leg intervals, but the average of both sets was lower than the double-leg intervals. Mean arterial pressure was higher during double-leg compared with sequential single-leg intervals (115 ± 9 vs 104 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and higher during the initial compared with second set of single-leg intervals (108 ± 10 vs 101 ± 10 mm Hg, P < 0.05). The increase in muscle blood volume from baseline was similar between the active single leg and the double leg (267 ± 150 vs 214 ± 169 μM·cm, P = 0.26). The pattern of change in muscle blood volume from the initial to second set of intervals was significantly different (P < 0.05) when the leg was active in the initial (-52.3% ± 111.6%) compared with second set (65.1% ± 152.9%). These data indicate that the order in which each leg performs sequential single-leg cycling influences the local hemodynamic responses, with the inactive muscle influencing the stimulus experienced by the contralateral leg.

  12. Course of Quality of Life After Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Detailed Analysis From the Dutch Bone Metastasis Study

    SciTech Connect

    Westhoff, Paulien G., E-mail: p.g.westhoff@umcutrecht.nl; Department of Radiotherapy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen; Verdam, Mathilde G.E.

    Purpose: To study the course of quality of life (QoL) after radiation therapy for painful bone metastases. Patients and Methods: The Dutch Bone Metastasis Study randomized 1157 patients with painful bone metastases between a single fraction of 8 Gy and 6 fractions of 4 Gy between 1996 and 1998. The study showed a comparable pain response of 74%. Patients filled out weekly questionnaires for 13 weeks, then monthly for 2 years. In these analyses, physical, psychosocial, and functional QoL domain scores and a score of general health were studied. Mixed modeling was used to model the course of QoL and to study the influence ofmore » several characteristics. Results: In general, QoL stabilized after 1 month. Psychosocial QoL improved after treatment. The level of QoL remained stable, steeply deteriorating at the end of life. For most QoL domains, a high pain score and intake of opioids were associated with worse QoL, with small effect sizes (−0.11 to −0.27). A poor performance score was associated with worse functional QoL, with a medium effect size (0.41). There is no difference in QoL between patients receiving a single fraction of 8 Gy and 6 fractions of 4 Gy, except for a temporary worsening of physical QoL after 6 fractions. Conclusion: Although radiation therapy for painful bone metastases leads to a meaningful pain response, most domains of QoL do not improve after treatment. Only psychosocial QoL improves slightly after treatment. The level of QoL is related to the actual survival, with a rather stable course of QoL for most of the remaining survival time and afterward a sharp decrease, starting only a few weeks before the end of life. Six fractions of 4 Gy lead to a temporary worse physical QoL compared with a single fraction of 8 Gy.« less

  13. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Song, Mi Kyong; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. • There was no difference in diagnostic performance of HVP CT and multiphasic CT. • The diagnostic confidence level was improved after review of the LAP images. • HVP CT can achieve diagnostic performance similar to that of multiphasic CT, while minimizing radiation.

  14. Oral aspirin for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo; Magolbo, Natiara G; De Aquino, Rebeca F; Weller, Carolina D

    2016-02-18

    Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) or varicose ulcers are the final stage of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), and are the most common type of leg ulcer. The development of VLUs on ankles and lower legs can occur spontaneously or after minor trauma. The ulcers are often painful and exudative, healing is often protracted and recurrence is common. This cycle of healing and recurrence has a considerable impact on the health and quality of life of individuals, and healthcare and socioeconomic costs. VLUs are a common and costly problem worldwide; prevalence is estimated to be between 1.65% to 1.74% in the western world and is more common in adults aged 65 years and older. The main treatment for a VLU is a firm compression bandage. Compression assists by reducing venous hypertension, enhancing venous return and reducing peripheral oedema. However, studies show that it only has moderate effects on healing, with up to 50% of VLUs unhealed after two years of compression. Non-adherence may be the principal cause of these poor results, but presence of inflammation in people with CVI may be another factor, so a treatment that suppresses inflammation (healing ulcers more quickly) and reduces the frequency of ulcer recurrence (thereby prolonging time between recurrent episodes) would be an invaluable intervention to complement compression treatments. Oral aspirin may have a significant impact on VLU clinical practice worldwide. Evidence for the effectiveness of aspirin on ulcer healing and recurrence in high quality RCTs is currently lacking. To assess the benefits and harms of oral aspirin on the healing and recurrence of venous leg ulcers. In May 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. Additional searches were made in trial registers and reference lists of relevant publications for

  15. The relationship with restless legs syndrome, fibromyalgia, and depressive symptoms in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Akdag Uzun, Zehra; Kurt, Semiha; Karaer Unaldi, Hatice

    2018-05-18

    In this study, we aimed to investigate restless legs syndrome, depression, frequency of fibromyalgia and possible causes of its frequencies, and the relationships among these synergies and migraine's prodrome, aura, pain, and postdrome symptoms in patients with migraine. The study group included 200 patients previously or recently diagnosed with definite migraine and according to International Headache Society criteria and 200 healthy volunteers. All subjects underwent a medical interview to confirm restless legs syndrome and fibromyalgia, and they were asked to complete Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory and "severity of restless legs syndrome inventory." The frequencies of depressive symptoms and fibromyalgia in the patients with migraine were higher than those of the control group. The mean age of the migraine patients with restless legs syndrome was also higher, and this group had migraine headache for a longer time. There was a statistically significant difference with regard to only generalized anxiety and traveler's distress, which were features of the migraine, between migraine patients with and without restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome was more common in migraine patients with and without aura and in those with nonspecific white matter lesions in the cranial MRI. In our study, the greater frequency of restless legs syndrome, depressive symptoms, and fibromyalgia in the patients with migraine supports the role of dopamine, which is common to all three disorders. Interviews focused on these problems among migraine patients may help to decide on the best available treatment modality.

  16. Wings versus legs in the avian bauplan: development and evolution of alternative locomotor strategies.

    PubMed

    Heers, Ashley M; Dial, Kenneth P

    2015-02-01

    Wings have long been regarded as a hallmark of evolutionary innovation, allowing insects, birds, and bats to radiate into aerial environments. For many groups, our intuitive and colloquial perspective is that wings function for aerial activities, and legs for terrestrial, in a relatively independent manner. However, insects and birds often engage their wings and legs cooperatively. In addition, the degree of autonomy between wings and legs may be constrained by tradeoffs, between allocating resources to wings versus legs during development, or between wing versus leg investment and performance (because legs must be carried as baggage by wings during flight and vice versa). Such tradeoffs would profoundly affect the development and evolution of locomotor strategies, and many related aspects of animal ecology. Here, we provide the first evaluation of wing versus leg investment, performance and relative use, in birds-both across species, and during ontogeny in three precocial species with different ecologies. Our results suggest that tradeoffs between wing and leg modules help shape ontogenetic and evolutionary trajectories, but can be offset by recruiting modules cooperatively. These findings offer a new paradigm for exploring locomotor strategies of flying organisms and their extinct precursors, and thereby elucidating some of the most spectacular diversity in animal history. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-06-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  18. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  19. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150 °C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  20. Abdominal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Recurrent or Functional Abdominal Pain (RAP or FAP) What is abdominal pain? Abdominal pain , or stomachache, ... recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) or functional abdominal pain (FAP)? If your health care provider has ruled out ...

  1. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vaegter, Henrik B; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Pain biomarkers are warranted for individualized pain management. Based on different pain modulatory phenotypes, the objectives of this study were to explore the existence of subgroups within patients with nonmalignant chronic pain and to investigate differences in clinical pain and pain hypersensitivity between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 patients with chronic pain to assess pressure pain threshold, pressure pain tolerance, temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to 10 repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in cuff pressure pain threshold during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection and heat pain thresholds at clinical painful and nonpainful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM, 4 distinct groups were formed: group 1 (n = 85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP; group 2 (n = 148) had impaired CPM and normal TSP; group 3 (n = 45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP; and group 4 (n = 122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions than the other 3 groups (P < 0.001), indicating that impaired CPM and facilitated TSP play an important role in widespread pain. Groups 1 and 2 compared with group 4 had lower heat pain threshold at nonpainful areas and lower cuff pressure pain tolerance (P < 0.02), indicating that CPM plays a role for widespread hyperalgesia. Moreover, group 1 demonstrated higher clinical pain scores than group 4 (P < 0.05). Although not different between subgroups, patients were profiled on demographics, disability, pain catastrophizing, and fear of movement. Future research should investigate interventions tailored towards these subgroups.

  2. What Is Restless Legs Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... creeping, crawling, pulling, itching, tingling, burning, aching, or electric shocks. Sometimes, these feelings also occur in the ... creeping, crawling, pulling, itching, tingling, burning, aching, or electric shocks. Severe RLS may cause painful feelings. However, ...

  3. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rebecca M D; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Bamigboye, Anthony A

    2015-10-19

    Pregnancy is presumed to be a major contributory factor in the increased incidence of varicose veins in women, which can in turn lead to venous insufficiency and leg oedema. The most common symptom of varicose veins and oedema is the substantial pain experienced, as well as night cramps, numbness, tingling, the legs may feel heavy, achy, and possibly be unsightly. Treatments for varicose veins are usually divided into three main groups: surgery, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. Treatments of leg oedema comprise mostly symptom reduction rather than cure and use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. To assess any form of intervention used to relieve the symptoms associated with varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials of treatments for varicose veins or leg oedema, or both, in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We included seven trials (involving 326 women). The trials were largely unclear for selection bias and high risk for performance and detection bias.Two studies were placebo-controlled trials. The first one compared a phlebotonic (rutoside) with placebo for the reduction in symptoms of varicose veins; the second study evaluated the efficacy of troxerutin in comparison to placebo among 30 pregnant women in their second trimester with symptomatic vulvar varicosities and venous insufficiency in their lower extremities. Data from this study were not in useable format, so were not included in the analysis. Two trials compared either compression stockings with resting in left lateral position or reflexology with rest for 15 minutes for the reduction of leg oedema. One trial compared standing water immersion for 20 minutes with sitting upright in a chair with legs elevated for 20

  4. Common Leg Injuries of Long-Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Robert A.; Plakke, Michael; Silvis, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Context Long-distance running (greater than 3000 m) is often recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Running injury rates increase significantly when weekly mileage extends beyond 40 miles cumulatively. With the development of running analysis and other diagnostic tests, injuries to the leg secondary to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes can be diagnosed and successfully managed. Evidence Acquisition Searches used the terms running, injuries, lower extremity, leg, medial tibial stress syndrome, compartment syndrome, stress fractures, popliteal artery entrapment, gastrocnemius soleus tears, and Achilles tendinopathy. Sources included Medline, Google Scholar, and Ovid from 1970 through January 2012. Results Tibial stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome can sometimes be prevented and/or treated by correcting biomechanical abnormalities. Exertional compartment syndrome and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are caused by anatomic abnormalities and are difficult to treat without surgical correction. Conclusion Leg pain due to bone, musculotendinous, and vascular causes is common among long-distance runners. Knowledge of the underlying biomechanical and/or anatomic abnormality is necessary to successfully treat these conditions. PMID:24179587

  5. Pediatric restless legs syndrome: analysis of symptom descriptions and drawings.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Daniel L; Arbuckle, Robert A; Abetz, Linda; Durmer, Jeffrey S; Ivanenko, Anna; Owens, Judith A; Croenlein, Jens; Allen, Richard P; Walters, Arthur S

    2011-11-01

    The specific aims of this study were to collect and analyze detailed symptom descriptions from patients with pediatric restless legs syndrome, ages 6 to 17 years, as well as assess symptom impact and the usefulness of drawings. Trained qualitative interviewers conducted face-to-face audio-recorded interviews of children and adolescents who met criteria for definite restless legs syndrome. Thirty-three patients in 3 age groups used 16 different categories of descriptors for restless legs sensations, with a mean of 3 or more categories used per patient in each age group. "Need to move/kick," "pain/hurts," "uncomfortable/cannot get comfortable," and "like bugs or ants/crawling" were the most common descriptors. Two-thirds reported daytime sensations, and nearly half had arm involvement. They described impact on sleep, cognitive function, and affect. Drawings provided useful diagnostic information. These detailed empirical data will be useful in clinical practice, as well as in the development of formal diagnostic tools and severity measures.

  6. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Influence of educational attainment on pain intensity and disability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: mediation effect of pain catastrophizing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Kim, Sung-Chan; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-05-01

    Level IV, prospective case series. To investigate the influence of educational attainment on the level of pain intensity and disability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and determine how coping behavior, such as catastrophizing, may mediate the association between educational attainment and clinical impairments. Educational attainment has been thought to influence disability caused by chronic painful disease, mediated by pain behavior or a coping strategy such as catastrophizing. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of educational attainment on pain intensity or disability related with LSS. A total of 155 patients who were diagnosed as degenerative LSS participated in the study. Data on detailed medical history, physical examination, and series of questionnaires were collected, including pain catastrophizing scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and visual analogue pain scale for back and leg pain. For measures of socioeconomic status, educational attainment and occupation were assessed. Radiological analysis was performed using magnetic resonance images and computed tomographic scans. After adjustment of covariates, multivariate regression analysis was used to assess each component of the proposed mediation models among visual analogue pain scale for back/leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, the level of education, occupation and pain catastrophizing scale. Mediation was also assessed by the bootstrapping technique. Educational attainment was negatively correlated with pain intensity, disability, and catastrophizing. Pain catastrophizing were also significantly correlated with disability and pain intensity for back/leg pain in the patients with LSS. In the relationship among variables, the mediation analysis with bootstrapping clearly showed the role of catastrophizing in the mediation between visual analogue pain scale for back pain/leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, and the level of education. This study demonstrated that lower educational

  8. Towards a Comparative Measure of Legged Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus” [18]. Notwithstanding the many informative and inspiring studies of legged...specific power (watts per kilogram taken over a gait cycle of leg power output relative to leg muscle mass or body mass) [22, 26–28] but it is not scale...closest to the body mass normalized mea- sure we will introduce below. In contrast, characterizing directional aspects of agility performance seems

  9. Epidural steroid injections are useful for the treatment of low back pain and radicular symptoms: pro.

    PubMed

    Sethee, Jai; Rathmell, James P

    2009-02-01

    Epidural steroid injection has been used to treat low back pain for many decades. Numerous randomized trials have examined the efficacy of this approach. This review details the findings of older systematic reviews, newer randomized controlled trials, and two recent systematic reviews that examine the effectiveness of this treatment. Collectively, studies in acute radicular pain due to herniated nucleus pulposus have failed to show that epidural steroid injection reduces long-term pain or obviates the need for surgery. Similarly, there is scant evidence that epidural steroids have any beneficial effect in those with acute low back pain without leg pain or in those with chronic low back or leg pain. However, most studies have demonstrated more rapid resolution of leg pain in those who received epidural steroid injections versus those who did not. The role of epidural steroid injections in the management of acute radicular pain due to herniated nucleus pulposus is simply to provide earlier pain relief.

  10. Brain Areas Involved in Anticipation of Clinically Relevant Pain in Low Back Pain Populations With High Levels of Pain Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Donna M; Helbig, Torben; Findlay, Gordon; Roberts, Neil; Nurmikko, Turo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify neural correlates of pain anticipation in people with nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) that correlated with pain-related distress and disability, thus providing evidence for mechanisms underlying pain behavior in this population. Thirty NSLBP sufferers, with either high levels of pain behavior or low levels on the basis of Waddell signs, were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while a straight-leg raise (of the side deemed to cause moderate pain in the lower back) was performed. On each trial colored stimuli were presented and used to indicate when the leg definitely would be raised (green; 100% certainty), might be raised (yellow; 50% certainty), or would definitely not be raised (red; 100% certainty). In response to expected versus unexpected pain the group difference in activation between patients with high levels of pain behavior and low levels of pain behavior covaried as a function of anxiety scores in the right insula and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and as a function of catastrophizing in prefrontal and parietal cortex and hippocampus. The results suggest NSLBP populations with the highest levels of pain-related distress are more likely to attend to and infer threat from innocuous cues, which may contribute to the maintenance of pain behavior associated with some chronic pain states. This article shows a likely neural network for exacerbating pain anticipation in NSLBP contributing to high levels of pain behavior in some people. This information could potentially help clinicians and patients to understand how anticipation of pain may contribute to patient pain and disability. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ 2 (1)=10.17, p<.01, using the χ 2 Goodness of Fit Test. Based on the odds ratio, the odds of patients having RLS were 4.60 times higher if they had right temporal epilepsy than if they had left temporal epilepsy, serving as a potential lateralizing indicator. A prodromal sensation of worsening RLS occurred in some patients providing the opportunity to intervene at an earlier stage in this subgroup. We identified frequent moderate to severe RLS in patients with epilepsy. The frequency of RLS was much more common than would typically be seen in patients of similar

  12. Multicenter, randomized trial of quantitative pretest probability to reduce unnecessary medical radiation exposure in emergency department patients with chest pain and dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Kline, Jeffrey A; Jones, Alan E; Shapiro, Nathan I; Hernandez, Jackeline; Hogg, Melanie M; Troyer, Jennifer; Nelson, R Darrel

    2014-01-01

    Use of pretest probability can reduce unnecessary testing. We hypothesize that quantitative pretest probability, linked to evidence-based management strategies, can reduce unnecessary radiation exposure and cost in low-risk patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. This was a prospective, 4-center, randomized controlled trial of decision support effectiveness. Subjects were adults with chest pain and dyspnea, nondiagnostic ECGs, and no obvious diagnosis. The clinician provided data needed to compute pretest probabilities from a Web-based system. Clinicians randomized to the intervention group received the pretest probability estimates for both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism and suggested clinical actions designed to lower radiation exposure and cost. The control group received nothing. Patients were followed for 90 days. The primary outcome and sample size of 550 was predicated on a significant reduction in the proportion of healthy patients exposed to >5 mSv chest radiation. A total of 550 patients were randomized, and 541 had complete data. The proportion with >5 mSv to the chest and no significant cardiopulmonary diagnosis within 90 days was reduced from 33% to 25% (P=0.038). The intervention group had significantly lower median chest radiation exposure (0.06 versus 0.34 mSv; P=0.037, Mann-Whitney U test) and lower median costs ($934 versus $1275; P=0.018) for medical care. Adverse events occurred in 16% of controls and 11% in the intervention group (P=0.06). Provision of pretest probability and prescriptive advice reduced radiation exposure and cost of care in low-risk ambulatory patients with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01059500.

  13. Safety of coronary CT angiography and functional testing for stable chest pain in the PROMISE trial: A randomized comparison of test complications, incidental findings, and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Lu, Michael T; Douglas, Pamela S; Udelson, James E; Adami, Elizabeth; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Picard, Michael H; Roberts, Rhonda; Lee, Kerry L; Einstein, Andrew J; Mark, Daniel B; Velazquez, Eric J; Carter, William; Ridner, Michael; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Hoffmann, Udo

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and functional testing strategies for stable chest pain yield similar outcomes; one aspect that may guide test choice is safety. We compared test safety (test complications, incidental findings, and effective radiation dose) between CTA and functional testing as-tested in PROMISE (PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain). In the subgroup whose physicians intended nuclear stress over other functional tests if randomized to the functional arm, we compared radiation dose of CTA versus nuclear stress and identified characteristics associated with dose. Of 9470 patients, none had major and <1% had minor complications (CTA: 0.8% [37/4633] vs. functional: 0.6% [27/4837]). CTA identified more incidental findings (11.6% [539/4633] vs. 0.7% [34/4837], p < 0.001), most commonly pulmonary nodules (9.4%, 437/4633). CTA had similar 90-day cumulative radiation dose to functional testing. However, in the subgroup whose physicians intended nuclear stress (CTA 3147; nuclear 3203), CTA had lower median index test (8.8 vs. 12.6 mSv, p < 0.001) and 90-day cumulative (11.6 vs. 13.1 mSv, p < 0.001) dose, independent of patient characteristics. The lowest nuclear doses employed 1-day Tc-99m protocols (12.2 mSv). The lowest CTA doses were at sites performing ≥500 CTAs/year (6.9 mSv) and with advanced (latest available) CT scanners (5.5 mSv). Complications were negligibly rare for both CTA and functional testing. CTA detects more incidental findings. Compared to nuclear stress testing, CTA's lower radiation dose, independent of patient characteristics, makes it an attractive test choice. Radiation dose varies with imaging protocol, indicating opportunities to further reduce dose. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01174550). Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  15. The Benslimane's Artistic Model for Leg Beauty.

    PubMed

    Benslimane, Fahd

    2012-08-01

    In 2000, the author started observing legs considered to be attractive. The goal was to have an ideal aesthetic model and compare the disparity between this model and a patient's reality. This could prove helpful during leg sculpturing to get closer to this ideal. Postoperatively, the result could then be compared to the ideal curves of the model legs and any remaining deviations from the ideal curves could be pointed out and eventually corrected in a second session. The lack of anthropometric studies of legs from the knee to the ankle led the author to select and study attractive legs to find out the common denominators of their beauty. The study consisted in analyzing the features that make legs look attractive. The legs of models in magazines were scanned and inserted into a PowerPoint program. The legs of live models, Barbie dolls, and athletes were photographed. Artistic drawings by Leonardo da Vinci were reviewed and Greek sculptures studied. Sculptures from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens were photographed and included in the PowerPoint program. This study shows that the first criterion for beautiful legs is the straightness of the leg column. Not a single attractive leg was found to deviate from the vertical, and each was in absolute continuity with the thigh. The second criterion is the similarity of curve distribution and progression from knee to ankle. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

  16. Managing painful chronic wounds: the Wound Pain Management Model.

    PubMed

    Price, Patricia; Fogh, Karsten; Glynn, Chris; Krasner, Diane L; Osterbrink, Jürgen; Sibbald, R Gary

    2007-04-01

    Chronic wound pain is not well understood and the literature is limited. Six of 10 patients venous leg ulcer experience pain with their ulcer, and similar trends are observed for other chronic wounds. Chronic wound pain can lead to depression and the feeling of constant tiredness. Pain related to the wound should be handled as one of the main priorities in chronic wound management together with addressing the cause. Management of pain in chronic wounds depends on proper assessment, reporting and documenting patient experiences of pain. Assessment should be based on six critical dimensions of the pain experience: location, duration, intensity, quality, onset and impact on activities of daily living. Holistic management must be based on a safe and effective mix of psychosocial approaches together with local and systemic pain management. It is no longer acceptable to ignore or inadequately document persistent wound pain and not to develop a treatment and monitoring strategy to improve the lives of persons with chronic wounds. Unless wound pain is optimally managed, patient suffering and costs to health care systems will increase.

  17. Inequality in leg length is important for the understanding of the pathophysiology of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Kanat, Ayhan; Erkut, Adem; Ozdemir, Bulent; Batcik, Osman Ersagun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Inequality in leg length may lead to to abnormal transmission of load across the endplates and degeneration lumbar spine and the disc space. There has been no study focusing on lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and leg length discrepancy. This subject was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adult patients with leg length discrepancy and low back pain (LBP) admitted to our department were respectivelly studied. Results: A total number of 39 subjects (31 women and eight men) with leg length discrepancy and LBP and 43 (25 females and 18 males) patients with LBP as a control group were tested. Occurrence of disc herniation is statistically different between patients with hip dysplasia and control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed a statistically significant association between leg length discrepancy and occurrence of LDH. The changes of spine anatomy with leg length discrepancy in hip dysplastic patients are of importance in understanding the nature of LDH. PMID:27217654

  18. The biomechanics of leg ulceration.

    PubMed Central

    Chant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Research performed in the late 1960s, using 24Na, suggested that the perfusion of skin and subcutaneous tissues is critically dependent on the relationship between capillary (Pc) and tissue pressures (Pt). Perfusion changes differed significantly between controls and patients with venous disease and the differences could be interpreted as evidence that Pt remained high in venous diseased patients. From this starting point, a biomechanical theory for the aetiology of venous ulceration was developed and tested by measuring skin elasticity, limb cross-sectional area and laser Doppler flux. The results confirm that, modelled as a two-compartment system (vascular and interstitial fluid), forces can be demonstrated sufficient to cause intermittent capillary closure and subsequent reperfusion injury. These forces are maximal in the gaiter area, the site of most leg ulcers. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10364960

  19. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle. Many women have painful periods, also called dysmenorrhea. The pain is most often menstrual cramps, which ... as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not the same as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). ...

  20. Flank pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. But, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

  1. Shin-splints: common exercise-related syndromes affecting the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B L; Arthur, C H C

    2014-01-01

    Lower leg pain is a common complaint of athletically active individuals, often limiting physical activities. As such, the group of lower leg conditions related to athletic pursuits and physical exercise confer considerable operational implications for the military. Whilst acute injuries to the lower limb are commonly encountered and are clearly of significance, this article focuses instead on chronic conditions related to physical activity. These include insults to bone such as stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome, and those related to the soft tissues such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In this article we will examine the presentation and management of these conditions.

  2. Adaptability to pain is associated with potency of local pain inhibition, but not conditioned pain modulation: a healthy human study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhen; Wang, Kelun; Yao, Dongyuan; Xue, Charlie C L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between pain sensitivity, adaptability, and potency of endogenous pain inhibition, including conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and local pain inhibition. Forty-one healthy volunteers (20 male, 21 female) received conditioning stimulation (CS) over 2 sessions in a random order: tonic heat pain (46 °C) on the right leg for 7 minutes and cold pressor pain (1 °C to 4 °C) on the left hand for 5 minutes. Participants rated the intensity of pain continuously using a 0 to 10 electronic visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measures were pressure pain thresholds (PPT) measured at the heterotopic and homotopic location to the CS sites before, during, and 20 minutes after CS. Two groups of participants, pain adaptive and pain nonadaptive, were identified based on their response to pain in the cold pressor test. Pain-adaptive participants showed a pain reduction between peak pain and pain at end of the test by at least 2 of 10 (n=16); whereas the pain-nonadaptive participants reported unchanged peak pain during 5-minute CS (n=25). Heterotopic PPTs during the CS did not differ between the 2 groups. However, increased homotopic PPTs measured 20 minutes after CS correlated with the amount of pain reduction during CS. These results suggest that individual sensitivity and adaptability to pain does not correlate with the potency of CPM. Adaptability to pain is associated with longer-lasting local pain inhibition. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic musculoskeletal pain: ultrasound guided pain control.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2014-09-01

    The review demonstrates the unique advantages of ultrasonography in pain control. Several imaging modalities can be used to guide pain control, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and radiography. Ultrasonography has unique advantages over these other modalities in terms of its non-ionizing radiation, real-time imaging, portability, and cost-effectiveness. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and elastography can provide safer guidance to avoid blood vessels and the nerve trunk when using steroid or xylocaine infusions to encase the nerve trunk. This review focuses on the control of chronic pain in the upper limbs, lower limbs, and trunk. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Leg kinematics and kinetics in landing from a single-leg hop for distance. A comparison between dominant and non-dominant leg.

    PubMed

    van der Harst, J J; Gokeler, A; Hof, A L

    2007-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can be a major problem for athletes and subsequent reconstruction of the ACL may be indicated if a conservative regimen has failed. After ACL reconstruction signs of abnormality in the use of the leg remain for a long time. It is expected that the landing after a single-leg hop for distance (horizontal hop) might give insight in the differences in kinematics and kinetics between uninjured legs and ACL-reconstructed legs. Before the ACL-reconstructed leg can be compared with the contralateral leg, knowledge of differences between legs of uninjured subjects is needed. Kinematic and kinetic variables of both legs were measured with an optoelectronic system and a force plate and calculated by inverse dynamics. The dominant leg (the leg with biggest horizontal hop distance) and the contralateral leg of nine uninjured subjects were compared. No significant differences were found in most of the kinematic and kinetic variables between dominant leg and contralateral leg of uninjured subjects. Only hop distance and hip extension angles differed significantly. This study suggests that there are no important differences between dominant leg and contralateral leg in healthy subjects. As a consequence, the uninvolved leg of ACL-reconstructed patients can be used as a reference. The observed variables of this study can be used as a reference of normal values and normal differences between legs in healthy subjects.

  6. The Lindsay Leg Club: supporting the NHS to provide leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Morag

    2013-06-01

    Public health services will need to cope with additional demands due to an ageing society and the increasing prevalence of chronic conditions. Lower-limb ulceration is a long-term, life-changing condition and leg ulcer management can be challenging for nursing staff. The Lindsay Leg Club model is a unique partnership between community nurses, members and the local community, which provides quality of care and empowerment for patients with leg ulcers, while also supporting and educating nursing staff. The Leg Club model works in accord with core themes of Government and NHS policy. Patient feedback on the Leg Club model is positive and the Leg Clubs provide a service to members which is well accepted by patients, yet is more economically efficient than the traditional district nursing practice of home visits. Lindsay Leg Clubs provide a valuable support service to the NHS in delivering improved quality of care while improving efficiency.

  7. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Slump Test for Identifying Neuropathic Pain in the Lower Limb.

    PubMed

    Urban, Lawrence M; MacNeil, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic accuracy study with nonconsecutive enrollment. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the slump test for neuropathic pain (NeP) in those with low to moderate levels of chronic low back pain (LBP), and to determine whether accuracy of the slump test improves by adding anatomical or qualitative pain descriptors. Neuropathic pain has been linked with poor outcomes, likely due to inadequate diagnosis, which precludes treatment specific for NeP. Current diagnostic approaches are time consuming or lack accuracy. A convenience sample of 21 individuals with LBP, with or without radiating leg pain, was recruited. A standardized neurosensory examination was used to determine the reference diagnosis for NeP. Afterward, the slump test was administered to all participants. Reports of pain location and quality produced during the slump test were recorded. The neurosensory examination designated 11 of the 21 participants with LBP/sciatica as having NeP. The slump test displayed high sensitivity (0.91), moderate specificity (0.70), a positive likelihood ratio of 3.03, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.13. Adding the criterion of pain below the knee significantly increased specificity to 1.00 (positive likelihood ratio = 11.9). Pain-quality descriptors did not improve diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was highly sensitive in identifying NeP within the study sample. Adding a pain-location criterion improved specificity. Combining the diagnostic outcomes was very effective in identifying all those without NeP and half of those with NeP. Limitations arising from the small and narrow spectrum of participants with LBP/sciatica sampled within the study prevent application of the findings to a wider population. Diagnosis, level 4-.

  9. Use of force plate analysis to evaluate the efficacy of external beam radiation to alleviate osteosarcoma pain.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jeff I; Payne, Sarah; Poulson, Jean M; Azuma, Chieko

    2009-01-01

    A standard of therapy for osteosarcoma includes amputation with or without adjuvant chemotherapy. There is a subset of dogs with osteosarcoma that are unsuitable for amputation. We evaluated kinetic variables in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with a single 8 Gy dose of radiation. Eighteen pet dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma received one 8 Gy fraction of palliative radiation on day 0. Force plate measurements and clinical assessments were made on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Peak vertical forces (Fz) were recorded for each limb and a symmetric index (SI) was calculated. There were no significant changes in kinetic parameters after one 8 Gy dose of radiation therapy. Nine of these 18 dogs exhibited increased limb function at day 21 based on force plate analysis. Significant factors affecting Fz included gender and tumor location. There was a significant correlation between Fz and response to therapy based on SI at day 21. SI seems to be useful to objectively assess response in this mixed population of dogs. One 8 Gy fraction of radiation therapy alone did not reduce lameness associated with appendicular osteosarcoma, but a subset of dogs did have improved limb function after a single dose.

  10. Lumbar segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics, pain relief, and motor function: a prospective double-blind study between lidocaine and ropivacaine.

    PubMed

    Wolff, André P; Wilder Smith, Oliver H G; Crul, Ben J P; van de Heijden, Marc P; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2004-08-01

    Selective segmental nerve blocks with local anesthetics are applied for diagnostic purposes in patients with chronic back pain to determine the segmental level of the pain. We performed this study to establish myotomal motor effects after L4 spinal nerve blocks by lidocaine and ropivacaine and to evaluate the relationship with pain. Therefore, 20 patients, of which 19 finished the complete protocol, with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain without neurological deficits underwent segmental nerve blocks at L4 with both lidocaine and ropivacaine. Pain intensity scores (verbal numeric rating scale; VNRS) and the maximum voluntary muscle force (MVMF; using a dynamometer expressed in newtons) of the tibialis anterior and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured on the painful side and on the control side. The median VNRS decrease was 4.0 (P < 0.00001; Wilcoxon's signed rank test), without significant differences between ropivacaine and lidocaine (Mann-Whitney U-test). A difference in effect on MVMF was found for affected versus control side (P = 0.016; Tukey test). Multiple regression revealed a significant negative correlation for change in VNRS score versus change in median MVMF (Spearman R = -0.48: P = 0.00001). This study demonstrates that in patients with unilateral chronic low back pain radiating to the leg, pain reduction induced by local anesthetic segmental nerve (L4) block is associated with increased quadriceps femoris and tibialis anterior MVMF, without differences for lidocaine and ropivacaine.

  11. Leg stiffness and expertise in men jumping.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Bardy, Benoît G; Durey, Alain

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate: a) the leg spring behavior in the one-leg vertical jump, b) the contribution of impulse parameters to this behavior, and c) the effect of jumping expertise on leg stiffness. Four categories of experts (handball, basketball, volleyball players, and Fosbury athletes), as well as novice subjects performed a run-and-jump test to touch a ball with the head. Five experimental conditions were tested from 55 to 95% of the maximum jump height. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected using six cameras and a force plate. The mechanical behavior of the musculoskeleton component of the human body can be modeled as a simple mass-spring system, from which leg stiffness values can be extracted to better understand energy transfer during running or jumping. The results indicate that leg stiffness (mean value of 11.5 kN.m) decreased with jumping height. Leg shortening at takeoff also increased with jumping height, whereas contact time decreased (-18%). No difference was found between experts and novices for leg stiffness. However, a principal components analysis (PCA) indicated the contribution of two main factors to the performance. The first factor emerged out of vertical force, stiffness, and duration of impulse. The second factor included leg shortening and jumping height. Differences between experts and novices were observed in terms of the contribution of leg stiffness to jump height, and more importantly, clear differences existed between experts in jumping parameters. The analysis performed on the sport categories indeed revealed different jumping profiles, characterized by specific, sport-related impulse parameters.

  12. Quantifying Leg Movement Activity During Sleep.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany

    2016-12-01

    Currently, 2 sets of similar rules for recording and scoring leg movement (LM) exist, including periodic LM during sleep (PLMS) and periodic LM during wakefulness. The former were published in 2006 by a task force of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group, and the second in 2007 by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article reviews the basic recording methods, scoring rules, and computer-based programs for PLMS. Less frequent LM activities, such as alternating leg muscle activation, hypnagogic foot tremor, high-frequency LMs, and excessive fragmentary myoclonus are briefly described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Complex Treatment in Mixed Leg Ulcers - A Case Report of Vascular, Surgical and Physical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Stelzner, Christian; Hansel, Gesina; Schönlebe, Jacqueline; Tchernev, Georgi; Lotti, Torello

    2018-01-25

    Leg ulcers are a burden to patients, their families and society. The second most common cause of chronic leg ulcers is the mixed arterio-venous type. An 80-year-old female patient presented to our department due to painful enlarging chronic leg ulcer of mixed arteriovenous origin on her left lower leg. She suffered from peripheral arterial occlusive disease stage I and chronic venous insufficiency Widmer grade IIIa, and a number of comorbidities. The aim of our ulcer treatment was a complete and stable wound closure that was hampered by arterial occlusion, exposed tendon, and renal insiffuciency. To improve the prognosis for ulcer surgery, we performed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, transcutaneous CO 2 and deep ulcer shaving. The wound was closed by sandwich transplantation using elastin-collagen dermal template and meshed split skin graft. She had a 100% graft take with rapid reduction of severe wound pain. Complex approaches are necessary, to gain optimum results in leg ulcer therapy in mixed leg ulcers. Therapeutic nihilism should be abandonend.

  14. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  15. The effect of Vitamin D and calcium plus Vitamin D on leg cramps in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ameneh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad Alizadeh; Najafi, Moslem

    2017-01-01

    This study intended to determine the effects of Vitamin D and calcium-Vitamin D in treating leg cramps in pregnant women. This study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial on 126 participants, 18-35-year-old pregnant women with a minimum of two leg cramps per week who were referred to health-care centers in Tabriz-Iran in 2013. The participants were allocated to three 42 member groups using a randomized block design. For 42 days, the intervention groups took a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill or 300 mg calcium carbonate plus a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill, and the control group received a placebo pill every day. The participants were evaluated with regard to the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the week before and during the 3 rd and 6 th week of the intervention. The ANCOVA and repeated measurement test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that controlling for the effects before the intervention, calcium-Vitamin D, and Vitamin D supplements had no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps. The results of this study showed that the calcium-Vitamin D and the Vitamin D supplements have no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the 6 weeks of the study.

  16. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ye; Wang, Yin; Liu, Zhishun

    2008-10-08

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common movement disorder for which patients may seek treatment with acupuncture. However, the benefits of acupuncture in the treatment of RLS are unclear and have not been evaluated in a systematic review until now. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy in patients with RLS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2007), EMBASE (January 1980 to 2007 Week 8), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1978 to February 2007), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1979 to February 2007), VIP Database (1989 to February 2007), Japana Centra Revuo Medicina (1983 to 2007) and Korean Medical Database (1986 to 2007). Four Chinese journals, relevant academic conference proceedings and reference lists of articles were handsearched. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials comparing acupuncture with no intervention, placebo acupuncture, sham acupuncture, pharmacological treatments, or other non-acupuncture interventions for primary RLS were included. Trials comparing acupuncture plus non-acupuncture treatment with the same non-acupuncture treatment were also included. Trials that only compared different forms of acupuncture or different acupoints were excluded. Two authors independently identified potential articles, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Relative risk (RR) was used for binary outcomes and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Results were combined only in the absence of clinical heterogeneity. Fourteen potentially relevant trials were identified initially, but twelve of them did not meet the selection criteria and were excluded. Only two trials with 170 patients met the inclusion criteria. No data could be combined due to clinical heterogeneity between trials. Both trials had methodological and/or reporting shortcomings. No significant difference was detected

  17. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  18. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  19. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  20. [A case of nonclostridial gas gangrene of the leg complicated by severe pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Seiko; Baba, Kenji; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Etsuro

    2005-10-01

    A 73-year-old man admitted for febrile left leg pain with dyspnea, who had poorly controlled diabetes was found on admission to have severe hypoxia and chest X-ray showed infiltrates in the middle to lower left lung. X-rays of the left leg showed gas around the knee joint. These findings suggested severe pneumonia with gas gangrene, necessitating immediate debridement of the gas gangrene lesion and hyperbaric oxygenation. Antibiotics were also administered intravenously (panipenem/betamipron 0.5 g x 3/day, clindamycin 600 mg x 2/day, and erythromycin 500 mg x 3/day). We conducted fiberoptic bronchoscope daily because consolidation of the whole left lung developed with purulent sputum expectoration. Both pneumonia and gas gangrene gradually ameliorated avoiding amputation of theleg. Gas gangrene was cured without leaving sequelae such as motor dysfunction. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in both pus from the leg and sputum collected by bronchoscopy. Microorganisms showed the same pattern of sensitivity to antibiotics, suggesting a causal relationship between pneumonia and gas gangrene through the blood stream. Gas gangrene was considered the primary infection followed by pneumonia, since pain and swelling of the left leg preceded the airway symptoms. The present case illustrates in compromised hosts including diabetics, gas gangrene may develop taking an opportunity of airway infection, and that in some cases, early debridement of the lesion and optimal use of antibiotics may help cure this disease without aggressive surgery. Hyperbaric oxygenation may also be useful, although its validity must be investigated further.

  1. Quality of life in responders after palliative radiation therapy for painful bone metastases using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BM22: results of a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Lucas C; Raman, Srinivas; Wan, Bo Angela; da Silva, José Luiz Padilha; Moraes, Fábio Y; Lima, Kennya M L B; Silva, Maurício F; Diz, Maria Del Pilar Estevez; Chow, Edward; Marta, Gustavo Nader

    2017-08-01

    Bone metastases cause pain, suffering and impaired quality of life (QoL). Palliative radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy are effective methods in controlling pain, reducing analgesics use and improving QoL. This study goal was to investigate the changes in QoL scores among patients who responded to palliative treatment. A prospective study evaluating the role of radiation therapy in a public academic hospital in São Paulo-Brazil recorded patients' opioid use, pain score, Portuguese version of QLQ-BM22 and QLQ-C30 before and 2 months after radiotherapy. Analgesic use and pain score were used to calculate international pain response category. Overall response was defined as the sum of complete response (CR) and partial response (PR). CR was defined as pain score of 0 with no increase in analgesic intake whereas PR was defined as pain reduction ≥2 without analgesic increase or analgesic reduction in ≥25% without increase in pain at the treated site. From September 2014 to October 2015, 25 patients with bone metastases responded to RT or chemotherapy (1 CR, 24 PR). There were 8 male and 17 female patients. The median age of the 25 patients was 59 (range, 22 to 80) years old. Patient's primary cancer site was breast [11], prostate [5], lung [2], others [7]. For QLQ-BM 22, the mean scores of 4 categories at baseline were: pain site (PS) 39, pain characteristics (PC) 61, function interference (FI) 49 and psycho-social aspects (PA) 57. At 2 month follow up, the scores were PS 27, PC 37, FI 70 and PA 59. Statistical significant improvement (P<0.05) was seen in PS, PC, FI but not PA. In the QLQ-C30, the scores were not statistically different for all categories, except for pain that demonstrated a 33 point decrease in the median pain score domain (66 to 33). Responders to RT at 2 months presented improvement in BM22 and C30 pain domains, and also improvement in functional interference domain of the BM22 questionnaire.

  2. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  3. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  4. Spider leg autotomy induced by prey venom injection: An adaptive response to “pain”?*

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Camazine, Scott

    1983-01-01

    Field observations showed orb-weaving spiders (Argiope spp.) to undergo leg autotomy if they are stung in a leg by venomous insect prey (Phymata fasciata). The response occurs within seconds, before the venom can take lethal action by spread to the body of the spiders. Autotomy is induced also by honeybee venom and wasp venom, as well as by several venom components (serotonin, histamine, phospholipase A2, melittin) known to be responsible for the pain characteristically elicited by venom injection in humans. The sensing mechanism by which spiders detect injected harmful chemicals such as venoms therefore may be fundamentally similar to the one in humans that is coupled with the perception of pain. Images PMID:16593325

  5. Aspirin in venous leg ulcer study (ASPiVLU): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weller, Carolina D; Barker, Anna; Darby, Ian; Haines, Terrence; Underwood, Martin; Ward, Stephanie; Aldons, Pat; Dapiran, Elizabeth; Madan, Jason J; Loveland, Paula; Sinha, Sankar; Vicaretti, Mauro; Wolfe, Rory; Woodward, Michael; McNeil, John

    2016-04-11

    Venous leg ulceration is a common and costly problem that is expected to worsen as the population ages. Current treatment is compression therapy; however, up to 50 % of ulcers remain unhealed after 2 years, and ulcer recurrence is common. New treatments are needed to address those wounds that are more challenging to heal. Targeting the inflammatory processes present in venous ulcers is a possible strategy. Limited evidence suggests that a daily dose of aspirin may be an effective adjunct to aid ulcer healing and reduce recurrence. The Aspirin in Venous Leg Ulcer study (ASPiVLU) will investigate whether 300-mg oral doses of aspirin improve time to healing. This randomised, double-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled, clinical trial will recruit participants with venous leg ulcers from community settings and hospital outpatient wound clinics across Australia. Two hundred sixty-eight participants with venous leg ulcers will be randomised to receive either aspirin or placebo, in addition to compression therapy, for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is time to healing within 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes are ulcer recurrence, wound pain, quality of life and wellbeing, adherence to study medication, adherence to compression therapy, serum inflammatory markers, hospitalisations, and adverse events at 24 weeks. The ASPiVLU trial will investigate the efficacy and safety of aspirin as an adjunct to compression therapy to treat venous leg ulcers. Study completion is anticipated to occur in December 2018. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12614000293662.

  6. Leg ulcer plastic surgery descent by laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telfer, Jacqui; Filonenko, Natalia; Salansky, Norman M.

    1994-02-01

    Low energy laser therapy (LELT) was used to treat chronic leg ulcers. Seven patients, aged 59 to 96 years, with 11 leg ulcers were referred for laser therapy by plastic surgeons. They had a history of ulceration of 3 - 50 years and five of the patients had breakdown of previous skin grafts. Laser treatments were administered with a microprocessor-controlled device. A 22 red ((lambda) equals 660 nm) laser head was utilized to provide a dose of (4 - 6) J/cm2 and 7 infrared ((lambda) equals 880 nm) head to provide a dose of (4 - 8) J/cm2. The patients were treated three to five times per week, 25 - 30 treatments per course. Three patients underwent two courses of laser therapy with three weeks interval between them. All patients, after 5 - 10 laser treatments, have gotten relief of pain and decreased the amount of analgesics used. All ulcers in six patients were completely healed and two ulcers in the seventh patient decreased in size by 75%. One may conclude the developed laser methodology might be used as a preventative measure to avoid plastic surgery or improve its success.

  7. Elbow pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by many problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis . This is inflammation and ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

  8. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  9. Breast pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - breast; Mastalgia; Mastodynia; Breast tenderness ... There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, changes in the level of of hormones during menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast pain. Some swelling and tenderness just before ...

  10. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  11. Functional nerve disorders in the athlete's foot, ankle, and leg.

    PubMed

    Baxter, D E

    1993-01-01

    Although neuropathies in the athlete's foot, ankle, and leg are uncommon, they are often underdiagnosed, primarily because of the complex interplay of causative factors. The physician should be aware of the possible occurrence of these neuropathies, and should be familiar with the anatomy and course of the nerves. Often, the problem only occurs during functional activity and cannot be demonstrated during the routine static examination. Other problems should also be considered when there is the possibility of a nerve compression syndrome. Metabolic processes, such as diabetes or abuse of alcohol, can certainly cause neuropathies. A double crush syndrome or pain from a higher source should also be considered. Finally, if surgery is done for chronic problems, only the area of constriction should be released, without interfering with the nerve itself. Release the fascia but leave the perineural fat intact. If instability is a factor, the joint should also be stabilized.

  12. Evaluation of lower leg function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Gustavsson, Alexander; Thomeé, Roland; Karlsson, Jon

    2006-11-01

    Achilles tendinopathy is considered to be one of the most common overuse injuries in elite and recreational athletes. However, the effect that the Achilles tendinopathy has on patients' physical performance is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if Achilles tendinopathy caused functional deficits on the injured side compared with the non-injured side in patients. A test battery comprised of tests for different aspects of muscle-tendon function of the gastrocnemius, soleus and Achilles tendon complex was developed to evaluate lower leg function. The test battery's test-retest reliability and sensitivity (the percent probability that the tests would demonstrate abnormal lower limb symmetry index in patients) were also evaluated. The test battery consisted of three jump tests, a counter movements jump (CMJ), a drop counter movement jump (drop CMJ) and hopping, and two strength tests, concentric toe-raises, eccentric-concentric toe-raises and toe-raises for endurance. The reliability was evaluated through a test-retest design on 15 healthy subjects. The test battery's sensitivity and possible functional deficits in patients with Achilles tendinopathy were evaluated on 42 patients (19 women and 23 men). An excellent reliability was found between test days 1-2 and 2-3 for all tests (ICC = 0.76-0.94) except for concentric toe-raise, test 2-3, which had fair reliability (ICC = 0.73). The methodological error ranged from 8 to 17%. There were significant differences (P = 0.001-0.049) between the non-injured (or least symptomatic) side and injured (most symptomatic) side for hopping, drop CMJ, concentric and eccentric-concentric toe-raises, and significant differences (P = 0.000-0.012) in the level of pain during CMJ, hopping, and drop CMJ. The sensitivity of the test battery at a 90% capacity was 88. Achilles tendinopathy causes not only pain and symptoms in patients but also apparent impairments in various aspects of lower leg muscle-tendon function as

  13. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in "turnout".

    PubMed

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve "turning out" or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in "turned out" postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat.

  14. An index for breathlessness and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Borg, E; Borg, G; Larsson, K; Letzter, M; Sundblad, B-M

    2010-08-01

    The features of perceived symptoms causing discontinuation of strenuous exercise have been scarcely studied. The aim was to characterize the two main symptoms causing the discontinuation of heavy work in healthy persons as well as describe the growth of symptoms during exercise. Breathlessness (b) and leg fatigue (l) were assessed using the Borg CR10 Scale and the Borg CR100 (centiMax) Scale, during a standardized exercise test in 38 healthy subjects (24-71 years). The b/l-relationships were calculated for terminal perceptions (ERI(b/l)), and the growth of symptoms determined by power functions for the whole test, as well as by growth response indexes (GRI). This latter index was constructed as a ratio between power levels corresponding to a very strong and a moderate perception. In the majority (71%) of the test subjects, leg fatigue was the dominant symptom at the conclusion of exercise (P<0.001) and the b/l ratio was 0.77 (CR10) and 0.75 (CR100), respectively. The GRI for breathlessness and leg fatigue was similar, with good correlations between GRI and the power function exponent (P<0.005). In healthy subjects, leg fatigue is the most common cause for discontinuing an incremental exercise test. The growth functions for breathlessness and leg fatigue during work are, however, almost parallel.

  15. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Neck pain Overview Neck pain is a common complaint. Neck muscles can be strained from poor posture — whether it's leaning over your computer or ... workbench. Osteoarthritis also is a common cause of neck pain. Rarely, neck pain can be a symptom of ...

  16. Shoulder pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - shoulder ... changes around the rotator cuff can cause shoulder pain. You may have pain when lifting the arm above your head or ... The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons ... The tendons become inflamed or damaged. This condition ...

  17. Pain distribution in primary care patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Erik; Overgaard, Søren; Vestergaard, Jacob T; Christensen, Henrik W; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common diagnosis in primary care adult patients presenting with hip pain but pain location and pain distribution in primary care patients with hip OA have been reported inadequately. To describe pain location and pain distribution in primary care patients with clinical and radiographic confirmed hip OA. Primary care patients with unilateral clinical and radiographic hip OA living on the island of Funen, Denmark were recruited from primary care to participate in a randomized clinical trial. At baseline, patients recorded pain intensity using an 11-box numeric rating scale and the distribution of hip pain using a manikin displaying three separate views: front, back and lateral. Pain drawings were analysed using a template to determine the most frequent pain locations and distribution of pain. Pain drawings were completed by 109 patients of which 108 (99%) were valid. The mean age of patients was 65 (SD 9) years and 44% were females. The mean pain intensity was 5.4 (SD 2.0). A total of 77% had marked the greater trochanter area, 53% the groin area, 42% the anterior/lateral thigh area, 38% the buttock area, 17% the knee and 15% the lower leg area. No patients marked pain exclusively in the areas of the knee, posterior thigh or lower leg. The most common pain locations of patients with hip OA presenting to primary care are the greater trochanter, groin, thigh and buttock areas. No patients recorded pain exclusively in the knee or lower leg. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chronic pain experience and pain management in persons with spinal cord injury in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Sagun; Kitrungrote, Luppana; Damkliang, Jintana

    2018-04-25

    Chronic pain is the frequent and significantly challenging complications in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Socio-cultural background may lead people perceive and manage pain differently. The study aims to describe the chronic pain experience and pain management of SCI persons in Nepal. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among purposively selected sample of 120 SCI persons with chronic pain living in the eight districts of Bagmati Zone of Nepal. The data were collected using the International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Basic Data Set Version 2 (ISCIPBDS-2) and Open-ended Pain Management Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis method. The back (n=84), lower legs/feet (n=63) and buttocks/hips (n=51) was found as the common pain locations. In common, the onset of pain was found within the first 6 month of the injury. Overall pain intensity and pain interference were found to be at the moderate level. The SCI persons used pain medications and non-pharmacological pain management. Ibuprofen was the commonly used pain medication and commonly used non-pharmacological pain management methods included physical support (e.g. massage, exercise), relaxation (e.g. distraction, substance abuse), coping (e.g. acceptance, praying), and traditional herbs. SCI persons had chronic pain experience which interfered with their daily living. They used pain medications and non-pharmacological pain management methods based on their beliefs, knowledge, and community resources in Nepal. This study provides some evidence to help the team of rehabilitation professional to plan and help SCI persons with chronic pain. Based on these findings, chronic pain management intervention for SCI persons should be developed and supported continuously from hospital to home based community context of Nepal.

  19. Increasing trunk flexion transforms human leg function into that of birds despite different leg morphology.

    PubMed

    Aminiaghdam, Soran; Rode, Christian; Müller, Roy; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-02-01

    Pronograde trunk orientation in small birds causes prominent intra-limb asymmetries in the leg function. As yet, it is not clear whether these asymmetries induced by the trunk reflect general constraints on the leg function regardless of the specific leg architecture or size of the species. To address this, we instructed 12 human volunteers to walk at a self-selected velocity with four postures: regular erect, or with 30 deg, 50 deg and maximal trunk flexion. In addition, we simulated the axial leg force (along the line connecting hip and centre of pressure) using two simple models: spring and damper in series, and parallel spring and damper. As trunk flexion increases, lower limb joints become more flexed during stance. Similar to birds, the associated posterior shift of the hip relative to the centre of mass leads to a shorter leg at toe-off than at touchdown, and to a flatter angle of attack and a steeper leg angle at toe-off. Furthermore, walking with maximal trunk flexion induces right-skewed vertical and horizontal ground reaction force profiles comparable to those in birds. Interestingly, the spring and damper in series model provides a superior prediction of the axial leg force across trunk-flexed gaits compared with the parallel spring and damper model; in regular erect gait, the damper does not substantially improve the reproduction of the human axial leg force. In conclusion, mimicking the pronograde locomotion of birds by bending the trunk forward in humans causes a leg function similar to that of birds despite the different morphology of the segmented legs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  1. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  2. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  3. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  4. Development of PIMAL: Mathematical Phantom with Moving Arms and Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F.

    2007-05-01

    The computational model of the human anatomy (phantom) has gone through many revisions since its initial development in the 1970s. The computational phantom model currently used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is based on a model published in 1974. Hence, the phantom model used by the NRC staff was missing some organs (e.g., neck, esophagus) and tissues. Further, locations of some organs were inappropriate (e.g., thyroid).Moreover, all the computational phantoms were assumed to be in the vertical-upright position. However, many occupational radiation exposures occur with the worker in other positions. In the first phase of this work, updates onmore » the computational phantom models were reviewed and a revised phantom model, which includes the updates for the relevant organs and compositions, was identified. This revised model was adopted as the starting point for this development work, and hence a series of radiation transport computations, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5, was performed. The computational results were compared against values reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) in Publication 74. For some of the organs (e.g., thyroid), there were discrepancies between the computed values and the results reported in ICRP-74. The reasons behind these discrepancies have been investigated and are discussed in this report.Additionally, sensitivity computations were performed to determine the sensitivity of the organ doses for certain parameters, including composition and cross sections used in the simulations. To assess the dose for more realistic exposure configurations, the phantom model was revised to enable flexible positioning of the arms and legs. Furthermore, to reduce the user time for analyses, a graphical user interface (GUI) was developed. The GUI can be used to visualize the positioning of the arms and legs as desired posture is achieved to generate the input file, invoke the computations, and extract the

  5. Task driven optimal leg trajectories in insect-scale legged microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Neel; Goldberg, Benjamin; Jayaram, Kaushik; Wood, Robert

    Origami inspired layered manufacturing techniques and 3D-printing have enabled the development of highly articulated legged robots at the insect-scale, including the 1.43g Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Research on these platforms has expanded its focus from manufacturing aspects to include design optimization and control for application-driven tasks. Consequently, the choice of gait selection, body morphology, leg trajectory, foot design, etc. have become areas of active research. HAMR has two controlled degrees-of-freedom per leg, making it an ideal candidate for exploring leg trajectory. We will discuss our work towards optimizing HAMR's leg trajectories for two different tasks: climbing using electroadhesives and level ground running (5-10 BL/s). These tasks demonstrate the ability of single platform to adapt to vastly different locomotive scenarios: quasi-static climbing with controlled ground contact, and dynamic running with un-controlled ground contact. We will utilize trajectory optimization methods informed by existing models and experimental studies to determine leg trajectories for each task. We also plan to discuss how task specifications and choice of objective function have contributed to the shape of these optimal leg trajectories.

  6. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, James B.; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. Aim of the study: prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. Methods: 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550–1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm2 wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm2 VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was “percent change of ulcer size over time” including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient’s feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. Results: The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a

  7. Improvement of wound healing by water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in patients with chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs including evaluation using infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Mercer, James B; Nielsen, Stig Pors; Hoffmann, Gerd

    2008-10-21

    Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) is a special form of heat radiation with a high tissue-penetration and with a low thermal burden to the surface of the skin. wIRA is able to improve essential and energetically meaningful factors of wound healing by thermal and non-thermal effects. prospective study (primarily planned randomised, controlled, blinded, de facto with one exception only one cohort possible) using wIRA in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs with thermographic follow-up. 10 patients (5 males, 5 females, median age 62 years) with 11 recalcitrant chronic venous stasis ulcers of the lower legs were treated with water-filtered infrared-A and visible light irradiation (wIRA(+VIS), Hydrosun radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, water-filtered spectrum 550-1400 nm) or visible light irradiation (VIS; only possible in one patient). The uncovered wounds of the patients were irradiated two to five times per week for 30 minutes at a standard distance of 25 cm (approximately 140 mW/cm(2) wIRA and approximately 45 mW/cm(2) VIS). Treatment continued for a period of up to 2 months (typically until closure or nearly closure of the ulcer). The main variable of interest was "percent change of ulcer size over time" including complete wound closure. Additional variables of interest were thermographic image analysis, patient's feeling of pain in the wound, amount of pain medication, assessment of the effect of the irradiation (by patient and by clinical investigator), assessment of feeling of the wound area (by patient), assessment of wound healing (by clinical investigator) and assessment of the cosmetic state (by patient and by clinical investigator). For these assessments visual analogue scales (VAS) were used. The study showed a complete or nearly complete healing of lower leg ulcers in 7 patients and a clear reduction of ulcer size in another 2 of 10 patients, a clear reduction of pain and pain medication

  8. Transitional Vertebra and Spina Bifida Occulta Related with Chronic Low Back Pain in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Maham; Babar, Sumbal; Kundi, Asif K; Assad, Salman; Sheikh, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS) must be considered as a differential diagnosis in a young patient presenting with low back pain (LBP). We present a case of a 26-year-old male complaining of mild chronic LBP for six years, radiating to his left thigh for the past six months. He has been taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with skeletal muscle relaxants for pain relief. The X-ray and computed tomography (CT) imagings showed congenital enlargement of the left transverse process of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebra forming pseudo-articulation with the sacrum and unilateral pars interarticularis defect at the L4 level on the left side, respectively. He has managed with gabapentin 100 mg three times a day for his neuropathic left leg pain. On follow-up, the patient reported that his pain has improved with gabapentin and it decreased from 8/10 to 4/10 on the visual analogue scale. PMID:27904817

  9. Sexual pain.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K

    2009-12-01

    Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain.

  10. Integrated system for single leg walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Reid; Krotkov, Eric; Roston, Gerry

    1990-07-01

    The Carnegie Mellon University Planetary Rover project is developing a six-legged walking robot capable of autonomously navigating, exploring, and acquiring samples in rugged, unknown environments. This report describes an integrated software system capable of navigating a single leg of the robot over rugged terrain. The leg, based on an early design of the Ambler Planetary Rover, is suspended below a carriage that slides along rails. To walk, the system creates an elevation map of the terrain from laser scanner images, plans an appropriate foothold based on terrain and geometric constraints, weaves the leg through the terrain to position it above the foothold, contacts the terrain with the foot, and applies force enough to advance the carriage along the rails. Walking both forward and backward, the system has traversed hundreds of meters of rugged terrain including obstacles too tall to step over, trenches too deep to step in, closely spaced obstacles, and sand hills. The implemented system consists of a number of task-specific processes (two for planning, two for perception, one for real-time control) and a central control process that directs the flow of communication between processes.

  11. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional ( ... HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Active Leg Range of Motion - ...

  12. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. An unusual case of calcineurine inhibitor pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nickavar, Azar; Mehrazma, Mitra; Hallaji, Farideh

    2014-09-01

    Cyclosporine induced pain syndrome (CIPS) is a newly diagnosed complication of calcineurine inhibitors, mainly observed in solid organ and hematopoetic transplantations. The present case is a male child with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome on low therapeutic level cyclosporine treatment. He presented with intractable and debilitating leg pain, with no reported history of previous injury or trauma. The pain was reluctant to antimicrobial and sedative treatment. MRI revealed bone marrow and soft tissue edema in the mid shaft of patient's right leg. Inspite of unusual manifestations, CIPS was suggested and cyclosporine discontinued. However, the pain did not improve and was resistant to calcium blocker. Subsequently, core decompression was performed as an unusual treatment of CIPS, revealing normal bone morphology. The pain improved rapidly and the patient was discharged a few days later.

  14. The Alvarado score should be used to reduce emergency department length of stay and radiation exposure in select patients with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jamie J; Carr, Bryan W; Rogers, Tyrone; Field, Matthew S; Zarzaur, Ben L; Savage, Stephanie A; Hammer, Peter M; Brewer, Brian L; Feliciano, David V; Rozycki, Grace S

    2018-06-01

    Abdominal pain is the common reason patients seek treatment in emergency departments (ED), and computed tomography (CT) is frequently used for diagnosis; however, length of stay (LOS) in the ED and risks of radiation remain a concern. The hypothesis of this study was the Alvarado score (AS) could be used to reduce CT scans and decrease ED LOS for patients with suspected acute appendicitis (AA). A retrospective review of patients who underwent CT to rule out AA from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, was performed. Patient demographics, medical history, ED documentation, operative interventions, complications, and LOS were all collected. Alvarado score was calculated from the medical record. Time to CT completion was calculated from times the patient was seen by ED staff, CT order, and CT report. Four hundred ninety-two patients (68.1% female; median age, 33 years) met the inclusion criteria. Most CT scans (70%) did not have findings consistent with AA. Median AS for AA on CT scan was 7, compared with 3 for negative CT (p < 0.001). One hundred percent of female patients with AS of 10 and males with AS of 9 or greater had AA confirmed by surgical pathology. Conversely, 5% or less of female patients with AS of 2 or less and 0% of male patients with AS of 1 or less were diagnosed with AA. One hundred six (21.5%) patients had an AS within these ranges and collectively spent 10,239 minutes in the ED from the time of the CT order until the radiologist's report. Males with an AS of 9 or greater and females with AS of 10 should be considered for treatment of AA without imaging. Males with AS of 1 or less and females with AS of 2 or less can be safely discharged with follow-up. Using AS, a significant proportion of patients can avoid the radiation risk, the increased cost, and increased ED LOS associated with CT. Diagnostic IV, therapeutic IV.

  15. Quality of nursing care from the perspective of patients with leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Törnvall, E; Wilhelmsson, S

    2010-09-01

    To investigate and analyse the quality of nursing care in a primary care setting from the perspective of patients with leg ulcers and determine the subjective importance that patients attach to various aspects of quality of care. All of the patients with leg ulcers at 15 primary care centres in the south east of Sweden were invited to participate. They were given the short version of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaire (QPP) to fill in. This included a number of closed and open questions relating to their perceptions of the quality of their nursing care and the importance of this care to them. Overall, the patients in this study perceived that the quality of nursing care was high. However, important areas for improvement were revealed, including the need for an increase in patient-focused care, continuity of care and better pain relief. To address the weak points highlighted by the study, we recommend that nurses explore patient perceptions of pain in greater detail and invite patients take a more active role in the management of their leg ulcers.

  16. Breast Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... your period and sometimes continuing through your menstrual cycle. The pain may be moderate or severe, and ... Throughout the month, not related to your menstrual cycle. Postmenopausal women sometimes have breast pain, but breast ...

  17. Ribcage pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... not cause the pain in someone who has pleurisy (swelling of the lining of the lungs) or ... Inflammation of cartilage near the breastbone ( costochondritis ) Osteoporosis Pleurisy (the pain is worse when breathing deeply)

  18. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific ... treat my pain? Can pelvic pain affect my emotional well-being? How can I cope with long- ...

  19. Testicle pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes The testicles are very sensitive. Even a minor injury can cause pain. In some conditions, abdominal ... Non-urgent causes of testicle pain, such as minor injuries and fluid collection, can often be treated ...

  20. Chest pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... your jaw, left arm, or between your shoulder blades. You have nausea, dizziness, sweating, a racing heart, ... such as: Is the pain between the shoulder blades? Under the breast bone? Does the pain change ...

  1. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... which may be caused by a fall or heavy lifting. Back pain that lasts more than three ... back pain include: Muscle or ligament strain. Repeated heavy lifting or a sudden awkward movement may strain ...

  2. Pain (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Cancer Off-Label Drug Use Access to Experimental Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients ... called acupuncture points . Acupuncture may be used to control pain, including pain related to ... Support groups help many patients. Religious counseling may ...

  3. Patellofemoral Pain.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Rebecca A; Khadavi, Michael J; Fredericson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by insidious onset anterior knee pain that is exaggerated under conditions of increased patellofemoral joint stress. A variety of risk factors may contribute to the development of patellofemoral pain. It is critical that the history and physical examination elucidate those risk factors specific to an individual in order to prescribe an appropriate and customized treatment plan. This article aims to review the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The psychosocial impact of leg ulcers in patients with sickle cell disease: I don't want them to know my little secret.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Nkeiruka I; Ajegba, Brittany; Buscetta, Ashley J; Abdallah, Khadijah E; Minniti, Caterina P; Bonham, Vence L

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) impacts millions of individuals worldwide and more than 100,000 people in the United States. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of SCD. The health status of individuals living with chronic leg ulcers is not only influenced by clinical manifestations such as pain duration and intensity, but also by psychosocial factors. Garnering insights into the psychosocial impact can provide a more holistic view of their influence on quality of life. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants living with active SCD-associated leg ulcers or with a history of ulcers. Subjects were recruited from an ongoing study (INSIGHTS, Clin Trial.Gov NCT02156102) and consented to this qualitative phase of the study. Five areas were explored: leg ulcer pain, physical function, social-isolation, social relationships and religious support. Data was collected from 20 individuals during these interviews and a thematic analysis was performed and reported. Twenty participants with a mean age of 42.4 (SD ± 11.1years) were included in the study. Major themes identified included:1) pain (acute and chronic); 2) compromised physical function as demonstrated by decreased ability to walk, run, and play sports; 3) social isolation from activities either by others or self-induced as a means of avoiding certain emotions, such as embarrassment; 4) social relationships (family support and social network); 5) support and comfort through their religion or spirituality. SCD patients with leg ulcers expressed that they experience social isolation, intense and frequent ulcer pain, and difficulty in physical function. SCD-associated leg ulcers have been studied from a clinical approach, but the psychosocial factors investigated in this study informs how quality of life is impacted by the leg ulcers.

  5. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  6. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  7. Static balance according to hip joint angle of unsupported leg during one-leg standing.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Jang-Joon; Ye, Jae-Gwan; Lee, Seul-Ji; Hong, Jeong-Mi; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine static balance according to hip joint angle of the unsupported leg during one-leg standing. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 45 healthy adult males and females in their 20s. During one-leg standing on the non-dominant leg, the position of the unsupported leg was classified according to hip joint angles of point angle was class. Static balance was then measured using a force plate with eyes open and closed. The total length, sway velocity, maximum deviation, and velocity on the mediolateral and anteroposterior axes of center of pressure were measured. [Results] In balance assessment with eyes open, there were significant differences between groups according to hip joint angle, except for maximum deviation on the anteroposterior axis. In balance assessment with eyes closed, there were significant differences between total length measurements at 0° and 30°, 60° and between 30° and 90°. There were significant differences between sway velocity measurements at 0° and 30° and between 30° and 90°. [Conclusion] Thus, there were differences in static balance according to hip joint angle. It is necessary to clearly identify the hip joint angle during one-leg standing testing.

  8. Using verbal instructions to influence lifting mechanics - Does the directive "lift with your legs, not your back" attenuate spinal flexion?

    PubMed

    Beach, Tyson A C; Stankovic, Tatjana; Carnegie, Danielle R; Micay, Rachel; Frost, David M

    2018-02-01

    "Use your legs" is commonly perceived as sound advice to prevent lifting-related low-back pain and injuries, but there is limited evidence that this directive attenuates the concomitant biomechanical risk factors. Body segment kinematic data were collected from 12 men and 12 women who performed a laboratory lifting/lowering task after being provided with different verbal instructions. The main finding was that instructing participants to lift "without rounding your lower back" had a greater effect on the amount of spine flexion they exhibited when lifting/lowering than instructing them to lift "with your legs instead of your back" and "bend your knees and hips". It was concluded that if using verbal instructions to discourage spine flexion when lifting, the instructions should be spine- rather than leg-focused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... Long-term Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term Ankle Problems Breast Problems in Men Breast Problems in Women Chest Pain in Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea ...

  10. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  11. Experimental research on pedestrian lower leg impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D. M.; Stan, C.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper is centred on the research of deceleration measured at the level of the lower leg during a pedestrian impact in multiple load cases. Basically, the used methodology for physical test setup is similar to EuroNCAP and European Union regulatory requirements. Due cost reduction reasons, it was not used a pneumatic system in order to launch the lower leg impactor in the direction of the vehicle front-end. During the test it was used an opposite solution, namely the vehicle being in motion, aiming the standstill lower leg impactor. The impactor has similar specifications to those at EU level, i.e. dimensions, materials, and principle of measurement of the deceleration magnitude. Therefore, all the results obtained during the study comply with the requirements of both EU regulation and EuroNCAP. As a limitation, due to unavailability of proper sensors in the equipment of the lower leg impactor, that could provide precise results, the bending angle, the shearing and the detailed data at the level of knee ligaments were not evaluated. The knee joint should be improved for future studies as some bending angles observed during the post processing of several impact video files were too high comparing to other studies. The paper highlights the first pedestrian impact physical test conducted by the author, following an extensive research in the field. Deceleration at the level of pedestrian knee can be substantially improved by providing enough volume between the bumper fascia and the front-end structure and by using pedestrian friendly materials for shock absorbers, such as foams.

  12. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  13. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  14. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve

    2018-05-07

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  15. Infection in Venous Leg Ulcers: Considerations for Optimal Management in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Douglas J

    2016-02-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most common cause of chronic leg wounds, accounting for up to 70 % of all chronic leg ulcers and carrying with them a significant morbidity, especially for elderly patients. Among people aged 65 years and older, the annual prevalence is 1.7 %. Billions of dollars per year are spent caring for patients with these often difficult-to-heal and sometimes recurrent chronic wounds. Chronic non-healing wounds of the lower extremities are susceptible to microbial invasion and can lead to serious complications, such as delayed healing, cellulitis, enlargement of wound size, debilitating pain, and deeper wound infections causing systemic illness. Recognition and treatment of the infected venous leg ulcer is an essential skill set for any physician caring for geriatric patients. Most physicians rely on subjective clinical signs and patient-reported symptoms in the evaluation of infected chronic wounds. The conventional bacterial culture is a widely available tool for the diagnosis of bacterial infection but can have limitations. Systemic antibiotics, as well as topical antiseptics and antibiotics, can be employed to treat and control infection and critical colonization. Better understanding of microbial biofilms in the wound environment have caused them to emerge as an important reason for non-healing and infection due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial, immunological, and chemical attack. A sound understanding of the microbial-host environment and its complexities, as well as the pathophysiology of venous hypertension, must be appreciated to understand the need for a multimodality approach to treating an infected venous leg ulcer. Other treatment measures are often required, in addition to systemic and topical antibiotics, such as the application of wound bandages, compression therapy, and wound debridement, which can hasten clearance of the infection and help to promote healing.

  16. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  17. Position Sense in Chronic Pain: Separating Peripheral and Central Mechanisms in Proprioception in Unilateral Limb Pain.

    PubMed

    Tsay, Anthony J; Giummarra, Melita J

    2016-07-01

    Awareness of limb position is derived primarily from muscle spindles and higher-order body representations. Although chronic pain appears to be associated with motor and proprioceptive disturbances, it is not clear if this is due to disturbances in position sense, muscle spindle function, or central representations of the body. This study examined position sense errors, as an indicator of spindle function, in participants with unilateral chronic limb pain. The sample included 15 individuals with upper limb pain, 15 with lower limb pain, and 15 sex- and age-matched pain-free control participants. A 2-limb forearm matching task in blindfolded participants, and a single-limb pointer task, with the reference limb hidden from view, was used to assess forearm position sense. Position sense was determined after muscle contraction or stretch, intended to induce a high or low spindle activity in the painful and nonpainful limbs, respectively. Unilateral upper and lower limb chronic pain groups produced position errors comparable with healthy control participants for position matching and pointer tasks. The results indicate that the painful and nonpainful limb are involved in limb-matching. Lateralized pain, whether in the arm or leg, does not influence forearm position sense. Painful and nonpainful limbs are involved in bilateral limb-matching. Muscle spindle function appears to be preserved in the presence of chronic pain. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pain referral and regional deep tissue hyperalgesia in experimental human hip pain models.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Masashi; Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Hip disorder patients typically present with extensive pain referral and hyperalgesia. To better understand underlying mechanisms, an experimental hip pain model was established in which pain referrals and hyperalgesia could be studied under standardized conditions. In 16 healthy subjects, pain was induced by hypertonic saline injection into the gluteus medius tendon (GMT), adductor longus tendon (ALT), or gluteus medius muscle (GMM). Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects mapped the pain distribution. Before, during, and after injections, passive hip joint pain provocation tests were completed, together with quantitative sensory testing as follows: pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), cuff algometry pain thresholds (cuff PPTs), cutaneous pin-prick sensitivity, and thermal pain thresholds. Hypertonic saline injected into the GMT resulted in higher VAS scores than hypertonic injections into the ALT and GMM (P<.05). Referred pain areas spread to larger parts of the leg after GMT and GMM injections compared with more regionalized pain pattern after ALT injections (P<.05). PPTs at the injection site were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into GMT and GMM compared with baseline, ALT injections, and isotonic saline. Cuff PPTs from the thigh were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into the ALT compared with baseline, GMT injections, and isotonic saline (P<.05). More subjects had positive joint pain provocation tests after hypertonic compared with isotonic saline injections (P<.05), indicating that this provocation test also assessed hyperalgesia in extra-articular soft tissues. The experimental models may open for better understanding of pain mechanisms associated with painful hip disorders. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growing Pains

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Patrick J.; Carl, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Context: The term growing pains describes a common, benign syndrome of recurrent discomfort that occurs in young children. First described in the 1800s, the etiology of this condition remains unclear. The peak incidence does not correspond to a time of rapid growth. Children typically report bilateral pain in the lower extremities that occurs late in the day or at night. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was searched using the keywords growing pains, benign nocturnal limb pains of childhood, recurrent limb pain of childhood, and limb pain in childhood. Articles were also found by reviewing references from the initial PubMed search. Only English-language articles published from 1900 through 2016 were included in the review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results: When a patient’s history is classic for growing pains and physical examination is normal, laboratory and radiographic evaluation are not needed to make the diagnosis. Findings typical for growing pains include bilateral lower extremity pain usually experienced in the early evening or at night. The pain is not caused by activity and will not cause a limp. Conclusion: Additional workup is warranted for children with an atypical history, systemic symptoms, or for those individuals with physical examination abnormalities such as allodynia, focal tenderness, joint swelling, or decreased joint range of motion. Management of growing pains generally consists of symptomatic care with massage and over-the-counter analgesics, as well as reassurance to children and parents about the benign, self-limited nature of this condition. This review article summarizes data on the epidemiology, etiology, and management of growing pains and provides a framework for distinguishing this entity from other causes of extremity pain. PMID:28177851

  20. Short-term effects of 890-nanometer radiation on pain, physical activity, and postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Lo, Min-Tzu; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of short-term light therapy with 890-nm radiation on pain, physical activity, and postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Rehabilitation clinic. Women (n=62) and men (n=10) with a mean age of 61.2 years (range, 40-88y). All patients fulfilled the combined clinical and radiographic criteria for knee OA as established by the American College of Rheumatology, and all had obtained a Kellgren-Lawrence score of 2 or more. Participants received 6 sessions, lasting 40 minutes each, of active or placebo radiation treatment over the knee joints for 2 weeks (wavelength, 890nm; radiant power output, 6.24W; power density, 34.7mW/cm(2) for 40 minutes; total energy, 41.6J/cm(2) per knee per session). Participants were assessed weekly over 4 weeks using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) for pain, stiffness, and physical function. Physical activity (timed stair climbing, 10-m fast-speed walking, and chair-rising time) and postural stability (using the postural stability evaluation system) were also assessed. The pain score on WOMAC was the primary outcome variable. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Compared with baseline, no significant improvement was observed between groups for pain (P=.546), stiffness (P=.573), or physical function (P=.904). No significant improvement was noted for physical activity including the 10-m fast-speed walking time (P=.284), stair-climbing time (P=.202), stair-descending time (P=.468), chair-rising time (P=.499), or postural stability (P=.986) at the 4 follow-up assessments. Follow-up assessments were conducted after 1 week of treatment (thus, after 3 treatments); after 2 weeks of treatment (thus, after 6 treatments); and 1 and 2 weeks, respectively, after treatment was terminated. Although we found a significant time effect for the 10-m fast-speed walking time (P<.001) in the 2

  1. Risk factors for pain in children with severe cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Breau, Lynn M; Camfield, Carol S; McGrath, Patrick J; Finley, G Allen

    2004-06-01

    Diagnosing cause of pain in children with severe cognitive impairments is difficult due to their problems with communication. Identification of risk factors for specific pain etiologies might help professionals in this task. The aim of this study was to determine whether child-related characteristics increase risk for specific types of pain. Participants were the caregivers of 41 females and 53 males with moderate to profound mental retardation, who were aged 3 to 18 years 8 months (mean 10:1, SD 4:4) but who communicated at the level of a typical child of 13.8 months (SD 10 months): 44 of the children had cerebral palsy (CP) and 59 a seizure disorder. Caregivers reported the cause of children's episodes of pain for four 1-week periods over 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict occurrence of specific types of pain using children's demographic, medical, and physical characteristics. Children had 406 episodes of pain due to accident, gastrointestinal conditions, musculoskeletal problems, infection, recurrent conditions, and common childhood causes. Results indicated that a unique set of risk factors predicted each pain type in this sample. Significant risk factors for pain included: lack of visual impairment and leg impairment (accidental pain); seizures, leg impairment, and greater number of medications (non-accidental pain); being male and tube fed (musculoskeletal pain); age <7 years, absence of CP, visual impairment, and less frequent medical monitoring (infection pain); being female and with arm impairment (gastrointestinal pain); and being tube fed and taking fewer medications (common childhood pains). In most cases, models were more specific than sensitive, indicating that the significant predictors are more useful for eliminating potential pain causes. These results suggest that population risk factors may be helpful in structuring diagnostic investigations for individual children with severe cognitive impairments.

  2. Distribution and impact on quality of life of the pain modalities assessed by the King's Parkinson's disease pain scale.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Manuel Rojo-Abuin, Jose; Rizos, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Perkins, Lauren; Sauerbier, Anna; Odin, Per; Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2017-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, pain is a prevalent and complex symptom of diverse origin. King's Parkinson's disease pain scale, assesses different pain syndromes, thus allowing exploration of its differential prevalence and influence on the health-related quality of life of patients. Post hoc study 178 patients and 83 matched controls participating in the King's Parkinson's disease pain scale validation study were used. For determining the respective distribution, King's Parkinson's disease pain scale items and domains scores = 0 meant absence and ≥1 presence of the symptom. The regular scores were used for the other analyses. Health-related quality of lifewas evaluated with EQ-5D-3L and PDQ-8 questionnaires. Parkinson's disease patients experienced more pain modalities than controls. In patients, Pain around joints (King's Parkinson's disease pain scale item 1) and Pain while turning in bed (item 8) were the most prevalent types of pain, whereas Burning mouth syndrome (item 11) and Pain due to grinding teeth (item 10) showed the lowest frequency. The total number of experienced pain modalities closely correlated with the PDQ-8 index, but not with other variables. For all pain types except Pain around joints (item 1) and pain related to Periodic leg movements/RLS (item 7), patients with pain had significantly worse health-related quality of life. The influence of pain, as a whole, on the health-related quality of life was not remarkable after adjustment by other variables. When the particular types of pain were considered, adjusted by sex, age, and Parkinson's disease duration, pain determinants were different for EQ-5D-3L and PDQ-8. King's Parkinson's disease pain scale allows exploring the distribution of the diverse syndromic pain occurring in Parkinson's disease and its association with health-related quality of life.

  3. NIH Pain Consortium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Did You Know? Infographics on Pain Topics Resource Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain ... Did You Know? Infographics on Pain Topics Resource Library Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory Pain Registries IOM Report: Relieving Pain ...

  4. Low back pain - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  5. Ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator propeller flaps for the reconstruction of lower third leg soft- tissue defects

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Thalaivirithan Margabandu; Ramkumar, Jayagosh; Jaganmohan, Janardhanan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lower third leg soft tissue defects with anatomical and pathological constraints are posing formidable challenges to reconstructive surgeon. Aim: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator-propeller flaps for the reconstruction of small and medium sized soft tissue defects in the lower third leg. Patients and Methods: 22 patients (16 were males and 6 were females) were involved in this study between period of January 2012 and December 2016.We followed the protocol of initial non delineating exploratory incision made to find out single best perforator in all patients. All the defects in leg reconstructed with adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps. Results: All 22 flaps survived well. All in an average of 13 months follow up period, had pain free walking, with minimal scarring and acceptable aesthesis at the reconstruction sites with no need for any secondary procedure. Conclusion: With inability of preoperatively dopplering the perforators in the lower third leg region, the exploratory posterior nondelineating incision was used in all cases to secure the single best perforator for the propeller flaps. Thus adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps are dependable, easily adoptable for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower third leg region. PMID:29618863

  6. Ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator propeller flaps for the reconstruction of lower third leg soft- tissue defects.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Thalaivirithan Margabandu; Ramkumar, Jayagosh; Jaganmohan, Janardhanan

    2017-01-01

    Lower third leg soft tissue defects with anatomical and pathological constraints are posing formidable challenges to reconstructive surgeon. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ad hoc posterior tibial vessels perforator-propeller flaps for the reconstruction of small and medium sized soft tissue defects in the lower third leg. 22 patients (16 were males and 6 were females) were involved in this study between period of January 2012 and December 2016.We followed the protocol of initial non delineating exploratory incision made to find out single best perforator in all patients. All the defects in leg reconstructed with adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps. All 22 flaps survived well. All in an average of 13 months follow up period, had pain free walking, with minimal scarring and acceptable aesthesis at the reconstruction sites with no need for any secondary procedure. With inability of preoperatively dopplering the perforators in the lower third leg region, the exploratory posterior nondelineating incision was used in all cases to secure the single best perforator for the propeller flaps. Thus adhoc posterior tibial vessel propeller flaps are dependable, easily adoptable for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the lower third leg region.

  7. Caecal cancer presenting as leg erythema and a lung opacity.

    PubMed

    Das, Archik; Hureibi, Khalid; Tayyab, Muhammad; McCullough, Peter

    2017-09-07

    Necrotising infection of the lower limb is a rare presentation for colorectal malignancy. We report a case of a perforated caecal adenocarcinoma presenting with right leg erythema, pain and swelling in the presence of a right lower lobe lung opacity. Following initial debridement and washout, CT imaging demonstrated a thickened terminal ileum, caecum and appendix, in keeping with primary malignancy. This fed the right-sided lower limb sepsis tracking down from the medial aspect of the psoas muscle to give rise to the multiloculated collection seen in the adductor compartment. The lung lesion measured 16 mm and was metastatic. The patient was successfully managed with a subtotal colectomy and an end ileostomy. The biopsy confirmed an adenocarcinoma (T4N1M1). We highlight the importance of perforated colonic carcinoma as a leading differential for lower limb abscesses. Suspicions should be raised further if accompanied by rounded opacifications on plain film radiography of the lungs. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Colloca, Luana; Ludman, Taylor; Bouhassira, Didier; Baron, Ralf; Dickenson, Anthony H; Yarnitsky, David; Freeman, Roy; Truini, Andrea; Attal, Nadine; Finnerup, Nanna B; Eccleston, Christopher; Kalso, Eija; Bennett, David L; Dworkin, Robert H; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2017-02-16

    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, including peripheral fibres (Aβ, Aδ and C fibres) and central neurons, and affects 7-10% of the general population. Multiple causes of neuropathic pain have been described and its incidence is likely to increase owing to the ageing global population, increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and improved survival from cancer after chemotherapy. Indeed, imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory signalling, alterations in ion channels and variability in the way that pain messages are modulated in the central nervous system all have been implicated in neuropathic pain. The burden of chronic neuropathic pain seems to be related to the complexity of neuropathic symptoms, poor outcomes and difficult treatment decisions. Importantly, quality of life is impaired in patients with neuropathic pain owing to increased drug prescriptions and visits to health care providers, as well as the morbidity from the pain itself and the inciting disease. Despite challenges, progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is spurring the development of new diagnostic procedures and personalized interventions, which emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of neuropathic pain.

  9. Neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Colloca, Luana; Ludman, Taylor; Bouhassira, Didier; Baron, Ralf; Dickenson, Anthony H.; Yarnitsky, David; Freeman, Roy; Truini, Andrea; Attal, Nadine; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Eccleston, Christopher; Kalso, Eija; Bennett, David L.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Raja, Srinivasa N.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system, including peripheral fibres (Aβ, Aδ and C fibres) and central neurons, and affects 7–10% of the general population. Multiple causes of neuropathic pain have been described and its incidence is likely to increase owing to the ageing global population, increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and improved survival from cancer after chemotherapy. Indeed, imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory somatosensory signalling, alterations in ion channels and variability in the way that pain messages are modulated in the central nervous system all have been implicated in neuropathic pain. The burden of chronic neuropathic pain seems to be related to the complexity of neuropathic symptoms, poor outcomes and difficult treatment decisions. Importantly, quality of life is impaired in patients with neuropathic pain owing to increased drug prescriptions and visits to health care providers, as well as the morbidity from the pain itself and the inciting disease. Despite challenges, progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is spurring the development of new diagnostic procedures and personalized interventions, which emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:28205574

  10. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include Pain Relievers and other medicines Acupuncture Electrical stimulation Surgery Physical therapy Psychotherapy Relaxation and meditation therapy Biofeedback NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  11. Link Between Foot Pain Severity and Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Awale, Arunima; Dufour, Alyssa B; Katz, Patricia; Menz, Hylton B; Hannan, Marian T

    2016-06-01

    Associations between pain and depression are well known, yet foot pain, common in populations, has been understudied. This cross-sectional study examined foot pain and severity of foot pain with depressive symptoms in adults. Framingham Foot Study (2002-2008) participants completed questionnaires that included questions about foot pain (yes/no; none, mild, moderate, or severe pain) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (scores ≥16 indicated depressive symptoms). Age and body mass index (BMI) were also assessed. Sex-specific logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations of foot pain with depressive symptoms, adjusting for age and BMI. In a subset, further models adjusted for leg pain, back pain, or other joint pain. Of 1,464 men and 1,857 women, the mean ± SD age was 66 ± 10 years. Depressive symptoms were reported in 21% of men and 27% of women. Compared to those with no foot pain and independent of age and BMI, both men and women with moderate foot pain had approximately a 2-fold increased odds of depressive symptoms (men with severe foot pain OR of 4 [95% CI 2.26-8.48], women with severe foot pain OR of 3 [95% CI 2.02-4.68]). Considering other pain regions attenuated ORs, but the pattern of results remained unchanged. Even after we adjusted for age, BMI, and other regions of pain, those reporting worse foot pain were more likely to report depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that foot pain may be a part of a broader pain spectrum, with an impact beyond localized pain and discomfort. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. A sleeping phantom leg awakened following hemicolectomy, thrombosis, and chemotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael Er; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Gibson, Stephen J

    2011-05-25

    We describe the case of a patient who experienced phantom pain that began 42 years after right above-the-knee amputation. Immediately prior to phantom pain onset, this long-term amputee had experienced, in rapid succession, cancer, hemicolectomy, chemotherapy, and thrombotic occlusion. Very little has been published to date on the association between chemotherapy and exacerbation of neuropathic pain in amputees, let alone the phenomenon of bringing about pain in amputees who have been pain-free for many decades. While this patient presented with a unique profile following a rare sequence of medical events, his case should be recognized considering the frequent co-occurrence of osteomyelitis, chemotherapy, and amputation. A 68-year-old Australian Caucasian man presented 42 years after right above-the-knee amputation with phantom pain immediately following hemicolectomy, thrombotic occlusion in the amputated leg, and chemotherapy treatment with leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil. He exhibited probable hyperalgesia with a reduced pinprick threshold and increased stump sensitivity, indicating likely peripheral and central sensitization. Our patient, who had long-term nerve injury due to amputation, together with recent ischemic nerve and tissue injury due to thrombosis, exhibited likely chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. While he presented with unique treatment needs, cases such as this one may actually be quite common considering that osteosarcoma can frequently lead to amputation and be followed by chemotherapy. The increased susceptibility of amputees to developing potentially intractable chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain should be taken into consideration throughout the course of chemotherapy treatment. Patients in whom chronic phantom pain then develops, perhaps together with mobility issues, inevitably place greater demands on healthcare service providers that require treatment by various clinical specialists, including oncologists, neurologists, prosthetists, and

  13. The photonic device for integrated evaluation of collateral circulation of lower extremities in patients with local hypertensive-ischemic pain syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Bezsmernyi, Yurii O.; Zlepko, Sergey M.; Bezsmertna, Halyna V.

    2017-08-01

    The given paper analyzes principles of interaction and analysis of the reflected optical radiation from biotissue in the process of assessment of regional hemodynamics state in patients with local hypertensive- ischemic pain syndrome of amputation stumps of lower extremities, applying the method of photoplethysmography. The purpose is the evaluation of Laser photoplethysmography (LPPG) diagnostic value in examination of patients with chronic ischemia of lower extremities. Photonic device is developed to determine the level of the peripheral blood circulation, which determines the basic parameters of peripheral blood circulation and saturation level. Device consists of two sensors: infrared sensor, which contains the infrared laser radiation source and photodetector, and red sensor, which contains the red radiation source and photodetector. LPPG method allows to determined pulsatility of blood flow in different areas of the foot and lower leg, the degree of compensation and conservation perspectives limb. Surgical treatment of local hypertensive -ischemic pain syndrome of amputation stumps of lower extremities by means of semiclosed fasciotomy in combination with revasculating osteotrepanation enabled to improve considerably regional hemodynamics in the tissues of the stump and decrease pain and hypostatic disorders.

  14. Correlations Between the SF-36, the Oswestry-Disability Index and Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Decompression According to Types of Spine Origin Pain.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sangbong; Chae, Seungbum

    2017-07-01

    Cross-sectional study. To determine the correlation between SF-36 (a measure for overall health status in patients) and Oswestry-Disability Index (ODI) or Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) confined to spine according to the type of pain from the spine. Data showed moderate correlation between ODI and SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS), Physical Functioning (PF) (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (RP) (r=-0.284), Bodily Pain (BP) (r=-0.327), and Mental Component Score (MCS), Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=0.254), Vitality (r=0.296). Between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013, a total of 69 patients were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis and underwent decompression surgery such as laminotomy in this hospital. The 3 standardized questionnaires (ODI, RMDQ, and SF-36) were given to these patients, at least 1 year after the surgery. ODI and SF-36 had a statistically significant (P=0.001) and moderate correlation. Small correlations were also seen between Physical Functioning (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (r=-0.284), and Bodily Pain (r=-0.327) of SF-36 PCS and ODI, and between Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=-0.254), and Vitality (r=-0.296) of SF-36 Mental Component Score and ODI. Items in ODI for the level of pain while standing and traveling were mostly related to axial back pain, while item of lifting was related to referred buttock pain. Sleeping disturbance section in the ODI was mainly caused by radiated leg pain. In addition, RMDQ was also associated to the 3 types of pain. Moderate correlation was found between ODI or RMDQ as a condition-specific outcome and the SF-36, indicating overall health status. ODI was found to be a more adequate measure to evaluate axial back pain rather than referred pain or radiating pain. RMDQ was adequate to measure the health status and to evaluate the 3 types of spine pain. These 3 instruments could

  15. Rehabilitation of a Female Dancer with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Applying Concepts of Regional Interdependence in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:21589665

  16. Rehabilitation of a female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome: applying concepts of regional interdependence in practice.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Caitlyn; Hanney, William J; Podschun, Laura; Kolber, Morey J

    2010-06-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  17. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-08-22

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain.

  18. Human hopping on damped surfaces: strategies for adjusting leg mechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Chet T; Farley, Claire T

    2003-01-01

    Fast-moving legged animals bounce along the ground with spring-like legs and agilely traverse variable terrain. Previous research has shown that hopping and running humans maintain the same bouncing movement of the body's centre of mass on a range of elastic surfaces by adjusting their spring-like legs to exactly offset changes in surface stiffness. This study investigated human hopping on damped surfaces that dissipated up to 72% of the hopper's mechanical energy. On these surfaces, the legs did not act like pure springs. Leg muscles performed up to 24-fold more net work to replace the energy lost by the damped surface. However, considering the leg and surface together, the combination appeared to behave like a constant stiffness spring on all damped surfaces. By conserving the mechanics of the leg-surface combination regardless of surface damping, hoppers also conserved centre-of-mass motions. Thus, the normal bouncing movements of the centre of mass in hopping are not always a direct result of spring-like leg behaviour. Conserving the trajectory of the centre of mass by maintaining spring-like mechanics of the leg-surface combination may be an important control strategy for fast-legged locomotion on variable terrain. PMID:12965003

  19. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  20. Loading and performance of the support leg in kicking.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin

    2013-09-01

    The punt kick is important in many football codes and support leg kinematics and ground reaction forces have been implicated in injury and performance in kicking. To evaluate ground reaction forces and support leg kinematics in the punt kick. Cross sectional study. Seven elite Australian football players performed maximal kicks into a net using both the preferred and non-preferred legs. A force plate measured ground reaction forces and an optical motion capture system (200Hz) collected kinematic data during the stance phase of the kick. Preferred and non-preferred legs were compared and performance was evaluated by correlating parameters with foot speed at ball contact. Vertical forces were larger than running at a similar speed but did not reach levels that might be considered an injury risk. Braking forces were directed solely posteriorly, as for soccer kicks, but lateral force patterns varied with some players experiencing greater forces medially and others laterally. A more extended support leg, larger peak vertical and braking force during the stance phase and a shorter stance contact time was associated with larger kick leg foot speed at ball contact. No difference existed between the preferred and non-preferred legs for ground reaction forces or support leg mechanics. To punt kick longer, a straighter support leg, less time on the ground and stronger braking should be encouraged. Conditioning the support leg to provide stronger braking potential is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  2. Neck Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vomiting Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath ... worse or doesn’t get better. Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

  3. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    PubMed

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline.

  4. Asymptomatic Petechial Eruption on the Lower Legs

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Donald

    2013-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline. PMID:24062875

  5. Optimal powering schemes for legged robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, Paul; Bednarz, David; Czerniak, Gregory P.; Cheok, Ka C.

    2010-04-01

    Legged Robots have tremendous mobility, but they can also be very inefficient. These inefficiencies can be due to suboptimal control schemes, among other things. If your goal is to get from point A to point B in the least amount of time, your control scheme will be different from if your goal is to get there using the least amount of energy. In this paper, we seek a balance between these extremes by looking at both efficiency and speed. We model a walking robot as a rimless wheel, and, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle (PMP), we find an "on-off" control for the model, and describe the switching curve between these control extremes.

  6. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jull, A; Arroll, B; Parag, V; Waters, J

    2007-07-18

    Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. An earlier version of this review included 9 randomised controlled trials, but more research has been since been conducted and an updated review is required. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with placebo, or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this second update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cinahl (date of last search was February 2007), and reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. Details from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one author using a coding sheet. Data extraction was independently verified by one other author. Twelve trials involving 864 participants were included. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment; in seven of these trials patients received compression therapy. In one trial pentoxifylline was compared with defibrotide in patients who also received compression. Combining 11 trials that compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment (with or without compression) demonstrated that pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Significant heterogeneity was associated with differences in sample populations (hard-to-heal samples compared with "normal" healing samples). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the

  7. Pentoxifylline for treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew B; Arroll, Bruce; Parag, Varsha; Waters, Jill

    2012-12-12

    Healing of venous leg ulcers is improved by the use of compression bandaging but some venous ulcers remain unhealed, and some people are unsuitable for compression therapy. Pentoxifylline, a drug which helps blood flow, has been used to treat venous leg ulcers. To assess the effects of pentoxifylline (oxpentifylline or Trental 400) for treating venous leg ulcers, compared with a placebo or other therapies, in the presence or absence of compression therapy. For this fifth update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 20 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 2 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 19, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 28); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to July 13 2012). Randomised trials comparing pentoxifylline with placebo or other therapy in the presence or absence of compression, in people with venous leg ulcers. One review author extracted and summarised details from eligible trials using a coding sheet. One other review author independently verified data extraction. No new trials were identified for this update. We included twelve trials involving 864 participants. The quality of trials was variable. Eleven trials compared pentoxifylline with placebo or no treatment. Pentoxifylline is more effective than placebo in terms of complete ulcer healing or significant improvement (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.24). Pentoxifylline plus compression is more effective than placebo plus compression (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.13). Pentoxifylline in the absence of compression appears to be more effective than placebo or no treatment (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.49 to 3.39).More adverse effects were reported in people receiving pentoxifylline (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.22). Nearly three-quarters (72%) of the reported adverse effects were gastrointestinal. Pentoxifylline is an effective adjunct to compression

  8. The association between Modic changes and pain during 1-year follow-up in patients with lumbar radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Schistad, Elina Iordanova; Espeland, Ansgar; Rygh, Lars Jørgen; Røe, Cecilie; Gjerstad, Johannes

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether Modic changes influence pain during a 1-year follow-up in patients with lumbar radicular pain. A total of 243 patients with lumbar radicular pain due to disc herniation were recruited from two hospitals in Norway and followed up at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. On baseline lumbar magnetic resonance images, two observers independently evaluated Modic changes (types I-III; craniocaudal size 0-3). Outcomes were sensory pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), back and leg pain (visual analogue scale, VAS). Association between Modic type and outcomes was explored with a mixed model and then by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each time point with Modic and treatment groups (surgical, n = 126; nonsurgical, n = 117) as fixed factors, adjusted for disc degeneration, age, sex, smoking, and duration of radicular pain. Modic size was also analyzed using ANOVA. Pain scores had decreased significantly at 1-year follow-up. Modic type was significantly related to McGill sensory scores (mixed model: p = 0.014-0.026; ANOVA: p = 0.007 at 6 weeks), but not to VAS back pain or VAS leg pain scores. At 6 weeks, the mean McGill sensory score was higher in Modic I than in Modic II-III patients (p = 0.003) and in patients without Modic changes (p = 0.018). Modic size L1-S1 was not associated with pain outcomes. Patients with lumbar radicular pain have a substantial pain reduction during 1-year follow-up, but Modic type I changes may imply a slower initial decrease in sensory pain.

  9. Low back pain and its treatment by spinal manipulation: measures of flexibility and asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Hoehler, F K; Tobis, J S

    1982-02-01

    Nineteen low back pain patients and eight patients not suffering from low back pain were given several tests of flexibility and asymmetry by two different examiners. Three criteria of reliability and validity were used: (1) significant agreement between independent observers, (2) significantly different scores in the groups with and without low back pain, and (3) significant improvement following a successful spinal manipulation. Tests of anterior flexion and asymmetry of foot eversion met only the first and second criteria while tests of hamstring tightness and asymmetry of voluntary straight leg raising met only the first and third criteria. Passive and voluntary straight leg raising tests were the only measures that met all three criteria. Therefore, of the objective tests investigated here, only passive or voluntary straight leg raising can be strongly recommended for use in the evaluation of spinal manipulative therapy for low back pain.

  10. Leg extensor muscle strength, postural stability, and fear of falling after a 2-month home exercise program in women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rätsepsoo, Monika; Gapeyeva, Helena; Sokk, Jelena; Ereline, Jaan; Haviko, Tiit; Pääsuke, Mati

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to compare the leg extensor muscle strength, the postural stability, and the fear of falling in the women with severe knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) before and after a 2-month home exercise program (HEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS. In total, 17 women aged 46-72 years with late-stage knee joint OA scheduled for total knee arthroplasty participated in this study before and after the 2-month HEP with strengthening, stretching, balance, and step exercises. The isometric peak torque (PT) of the leg extensors and postural stability characteristics when standing on a firm or a foam surface for 30 seconds were recorded. The fear of falling and the pain intensity (VAS) were estimated. RESULTS. A significant increase in the PT and the PT-to-body weight (PT-to-BW) ratio of the involved leg as well as the bilateral PT and the PT-to-BW ratio was found after the 2-month HEP compared with the data before the HEP (P<0.05). The PT and the PT-to-BW ratio of the involved leg were significantly lower compared with the uninvolved leg before the HEP (P<0.05). The center of the pressure sway length (foam surface) decreased significantly after the HEP (P<0.05). Significant correlations were found between the PT of the involved leg and the bilateral PT and the fear of falling and between the PT of the involved leg and the postural sway (foam surface) before the HEP. CONCLUSIONS. After the 2-month HEP, the leg extensor muscle strength increased and the postural sway length on a foam surface decreased. The results indicate that the increased leg extensor muscle strength improves postural stability and diminishes the fear of falling in women with late-stage knee joint OA.

  11. Management of venous leg ulcers in general practice - a practical guideline.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sankar; Sreedharan, Sadhishaan

    2014-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers are the most common wounds seen in general practice. Their management can be both challenging and time-consuming. To produce a short practical guideline incorporating the TIME concept and A2BC2D approach to help general practitioners and their practice nurses in delivering evidence-based initial care to patients with chronic venous leg ulcers. Most chronic venous leg ulcers can be managed effectively in the general practice setting by following the simple, evidence-based approach described in this article. Figure 1 provides a flow chart to aid in this process. Figure 2 illustrates the principles of management in general practice. Effective management of chronic ulcers involves the assessment of both the ulcer and the patient. The essential requirements of management are to debride the ulcer with appropriate precautions, choose dressings that maintain adequate moisture balance, apply graduated compression bandage after evaluation of the arterial circulation and address the patient's concerns, such as pain and offensive wound discharge.

  12. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and leg muscles?

    PubMed

    Parkin, S; Nowicky, A V; Rutherford, O M; McGregor, A H

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused on the trunk and leg muscles. Comparisons of strength were made between and within groups for right and left symmetry patterns, hamstring: quadriceps ratios, and trunk flexor and extensor ratios. The results revealed no left and right asymmetries in either the knee extensor or flexor strength parameters (including both isometric and isokinetic measures). Knee extensor strength was significantly greater in the rowing population, but knee flexor strength was similar between the two groups. No difference was seen between the groups for the hamstring: quadriceps strength ratio. In the rowing population, stroke side had no influence on leg strength. No differences were observed in the isometric strength of the trunk flexors and extensors between groups, although EMG activity was significantly higher in the rowing population. Patterns of asymmetry of muscle activity were observed between the left and right erector spinae muscles during extension, which was significantly related to rowing side (P < 0.01). These observations could be related to the high incidence of low back pain in oarsmen.

  13. Using near infrared light to manage symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guffey, J Stephen; Motts, Susan; Barymon, Deanna; Wooten, Amber; Clough, Tim; Payne, Emily; Henderson, McCall; Tice, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of near infrared (NIR) light could positively modulate symptoms associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Twenty-one subjects with RLS were treated with NIR three times weekly for four weeks. Baseline measures of: (1) international restless legs syndrome rating scale (IRLSRS) score; (2) Semmes Weinstein monofilament (SWM) test; (3) visual analog pain scale (VAS); (4) ankle-brachial index (ABI); and (5) sonographic imaging of the popliteal and posterior tibial arteries were compared to post-treatment values. NIR (850 nm) was delivered transcutaneously at 8 J/cm(2) to four locations on each leg and the plantar surface of each foot. A pre-test-post-test one group design was employed. Baseline and post-treatment measures were compared using either a dependent t-test when data were normal or the Wilcoxon signed rank test in the absence of normality. A significant improvement in IRLSRS scores was observed. Sensation improved from less than protective in 16.6% of sites tested at the baseline to 13.4% post-intervention. There was a significant improvement in ABI scores. VAS and sonographic imaging measures other than ABI remained unchanged. The use of NIR to modulate symptoms associated with RLS was supported by the data.

  14. Are the hamstrings from the drive leg or landing leg more active in baseball pitchers? An electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brandon J; Zaferiou, Antonia; Chalmers, Peter N; Ruby, Deana; Malloy, Phillip; Luchetti, Timothy J; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-11-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among baseball players of all levels. There are several graft choices in performing UCLR, one of which is a hamstring (gracilis or semitendinosus) autograft. It is unclear whether the hamstring muscle from a pitcher's drive leg (ipsilateral side of the UCLR) or landing leg (contralateral side of the UCLR) is more active during the pitching motion. We hypothesized that the landing leg semitendinosus will be more electromyographically active than the drive leg. Healthy, elite male pitchers aged 16-21 years were recruited. Sixteen pitchers (average age, 17.6 ± 1.6 years; 67% threw right handed) underwent electromyographic analysis. Pitchers threw 5 fastballs at 100% effort from the wind-up with electromyographic analysis of every pitch. Activation of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris in both legs was compared within pitchers and between pitchers. Hamstring activity was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg during each phase and in sum, although the difference was significant only during the double support phase (P = .021). On within-pitcher analysis, 10 of 16 pitchers had significantly more sum hamstring activity in the drive leg than in the landing leg, while only 4 of 16 had more activity in the landing leg (P = .043). During the baseball pitch, muscle activity of the semitendinosus was higher in the drive leg than in the landing leg in most pitchers. Surgeons performing UCLR using hamstring autograft should consider harvesting the graft from the pitcher's landing leg to minimize disruption to the athlete's pitching motion. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The specific scintigraphic pattern of "shin splints in the lower leg": concise communication.

    PubMed

    Holder, L E; Michael, R H

    1984-08-01

    The clinical entity, "shin splints," is now being recognized, and more specifically characterized by the findings of exercise-induced pain and tenderness to palpation along the posterior medial border of the tibia. In this prospective study, ten patients with this syndrome were evaluated using three-phase bone scintigrams, and a specific scintigraphic pattern was determined. Radionuclide angiograms and blood-pool images were all normal. On delayed images, tibial lesions involved the posterior cortex, were longitudinally oriented, were long, involving one third of the length of the bone, and often showed varying tracer uptake along that length. Obtaining both lateral and medial views was crucial. The location of activity suggested that this entity is related to the soleus muscle. These scintigraphic findings can be used to differentiate shin splints from stress fractures or other conditions causing pain in the lower leg in athletes.

  16. An Ultralightweight and Living Legged Robot.

    PubMed

    Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Tan, Melvin Y W; Bui, Xuan Hien; Sato, Hirotaka

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we describe the most ultralightweight living legged robot to date that makes it a strong candidate for a search and rescue mission. The robot is a living beetle with a wireless electronic backpack stimulator mounted on its thorax. Inheriting from the living insect, the robot employs a compliant body made of soft actuators, rigid exoskeletons, and flexure hinges. Such structure would allow the robot to easily adapt to any complex terrain due to the benefit of soft interface, self-balance, and self-adaptation of the insect without any complex controller. The antenna stimulation enables the robot to perform not only left/right turning but also backward walking and even cessation of walking. We were also able to grade the turning and backward walking speeds by changing the stimulation frequency. The power required to drive the robot is low as the power consumption of the antenna stimulation is in the order of hundreds of microwatts. In contrast to the traditional legged robots, this robot is of low cost, easy to construct, simple to control, and has ultralow power consumption.

  17. [Painful ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J; Labat, J-J

    2014-06-01

    To clarify definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, etiologies and treatment of painful ejaculation (PE). Review of the literature performed by searching the Medline database using keywords ejaculation, orgasm, pain, pelvic pain, sexual behavior. PE is a pelviperineal pain caused by ejaculation or orgasm. Its prevalence rate is between 1 and 4% amongst the general population. Mainly located in the penis, pain usually lasts less than 5 minutes. Assessment is clinical and there is no level of evidence about the strategy of complementary investigations. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and some antidepressant medications are the best estimated etiologies found in the literature. A link between urogenital infections and PE is likely but not clearly established. Alpha-blockers had good therapeutic results in few low level of evidence studies. The assessment of PE is not clearly defined. Some etiologies are known but PE may be a functionnal pain. Only high level of evidence studies would validate the use of the alpha-blockers as an efficient therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Musculoskeletal pain].

    PubMed

    Casser, H-R; Schaible, H-G

    2015-10-01

    Among the clinically relevant pain conditions, pain in the musculoskeletal system is most frequent. This article reports extensive epidemiological data on musculoskeletal system pain in Germany and worldwide. Since back pain is most frequent, the diagnostics and therapeutic algorithms of acute, recurring, and chronic lower back pain in Germany will be particularly addressed. The importance of the physiologic-organic, the cognitive-emotional, the behavioral, and the social level to diagnostics and treatment will be discussed. We will also focus on osteoarthritic pain and address its epidemiology, clinical importance, and significance for the health care system. This article will list some reasons why the musculoskeletal system in particular is frequently the site of chronic pain. The authors believe that these reasons are to be sought in the complex structures of the musculoskeletal system; in the particular sensitivity of the deep somatic nociceptive system for long-term sensitization processes, as well as the ensuing nervous system reactions; and in the interactions between the nervous and immune systems. The article will give some insights into the research carried out on this topic in Germany.

  19. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p < 0.05). Compared with rest, cPPT and HPT were not significantly increased by exercise. No significant correlation between exercise-induced changes in HPT and cPPT was found. Test-retest reliability before and after the rest condition was better for cPPT and CPTT (intraclass correlation > 0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain

  20. Effects of cardiopulmonary baroreceptor activation on pain may be moderated by risk for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Blaine; Lewkowski, Maxim D; Rainville, Pierre; Duncan, Gary H

    2009-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulation may modulate pain, though the literature is much smaller than research showing that sinoaortic baroreceptor stimulation can buffer pain. To examine the possibility that risk for established high blood pressure may moderate the effects of cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulation on pain, 22 borderline hypertensive and 18 normotensive men participated in a laboratory experiment. Group differences in blood pressure were documented by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure recording. Ratings of the intensity of acute heat pain were influenced by both group membership and leg position. Passive elevation of the legs, a technique that stimulates cardiopulmonary baroreceptors, reduced ratings of heat pain though only among borderline hypertensives. Alteration of pain sensitivity may reflect the development of the hypertensive process.

  1. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  2. BUILDING A BETTER GLUTEAL BRIDGE: ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HIP MUSCLE ACTIVITY DURING MODIFIED SINGLE-LEG BRIDGES.

    PubMed

    Lehecka, B J; Edwards, Michael; Haverkamp, Ryan; Martin, Lani; Porter, Kambry; Thach, Kailey; Sack, Richard J; Hakansson, Nils A

    2017-08-01

    Gluteal strength plays a role in injury prevention, normal gait patterns, eliminating pain, and enhancing athletic performance. Research shows high gluteal muscle activity during a single-leg bridge compared to other gluteal strengthening exercises; however, prior studies have primarily measured muscle activity with the active lower extremity starting in 90 ° of knee flexion with an extended contralateral knee. This standard position has caused reports of hamstring cramping, which may impede optimal gluteal strengthening. The purpose of this study was to determine which modified position for the single-leg bridge is best for preferentially activating the gluteus maximus and medius. Cross-Sectional. Twenty-eight healthy males and females aged 18-30 years were tested in five different, randomized single-leg bridge positions. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on subjects' gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris of their bridge leg (i.e., dominant or kicking leg), as well as the rectus femoris of their contralateral leg. Subjects performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for each tested muscle prior to performing five different bridge positions in randomized order. All bridge EMG data were normalized to the corresponding muscle MVIC data. A modified bridge position with the knee of the bridge leg flexed to 135 ° versus the traditional 90 ° of knee flexion demonstrated preferential activation of the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius compared to the traditional single-leg bridge. Hamstring activation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when the dominant knee was flexed to 135 ° (23.49% MVIC) versus the traditional 90 ° (75.34% MVIC), while gluteal activation remained similarly high (51.01% and 57.81% MVIC in the traditional position, versus 47.35% and 57.23% MVIC in the modified position for the gluteus maximus and medius, respectively). Modifying the traditional single-leg bridge by flexing the

  3. Intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα prevents radiation-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Isabel; Alsner, Jan; Behlke, Mark A; Besenbacher, Flemming; Overgaard, Jens; Howard, Kenneth A; Kjems, Jørgen

    2010-10-01

    One of the most common and dose-limiting long-term adverse effects of radiation therapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), which is characterized by restricted tissue flexibility, reduced compliance or strictures, pain and in severe cases, ulceration and necrosis. Several strategies have been proposed to ameliorate RIF but presently no effective one is available. Recent studies have reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a role in fibrogenesis. Male CDF1 mice were radiated with a single dose of 45 Gy. Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα were intraperitoneal injected and late radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) was assessed using a modification of the leg contracture model. Additionally, the effect of these nanoparticles on tumor growth and tumor control probability in the absence of radiation was examined in a C3H mammary carcinoma model. We show in this work, that targeting TNFα in macrophages by intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles completely prevented radiation-induced fibrosis in CDF1 mice without revealing any cytotoxic side-effects after a long-term administration. Furthermore, such TNFα targeting was selective without any significant influence on tumor growth or irradiation-related tumor control probability. This nanoparticle-based RNAi approach represents a novel approach to prevent RIF with potential application to improve clinical radiation therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of hip muscle performance to leg, ankle and foot injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Dar, Gali; Dunlop, Martin; Gaida, James Edmund

    2017-02-01

    Hip control affects movement and muscle firing patterns in the leg, ankle and foot, and may contribute to overuse injuries. Muscle performance can be measured as strength, endurance or muscle activation patterns. Our objective was to systematically review whether hip muscle performance is associated with leg, ankle and foot injuries. A structured and comprehensive search of six medical literature databases was combined with forward and backward citation tracking (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and SportDiscus). Eligible studies measured hip muscle performance in individuals with musculoskeletal injuries below the tibial tuberosity, using dynamometry or electromyography (EMG). All studies compared an injured group with a control group or compared the injured and non-injured limb in the same individual. Data was extracted from each study independently by two authors. Twenty case-control and four prospective studies (n = 24) met the inclusion criteria. Injury classifications included chronic ankle instability (n = 18), Achilles tendinopathy (n = 2), medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fracture (n = 1), posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (n = 1), and exertional medial tibial pain (n = 2). Eleven of the studies revealed differences in hip muscle performance indicating less strength, delayed onset activation and decreased duration of activation in the injured groups. Two studies found evidence for differences between groups only in some of their measurements. Three out of the four prospective studies revealed that hip muscle performance was not a risk factor for leg, ankle and foot injuries. This review provides limited evidence that hip muscle performance variables are related to leg, ankle and foot injuries. Emerging evidence indicates this might be a result of the injury rather than a contributor to the injury.

  5. Chronic pain - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org National ...

  6. Referred Pain Patterns Provoked on Intra-Pelvic Structures among Women with and without Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Stephen; Peterson, Magnus; Eriksson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic structures in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) persisting after childbirth with the purpose to improve diagnostics and give implications for treatment. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and comparative study 36 parous women with CPP were recruited from a physiotherapy department waiting list and by advertisements in newspapers. A control group of 29 parous women without CPP was consecutively assessed for eligibility from a midwifery surgery. Inclusion criterion for CPP was: moderate pain in the sacral region persisting at least six months after childbirth confirmed by pelvic pain provocation tests. Exclusion criteria in groups with and without CPP were: persistent back or pelvic pain with onset prior to pregnancy, previous back surgery and positive neurological signs. Pain was provoked by palpation of 13 predetermined intra-pelvic anatomical landmarks. The referred pain distribution was expressed in pain drawings and described in pain maps and calculated referred pain areas. Results Pain provoked by palpation of the posterior intra-pelvic landmarks was mostly referred to the sacral region and pain provoked by palpation of the ischial and pubic bones was mostly referred to the groin and pubic regions, with or without pain referred down the ipsilateral leg. The average pain distribution area provoked by palpation of all 13 anatomical landmarks was 30.3 mm² (19.2 to 53.7) in women with CPP as compared to 3.2 mm² (1.0 to 5.1) in women without CPP, p< 0.0001. Conclusions Referred pain patterns provoked from intra-pelvic landmarks in women with CPP are consistent with sclerotomal sensory innervation. Magnification of referred pain patterns indicates allodynia and central sensitization. The results suggest that pain mapping can be used to evaluate and confirm the pain experience among women with CPP and contribute to diagnosis. PMID:25793999

  7. Knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kneecap. Torn ligament. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, or medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury may ... need surgery. Alternative Names Pain - knee Patient Instructions ACL reconstruction - discharge Hip or knee replacement - after - what ...

  8. Joint pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... both rest and exercise are important. Warm baths, massage, and stretching exercises should be used as often ... Does keeping the joint elevated help? Do medicines, massage, or applying heat reduce the pain? What other ...

  9. Urination Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... small masses of minerals) in the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common cause of painful ... More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Urinary Tract Infections Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions Kidneys ...

  10. Wrist pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 36. Review Date 5/14/2017 Updated by: Linda J. ...

  11. Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes Chest pain can also be caused by: Panic attack. If you have periods of intense fear accompanied ... fear of dying, you may be experiencing a panic attack. Shingles. Caused by a reactivation of the chickenpox ...

  12. Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... for back pain include being overweight, poor physical conditioning, smoking, whole body vibration, and improper lifting technique ... back and abdominal muscles). •Decrease vibrations by installing air cushions or upgrade seat to damper vibrations. • Stay ...

  13. Foot pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 117. Kadakia AR. Heel pain ... Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 119. Molloy A, Selvan D. ...

  14. Elbow Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... of mainstream medical care. Acupuncture and massage are examples of these treatments. Talk to your doctor before trying any CAM procedures. Severe cases of chronic pain could require more invasive treatment. ...

  16. Ankle Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... home remedies for a while. Seek immediate medical attention if you: Have severe pain or swelling Have ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  17. Testicle Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... an over-the-counter pain reliever such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, ... given you other instructions. Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. Though aspirin is approved ...

  18. Penicillin to prevent recurrent leg cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kim S; Crook, Angela M; Nunn, Andrew J; Foster, Katharine A; Mason, James M; Chalmers, Joanne R; Nasr, Ibrahim S; Brindle, Richard J; English, John; Meredith, Sarah K; Reynolds, Nicholas J; de Berker, David; Mortimer, Peter S; Williams, Hywel C

    2013-05-02

    Cellulitis of the leg is a common bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue. We compared prophylactic low-dose penicillin with placebo for the prevention of recurrent cellulitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with two or more episodes of cellulitis of the leg who were recruited in 28 hospitals in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Randomization was performed according to a computer-generated code, and study medications (penicillin [250 mg twice a day] or placebo for 12 months) were dispensed by a central pharmacy. The primary outcome was the time to a first recurrence. Participants were followed for up to 3 years. Because the risk of recurrence was not constant over the 3-year period, the primary hypothesis was tested during prophylaxis only. A total of 274 patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The median time to a first recurrence of cellulitis was 626 days in the penicillin group and 532 days in the placebo group. During the prophylaxis phase, 30 of 136 participants in the penicillin group (22%) had a recurrence, as compared with 51 of 138 participants in the placebo group (37%) (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.86; P=0.01), yielding a number needed to treat to prevent one recurrent cellulitis episode of 5 (95% CI, 4 to 9). During the no-intervention follow-up period, there was no difference between groups in the rate of a first recurrence (27% in both groups). Overall, participants in the penicillin group had fewer repeat episodes than those in the placebo group (119 vs. 164, P=0.02 for trend). There was no significant between-group difference in the number of participants with adverse events (37 in the penicillin group and 48 in the placebo group, P=0.50). In patients with recurrent cellulitis of the leg, penicillin was effective in preventing subsequent attacks during prophylaxis, but the protective effect diminished progressively once

  19. A modular network for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we use symmetry methods to study networks of coupled cells, which are models for central pattern generators (CPGs). In these models the cells obey identical systems of differential equations and the network specifies how cells are coupled. Previously, Collins and Stewart showed that the phase relations of many of the standard gaits of quadrupeds and hexapods can be obtained naturally via Hopf bifurcation in small networks. For example, the networks they used to study quadrupeds all had four cells, with the understanding that each cell determined the phase of the motion of one leg. However, in their work it seemed necessary to employ several different four-oscillator networks to obtain all of the standard quadrupedal gaits. We show that this difficulty with four-oscillator networks is unavoidable, but that the problems can be overcome by using a larger network. Specifically, we show that the standard gaits of a quadruped, including walk, trot and pace, cannot all be realized by a single four-cell network without introducing unwanted conjugacies between trot and pace - conjugacies that imply a dynamic equivalence between these gaits that seems inconsistent with observations. In this sense a single network with four cells cannot model the CPG of a quadruped. We also introduce a single eight-cell network that can model all of the primary gaits of quadrupeds without these unwanted conjugacies. Moreover, this network is modular in that it naturally generalizes to provide models of gaits in hexapods, centipedes, and millipedes. The analysis of models for many-legged animals shows that wave-like motions, similar to those obtained by Kopell and Ermentrout, can be expected. However, our network leads to a prediction that the wavelength of the wave motion will divide twice the length of the animal. Indeed, we reproduce illustrations of wave-like motions in centipedes where the animal is approximately one-and-a-half wavelength long - motions that are consistent

  20. The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Julie D; Bauer, David W; Chang, Terence

    2010-10-01

    The herb Arnica montana, in topical formulations, has been reputed to decrease bruising and muscle pain. This claim has been inadequately and incompletely addressed. To determine whether topical A. montana cream could decrease subjective leg pain following calf raises. Secondary outcomes were effects on ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 53 subjects. Active range of motion was measured in both ankles, and then a series of calf-raises were completed according to a standardized protocol. Each participant received 2 tubes of cream, 1 with active arnica and 1 with placebo. The creams were applied to the lower legs immediately after the exercise, and again at 24 and 48 hours postexercise according to the "RIGHT" or "LEFT" labels. At 48 hours postexercise, subjects had their ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness measured. Subjects used the analog scale to rate pain in each leg at baseline, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. No significant differences in pain scores were seen before exercise (arnica: 0.07 vs placebo: 0.09, p = 0.32). Pain scores on legs treated with arnica were higher than scores on those receiving placebo 24 hours after exercise (3.04 vs 2.36, respectively; p < 0.005). Pain scores on day 3 (arnica: 3.44 vs placebo: 3.20, p = 0.66) and day 4 (arnica: 2.36 vs placebo: 2.31, p = 0.62) were not significantly different. There was no difference in muscle tenderness (arnica: 1.05 vs placebo: 1.05, p = 1.0). Ankle range of motion did not differ significantly on either day 1 (arnica: 64.70 degrees vs placebo: 66.15, p = 0.352 or day 3 (arnica: 63.32 degrees vs placebo: 65.94, p = 0.058). Rather than decreasing leg pain, arnica was found to increase leg pain 24 hours after eccentric calf exercises. This effect did not extend to the 48-hour measurement.

  1. Survey Results of Pain Treatments in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Kratz, Anna L.; Engel, Joyce M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify the types and frequencies of pain treatments used by individuals with cerebral palsy (CP); examine the perceived effectiveness of these treatments; and identify the types of healthcare providers that were accessed for pain-related services. Design A cross-sectional survey design was employed. 83 adults (mean age=40.3 years, SD=13.6) with CP indicated their pain location and intensity during the past 3 months. Next, they indicated their use of 24 different pain treatments and the effectiveness of each. Finally, participants indicated the frequency of pain-related healthcare visits to specific providers over the past 6 months. Results 63% of participants reported experiencing chronic pain and rated their pain intensity over the past week as 5.1/10, on average. The most common pain locations were the lower back, hips, and legs. Physical interventions (e.g., physical therapy, strengthening) were the most common pain treatments reportedly used, and were rated as moderately effective. Many other treatments were also used, and participants sought pain-related care from a variety of providers. Conclusions Although participants reportedly accessed pain care from a variety of providers, and perceived that several types of treatments were effective, many of the treatments rated as effective were rarely used or provided. Future research using clinical trial methods would further elucidate the specific pain treatments that are most beneficial for adults with CP. PMID:21273894

  2. Survey results of pain treatments in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hirsh, Adam T; Kratz, Anna L; Engel, Joyce M; Jensen, Mark P

    2011-03-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the types and frequencies of pain treatments used by individuals with cerebral palsy, examine the perceived effectiveness of these treatments, and identify the types of healthcare providers that were accessed for pain-related services. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 83 adults (mean [SD] age, 40.3 [13.6] yrs) with cerebral palsy indicated their pain location and intensity during the past 3 mos. Next, they indicated their use of 24 different pain treatments and the effectiveness of each. Finally, participants indicated the frequency of pain-related healthcare visits to specific providers over the past 6 mos. Of the participants, 63% reported experiencing chronic pain and rated their pain intensity over the past week as 5.1 of 10, on average. The most common pain locations were the lower back, hips, and legs. Physical interventions (e.g., physical therapy, strengthening) were the most common pain treatments reportedly used and were rated as moderately effective. Many other treatments were also used, and participants sought pain-related care from a variety of providers. Although participants reportedly accessed pain care from a variety of providers and perceived that several types of treatments were effective, many of the treatments rated as effective were rarely used or provided. Future research using clinical trial methods would further elucidate the specific pain treatments that are most beneficial for adults with cerebral palsy.

  3. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p < .001) and 250 Hz ( p = .002), respectively, were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. This study suggests that patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures may experience hypoesthesia in the injured leg, which contrasts with the finding of hyperesthesia previously observed in other chronic pain conditions but is in accord with patients with nerve injuries and surgeries. This is the first study to examine peripheral sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  4. A diagnostic study in patients with sciatica establishing the importance of localization of worsening of pain during coughing, sneezing and straining to assess nerve root compression on MRI.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, Annemieke J H; Mens, Jan; El Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Peul, Wilco C; Koes, Bart W; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2016-05-01

    To test whether the localization of worsening of pain during coughing, sneezing and straining matters in the assessment of lumbosacral nerve root compression or disc herniation on MRI. Recently the diagnostic accuracy of history items to assess disc herniation or nerve root compression on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated. A total of 395 adult patients with severe sciatica of 6-12 weeks duration were included in this study. The question regarding the influence of coughing, sneezing and straining on the intensity of pain could be answered on a 4 point scale: no worsening of pain, worsening of back pain, worsening of leg pain, worsening of back and leg pain. Diagnostic odds ratio's (DORs) were calculated for the various dichotomization options. The DOR changed into significant values when the answer option was more narrowed to worsening of leg pain. The highest DOR was observed for the answer option 'worsening of leg pain' with a DOR of 2.28 (95 % CI 1.28-4.04) for the presence of nerve root compression and a DOR of 2.50 (95 % CI 1.27-4.90) for the presence of a herniated disc on MRI. Worsening of leg pain during coughing, sneezing or straining has a significant diagnostic value for the presence of nerve root compression and disc herniation on MRI in patients with sciatica. This study also highlights the importance of the formulation of answer options in history taking.

  5. Back pain: a real target for spinal cord stimulation?

    PubMed

    Rigoard, Philippe; Delmotte, Alexandre; D'Houtaud, Samuel; Misbert, Lorraine; Diallo, Bakari; Roy-Moreau, Aline; Durand, Sylvain; Royoux, Solène; Giot, Jean-Philippe; Bataille, Benoit

    2012-03-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome represents one of the most frequent etiologies of chronic back pain and is a major public health issue. Neurostimulation has currently not been validated in the treatment of back pain because of technological limitations in implantable spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems. New-generation leads using several columns of stimulation can generate longitudinal and/or transverse stimulation fields into the spinal cord. To investigate, through extensive stimulation testing, the capacity of multicolumn tripolar leads to achieve back territory paresthesia coverage in refractory failed back surgery syndrome patients. Eleven patients implanted with a 16-contact spinal cord stimulation lead (Specify 5-6-5, Medtronic Inc) were assessed with a systematic exploration of 43 selected stimulation configurations to generate bilateral back paresthesia in addition to leg territory coverage. The tripolar lead successfully generated paresthesia in both bilateral back and leg territories in 9 patients (81.8%). Success rates of multicolumn stimulation patterns were significantly higher than for longitudinal configurations for lombodorsal paresthesia coverage. Six months after implantation, significant pain relief was obtained compared with preoperative evaluation for global pain (Visual Analog Scale, 2.25 vs 8.2 preoperatively; P < .05), leg pain (Visual Analog Scale, 0.5 vs 7.6 preoperatively; P < .05), and back pain (Visual Analog Scale, 1.5 vs 7.8 preoperatively; P < .05). These results suggest that multicolumn leads can reliably generate back pain coverage and favor pain relief outcomes. This may lead physicians to reconsider new indications for spinal cord stimulation. Expanding neurostimulation perspectives to intractable back pain syndromes could become realistic in the near future.

  6. Neonatal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  7. [Pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Donnadieu, S; Djian, M C

    1998-12-12

    NEW OPIOID ANALGESICS: Progress in pain reliet has recently been achieved with the introduction of new opioid analgesics such as tramadol and the pediatric preparation of codeine phosphate as well as powerful long-release opioids which can be administered per os, or percutaneously for transdermal fentanyl. CO-ANALGESICS: Other drugs, mainly antidepressants and anti-convulsants, can be usefully combined with analgesics. New serotonin uptake inhibitors and anticonvulsants (gabapentin and lamotrigin) have the advantage of better tolerance. None of these drugs has marketing approval in France for their pain relieving effects. The same is true for clonidine and neostigmine which, after spinal infusion, potentialize opioids and for ketamine which can relieve neuropathy pain by dissociative anesthesia. NEW ANTI-MIGRAINE DRUGS: New drugs have been developed for specific types of pain such as migraine. The new "triptans" are tolerated better than sumatriptan and is reimbursed by the national social security. REFRACTORY NEUROPATHY PAIN: Indications for electrical stimulation techniques conducted in a neurosurgery unit have been identified. Stimulators may be implanted in spinal or supra-spinal localizations. REGULATORY ASPECTS: New legislation has reorganized health care for pain relief in France. The new texts take into consideration personnel training, the health care network and progress in therapeutics.

  8. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.

    2004-09-01

    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  9. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  10. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu; Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Micke, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey.more » The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.« less

  11. Distal Lower-Extremity Pain and Work Postures in the Quebec Population

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Karen; Tissot, France; Stock, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Standing at work has been associated with discomfort and cardiovascular symptoms. Because standing postures vary in duration, mobility, and constraint, we explored associations between specific postures and pain in the lower extremities. Methods. We used multiple logistic regression to analyze associations between work factors and pain in the lower extremities during the previous 12 months that interfered with usual activities. We used data from among 7757 workers who were interviewed in the 1998 Quebec Health and Social Survey. Results. Among all respondents, 9.4% reported significant ankle or foot pain, and 6.4% had lower-leg or calf pain. Significantly more women than men had pain at both sites. Both leg or calf and ankle or foot pain were strongly associated with standing postures, whole-body vibration, psychological distress, female gender, and being aged 50 years or older. Constrained standing postures were associated with increased ankle or foot pain for both men and women and with leg or calf pain for women, compared with standing with freedom to sit at will. Conclusions. Freedom to sit at work may prevent lower-extremity pain. The effects of specific sitting and standing postures on cartilage, muscle, and the cardiovascular system may help explain discomfort in the lower extremities. PMID:17761561

  12. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L; Edwards, Robert R; Wasan, Ajay D; Gollub, Randy L; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-08-01

    Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, and default mode networks: SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN, and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable, with no significant changes of subjects' pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula, and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to interindividual differences in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by

  13. Laboratory on legs: an architecture for adjustable morphology with legged robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, G. Clark; Pusey, Jason; Knopf, Ryan; Johnson, Aaron M.; Koditschek, Daniel E.

    2012-06-01

    For mobile robots, the essential units of actuation, computation, and sensing must be designed to fit within the body of the robot. Additional capabilities will largely depend upon a given activity, and should be easily reconfigurable to maximize the diversity of applications and experiments. To address this issue, we introduce a modular architecture originally developed and tested in the design and implementation of the X-RHex hexapod that allows the robot to operate as a mobile laboratory on legs. In the present paper we will introduce the specification, design and very earliest operational data of Canid, an actively driven compliant-spined quadruped whose completely different morphology and intended dynamical operating point are nevertheless built around exactly the same "Lab on Legs" actuation, computation, and sensing infrastructure. We will review as well, more briefly a second RHex variation, the XRL platform, built using the same components.

  14. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  15. Intradermal capsaicin as a neuropathic pain model in patients with unilateral sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Aykanat, Verna; Gentgall, Melanie; Briggs, Nancy; Williams, Desmond; Yap, Sharon; Rolan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    AIM This study compared the responses between patients with unilateral sciatica and pain-free volunteers following administration of intradermal capsaicin. METHODS Fourteen patients with unilateral sciatica and 12 pain-free volunteers received one injection per hour over 4 h of 1 µg and 10 µg capsaicin, into each calf. For each dose, spontaneous pain (10 cm VAS), area of flare (cm2) and the sum of allodynia and hyperalgesia radii across eight axes (cm) were recorded pre-injection and at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min post injection. RESULTS Sciatica subjects experienced higher spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia responses in both legs compared with pain-free volunteers. The largest mean difference in spontaneous pain was 2.8 cm (95% CI 1.6, 3.9) at 5 min in the unaffected leg following 10 µg. The largest mean difference in hyperalgesia was 19.7 cm (95% CI 12.4, 27.0) at 60 min in the unaffected leg following 10 µg. Allodynia was greater in patients than in controls with the largest mean difference of 2.9 cm (95% CI 1, 4.8) at 5 min following 10 µg in the affected leg. Allodynia was also higher in the affected leg compared with the unaffected leg in sciatica patients with the highest mean difference of 3.0 cm (95% CI 1.2, 4.7) at 5 min following 10 µg. CONCLUSIONS The responses to intradermal capsaicin are quantitatively and qualitatively different in unilateral sciatica patients compared with pain-free controls. PMID:21740458

  16. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  17. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present.

  18. Frustrated S = 1/2 Two-Leg Ladder with Different Leg Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, Takashi; Okamoto, Kiyomi; Hikihara, Toshiya; Sakai, Tôru

    2017-04-01

    We explore the ground-state phase diagram of the S = 1/2 two-leg ladder. The isotropic leg interactions J1,a and J1,b between nearest neighbor spins in the legs a and b, respectively, are different from each other. The xy and z components of the uniform rung interactions are denoted by Jr and ΔJr, respectively, where Δ is the XXZ anisotropy parameter. This system has a frustration when J1,aJ1,b < 0 irrespective of the sign of Jr. The phase diagrams on the Δ (0≤Δ<1) versus J1,b plane in the cases of J1,a = - 0.2 and J1,a = 0.2 with Jr = -1 are determined numerically. We employ the physical consideration, the level spectroscopy analysis of the results obtained by the exact diagonalization method and also the density-matrix renormalization-group method. It is found that the non-collinear ferrimagnetic (NCFR) state appears as the ground state in the frustrated region of the parameters. Furthermore, the direct-product triplet-dimer (TD) state in which all rungs form the TD pair is the exact ground state, when J1,a + J1,b = 0 and 0≤ Δ ≲ 0.83. The obtained phase diagrams consist of the TD, XY and Haldane phases as well as the NCFR phase.

  19. Rembrandt's 'Beggar with a wooden leg' and other comparable prints.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, J J; Jennekens, F G I; Vos-Niël, J M E

    2009-02-01

    Rembrandt's etching of a beggar with a wooden leg is notable because the two lower limbs of the presumed beggar are present and not deformed. Using the facilities of four specialised Dutch art institutes, we carried out a systematic investigation to find other etchings and engravings of subjects with artificial legs supporting non-amputated limbs, from the period 1500 to 1700 AD. We discovered 28 prints produced by at least 18 artists. Several offered clues to a disorder of a knee, the lower leg or the foot. All individuals were adult males, suggesting the probability of traumatic lesions. We conclude that in this period artificial legs were not only used in the case of absence of part of a lower limb, but also for other reasons, notably disorders of the knee, lower leg or foot. They may also have been used to attract compassion.

  20. Treatment of reticular and telangiectatic leg veins: double-blind, prospective comparative trial of polidocanol and hypertonic saline.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jennifer D; Goldman, Mitchel P; Weiss, Robert A; Duffy, David M; Fabi, Sabrina G; Weiss, Margaret A; Guiha, Isabella

    2012-08-01

    Sixty-three subjects' legs were randomized to receive treatment with polidocanol (POL) or hypertonic saline (HS) for telangiectasias and reticular leg veins. To compare the safety and efficacy of two sclerosing agents in three dermatologic surgery practices. After exclusion of saphenofemoral junction incompetence, each subject's veins were categorized (telangiectasias <1 mm and reticular veins 1-3 mm) and randomized. Telangiectasias were treated with POL 0.5% or 11.7% HS and reticular veins with POL 1% or 23.4% HS. An independent, blinded physician determined efficacy and adverse events. Subject satisfaction questionnaires were administered and global clinical improvement assessments performed. All patients completed four visits at 0, 1, 4, and 12 weeks. Patients reported significantly greater pain during treatment with HS (2.42) than POL (1.03) (p < .001). There were no significant differences in physician-assessed improvement of reticular leg veins or telangiectasias; subject- or physician-assessed overall improvement; or physician-assessed phlebitis, pigmentation, edema, or matting in either of the three practices or the entire cohort. Two subjects developed ulcerations with HS. No ulcerations or allergic reactions developed after POL injections. Both agents provided effective treatment, but HS caused 2.35 times as much pain during injections and resulted in two episodes of tissue necrosis. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Experimental muscle pain challenges the postural stability during quiet stance and unexpected posture perturbation.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Rogério Pessoto; Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impairs postural control and stability. Nine subjects stood as quietly as possible on a moveable force platform before, during, and after experimental pain in the right leg muscles. A moveable force platform was used to measure the center of pressure and provided unexpected perturbations. Lower limb muscle activity, joint angles, and foot pressure distributions were measured. Hypertonic saline was used to induce pain in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, or biceps femoris muscle of the right leg. Compared to baseline and control sessions, pain in the knee extensor muscles during quiet standing evoked: 1) larger sway area, greater medial-lateral center of pressure displacement and higher speed (P < .05); 2) increased sway displacement in the anterior-posterior direction (P < .05); and 3) increased electromyography (EMG) activity for left tibialis anterior and left erector spinae muscles (P < .05). Pain provoked longer time to return to an equilibrium posture after forward EMG activity for, and pain in vastus medialis muscle decreased the time for the maximum hip flexion during this perturbation (P < .05). These results show that muscle pain impairs postural stability during quiet standing and after unexpected perturbation, which suggest that people suffering from leg muscle pain are more vulnerable to falls. This article presents the acute responses to leg muscle pain on the postural control. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how pain responses may contribute to patient's postural control and stability during quiet standing and after recovering from unexpected perturbations. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  3. Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running.

    PubMed

    Farley, C T; González, O

    1996-02-01

    When humans and other mammals run, the body's complex system of muscle, tendon and ligament springs behaves like a single linear spring ('leg spring'). A simple spring-mass model, consisting of a single linear leg spring and a mass equivalent to the animal's mass, has been shown to describe the mechanics of running remarkably well. Force platform measurements from running animals, including humans, have shown that the stiffness of the leg spring remains nearly the same at all speeds and that the spring-mass system is adjusted for higher speeds by increasing the angle swept by the leg spring. The goal of the present study is to determine the relative importance of changes to the leg spring stiffness and the angle swept by the leg spring when humans alter their stride frequency at a given running speed. Human subjects ran on treadmill-mounted force platform at 2.5ms-1 while using a range of stride frequencies from 26% below to 36% above the preferred stride frequency. Force platform measurements revealed that the stiffness of the leg spring increased by 2.3-fold from 7.0 to 16.3 kNm-1 between the lowest and highest stride frequencies. The angle swept by the leg spring decreased at higher stride frequencies, partially offsetting the effect of the increased leg spring stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the spring-mass system. We conclude that the most important adjustment to the body's spring system to accommodate higher stride frequencies is that leg spring becomes stiffer.

  4. Painful ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Cristian P; Mischianu, Dan L; Pemberton, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    We reviewed previous publications on post-orgasmic pain with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options, using the Ovid and PubMed (updated May 2006) databases to comprehensively search MEDLINE for reports on post-orgasmic pain that included peer-reviewed English-language articles. Official proceedings of internationally known scientific societies were also assessed. Because of the heterogeneity of the studies we did not apply meta- analytic techniques to the data. The incidence of post-orgasmic pain is 1-9.7%. The ejaculatory pain is associated with prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and ejaculatory duct obstruction; it is also described in patients after procedures like radical prostatectomy. Aetiopathogenic theories include those referring to bladder neck closure and pudendal neuropathy. The treatment options vary from self-care, a 'perineal hyperprotection programme' to medication with the alpha-blocker, topiramate, and even surgical procedures like removing a section of the sacrotuberous ligament, neurolysis of the pudendal nerve or removing a section of the sacrospinous ligament. This is the first update of the subject, with reference to prevalence, epidemiology and treatment options. There is a need for adequately powered, prospective randomized trials on aetiology and treatment options.

  5. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  6. Development Of A Multivariate Prognostic Model For Pain And Activity Limitation In People With Low Back Disorders Receiving Physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jon J; Richards BPhysio, Matt C; Surkitt BPhysio, Luke D; Chan BPhysio, Alexander Yp; Slater, Sarah L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Hahne, Andrew J

    2018-05-28

    To identify predictors for back pain, leg pain and activity limitation in patients with early persistent low back disorders. Prospective inception cohort study; Setting: primary care private physiotherapy clinics in Melbourne, Australia. 300 adults aged 18-65 years with low back and/or referred leg pain of ≥6-weeks and ≤6-months duration. Not applicable. Numerical rating scales for back pain and leg pain as well as the Oswestry Disability Scale. Prognostic factors included sociodemographics, treatment related factors, subjective/physical examination, subgrouping factors and standardized questionnaires. Univariate analysis followed by generalized estimating equations were used to develop a multivariate prognostic model for back pain, leg pain and activity limitation. Fifty-eight prognostic factors progressed to the multivariate stage where 15 showed significant (p<0.05) associations with at least one of the three outcomes. There were five indicators of positive outcome (two types of low back disorder subgroups, paresthesia below waist, walking as an easing factor and low transversus abdominis tone) and 10 indicators of negative outcome (both parents born overseas, deep leg symptoms, longer sick leave duration, high multifidus tone, clinically determined inflammation, higher back and leg pain severity, lower lifting capacity, lower work capacity and higher pain drawing percentage coverage). The preliminary model identifying predictors of low back disorders explained up to 37% of the variance in outcome. This study evaluated a comprehensive range of prognostic factors reflective of both the biomedical and psychosocial domains of low back disorders. The preliminary multivariate model requires further validation before being considered for clinical use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. High Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome among Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Controlled Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in fibromyalgia (FM) and determine the presence and amount of sleep disruption in FM patients with RLS. RLS and FM have been associated in uncontrolled studies using a variety of RLS definitions. We explored this relationship using a cross-sectional study design. Methods: FM cases that met the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria were recruited through an academic referral clinic and advertising. Pain- and fatigue-free controls were recruited from the Seattle metropolitan area. We enrolled 172 FM patients (mean age 50 years, 93% female) and 63 pain- and fatigue-free controls (mean age 41 years, 56% female). RLS was ascertained by a self-administered validated diagnostic interview. Results: The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of RLS was higher in the FM group than the control group (33.0%; 95% CI: 25.9, 40.1 vs. 3.1%; 95% CI: 0.0, 7.4; p = 0.001). Likewise, the FM group was more likely to report RLS (OR = 11.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 53.0), even after adjusting for age and gender. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was higher among FM patients with RLS than those without (11.8 vs. 9.9; p = 0.01) but subjective limb pain measures did not differ between these 2 groups. Conclusions: There is a higher prevalence and odds of RLS in those with FM compared to controls. Clinicians should routinely query FM patients regarding RLS symptoms because treatment of RLS can potentially improve sleep and quality of life in these patients. Citation: Viola-Saltzman M; Watson NF; Bogart A; Goldberg J; Buchwald D. High prevalence of restless legs syndrome among patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(5):423-427. PMID:20957840

  8. Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert; Wasan, Ajay D.; Gollub, Randy L.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically-relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control and default mode networks; SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity MRI, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable with no significant changes of subjects’ pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala, was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

  9. Low incidence of chest wall pain with a risk-adapted lung stereotactic body radiation therapy approach using three or five fractions based on chest wall dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Coroller, Thibaud P; Mak, Raymond H; Lewis, John H; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Colson, Yolonda L; Hacker, Fred L; Hermann, Gretchen; Kozono, David; Mannarino, Edward; Molodowitch, Christina; Wee, Jon O; Sher, David J; Killoran, Joseph H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the frequency and potential of dose-volume predictors for chest wall (CW) toxicity (pain and/or rib fracture) for patients receiving lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using treatment planning methods to minimize CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation scheme. We reviewed data from 72 treatment plans, from 69 lung SBRT patients with at least one year of follow-up or CW toxicity, who were treated at our center between 2010 and 2013. Treatment plans were optimized to reduce CW dose and patients received a risk-adapted fractionation of 18 Gy×3 fractions (54 Gy total) if the CW V30 was less than 30 mL or 10-12 Gy×5 fractions (50-60 Gy total) otherwise. The association between CW toxicity and patient characteristics, treatment parameters and dose metrics, including biologically equivalent dose, were analyzed using logistic regression. With a median follow-up of 20 months, 6 (8.3%) patients developed CW pain including three (4.2%) grade 1, two (2.8%) grade 2 and one (1.4%) grade 3. Five (6.9%) patients developed rib fractures, one of which was symptomatic. No significant associations between CW toxicity and patient and dosimetric variables were identified on univariate nor multivariate analysis. Optimization of treatment plans to reduce CW dose and a risk-adapted fractionation strategy of three or five fractions based on the CW V30 resulted in a low incidence of CW toxicity. Under these conditions, none of the patient characteristics or dose metrics we examined appeared to be predictive of CW pain.

  10. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePlus

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... forms of alternative medicine. Alternatives to medicines include acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, hypnosis, biofeedback, meditation, yoga, and tai- ...

  11. Cuff Pressure Pain Detection Is Associated with Both Sex and Physical Activity Level in Nonathletic Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure pain sensitivity on leg and arm in 98 healthy persons (50 women) using cuff algometry. Furthermore, associations with sex and physical activity level were investigated. Normal physical activity level was defined as Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) score ≤ 45 and high activity level as GLTEQ > 45. A pneumatic double-chamber cuff was placed around the arm or leg where a single chamber was inflated. The cuff inflation rate (1 kPa/s) was constant, and pain intensity was registered continuously on a 10 cm electronic visual analogue scale (VAS). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as when the pressure was perceived as painful, and pain tolerance (PTT) was when the subject terminated the cuff inflation. For PTT, the corresponding VAS score was recorded (VAS-PTT). The protocol was repeated with two chambers inflated. Only single cuff results are given. For women compared with men, the PDT was lower when assessed in the arm ( P = 0.002), PTTs were lower in the arm and leg ( P < 0.001), and the VAS-PTT was higher in the arm and leg ( P < 0.033). Highly active participants compared with less active had higher PDT ( P = 0.027) in the leg. Women showed facilitated spatial summation ( P < 0.014) in the arm and leg and a steeper VAS slope (i.e., the slope of the VAS pressure curve between PDT and PPT) in the arm and leg ( P < 0.003). This study indicates that reduced pressure pain sensitivity is associated both with male sex and physical activity level. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  14. The Effect of Patellar Taping on Squat Depth and the Perception of Pain in People with Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Amanda M.; Harrington, Elaine

    Patellar taping is a treatment adjunct commonly used in the management of anterior knee pain. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effects of medial glide patellar taping on sagittal plane lower-limb joint kinematics and knee pain during a unilateral squat in a symptomatic population complaining of anterior knee pain. Ten participants with a history of unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study. Subjects were required to squat on the symptomatic leg under three conditions: placebo tape, patellar tape and no tape. Kinematic data was recorded using the CODA mpx64 motion analysis system and subjects’ pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale. Patellar taping resulted in a significantly greater single-legged squat depth compared to placebo tape (p=0.008) and no tape (p=0.001) and a statistically significant reduction in pain during a squat compared to placebo tape (p=0.001) or no tape (p=0.001). Significant differences were not identified for maximum knee flexion in the patella taping compared to the no tape condition. This study may have significant clinical implications as participants reported less pain and alterations in sagittal plane movement following the application of patellar tape. PMID:24146711

  15. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced laser-evoked potential habituation detects abnormal central pain processing in painful radiculopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Hüllemann, P; von der Brelie, C; Manthey, G; Düsterhöft, J; Helmers, A K; Synowitz, M; Baron, R

    2017-05-01

    Repetitive painful laser stimuli lead to physiological laser-evoked potential (LEP) habituation, measurable by a decrement of the N2/P2 amplitude. The time course of LEP-habituation is reduced in the capsaicin model for peripheral and central sensitization and in patients with migraine and fibromyalgia. In the present investigation, we aimed to assess the time course of LEP-habituation in a neuropathic pain syndrome, i.e. painful radiculopathy. At the side of radiating pain, four blocks of 25 painful laser stimuli each were applied to the ventral thigh at the L3 dermatome in 27 patients with painful radiculopathy. Inclusion criteria were (1) at least one neurological finding of radiculopathy, (2) low back pain with radiation into the foot and (3) a positive one-sided compression of the L5 and/or S1 root in the MRI. The time course of LEP-habituation was compared to 20 healthy height and age matched controls. Signs of peripheral (heat hyperalgesia) and central sensitization (dynamic mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia) at the affected L5 or S1 dermatome were assessed with quantitative sensory testing. Painful radiculopathy patients showed decreased LEP-habituation compared to controls. Patients with signs of central sensitization showed a more prominent LEP-habituation decrease within the radiculopathy patient group. Laser-evoked potential habituation is reduced in painful radiculopathy patients, which indicates an abnormal central pain processing. Central sensitization seems to be a major contributor to abnormal LEP habituation. The LEP habituation paradigm might be useful as a clinical tool to assess central pain processing alterations in nociceptive and neuropathic pain conditions. Abnormal central pain processing in neuropathic pain conditions may be revealed with the laser-evoked potential habituation paradigm. In painful radiculopathy patients, LEP-habituation is reduced compared to healthy controls. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. Disaggregating pain and its effect on physical functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Dhanda, R; Cornell, J E; Escalante, A; Hazuda, H P

    1998-09-01

    Pain is a common impairment that limits the abilities of older persons. The purposes of this article are to: (i) describe the distribution of pain location using the McGill Pain Map (MPM) in a community-based cohort of aged subjects; (ii) investigate whether individual areas of pain could be sensibly grouped into regions of pain; (iii) determine whether intensity, frequency, and location constitute independent dimensions of pain; and (iv) determine whether these three pain dimensions make differential contributions to the presence of self-reported physical functional limitations. A total of 833 Mexican American and European American subjects, aged 65-79 years, were enrolled in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging and were interviewed in their homes between 1992 and 1996. A total of 373 (46%) of the subjects reported having pain in the past week. Physical functional limitations were ascertained using the nine items from the Nagi scale. Three composite scales were created: upper extremity, lower extremity, and total. Pain intensity and frequency were ascertained using the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain location was ascertained by using the MPM. Pain was reported in every area of the MPM. Using multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis, the 36 areas were grouped into 7 regions of pain: head, arms, hands and wrists, trunk, back, upper leg, and lower leg. Among persons with pain, pain frequency, intensity, and location were weakly associated with each other. Pain regions were primarily independent of each other, yet weak associations existed between 6 of the 21 pair-wise correlations between regions. Pain regions were differentially associated with individual physical functional limitations. Pain in the upper leg was associated with 8 of the 9 physical tasks. In multivariate analyses, age, gender, and ethnic group accounted for only 2-3% of the variance in physical tasks. In multivariate analyses, age, gender, and ethnic group accounted for only 2-3% of the

  18. Evaluation of arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D; Seifert, L; Leblanc, H; Boulesteix, L; Carter, M

    2004-10-01

    This study proposes a new method to evaluate arm-leg coordination in flat breaststroke. Five arm and leg stroke phases were defined with a velocity-video system. Five time gaps quantified the time between arm and leg actions during three paces of a race (200 m, 100 m and 50 m) in 16 top level swimmers. Based on these time gaps, effective glide, effective propulsion, effective leg insweep and effective recovery were used to identify the different stroke phases of the body. A faster pace corresponded to increased stroke rate, decreased stroke length, increased propulsive phases, shorter glide phases, and a shorter T1 time gap, which measured the effective body glide. The top level swimmers showed short time gaps (T2, T3, T4, measuring the timing of arm-leg recoveries), which reflected the continuity in arm and leg actions. The measurement of these time gaps thus provides a pertinent evaluation of swimmers' skill in adapting their arm-leg coordination to biomechanical constraints.

  19. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  20. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  1. Compliant leg behaviour explains basic dynamics of walking and running

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    The basic mechanics of human locomotion are associated with vaulting over stiff legs in walking and rebounding on compliant legs in running. However, while rebounding legs well explain the stance dynamics of running, stiff legs cannot reproduce that of walking. With a simple bipedal spring–mass model, we show that not stiff but compliant legs are essential to obtain the basic walking mechanics; incorporating the double support as an essential part of the walking motion, the model reproduces the characteristic stance dynamics that result in the observed small vertical oscillation of the body and the observed out-of-phase changes in forward kinetic and gravitational potential energies. Exploring the parameter space of this model, we further show that it not only combines the basic dynamics of walking and running in one mechanical system, but also reveals these gaits to be just two out of the many solutions to legged locomotion offered by compliant leg behaviour and accessed by energy or speed. PMID:17015312

  2. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.

    2011-10-15

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding themore » management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.« less

  3. Treatment of pediatric restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Amos, Louella B; Grekowicz, Megan L; Kuhn, Evelyn M; Olstad, Jenna D; Collins, Maureen M; Norins, Nan A; D'Andrea, Lynn A

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim was to determine if iron supplementation effectively treats children with restless legs syndrome (RLS), the time to improvement or resolution of symptoms, and patient characteristics (family history of RLS, secondary sleep disorders, medical diagnoses, and/or mental health diagnoses) that may affect outcome. METHODS.: This was a retrospective chart review of children between 5 and 18 years old who were diagnosed with RLS at the pediatric sleep disorders clinic at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Documented RLS treatment approaches included supplemental iron, nonpharmacologic interventions, melatonin, gabapentin, clonidine, and dopamine agonists (pramipexole and ropinirole). Ninety-seven children were diagnosed with RLS; 60.8% of children were between 5 and 11 years old. Most children (65%) received iron either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments. Approximately 80% of the children who received iron and had follow-up had improvement or resolution of their symptoms. The median baseline ferritin level was 22.7 ng/mL, and 71% of children had a ferritin level less than 30 ng/mL. The median time to improvement or resolution of symptoms was 3.8 months. Supplemental iron as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments is effective in treating pediatric RLS. A prospective study could help determine if the initial ferritin level and degree of change in the ferritin level impact response to iron treatment. It is also important to study the long-term outcomes in these patients.

  4. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  5. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  6. Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family Health Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens ... Improving Your Health Home Prevention and Wellness Pain Control After Surgery: Pain Medicines Pain Control After Surgery: ...

  7. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  8. [Social pain].

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Naohito; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2011-09-01

    This chapter focuses on what social pain is and how it should be managed. In order to understand social pain in a cancer patient, it is necessary to recognize the change in the patient's daily life after the diagnosis of cancer. Because the degree of suffering and the relationships with family members and the people he or she worked with differ from patient to patient, it is important to note that the context of social pain is different in each patient. Five points shown below are essential in managing social pain. 1. Economical suffering may be alleviated by utilization of the social security system while taking into account each patient's standard of living. 2. Burdens on family members should be lessened, such as by not having them stay at the patient's bedside every day and letting them go home occasionally. 3. The normal patterns of communication, support, and conflict in the family should be identified, and the extent to which they have been disrupted by the illness should be assessed. 4. It is important to understand the ethnic, cultural, and religious background of the patient and the potential impact of their influence on the individual and the illness. 5. Practical or emotional unfinished business that the patient has needs to be identified, and efforts should be made to support fulfillment.

  9. Patterns of pain and interference in patients with painful bone metastases: a brief pain inventory validation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jackson S Y; Beaton, Dorcas; Smith, Peter M; Hagen, Neil A

    2010-02-01

    Bone metastases are prevalent, painful, and carry a poorer prognosis for pain control compared with other cancer pain syndromes. Standard tools to measure pain have not been validated in this patient population, and particular subgroups with more challenging symptoms have yet to be identified and studied. The objectives of this study were 1) to validate the psychometric properties of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and its Pain and Interference subscales in patients with clinically significant metastatic bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy and 2) to examine differences in BPI subscales among predefined subgroups of bone metastases patients. A total of 258 patients evaluated and treated through a rapid access radiation therapy clinic between July 2002, and November 2006, were included in the analysis. High internal consistency of the BPI subscales of Pain, Activity interference, and Affect interference was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha between 0.81 and 0.89. Removing sleep interference improved model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. The BPI revealed an alarming pattern in patients with lower body metastases, who reported substantial interference of activity even though pain levels were mild or moderate. Such patients may require prompt clinical attention to better meet their needs. Finally, the allocation of interference from sleep within the BPI framework, in our population of pain patients, requires further study. Copyright 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study on the area of pain and numbness in cases with lumbosacral radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Kuraishi, Keita; Hanakita, Junya; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Minami, Manabu; Watanabe, Mizuki; Uesaka, Toshio; Honda, Fumiaki

    2012-10-01

    In the clinical diagnosis of lumbosacral radicular symptoms, dermatome maps are commonly used, by which the segmental location of the affected nerve can be determined. However, the diagnosis is often difficult because the pattern of sensory disturbance does not necessarily match the patterns of classical dermatomes, and there are many dermatome maps made by different methods. The author examined the area of pain and numbness in cases of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Clinical features of pain and numbness in consecutive seventy three cases of lumbosacral radiculopathy were investigated (L3: n=13, L4-S1: n=20). Patients of L3 radiculopathy showed symptoms at the upper buttock and ventral surface of the thighs, knees and upper ventral surface of the legs. Patients of L4 radiculopathy showed symptoms at the ventro-lateral surfaces of the thigh and leg. The distinctive region, defined as the region having 100% superimposition, of L4 radiculopathy was the lateral part of the shin. Patients of L5 radiculopathy showed symptoms at the lateral surfaces of the thigh and leg. The distinctive region was the upper buttock. Patients of S1 radiculopathy showed symptoms at the lower buttock, dorso-lateral part of the leg and lateral part of the foot. The distinctive region was the lateral part of the calf. It was found that the regions of pain and numbness formed a continuous band-like zone from thigh to leg in 8% of L3, 45% of L4 and L5, and 35% of S1 radiculopathy. Using a visual analogue scale, the degree of leg pain was more severe than low back pain in 68% of the patients, but in 5% of patients, low back pain was more severe.

  11. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Susan; Al-Kurdi, Deyaa; Ologun, Yemisi; Ovington, Liza G; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Richardson, Rachel

    2013-12-23

    Venous leg ulcers are a type of chronic wound affecting up to 1% of adults in developed countries at some point during their lives. Many of these wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. The presence of infection may delay ulcer healing. Two main strategies are used to prevent and treat clinical infection in venous leg ulcers: systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics or antiseptics. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics and antiseptics on the healing of venous ulcers; review authors also examined the effects of these interventions on clinical infection, bacterial flora, bacterial resistance, ulcer recurrence, adverse effects, patient satisfaction, health-related quality of life and costs. In May 2013, for this second update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24 May 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (1948 to Week 3 May 2013); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-indexed Citations, 22 May 2013); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to Week 20 2013); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 17 May 2013). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting people with venous leg ulceration, evaluating at least one systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic or topical antiseptic that reported an objective assessment of wound healing (e.g. time to complete healing, frequency of complete healing, change in ulcer surface area) were eligible for inclusion. Selection decisions were made by two review authors while working independently. Information on the characteristics of participants, interventions and outcomes was recorded on a standardised data extraction form. In addition, aspects of trial methods were extracted, including randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data and study group

  12. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Susan; Al-Kurdi, Deyaa; Ologun, Yemisi; Ovington, Liza G; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Richardson, Rachel

    2014-01-10

    Venous leg ulcers are a type of chronic wound affecting up to 1% of adults in developed countries at some point during their lives. Many of these wounds are colonised by bacteria or show signs of clinical infection. The presence of infection may delay ulcer healing. Two main strategies are used to prevent and treat clinical infection in venous leg ulcers: systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics or antiseptics. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of systemic antibiotics and topical antibiotics and antiseptics on the healing of venous ulcers. In May 2013, for this second update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24 May 2013); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4); Ovid MEDLINE (1948 to Week 3 May 2013); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-indexed Citations, 22 May 2013); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to Week 20 2013); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 17 May 2013). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting people with venous leg ulceration, evaluating at least one systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic or topical antiseptic that reported an objective assessment of wound healing (e.g. time to complete healing, frequency of complete healing, change in ulcer surface area) were eligible for inclusion. Selection decisions were made by two review authors while working independently. Information on the characteristics of participants, interventions and outcomes was recorded on a standardised data extraction form. In addition, aspects of trial methods were extracted, including randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data and study group comparability at baseline. Data extraction and validity assessment were conducted by one review author and were checked by a second. Data were pooled when appropriate. Forty-five RCTs reporting 53 comparisons and recruiting a total of

  13. An MRI-based leg model used to simulate biomechanical phenomena during cuff algometry: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Manafi-Khanian, Bahram; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Cuff pressure stimulation is applicable for assessing deep-tissue pain sensitivity by exciting a variety of deep-tissue nociceptors. In this study, the relative transfer of biomechanical stresses and strains from the cuff via the skin to the muscle and the somatic tissue layers around bones were investigated. Cuff pressure was applied on the lower leg at three different stimulation intensities (mild pressure to pain). Three-dimensional finite element models including bones and three different layers of deep tissues were developed based on magnetic resonance images (MRI). The skin indentation maps at mild pressure, pain threshold, and intense painful stimulations were extracted from MRI and applied to the model. The mean stress under the cuff position around tibia was 4.6, 4.9 and around fibula 14.8, 16.4 times greater than mean stress of muscle surface in the same section at pain threshold and intense painful stimulations, respectively. At the same stimulation intensities, the mean strains around tibia were 36.4, 42.3 % and around fibula 32.9, 35.0 %, respectively, of mean strain on the muscle surface. Assuming strain as the ideal stimulus for nociceptors the results suggest that cuff algometry is less capable to challenge the nociceptors of tissues around bones as compared to more superficially located muscles.

  14. How performing a repetitive one-legged stance modifies two-legged postural control.

    PubMed

    Burdet, Cyril; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Rougier, Patrice R

    2011-10-01

    The proprioceptive cues in the control of movement is recognized as playing a major role in postural control. However, little is known about its possible increased contribution to postural control consecutive to repetitive muscular activations. To test this, the short-term effects induced by a 1-legged exercise on 2-legged postural control with the eyes closed were assessed in healthy subjects. The center-of-pressure (CP) displacements obtained using a force platform were split into 2 elementary movements: center-of-gravity vertical projection (CGv) and the difference (CP - CGv). These movements assessed the net postural performance and the level of neuromuscular activity, respectively, and were processed afterward (a) through variances, mean velocity, and the average surface covered by the trajectories and (b) a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) modeling. The latter provides further information about how much the subject controls the movements and the spatiotemporal relation between the successive control mechanisms. No difference was found using the classical parameters. In contrast, fBm parameters showed statistically significant changes in postural control after 1-legged exercises: The spatial and temporal coordinates of the transition points for the CG movements along the anteroposterior axis are decreased. Because the body movement control does not rely on visual or vestibular cues, this ability to trigger the corrective process of the CG movements more quickly in the postexercise condition and once a more reduced distance has been covered emphasizes how prior muscular activation improves body movement detection. As a general rule, these data show that the motor systems control body motions better after repetitive stimulation of the sensory cues. These insights should be of interest in physical activities based on a precise muscular length control.

  15. Severe pain as a possible cause of dropped head syndrome that was attenuated after amputation of an ischemic lower limb.

    PubMed

    Maki, Satoshi; Koda, Masao; Furuya, Takeo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-03-02

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is defined as weakness of the neck extensor muscles causing a correctable chin-on-the-chest deformity. Here we report the case of a patient with severe pain from lower leg ischemia showing DHS whose symptoms were attenuated by pain relief after amputation of the severely ischemic lower leg. To our knowledge this is the first report indicating that severe pain can cause DHS. A 64-year-old Asian woman was referred to our department with a 1-month history of DHS. She also suffered from severe right foot pain because of limb ischemia. She began to complain of DHS as her gangrenous foot pain worsened. She had neck pain and difficulty with forward gaze. We found no clinical or laboratory findings of neuromuscular disorder or isolated neck extensor myopathy. We amputated her leg below the knee because of progressive foot gangrene. Her severe foot pain resolved after the surgery and her DHS was attenuated. Severe pain can cause DHS. If a patient with DHS has severe pain in another part of the body, we recommend considering aggressive pain relief as a treatment option.

  16. Effective Spine Triage: Patterns of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common cause of recurring lost time from work, low back pain is a huge burden on society. Medical training dictates that we must establish a cause for pain before we can treat it and then base our treatment on a recognized and agreed-upon pathology. But in the overwhelming majority of low back pain cases, the issue is nothing more than a minor mechanical malfunction, the inevitable consequence of normal wear and tear. The severity of the pain does not reflect the benign nature of the underlying problem and its limited extent makes a definitive diagnosis impossible. One important component of the solution is improved spinal triage. Using patterns or syndromes in the initial assessment of low back pain is gaining renewed interest and clinical acceptance. Methods Identifying a patient's pain pattern is achieved primarily through an assessment of the patient's history. The patient interview begins with a series of questions to determine the specific syndrome. A subsequent physical examination supports or refutes the findings in history. Combining information from the history with the findings of the physical examination, the clinician has the ability to rule out a number of potentially grim diagnoses. Results More than 90% of back pain patients have benign mechanical problems and their pain can be classified into 4 distinct patterns: 2 back-dominant patterns and 2 leg-dominant patterns. Conclusion A clinical perspective capable of recognizing a defined syndrome at first contact will lead to a better outcome. Most patients with low back pain can be treated successfully with simple, pattern-specific, noninvasive primary management. Patients without a pattern and those who do not respond as anticipated require further investigation and specialized care. PMID:24688339

  17. Effective spine triage: patterns of pain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    The most common cause of recurring lost time from work, low back pain is a huge burden on society. Medical training dictates that we must establish a cause for pain before we can treat it and then base our treatment on a recognized and agreed-upon pathology. But in the overwhelming majority of low back pain cases, the issue is nothing more than a minor mechanical malfunction, the inevitable consequence of normal wear and tear. The severity of the pain does not reflect the benign nature of the underlying problem and its limited extent makes a definitive diagnosis impossible. One important component of the solution is improved spinal triage. Using patterns or syndromes in the initial assessment of low back pain is gaining renewed interest and clinical acceptance. Identifying a patient's pain pattern is achieved primarily through an assessment of the patient's history. The patient interview begins with a series of questions to determine the specific syndrome. A subsequent physical examination supports or refutes the findings in history. Combining information from the history with the findings of the physical examination, the clinician has the ability to rule out a number of potentially grim diagnoses. More than 90% of back pain patients have benign mechanical problems and their pain can be classified into 4 distinct patterns: 2 back-dominant patterns and 2 leg-dominant patterns. A clinical perspective capable of recognizing a defined syndrome at first contact will lead to a better outcome. Most patients with low back pain can be treated successfully with simple, pattern-specific, noninvasive primary management. Patients without a pattern and those who do not respond as anticipated require further investigation and specialized care.

  18. When Sex Is Painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  19. Managing pain during labor

    MedlinePlus

    ... good to prepare yourself for natural childbirth. Natural Childbirth The pain felt during childbirth is different for ... use pain medicine during childbirth. Pain Medicines for Childbirth A systemic analgesic is a pain medicine that ...

  20. Back pain and sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  1. Retrospective review of the efficacy and safety of repeated pulsed and continuous radiofrequency lesioning of the dorsal root ganglion/segmental nerve for lumbar radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Nagda, Jyotsna V; Davis, Craig W; Bajwa, Zahid H; Simopoulos, Thomas T

    2011-01-01

    Chronic lumbosacral radicular pain is a common source of radiating leg pain seen in pain management patients. These patients are frequently managed conservatively with multiple modalities including medications, physical therapy, and epidural steroid injections. Radiofrequency has been used to treat chronic radicular pain for over 30 years; however, there is a paucity of literature about the safety and efficacy of repeat radiofrequency lesioning. To determine the safety, success rate, and duration of pain relief of repeat pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and continuous radiofrequency (CRF) lesioning of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG)/ sacral segmental nerves (SN) in patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain. Retrospective chart review Outpatient multidisciplinary pain center Medical record review of patients who were treated with pulsed and continuous radiofrequency lesioning of the lumbar dorsal root ganglia and segmental nerves and who reported initial success were evaluated for recurrence of pain and repeat radiofrequency treatment. Responses to subsequent treatments were compared to initial treatments for success rates, average duration of relief, and adverse neurologic side-effects. Retrospective chart review without a control group. Twenty-six women and 24 men were identified who received 50% pain relief or better after PRF and CRF of the lumbar DRG/ sacral SN for lumbosacral radicular pain. The mean age was 62 years (range, 25-86). The mean duration of relief for the 40 patients who had 2 treatments was 4.7 months (range 0-24; Se [standard error] 0.74). Twenty-eight patients had 3 treatments with an average duration of relief of 4.5 months (range 0-19 months; Se 0.74). Twenty patients had 4 treatments with a mean duration of relief of 4.4 months (range 0.5-18; Se 0.95) and 18 patients who had 5 or more treatments received an average duration of relief of 4.3 months (range 0.5-18; Se 1.03). The average duration of relief and success frequency remained

  2. Pain in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lager, Christina; Kroksmark, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence, nature and scope of pain in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy and whether the pain differs between diagnostic groups or between adolescents with different ambulation status. Furthermore to study the consequences of pain and to identify pain-exacerbating and pain-relieving factors. In a national survey, fifty-five adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and dystrophinopathy completed a questionnaire assessing pain frequency, duration, location using a body map, intensity and discomfort using visual analogue scales, pain interference using a modified version of Brief Pain Inventory and factors exacerbating and relieving pain. Sixty-nine per cent of the adolescents reported pain during the past three months and 50% reported chronic pain. The pain prevalence did not differ significantly between diagnostic groups or between ambulators and non-ambulators. The average pain intensity was graded as mild and the worst pain as moderate. The pain typically occurred weekly, most frequently in the neck/back or legs. General activity and mood were the areas that were most affected by pain. Common pain-exacerbating factors were sitting, too much movement/activity and being lifted or transferred. Pain is a frequent problem in adolescents with spinal muscular atrophy and dystrophinopathy. The assessments used enable an understanding both of the nature and scope of pain and of the impact of pain in everyday life. The study highlights the importance of assessing pain in a systematic manner and offering an individual approach to interventions designed to reduce pain in this population. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Motor and the Brake of the Trailing Leg in Human Walking: Leg Force Control Through Ankle Modulation and Knee Covariance

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Megan E.; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step-to-step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production. PMID:27334888

  4. An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance). Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP) and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON) participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline) together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds. PMID:21992460

  5. Restless legs syndrome in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Ulfberg, Jan; Nyström, Birgitta

    2004-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be a cause of significant sleep disturbance. In a Swedish survey, the prevalence of RLS has been estimated to be 5.8% among men and 11.4% among women. Blood donation may result in iron deficiency, which is hypothesized to be one substantial cause of RLS. Nine hundred and forty-six (618 men, 328 women) consecutive blood donors aged 18-64 years, who attended a blood donation unit in mid-Sweden, answered a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits. Frequency of blood donation was recorded and intake of iron tablets was assessed. Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) was also recorded. The value of RDW increases in relation to iron deficiency. RLS affected 14.7% of male and 24.7% of female blood donors. The mean intake of iron among the blood donors after each blood donation was only 781 mg, although the recommended intake is 2000 mg. Among the women, 7.4% presented an RDW of >14.5%, which strongly indicates iron deficiency. In this group of women, 37.5% were affected by RLS. The female RLS-sufferers were more affected than the female non-RLS subjects by problems initiating sleep (P=0.006 maintaining sleep (P<0.0001) and were also less refreshed upon awakening (P<0.001). This study showed that RLS was common among female blood donors. Women with RLS were more iron-deficient than those without and were affected by impaired sleep.

  6. Swimming with stiff legs at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    Locomotion at low Reynolds number is not possible with cycles of reciprocal motion, an example being the oscillation of a single pair of rigid paddles or legs. Here, I demonstrate the possibility of swimming with two or more pairs of legs. They are assumed to oscillate collectively in a metachronal wave pattern in a minimal model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the traveling wave, as commonly observed along the body of free-swimming crustaceans. The displacement of the body and the swimming efficiency depend on the number of legs, the amplitude, and the phase of oscillations. This study shows that paddling legs with distinct orientations and phases offers a simple mechanism for driving flow.

  7. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003775.htm Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  8. Accuracy of straight leg raise and slump tests in detecting lumbar disc herniation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    M'kumbuzi, V R P; Ntawukuriryayo, J T; Haminana, J D; Munyandamutsa, J; Nzakizwanimana, E

    2012-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Straight Leg Raise (SLR) and slump tests in detecting Lumbar Disc Herniation (LDH). Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. Two referral hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda: King Faisal Hospital and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali. All patients aged 18 to 70 who had an MRI and who were experiencing pain in the low back, leg or low back and leg. Closed Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) investigations for each patient as witnessed by a radiologist who read the image were recorded by the first researcher and blinded to other researchers. The SLR and slump tests were performed three times on each patient by independent testers who were blinded to the result of the first test. The test order was randomized for each subject and the two tests were separated by one day wash-out period. Data were analyzed using a 2x2 table to ascertain diagnostic statistics including sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals. Thirty three from a possible 37 patients mean age 41.58 ± 10 years completed all of the tests. The sensitivity of SLR was greater (0.875; CI: 0.690-0.957) than that of the slump tests (0.800; CI: 0.6087-0.911) (p = 0.01) in detecting LDH. The specificity for SLR was 0.429 (CI: 0.158-0.750) and for slump was 0.714 (CI: 0.359-0.918). Substantial agreement (K = 0.774) was obtained between the SLR and MRI. The SLR was more accurate in detecting LDH. Further validation of this pilot finding is required by studying a larger sample.

  9. Chronic low back pain in older adults: prevalence, reliability, and validity of physical examination findings.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Debra K; Sakamoto, Sara; Perera, Subashan; Breuer, Paula

    2006-01-01

    To develop a structured physical examination protocol that identifies common biomechanical and soft-tissue abnormalities for older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) that can be used as a triage tool for healthcare providers and to test the interobserver reliability and discriminant validity of this protocol. Cross-sectional survey and examination. Older adult pain clinic. One hundred eleven community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older with CLBP and 20 who were pain-free. Clinical history for demographics, pain duration, previous lumbar surgery or advanced imaging, neurogenic claudication, and imaging clinically serious symptoms. Physical examination for scoliosis, functional leg length discrepancy, pain with lumbar movement, myofascial pain (paralumbar, piriformis, tensor fasciae latae (TFL)), regional bone pain (sacroiliac joint (SIJ), hip, vertebral body), and fibromyalgia. Scoliosis was prevalent in those with (77.5%) and without pain (60.0%), but prevalence of SIJ pain (84% vs 5%), fibromyalgia tender points (19% vs 0%), myofascial pain (96% vs 10%), and hip pain (48% vs 0%) was significantly different between groups (P < .001). Interrater reliability was excellent for SIJ pain (0.81), number of fibromyalgia tender points (0.84), and TFL pain (0.81); good for scoliosis (0.43), kyphosis (0.66), lumbar movement pain (0.75), piriformis pain (0.71), and hip disease by internal rotation (0.56); and marginal for leg length (0.00) and paravertebral pain (0.39). Biomechanical and soft tissue pathologies are common in older adults with CLBP, and many can be assessed reliably using a brief physical examination. Their recognition may save unnecessary healthcare expenditure and patient suffering.

  10. Body Composition of Bangladeshi Children: Comparison and Development of Leg-to-Leg Bioelectrical Impedance Equation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, I.; Hawlader, Sophie Mohammad Delwer Hossain; Arifeen, Shams El; Moore, Sophie; Hills, Andrew P.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kabir, Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Tanita TBF 300A leg-to-leg bioimpedance analyzer for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in Bangladeshi children aged 4-10 years and to develop novel prediction equations for use in this population, using deuterium dilution as the reference method. Two hundred Bangladeshi children were enrolled. The isotope dilution technique with deuterium oxide was used for estimation of total body water (TBW). FFM estimated by Tanita was compared with results of deuterium oxide dilution technique. Novel prediction equations were created for estimating FFM, using linear regression models, fitting child's height and impedance as predictors. There was a significant difference in FFM and percentage of body fat (BF%) between methods (p<0.01), Tanita underestimating TBW in boys (p=0.001) and underestimating BF% in girls (p<0.001). A basic linear regression model with height and impedance explained 83% of the variance in FFM estimated by deuterium oxide dilution technique. The best-fit equation to predict FFM from linear regression modelling was achieved by adding weight, sex, and age to the basic model, bringing the adjusted R2 to 89% (standard error=0.90, p<0.001). These data suggest Tanita analyzer may be a valid field-assessment technique in Bangladeshi children when using population-specific prediction equations, such as the ones developed here. PMID:23082630

  11. Variability of single-leg versus double-leg stance radiographs in the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew; Rich, Valerie; Bain, Elizabeth; Sterett, William I

    2009-07-01

    We evaluated measured radiographic parameter variability between single-leg stance (SLS) and double-leg stance (DLS) radiographs in patients with varus knee malalignment, indicated for high tibial osteotomy. Fifty-three consecutive knees (mean, 49 years; range, 18-79 years) were evaluated for varus thrust. SLS and DLS radiographs were obtained. A single blinded observer measured mechanical axis angles and weight-bearing line (WBL) deviation using a goniometer. Mechanical axis angles averaged 9.1 degrees (DLS) and 11.3 degrees (SLS). SLS radiographs averaged 9% greater WBL medialization than did DLS. Medial opening averaged 16.4 mm (DLS) and 18.8 mm (SLS). DLS and SLS radiographs showed no significant differences in patients without varus thrust. Patients with varus thrust demonstrated differences in mechanical axis angles (DLS, 9.4 degrees; SLS, 12.2 degrees), WBL deviation (12.1% less), medialization (DLS), and medial opening necessary for correction (DLS, 16.6 mm; SLS, 20.3 mm). In varus thrust, SLS radiographs more closely replicate dynamic knee malalignment, possibly providing more accurate measurements of angular deformity.

  12. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  13. Leg ulcer assessment techniques in a remote rural area.

    PubMed

    Graham, Julia

    Community-based leg ulcer clinics are a cost-effective and efficient way of managing patients with leg ulcers in the community (Blair et al, 1988; Moffatt and Oldroyd, 1994). According to the Scottish Clinical Standards for Vascular Services (NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2003): 'It is essential that all vascular patients are seen by a nurse with vascular expertise, who is able to provide information, support and health promotion advice'.

  14. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  15. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.

    1990-02-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) hadmore » scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.« less

  16. Neck pain.

    PubMed

    Binder, Allan I

    2008-08-04

    Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy, physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates

  17. The susceptibility of the knee extensors to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage is not affected by leg dominance but by exercise order.

    PubMed

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Laglaine, T; Croisier, J-L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were first to compare the response of dominant and non-dominant legs to eccentric exercise and second, to examine whether there is an effect of exercise order on the magnitude of symptoms associated with intense eccentric protocols. Eighteen young men performed three sets of 30 maximal eccentric isokinetic (60° s(-1)) contractions of the knee extensors (range of motion, ROM: 0°-100°, 0 = full extension) using either dominant or non-dominant leg. They repeated a similar eccentric bout using the contralateral leg 6 weeks later. The sequence of leg's use was allocated to create equally balanced groups. Four indirect markers of muscle damage including subjective pain intensity, maximal isometric strength, muscle stiffness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before and 24 h after exercise. All markers changed significantly following the eccentric bout performed either by dominant or non-dominant legs, but no significant difference was observed between legs. Interestingly, the comparison between the first and second eccentric bouts revealed that muscle soreness (-42%, P<0.001), CK activity (-62%, P<0.05) and strength loss (-54%, P<0.01) were significantly lower after the second bout. This study suggests that leg dominance does not influence the magnitude of exercise-induced muscle damage and supports for the first time the existence of a contralateral protection against exercise-induced muscle damage in the lower limbs. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stratified cost-utility analysis of C-Leg versus mechanical knees: Findings from an Italian sample of transfemoral amputees.

    PubMed

    Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Lettieri, Emanuele; Del Maestro, Martina; Radaelli, Giovanni; Luchetti, Martina; Verni, Gennero; Masella, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    The fitting rate of the C-Leg electronic knee (Otto-Bock, D) has increased steadily over the last 15 years. Current cost-utility studies, however, have not considered the patients' characteristics. To complete a cost-utility analysis involving C-Leg and mechanical knee users; "age at the time of enrollment," "age at the time of first prosthesis," and "experience with the current type of prosthesis" are assumed as non-nested stratification parameters. Cohort retrospective. In all, 70 C-Leg and 57 mechanical knee users were selected. For each stratification criteria, we evaluated the cost-utility of C-Leg versus mechanical knees by computing the incremental cost-utility ratio, that is, the ratio of the "difference in cost" and the "difference in utility" of the two technologies. Cost consisted of acquisition, maintenance, transportation, and lodging expenses. Utility was measured in terms of quality-adjusted life years, computed on the basis of participants' answers to the EQ-5D questionnaire. Patients over 40 years at the time of first prosthesis were the only group featuring an incremental cost-utility ratio (88,779 €/quality-adjusted life year) above the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence practical cost-utility threshold (54,120 €/quality-adjusted live year): C-Leg users experience a significant improvement of "mobility," but limited outcomes on "usual activities," "self-care," "depression/anxiety," and reduction of "pain/discomfort." The stratified cost-utility results have relevant clinical implications and provide useful information for practitioners in tailoring interventions. Clinical relevance A cost-utility analysis that considered patients characteristics provided insights on the "affordability" of C-Leg compared to mechanical knees. In particular, results suggest that C-Leg has a significant impact on "mobility" for first-time prosthetic users over 40 years, but implementation of specific low-cost physical

  19. Toward Balance Recovery With Leg Prostheses Using Neuromuscular Model Control

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lower limb amputees are at high risk of falling as current prosthetic legs provide only limited functionality for recovering balance after unexpected disturbances. For instance, the most established control method used on powered leg prostheses tracks local joint impedance functions without taking the global function of the leg in balance recovery into account. Here we explore an alternative control policy for powered transfemoral prostheses that considers the global leg function and is based on a neuromuscular model of human locomotion. Methods We adapt this model to describe and simulate an amputee walking with a powered prosthesis using the proposed control, and evaluate the gait robustness when confronted with rough ground and swing leg disturbances. We then implement and partially evaluate the resulting controller on a leg prosthesis prototype worn by a non-amputee user. Results In simulation, the proposed prosthesis control leads to gaits that are more robust than those obtained by the impedance control method. The initial hardware experiments with the prosthesis prototype show that the proposed control reproduces normal walking patterns qualitatively and effectively responds to disturbances in early and late swing. However, the response to mid-swing disturbances neither replicates human responses nor averts falls. Conclusions The neuromuscular model control is a promising alternative to existing prosthesis controls, although further research will need to improve on the initial implementation and determine how well these results transfer to amputee gait. Significance This work provides a potential avenue for future development of control policies that help improve amputee balance recovery. PMID:26315935

  20. Ultrasonography of Skin Changes in Legs with Chronic Venous Disease.

    PubMed

    Caggiati, A

    2016-10-01

    In daily practice, ultrasonography (US) is used only to designate the location and pattern of venous lesions. Skin US is not performed between routine venous investigations. Skin morphology is evaluated by the same probes used for routine Duplex evaluation of superficial veins. US findings from evident skin lesions are comparatively evaluated with those from the surrounding apparently normal skin and from the contralateral leg. Inflammation and dermal edema can be found in the apparently normal skin of C2 legs. Swollen legs show thickening of the subcutaneous layer as a result of diffuse soaking or anechoic cavities, with or without dermal edema. Chronic hypodermitis is characterized by inflammatory edema in initial phases, and by liposclerosis in advanced cases. Recrudescence of inflammation provokes focal rarefactions of the subcutaneous layer, possibly related to ulcer opening. In legs with venous disorders, sonography refines clinical evaluation of the skin and may reveal changes not highlighted by inspection. Some of these changes could require further investigation because they have not yet been explained or described. Skin sonography should improve knowledge of the natural history of skin changes, as well as contribute to a better grading of venous diseases severity In particular, US evidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous changes in C2 legs should be considered to stratify the treatment in C2 legs, by identifying those in which varicose veins are not simply a cosmetic problem. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09946.001 PMID:26505959

  2. Design of Force Sensor Leg for a Rocket Thrust Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woten, Douglas; McGehee, Tripp; Wright, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid rocket is composed of a solid fuel and a separate liquid or gaseous oxidizer. These rockets may be throttled like liquid rockets, are safer than solid rockets, and are much less complex than liquid rockets. However, hybrid rockets produce thrust oscillations that are not practical for large scale use. A lab scale hybrid rocket at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility is used to develop sensors to measure physical properties of hybrid rockets. Research is currently being conducted to design a six degree of freedom force sensor to measure the thrust and torque in all three spacial dimensions. The detector design uses six force sensor legs. Each leg utilizes strain gauges and a Wheatstone bridge to produce a voltage propotional to the force on the leg. The leg was designed using the CAD software ProEngineer and ProMechanica. Computer models of the strains on the single leg will be presented. A prototype leg was built and was tested in an INSTRON and results will be presented.

  3. The effect of spinal manipulation on imbalances in leg strength.

    PubMed

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Cornish, Stephen M; Schulte, Al; Jantz, Nathan; Magnus, Charlene R A; Schwanbeck, Shane; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that spinal manipulation (SM) would reduce strength imbalances between legs. Using an un-blinded randomized design, 28 males and 21 females (54 ± 19y) with at least a 15% difference in isometric strength between legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, or knee flexion were randomized to treatment or placebo (mock spinal manipulation). Strength of the stronger and weaker legs for hip flexion, extension, abduction, and/or knee flexion was assessed before and after the intervention. SM reduced the relative strength difference between legs for knee flexion (mean ± SD 57 ± 53 to 5 ± 14%) and hip flexion (24 ± 12 to 11 ± 15%) compared to placebo (34 ± 29 to 24 ± 36%, and 20 ± 18 to 22 ± 26%, respectively) (p = 0.05). SM also improved strength in the weak leg for hip abduction (104 ± 43 to 116 ± 43 Nm) compared to placebo (84 ± 24 to 85 ± 31 Nm) (p = 0.03). This study suggests that spinal manipulation may reduce imbalances in strength between legs for knee and hip flexion.

  4. Study on Mucin in Normal-Appearing Leg Skin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2017-03-01

    Dermal deposits of mucin in the legs have been described associated with venous insufficiency. However, some degree of stasis dermatitis is generally common in aged individuals. Therefore, some amount of mucin is expected a priori in the reticular dermis of aged patients, even in the absence of clinical lesions. To test this hypothesis, the authors investigated the mucin in the legs of aged individuals without any dermatologic disease. Cutaneous samples were taken from the legs of 15 autopsy cases. A sample of the skin of the legs (either from the left or the right leg without any distinction being made) was randomly taken (without selecting any specific area or attending to macroscopical features). The skin samples were fixed in formaldehyde, and sections obtained from all samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, iron, and Alcian blue. Iron deposits were graded as 0/4 in 7 cases, as 1/4 in 4 cases, as 2/4 in 2 cases, and as 4/4 in 2 cases. Cases with greater deposits of iron also had other signs of stasis, such as neovascularization. All the samples scored 0 for dermal mucin deposits in the reticular dermis. The authors conclude that mucin deposits in the legs are not inherent to aging. Therefore, any mucin deposit in the reticular dermis, as well as expansion of the periadnexal dermis by mucin deposits, should be considered abnormal.

  5. Design of robotic leg and physiotherapy (ROLEP) assist with interactive game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, A. F.; Husin, M. F. Che; Hashim, M. N.; Rosli, K. A.; Roslim, F. R. A.; Abidin, A. F. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Injuries in certain parts of the feet can cause a person to have difficulty in walking or running if it is not treated through physiotherapy. In Malaysia, therapy centers only provide a service or the use of basic tools that are not efficient as more sophisticated equipment requires a high cost. In fact, exercise requiring close monitoring physiotherapist are also at a high cost. Therefore, using robot therapy is a new technology that can provide an alternative way to solve this problem. The implementation of this project has produced a robotic physiotherapy which has one degree of freedom, portable and inexpensive way to help the movement of the patient's leg. It covers basic electrical circuits, mechanical components, programming and has been combined with an interactive game as the main driver. ROLEP (Robotic-Leg-Physiotherapy) is able to help patients through the therapy process. It was built using CT-UNO as its microprocessor connected to MD10-C which acted as the motor driver. The interactive game produced by using Unity game software is a key driver in getting rid of boredom and reduce pain. As a result, ROLEP designed can operate well within its range of the patient's weight. It has the advantage of portability and easy to use by the patients. ROLEP expected to help patients undergoing therapy process more efficient and interesting in the process of recovery.

  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis of the leg in an elderly French woman.

    PubMed

    Monié, Marguerite; Drieux, Laurence; Nzili, Bernadette; Dicko, Michèle; Goursot, Catherine; Greffard, Sandrine; Decré, Dominique; Mézière, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection in regions outside of Asia. Here, we present a case of necrotizing fasciitis of the leg caused by K. pneumoniae in a 92-year-old French woman hospitalized in a geriatric rehabilitation unit. The patient initially presented with dermohypodermitis of the leg that developed from a dirty wound following a fall. A few hours later, this painful injury extended to the entire lower limb, with purplish discoloration of the skin, bullae, and necrosis. Septic shock rapidly appeared and the patient died 9 hours after the onset of symptoms. The patient was Caucasian, with no history of travel to Asia or any underlying disease. Computed tomography revealed no infectious metastatic loci. Blood cultures showed growth of capsular serotype K2 K. pneumoniae strains with virulence factors RmpA, yersiniabactin and aerobactin. This rare and fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by a virulent strain of K. pneumoniae occurred in a hospitalized elderly woman without risk factors. Clinicians and geriatricians in particular should be aware of this important albeit unusual differential diagnosis.

  7. Compartment syndrome and shin splints of the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Gerow, G; Matthews, B; Jahn, W; Gerow, R

    1993-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review and categorize the current knowledge on compartment syndromes (CS) and shin splints (SS), with specific importance relegated to the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and management of these conditions. The bibliographic data sources reviewed are limited to the English language and human content and are from medical and scientific journals, as well as chiropractic and medical texts. A mini-Medline version of Index Medicus was utilized. Terms for indexing included compartment syndromes, shin splints and stress fractures. The bibliographies of the journals selected were then evaluated and, where appropriate, the specific journal or text references regarding diagnosis and management were then reviewed. This information was then included in this article, where useful, to further clarify or reference statements made. Differential diagnosis of the acute CS from chronic CS and SS requires clinical methods and imaging procedures. The pathogenesis of the acute CS of the lower leg is associated with external pressure or internal hemorrhage. If the tissue pressure were to rise above 30-40 mm Hg for 4-12 h, irreversible muscular damage would result. Emergency surgical intervention is the only appropriate form of treatment in acute CS. In chronic CS, where elevated pressures exist on a transient basis, influenced by activity, conservative management procedures are felt to be effective. However, if these methods are not helpful, surgical intervention may be necessary. The etiology of pain associated with SS is not associated with compartmental pressure elevations, but rather, results from periostitis occurring along the tibia caused by muscular and tendinous strain associated with inflammation. Conservative management is most appropriate for this disorder, with surgical intervention being an uncommon treatment approach. Although clinical findings are useful in the diagnosis of these disorders, fluid pressure findings may be necessary to

  8. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative pretest probability intended to reduce unnecessary medical radiation exposure in emergency department patients with chest pain and dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Jones, Alan E; Shapiro, Nathan I; Mitchell, Alice M; Hewer, Ian; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative pretest probability (qPTP) incorporated into a decision support tool with advice can reduce unnecessary diagnostic testing among patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and pulmonary embolism (PE), reducing 30-day costs without an increase in 90-day adverse outcomes. This study estimates long-term (beyond 90-day) costs and outcomes associated with qPTP. The authors hypothesized that qPTP reduces lifetime costs and improves outcomes in low-risk patients with symptoms suggestive of ACS and PE. This was a cost-effectiveness analysis of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of adult emergency patients with dyspnea and chest pain, in which a clinician encountering a low-risk patient with symptoms suggestive of ACS or PE conducted either the intervention (qPTP for ACS and PE with advice) or the sham (no qPTP and no advice). Effect of the intervention over a patient's lifetime was assessed using a Markov microsimulation model. Short-term costs and outcomes were from the trial; long-term outcomes and costs were from the literature. Outcomes included lifetime transition to PE, ACS, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); mortality from cancer, ICH, PE, ACS, renal failure, and ischemic stroke; quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); and total medical costs compared between simulated intervention and sham groups. Markov microsimulation for a 40-year-old patient receiving qPTP found lifetime cost savings of $497 for women and $528 for men, associated with small gains in QALYs (2 and 6 days, respectively) and lower rates of cancer mortality in both sexes, but a reduction in ICH only in males. Sensitivity analysis for patients aged 60 years predicted that qPTP would continue to save costs and also reduce mortality from both ICH and cancer. Use of qPTP significantly reduced the lifetime probability of PE diagnosis, with lower probability of death from PE in both sexes aged 40 to 60 years. However, use of qPTP reduced the rate of ACS

  9. FDG PET/CT Findings in Primary Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma, Leg Type.

    PubMed

    Ni, Chiayi; Lewis, Michael; Berenji, Gholam

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with complaints of worsening left foot pain and swelling. MRI showed a soft tissue mass overlying the dorsolateral aspect of the left foot. Following a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT), the left foot mass was biopsied and pathology indicated a diagnosis of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PDLBCL, LT). Review of the PET/CT images demonstrated hypermetabolic activity associated with the left foot mass, multiple subcutaneous nodules/nodes, sclerotic osseous lesions in the lower extremities, and left external iliac/left inguinal lymphadenopathy. At the moment, the patient is undergoing chemotherapy.

  10. Delayed onset of transversus abdominus in long-standing groin pain.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Sallie M; Schache, Anthony G; Brukner, Peter; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W; Coburn, Paul; Crossley, Kay M

    2004-12-01

    Long-standing groin pain is a persistent problem that is commonly difficult to rehabilitate. Theoretical rationale indicates a relationship between the motor control of the pelvis and long-standing groin pain; however, this link has not been investigated. The current experiment aimed to evaluate motor control of the abdominal muscles in a group of Australian football players with and without long-standing groin pain. Ten participants with long-standing groin pain and 12 asymptomatic controls were recruited for the study. Participants were elite or subelite Australian football players. Fine-wire and surface electromyography electrodes were used to record the activity of the selected abdominal and leg muscles during a visual choice reaction-time task (active straight leg raising). When the asymptomatic controls completed the active straight leg raise (ASLR) task, the transversus abdominus contracted in a feed-forward manner. However, when individuals with long-standing groin pain completed the ASLR task, the onset of transversus abdominus was delayed (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. There were no differences between groups for the onset of activity of internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominus (all P > 0.05). The finding that the onset of transversus abdominus is delayed in individuals with long-standing groin pain is important, as it demonstrates an association between long-standing groin pain and transversus abdominus activation.

  11. Modulation of corticospinal input to the legs by arm and leg cycling in people with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, R; Alvarado, L; Kim, S; Chong, S L; Mushahwar, V K

    2017-10-01

    The spinal cervico-lumbar interaction during rhythmic movements in humans has recently been studied; however, the role of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs is not well understood. The goals of this study were to investigate the effect of active rhythmic arm movements on the corticospinal drive to the legs ( study 1 ) and assess the effect of simultaneous arm and leg training on the corticospinal pathway after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) ( study 2). In study 1 , neurologically intact (NI) participants or participants with iSCI performed combinations of stationary and rhythmic cycling of the arms and legs while motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. In the NI group, arm cycling alone could facilitate the VL MEP amplitude, suggesting that dynamic arm movements strongly modulate the corticospinal pathway to the legs. No significant difference in VL MEP between conditions was found in participants with iSCI. In study 2 , participants with iSCI underwent 12 wk of electrical stimulation-assisted cycling training: one group performed simultaneous arm and leg (A&L) cycling and the other legs-only cycling. MEPs in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were compared before and after training. After training, only the A&L group had a significantly larger TA MEP, suggesting increased excitability in the corticospinal pathway. The findings demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs and suggest that active engagement of the arms in lower limb rehabilitation may produce better neural regulation and restoration of function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of arm movements in modulating the corticospinal drive to the legs. It provides direct evidence in humans that active movement of the arms could facilitate corticospinal transmission to the legs and, for the first time, shows that facilitation is absent after spinal cord

  12. Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-08-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib modulates the peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms in animals. This interaction has not been studied in patients with pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, 4-week treatment study investigated the pain mechanisms modulated by etoricoxib in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomized to group A (60 mg/d etoricoxib followed by placebo) or B (placebo followed by 60 mg/d etoricoxib). The quantitative, mechanistic pain biomarkers were pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation (TS), and conditioning pain modulation. Clinical readouts were Brief Pain Inventory, WOMAC, painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), and time and pain intensity during walking and stair climbing. Etoricoxib as compared with placebo significantly modulated the pressure pain thresholds (P = 0.012, localized sensitization) at the knee and leg (control site) (P = 0.025, spreading sensitization) and TS assessed from the knee (P = 0.038) and leg (P = 0.045). Conditioning pain modulation was not modulated. The Brief Pain Inventory (pain scores), PD-Q, WOMAC, and walking and stair climbing tests were all significantly improved by etoricoxib. Based on a minimum of 30% or 50% pain alleviation (day 0-day 28), responders and nonresponders were defined. The nonresponders showed a significant association between increased facilitation of TS and increased pain alleviation. None of the other parameters predicted the degree of pain alleviation. Generally, a responder to etoricoxib has the most facilitated TS. In conclusion, etoricoxib (1) modulated central pain modulatory mechanisms and (2) improved pain and function in painful osteoarthritis. Stronger facilitation of TS may indicate a better response to etoricoxib, supporting the central mode-of-action of the drug.

  13. Functional and Neuromuscular Changes in the Hamstrings After Drop Jumps and Leg Curls

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Panjan, Andrej; Rosker, Jernej; Fonda, Borut

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a holistic approach to investigate changes in jumping performance, kinaesthesia, static balance, isometric strength and fast stepping on spot during a 5-day recovery period, following an acute bout of damaging exercise consisted of drop jumps and leg curls, where specific emphasis was given on the hamstring muscles. Eleven young healthy subjects completed a series of highly intensive damaging exercises for their hamstring muscles. Prior to the exercise, and during the 5-day recovery period, the subjects were tested for biochemical markers (creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase), perceived pain sensation, physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal frequency leg stamping, maximal isometric torque production and maximally explosive isometric torque production), kinaesthesia (active torque tracking) and static balance. We observed significant decreases in maximal isometric knee flexion torque production, the rate of torque production, and majority of the parameters for vertical jump performance. No alterations were found in kinaesthesia, static balance and fast stepping on spot. The highest drop in performance and increase in perceived pain sensation generally occurred 24 or 48 hours after the exercise. Damaging exercise substantially alters the neuromuscular functions of the hamstring muscles, which is specifically relevant for sports and rehabilitation experts, as the hamstrings are often stretched to significant lengths, in particular when the knee is extended and hip flexed. These findings are practically important for recovery after high-intensity trainings for hamstring muscles. Key Points Hamstring function is significantly reduced following specifically damaging exercise. It fully recovers 120 hours after the exercise. Prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage is cruicial for maintaining normal training regime. PMID:24149148

  14. The dynamics of the pain system is intact in patients with knee osteoarthritis: An exploratory experimental study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Henriksen, Marius; Rosager, Sara; Klokker, Louise; Ellegaard, Karen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-12-29

    Background and aims Despite the high prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) it remains one of the most frequent knee disorders without a cure. Pain and disability are prominent clinical features of knee OA. Knee OA pain is typically localized but can also be referred to the thigh or lower leg. Widespread hyperalgesia has been found in knee OA patients. In addition, patients with hyperalgesia in the OA knee joint show increased pain summation scores upon repetitive stimulation of the OA knee suggesting the involvement of facilitated central mechanisms in knee OA. The dynamics of the pain system (i.e., the adaptive responses to pain) has been widely studied, but mainly from experiments on healthy subjects, whereas less is known about the dynamics of the pain system in chronic pain patients, where the pain system has been activated for a long time. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of the nociceptive system quantitatively in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients before and after induction of experimental knee pain. Methods Ten knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients participated in this randomized crossover trial. Each subject was tested on two days separated by 1 week. The most affected knee was exposed to experimental pain or control, in a randomized sequence, by injection of hypertonic saline into the infrapatellar fat pad and a control injection of isotonic saline. Pain areas were assessed by drawings on anatomical maps. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at the knee, thigh, lower leg, and arm were assessed before, during, and after the experimental pain and control conditions. Likewise, temporal summation of pressure pain on the knee, thigh and lower leg muscles was assessed. Results Experimental knee pain decreased the PPTs at the knee (P <0.01) and facilitated the temporal summation on the knee and adjacent muscles (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found at the control site (the contralateral arm) (P =0.77). Further, the experimental knee pain revealed

  15. Combined electric and pressure cuff pain stimuli for assessing conditioning pain modulation (CPM).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, M; Petersen, K K; Mørch, C D; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2017-12-29

    Aims Traditionally, conditioning pain modulation (CPM) can be assessed by applying a test stimulus (TS) before and after application of a conditioning stimulus (CS), which is normally applied extra-segmental. Currently, no studies have attempted to apply the TS and CS to the same site using different stimuli modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate electrical TS and cuff pressure CS applied to the same experimental site for studying CPM. Methods 20 male volunteers participated in this study, which consisted of stimulations applied by a cuff-algometer (NociTech and Aalborg University, Denmark) and current stimulator (Digitimer DS5, UK), through two Ag/AgCl electrodes (Ambu® Neuroline 700, Denmark). The cuff was wrapped around the lower leg and stimulation electrodes were placed under the cuff and to the same location on the contralateral leg. Electrical TS were applied to the non-dominant leg with or without cuff pressure CS on the dominant (CS1) or the same (non-dominant) leg (CS2, electrode under cuff). The subjects were instructed to rate the electrical evoked pain intensity on a 10-cm continuous visual analog scale (VAS, "0" represented "no pain", and "10" represented "maximal pain"). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as "1" on the VAS scale. Results There was no significant deference in PDT for neither CS1 nor CS2. A median split subanalysis on CPM-responders versus CPM-nonresponders to the TS + CS1 combination. Using this grouping, there was significant increase in PDT when comparing TS to TS + CS1 or TS + CS2 (4.0 mA vs 5.6 mA; P < 0.05, 4.0 mA vs 5.1 mA; P < 0.05). Conclusions The study indicates that CPM can be evoked in a subgroup of subjects by applying the electrical test stimulus and cuff pressure conditioning stimuli to the same experimental site.

  16. Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Thomas M; Lawson, Brooke R; Reiser, Raoul F

    2005-01-01

    While asymmetries in the lower extremity during jumping may have implications during rehabilitation, it is not clear if healthy subjects should be expected to jump equivalently on each leg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine if asymmetries exist in maximal effort single-leg vertical jumps. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 13 men and 12 women with competitive volleyball playing experience and no injuries of the lower-extremity that would predispose them to asymmetries participated. After thorough warm-up, five maximal effort vertical jumps with countermovement were performed on each leg (random order) with ground reaction forces and lower extremity kinematics recorded. The best three jumps from each leg were analyzed, assigning the leg with the highest jump height average as the dominant side. Asymmetry was assessed by determining statistical significance in the dominant versus non-dominant sides (p < 0.05). A significant interaction existed between side and gender for thigh length and peak vertical ground reaction force. Women had a significantly shorter thigh and men a greater peak vertical ground reaction force on their dominant side. All other parameters were assessed as whole group. Jumps were significantly greater off the dominant leg (2.8 cm on average). No other differences between sides were observed. Significant differences in magnitude (p < 0.05) existed between the men and women in jump height, several anthropometric parameters, minimum ankle and hip angles, and vertical ground reaction forces (peak and average). In conclusion, though a person may jump slightly higher on one leg relative to the other, and women may jump slightly differently than men, the magnitude of the difference should be relatively small and due to the multi-factorial nature of jump performance, individual parameters related to performance may not be consistently different.

  17. Management of subcalcaneal pain and Achilles tendonitis with heel inserts

    PubMed Central

    Maclellan, G. E.; Vyvyan, Barbara

    1981-01-01

    Soft tissue symptoms in the leg due to sporting activity are commonly associated with the force of heel strike. Conventional training shoes compromise between comfort and performance; few models are suitably designed for both considerations. Using a visco-elastic polymer insert the symptoms of heel pain and Achilles tendonitis have been largely or completely abolished in a preliminary study. Imagesp117-ap117-bp117-cp118-a PMID:7272653

  18. Pathogenesis of Pain.

    PubMed

    Dinakar, Pradeep; Stillman, Alexandra Marion

    2016-08-01

    The pathogenesis of pain sensation includes mechanisms that result in acute or chronic pain. Pain itself is described as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience beginning with a peripheral stimulus that undergoes a physiological process ultimately resulting in the sensation of pain. Biologists recognize pain to be a common sign of potential tissue damage. Hence, pain sensation is protective in function. However, pathologic states of pain exist secondary to disruption of the nociceptive process both peripherally and centrally or secondary to psychological conditions. It is essential to identify these aberrant states of pain and distinguish them from situations of potential tissue damage. Chronic pain is defined as pain that exceeds 3 or 6 months duration. This article is an overview of the essential neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of normal pain nociception, its clinical implications, and the development of persistent and pathological pain conditions following improperly or poorly treated pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Pain and the ethics of pain management.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R B

    1984-01-01

    In this article I clarify the concepts of 'pain', 'suffering', 'pains of body', 'pains of soul'. I explore the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives patients a strong prima facie right to freedom from unnecessary and unwanted pain and which places upon medical professionals two concomitant moral obligations to patients. First, there is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis, treatment and research. Next, there is the duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated. I develop in some detail that individuality of pain sensitivity must be taken into account in fulfilling these obligations. I explore the issue of the relevance of informed consent and the right to refuse treatment to the matter of pain relief. And I raise the question of what conditions, if any, should override the right to refuse treatment where pain relief is of paramount concern.

  20. Neuropathic pain treatment provides unexpected benefit.

    PubMed

    Keesling, Adam D; Wilson, Meg; Wilkins, Robert

    2017-06-01

    A 57-year-old African American woman was being treated at our clinic for neurogenic urinary incontinence (UI). The UI, which occurred day and night, began 2 years earlier following a laminectomy of vertebrae C3 to C6 with spinal fusion of C3 to C7 for cervical spinal stenosis. The UI persisted despite physical therapy and trials of oxybutynin and imipramine. Since the surgery, the patient had also been experiencing chronic (debilitating) neuropathic pain in both legs, and the sensation of incomplete bladder emptying. She denied bowel incontinence or saddle anesthesia. Her prescription medications included hydrocodone-acetaminophen 7.5/325 mg every 6 hours as needed for pain and lisinopril 20 mg/d for essential hypertension. The patient's body mass index was 23.3.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Controlled trial of balneotherapy in treatment of low back pain.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, K; Tatrai, T; Hunka, A; Vereckei, E; Korondi, I

    1992-01-01

    Three treatments for non-specific lumbar pain--balneotherapy, underwater traction bath, and underwater massage--were assessed in a randomised prospective controlled trial in 158 outpatients. Each group was treated for four weeks and patients were reviewed at the end of this period and at 12 months after entry to the trial. The prescription of analgesics and the pain score were significantly reduced in all three treated groups, but there was no difference between the three groups. No significant change occurred in spinal motion and the straight leg raising test. After one year only the analgesic consumption was significantly lower than in the control group. PMID:1535495

  3. Prevalence and associations of neuropathic pain in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asian low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Kew, Yueting; Tan, Cheng-Yin; Ng, Chong-Jing; Thang, Sue-Sien; Tan, Leong-Hooi; Khoo, Yvonne Khaii; Lim, Jun-Ni; Ng, Jia-Hui; Chan, Chris Yin-Wei; Kwan, Mun-Keong; Goh, Khean-Jin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain differs in different ethnic populations. The aims of the study are to determine its frequency and associations in a multi-ethnic cohort of Asian low back pain patients. This was a cross-sectional study of low back patients seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Neuropathic low back pain patients were identified using the painDETECT questionnaire and compared with non-neuropathic (unclear or nociceptive) low back pain patients, in terms of socio-demographic and clinical factors, pain severity (numerical pain rating scale, NPRS), disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, RMDQ), as well as anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS). Of 210 patients, 26 (12.4%) have neuropathic low back pain. Neuropathic pain is associated with non-Chinese ethnicity, higher body mass index and pain radiation below the knee. Patients with neuropathic pain have significantly higher NPRS and RMDQ scores, and there are more subjects with anxiety on HADS. However, there are no differences between the groups in age, gender, pain duration or underlying diagnosis of low back pain. The prevalence of neuropathic low back pain in a multi-ethnic Malaysian cohort is lower than previously reported in other populations with possible differences between ethnic groups. It is associated with greater pain severity, disability and anxiety.

  4. Pain and pain management in haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Auerswald, Günter; Dolan, Gerry; Duffy, Anne; Hermans, Cedric; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Ljung, Rolf; Morfini, Massimo; Lambert, Thierry; Šalek, Silva Zupančić

    2016-01-01

    Joint pain is common in haemophilia and may be acute or chronic. Effective pain management in haemophilia is essential to reduce the burden that pain imposes on patients. However, the choice of appropriate pain-relieving measures is challenging, as there is a complex interplay of factors affecting pain perception. This can manifest as differences in patients’ experiences and response to pain, which require an individualized approach to pain management. Prophylaxis with factor replacement reduces the likelihood of bleeds and bleed-related pain, whereas on-demand therapy ensures rapid bleed resolution and pain relief. Although use of replacement or bypassing therapy is often the first intervention for pain, additional pain relief strategies may be required. There is an array of analgesic options, but consideration should be paid to the adverse effects of each class. Nevertheless, a combination of medications that act at different points in the pain pathway may be beneficial. Nonpharmacological measures may also help patients and include active coping strategies; rest, ice, compression, and elevation; complementary therapies; and physiotherapy. Joint aspiration may also reduce acute joint pain, and joint steroid injections may alleviate chronic pain. In the longer term, increasing use of prophylaxis or performing surgery may be necessary to reduce the burden of pain caused by the degenerative effects of repeated bleeds. Whichever treatment option is chosen, it is important to monitor pain and adjust patient management accordingly. Beyond specific pain management approaches, ongoing collaboration between multidisciplinary teams, which should include physiotherapists and pain specialists, may improve outcomes for patients. PMID:27439216

  5. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  6. Biomechanical pole and leg characteristics during uphill diagonal roller skiing.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Stefan Josef; Göpfert, Caroline; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2009-11-01

    Diagonal skiing as a major classical technique has hardly been investigated over the last two decades, although technique and racing velocities have developed substantially. The aims of the present study were to 1) analyse pole and leg kinetics and kinematics during submaximal uphill diagonal roller skiing and 2) identify biomechanical factors related to performance. Twelve elite skiers performed a time to exhaustion (performance) test on a treadmill. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded separately during diagonal roller skiing (9 degrees; 11 km/h). Performance was correlated to cycle length (r = 0.77; P < 0.05), relative leg swing (r = 0.71), and gliding time (r = 0.74), hip flexion range of motion (ROM) during swing (r = 0.73) and knee extension ROM during gliding (r = 0.71). Push-off demonstrated performance correlations for impulse of leg force (r = 0.84), relative duration (r= -0.76) and knee flexion (r = 0.73) and extension ROM (r = 0.74). Relative time to peak pole force was associated with performance (r = 0.73). In summary, diagonal roller skiing performance was linked to 1) longer cycle length, 2) greater impulse of force during a shorter push-off with larger flexion/extension ROMs in leg joints, 3) longer leg swing, and 4) later peak pole force, demonstrating the major key characteristics to be emphasised in training.

  7. [Restless Legs Syndrome : A Threat to the quality of life].

    PubMed

    Castaño-Cárcamo, Mauricio; Escobar-Cordoba, Franklin; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a disorder associated with the imperative need to move the legs, starting at different times of day and it gets worse at night, relieved by activity, affecting the quality of life and sleep who sufferers it. Despite being a common disorder at any age, in adults with a prevalence of up to 10%, is not diagnosed by doctors and first level specialists that is why diagnostic and therapeutic interventions get delayed contributing to the perpetuation of symptoms and worsening quality of life. Since its diagnosis is purely clinical, getting familiar with this disorder is essential to ensure proper focus and thus rule out other diseases commonly confused with this one. Restless legs syndrome has a multi-factorial etiology that ranges from a genetic and hereditary, which are called primary restless legs syndrome, to its association with multiple pathologies, known as secondary restless legs syndrome. As for its management, drug therapy and non-drug therapy is aimed at symptom control, as its cure is not possible, although occasionally the condition can refer to later repeat in months or years.

  8. Soy undecapeptide induces Drosophila hind leg grooming via dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Karim, M Rezaul; Yanagawa, Aya; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2018-05-15

    β-Conglycinin α subunit (323-333) [βCGα(323-333)] is an exogenous neuromodulating undecapeptide found from enzymatic digest of β-conglycinin, a soy major storage protein by mice behavior tests. We investigated effect of βCGα(323-333) on Drosophila behavior. Oral administration of βCGα(323-333) in Drosophila increased hind leg grooming, which may act through specific sets of neurons. It was reported that dopamine receptor (DopR) meditates hind leg grooming, and we tested involvement of DopR in βCGα(323-333)-induced hind leg grooming by using DopR knockout flies. In the wild type but not in the DopR-knockout flies, βCGα(323-333) increased hind leg grooming. These results suggest that βCGα(323-333) induces hind leg grooming via activating the DopR. This is the first report showing that exogenously administered peptide changes fly behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  10. Symptoms and signs possibly indicating segmental, discogenic pain. A fusion study with 18 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Bo; Weber, Henrik; Schillberg, Birgitta; Taube, Adam

    2017-07-01

    and stabbing pain in the same area provoked by sudden movements. Most patients in this group also had diffuse pain radiation of various extension down one or both legs and often bladder dysfunction with frequency. At clinical examination, localized interspinal tenderness was observed within the spinal area in question and the patient's back pain was provoked by pressure in that area and by tapping a neighbouring spinous process. At 18 years after surgery 19 patients assessed themselves as much improved. At that time 5 of them had pension due to age, 7 early pension, one worked full time and six patients part time. Eleven patients were re-operated due to defect bony healing. The results may suggest that the use of a detailed symptom analysis and clinical examination may make it possible to select a subgroup of patients within the CLBP group likely to have better outcome following fusion surgery. The next step would be to execute prospective studies and if our findings concerning back pain details and signs among CLPB patients can be confirmed this can provide for more accurate selection of patients suitable for fusion surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Movement coordination of the lumbar spine and hip during a picking up activity in low back pain subjects.