Science.gov

Sample records for radiation control program

  1. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    PubMed

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  2. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  3. Radiator design system computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, C. L.; Oren, J. A.; Dietz, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Minimum weight space radiator subsystems which can operate over heat load ranges wider than the capabilities of current subsystems are investigated according to projected trends of future long duration space vehicles. Special consideration is given to maximum heat rejection requirements of the low temperature radiators needed for environmental control systems. The set of radiator design programs that have resulted from this investigation are presented in order to provide the analyst with a capability to generate optimum weight radiator panels or sets of panels from practical design considerations, including transient performance. Modifications are also provided for existing programs to improve capability and user convenience.

  4. Innovative techniques in radiation oncology. Clinical research programs to improve local and regional control in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, L.W.; Markoe, A.M.; Micaily, B.; Fisher, S.A.; Lamm, F.R. )

    1990-02-01

    There is a growing importance in failure analysis in cancer management. In these analyses locoregional failure as the cause of death emerges as a significant problem in many tumor sites, e.g., head and neck cancer, gynecologic cancer, genitourinary cancer. Because of these data, the radiation oncology community has attributed high priority to research efforts to improve locoregional control. These efforts include the following: (1) brachytherapy alone or with external beam radiation therapy or surgery; (2) intraoperative radiation therapy; (3) hyperthermia with radiation therapy; (4) particle irradiation (protons, neutrons, stripped nuclei, and pions); and (5) routes of administration of the treatment, including infusional (intravenous) chemotherapy with radiation therapy, intraarterial monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides, and intraarterial chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Each area of investigation is discussed.

  5. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-02-29

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  6. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  7. Space radiation health program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  8. Radiation effects program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-09-01

    No existing LINAC Based Beam Heating facility comes within a factor of ten of the needs of a high heating rate thermodynamic properties research facility. The facility could be built at the Naval Research Lab. for a cost in the neighborhood of 2 million dollars. The 10 MeV electron beam would not produce any serious radioactivity but would provide unprecedented beam power for such other applications as food processing, sewer treatment, materials curing, radiation hardness assurance, etc. One can always achieve lower current densities by scattering the beam and moving the device under test further away from the scatterer. In this case one must rely on the TLD readings to indicate the dose rate at the point of interest. For general utility with the beam covering about four TLD's fairly evenly one can claim that the NRL LINAC can produce a maximum dose rate of about 6 x 10 to the 10th power rads (Si) per second for a pulse length of 1.5 microseconds, and about 1.4 x 10 to the 11th power rads (Si) per second in a 50 nanosecond pulse. In both cases the beam area is about 0.4 square centimeters.

  9. The NASA Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.

  10. Cooperative Radiation Effects Simulation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-16

    G . Doran, W. G . Johnston, G . L . Kulcinski , I...Microstructure and Properties of Metals, ASTM STP 611, pp. 284-297, November 1976. 46 -- IM 108. L . G . Kirchner, F. A. Smidt, Jr., G . L . Kulcinski , J. A...AD-A093 743 NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC F/ G 18/6 COOPERATIVE RADIATION EFFECTS SIMULATION PROGRAM. (U) DEC 80 L A BEACH. F A SNIOT

  11. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  12. Space station thermal control surfaces. [space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maag, C. R.; Millard, J. M.; Jeffery, J. A.; Scott, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Mission planning documents were used to analyze the radiator design and thermal control surface requirements for both space station and 25-kW power module, to analyze the missions, and to determine the thermal control technology needed to satisfy both sets of requirements. Parameters such as thermal control coating degradation, vehicle attitude, self eclipsing, variation in solar constant, albedo, and Earth emission are considered. Four computer programs were developed which provide a preliminary design and evaluation tool for active radiator systems in LEO and GEO. Two programs were developed as general programs for space station analysis. Both types of programs find the radiator-flow solution and evaluate external heat loads in the same way. Fortran listings are included.

  13. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  14. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  15. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.

  16. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.

  17. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  18. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  19. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  20. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  1. The effect of a behavioral activation program on improving mental and physical health complaints associated with radiation stress among mothers in Fukushima: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Kotaro; Sekiya, Yuki; Asai, Yumi; Umeda, Maki; Horikoshi, Naoko; Yasumura, Seiji; Yabe, Hirooki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-11-08

    Mothers living with small children in Fukushima prefecture may experience radiation anxiety and related symptoms after the Fukushima Dai'ich Nuclear Power Plant Accident. A behavioral activation (BA) program was developed to improve their psychosomatic symptoms. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effectiveness of a BA program for improving psychological distress and physical symptoms among mothers with preschool children in Fukushima-prefecture 3 years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Participants were recruited from mothers living with a preschool child(ren) in Fukushima city and surrounding areas though a newspaper advertisement, posters, and flyers. Participants allocated to the intervention group received a newly developed group-based BA program, which consisted of two 90- min lessons with a 1-week interval. Psychological distress and physical symptoms as a primary outcome, and radiation anxiety and positive well-being (liveliness and life satisfaction) as a secondary outcome, were measured at baseline, 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Participants were randomly allocated to either an intervention or a control group (18 and 19, respectively). The BA program showed a marginally significant intervention effect on psychological distress (p = 0.051) and physical symptoms (p = 0.07) at 1-month follow-up, while the effect became smaller at 3-month follow-up. The effect sizes at 1-month were medium to large (-0.72 and -0.56, respectively). There was a significant intervention effect on increasing liveliness at 3-month follow-up (p = 0.02); and there were marginally significant effects on life satisfaction at 1- and 3-month follow-ups (both p = 0.09). This BA program may be effective for improving psychological distress, physical symptoms, and well-being, at least for a short duration, among mothers with preschool children after the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, while a further large

  2. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; hide

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  3. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  4. Control of transpiration by radiation

    PubMed Central

    Pieruschka, Roland; Huber, Gregor; Berry, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The terrestrial hydrological cycle is strongly influenced by transpiration—water loss through the stomatal pores of leaves. In this report we present studies showing that the energy content of radiation absorbed by the leaf influences stomatal control of transpiration. This observation is at odds with current concepts of how stomata sense and control transpiration, and we suggest an alternative model. Specifically, we argue that the steady-state water potential of the epidermis in the intact leaf is controlled by the difference between the radiation-controlled rate of water vapor production in the leaf interior and the rate of transpiration. Any difference between these two potentially large fluxes is made up by evaporation from (or condensation on) the epidermis, causing its water potential to pivot around this balance point. Previous work established that stomata in isolated epidermal strips respond by opening with increasing (and closing with decreasing) water potential. Thus, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate should increase when there is condensation on (and decrease when there is evaporation from) the epidermis, thus tending to maintain homeostasis of epidermal water potential. We use a model to show that such a mechanism would have control properties similar to those observed with leaves. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation for the regulation of leaf and canopy transpiration by the radiation load and provides a unique framework for studies of the regulation of stomatal conductance by CO2 and other factors. PMID:20624981

  5. Control of transpiration by radiation.

    PubMed

    Pieruschka, Roland; Huber, Gregor; Berry, Joseph A

    2010-07-27

    The terrestrial hydrological cycle is strongly influenced by transpiration--water loss through the stomatal pores of leaves. In this report we present studies showing that the energy content of radiation absorbed by the leaf influences stomatal control of transpiration. This observation is at odds with current concepts of how stomata sense and control transpiration, and we suggest an alternative model. Specifically, we argue that the steady-state water potential of the epidermis in the intact leaf is controlled by the difference between the radiation-controlled rate of water vapor production in the leaf interior and the rate of transpiration. Any difference between these two potentially large fluxes is made up by evaporation from (or condensation on) the epidermis, causing its water potential to pivot around this balance point. Previous work established that stomata in isolated epidermal strips respond by opening with increasing (and closing with decreasing) water potential. Thus, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate should increase when there is condensation on (and decrease when there is evaporation from) the epidermis, thus tending to maintain homeostasis of epidermal water potential. We use a model to show that such a mechanism would have control properties similar to those observed with leaves. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation for the regulation of leaf and canopy transpiration by the radiation load and provides a unique framework for studies of the regulation of stomatal conductance by CO(2) and other factors.

  6. Readings in program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor); Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Under the heading of Program Control, a number of related topics are discussed: cost estimating methods; planning and scheduling; cost overruns in the defense industry; the history of estimating; the advantages of cost plus award fee contracts; and how program control techniques led to the success of a NASA development project.

  7. Programable Multicrate Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mook, G. L.; Phillips, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    High-speed, environmentally hardened controller developed for use with commercially available system crates for both experiment control and data handling. Programable crate controller consists of three functional areas: control section utilizes high-speed bit-slice circuitry, memory, and data way interface.

  8. The MSFC Program Control Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

  9. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  10. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and implement...

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-10-02

    This Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter covers the following topics: The Raman lidar at the SGP central facility is receiving upgrades to its environmental controls; The instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park is receiving upgrades to prevent Turkey Vultures from roosting on the booms.

  16. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

  17. Broadband radiation modes: estimation and active control.

    PubMed

    Berkhoff, Arthur P

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we give a formulation of the most efficiently radiating vibration patterns of a vibrating body, the radiation modes, in the time domain. The radiation modes can be used to arrive at efficient weighting schemes for an array of sensors in order to reduce the controller dimensionality. Because these particular radiation modes are optimum in a broadband sense, they are termed broadband radiation modes. Methods are given to obtain these modes from measured data. The broadband radiation modes are used for the design of an actuator array in a feedback control system to reduce the sound power radiated from a plate. Three methods for the design of the actuator are compared, taking into account the reduction of radiated sound power in the controlled frequency range, but also the possible increase of radiated sound power in the uncontrolled frequency range.

  18. Optimal control computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, F.

    1992-01-01

    The solution of the optimal control problem, even with low order dynamical systems, can usually strain the analytical ability of most engineers. The understanding of this subject matter, therefore, would be greatly enhanced if a software package existed that could simulate simple generic problems. Surprisingly, despite a great abundance of commercially available control software, few, if any, address the part of optimal control in its most generic form. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to present a simple computer program that will perform simulations of optimal control problems that arise from the first necessary condition and the Pontryagin's maximum principle.

  19. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4) The...

  20. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4) The...

  1. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4) The...

  2. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4) The...

  3. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4) The...

  4. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  5. G4Beamline Program for Radiation Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Kevin; J. Roberts, Thomas; Degtiarenko, Pavel

    2008-07-01

    G4beamline, a program that is an interface to the Geant4 toolkit that we have developed to simulate accelerator beamlines, is being extended with a graphical user interface to quickly and efficiently model experimental equipment and its shielding in experimental halls. The program is flexible, user friendly, and requires no programming by users, so that even complex systems can be simulated quickly. This improved user interface is of much wider application than just the shielding simulations that are the focus of this project. As an initial application, G4beamline is being extended to provide the simulations that are needed to determine the radiation sources for the proposed experiments at Jefferson Laboratory so that shielding issues can be evaluated. Since the program already has the capabilities needed to simulate the transport of all known particles, including scattering, attenuation, interactions, and decays, the extension involves implementing a user-friendly graphical user inter

  6. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  7. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  8. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the...

  10. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a...

  11. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the...

  12. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the...

  13. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a...

  14. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of the...

  15. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a...

  16. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a...

  17. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with a...

  18. Program control for mission success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longanecker, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    This article suggests that in order to be able to exercise control over a particular program, the program itself must be controllable. A controllable program therefore, according to the author, is one that has been properly scoped technically, realistically scheduled, and adequately budgeted. The article delves indepth into each of the above aspects of a controllable program and discusses both the pros and cons of each.

  19. Forms for Documenting Radiation Safety Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    06/18, 18/02,06,07 18. Subject Termsf ’ IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR RADIATION, RADIATION DOSAGE , RADIATION CONTAMINATIONRADMION WASTE, RADIATION MEA...MonthlyArea Swvipes_________________ I / Boo- 3/1(0 14) Upt ake Probe Monthly Chi Square_________________ 18 Bti -<k 38 (1) 14) Chi Square Weekly Aut.o Well

  20. Computer-controlled radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-09-27

    A computer-controlled radiation monitoring system was designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Multiuser Tandem Laboratory (10 MV tandem accelerator from High Voltage Engineering Corporation). The system continuously monitors the photon and neutron radiation environment associated with the facility and automatically suspends accelerator operation if preset radiation levels are exceeded. The system has proved reliable real-time radiation monitoring over the past five years, and has been a valuable tool for maintaining personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable.

  1. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  2. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  3. Techniques for controlling radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ocken, H.; Wood, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The US nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposure over the past 10 years. There has been more than a fourfold reduction in person-rem per MW-year of electric power generated: from 1.8 person-rems in 1980 to only 0.4 person-rems in 1991. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, and there will be more requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the 1995 industry goals for unit median collective exposure. No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this compendium will help utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: Outages are shorter, staffing requirements are reduced, and work quality is improved. Despite up-front costs, the benefits over the following one to three years typically outweigh the expenses.

  4. Acoustic radiation force control: Pulsating spherical carriers.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-06-13

    power supply for distinct cases of zero, negative and positive radiation force states along with the frequency dependent asymmetry index. In addition, considering the effect of phase difference between the incident wave field and the pulsating object, and its possible variation with respect to spatial position of object, some practical points about the spatial average of generated radiation force, the optimal state of operation, the stability of zero radiation force states and the possibly of precise motion control are discussed. This work would extend the novel concept of smart carriers to and may be helpful for robust single-beam acoustic handling techniques. Furthermore, the shown capability of precise motion control may be considered as a new way toward smart acoustic driven micro-mechanisms and micro-machines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geometric radiating surfaces for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Various geometric radiating surface (GRS) configurations are evaluated analytically and experimentally for potential use in spacecraft thermal control systems. Egg-crate, honeycomb, flat-parallel, curved-parallel, chevron-shape, and composite fin radiator panel designs were evaluated in terms of mass, apparent emissivity, meteoroid protection, and ease of fabrication; the parallel-finned GRS in composite form was chosen as the most efficient design. The performance of the composite-finned GRS was compared with that of a silver-backed Teflon radiator. The emissivity and dissipative power capabilities of the GRS and radiator are measured. It is observed that the composite-finned GRS has 34 percent less surface area, 34 percent higher heat flux capability, greater meteoroid protection, and 2.8 times higher mass than the Teflon radiator. Future developments and applications for GRCs are discussed.

  6. Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

  7. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  8. A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

  9. Perspective on BVDV control programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Newcomer, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow-calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where

  10. STOVL Control Integration Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, C.; Mcdowell, P.; Watts, S.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated flight/propulsion control for an advanced vector thrust supersonic STOVL aircraft, was developed by Pratt & Whitney and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East. The IFPC design was based upon the partitioning of the global requirements into flight control and propulsion control requirements. To validate the design, aircraft and engine models were also developed for use on a NASA Ames piloted simulator. Different flight control implementations, evaluated for their handling qualities, are documented in the report along with the propulsion control, engine model, and aircraft model.

  11. DOD space radiation concerns. Annual program review No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Golightly, M.J.; Collins, D.L.

    1992-07-15

    Potential manned military space missions would involve exposing crews to many environmental factors, including ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation in space comes from several natural and man-made sources. Many parameters influence the radiation dose crews would receive and the biomedical outcome of the exposure. A systematic approach has been developed to examine military space crew doses and its impact on mission objectives. The approach involves determining mission and orbital parameters from analysis of preliminary spaceflight operational concepts and objectives, the types of radiation qualities and dose rates to which crews' would be exposed, the critical crew functions, and the resulting impact of the projected radiation exposure. From this analysis and a review of the current space radiobiology database, areas requiring further information or research are identified. An initial space radiobiology research program has been outlined. The resulting Space Radiation Effects Study Program has been incorporated into the current DoD 5-Year Plan for Ionizing Radiation Biomedical Research.

  12. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-06-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  13. AFWAL space control technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehne, V. O.

    1985-04-01

    An overview of space oriented control technology programs which are applicable to flexible large space structures is presented. The spacecraft control activity is interdisciplinary with activities in structures, structural dynamics and control brought together. The large flexible structures to be controlled have many physical factors that influence the final controllability of the vehicle. Factors are studied such as rigidity of both structural elements and joints, damping inherent in both material as well as discrete dampers located throughout the structure, and the bandwidth of both sensors and actuators used to sense motion and control it. Descriptions of programs both in-house and contracted are given.

  14. [Influence of Detector Radiation Damage on CR Mammography Quality Control].

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsumi; Ishii, Mie; Terazono, Shiho; Arao, Keiko; Ishii, Rie; Sanada, Taizo; Yoshida, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, radiation damage to the detector apparatus employed in computed radiography (CR) mammography has become problematic. The CR system and the imaging plate (IP) applied to quality control (QC) program were also used in clinical mammography in our hospital, and the IP to which radiation damage has occurred was used for approximately 5 years (approximately 13,000 exposures). We considered using previously acquired QC image data, which is stored in a server, to investigate the influence of radiation damage to an IP. The mammography unit employed in this study was a phase contrast mammography (PCM) Mermaid (KONICA MINOLTA) system. The QC image was made newly, and it was output in the film, and thereafter the optical density of the step-phantom image was measured. An input (digital value)-output (optical density) conversion curve was plotted using the obtained data. The digital values were then converted to optical density values using a reference optical density vs. digital value curve. When a high radiation dose was applied directly, radiation damage occurred at a position on the IP where no object was present. Daily QC for mammography is conducted using an American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom and acrylic disc, and an environmental background density measurement is performed as one of the management indexes. In this study, the radiation damage sustained by the acrylic disc was shown to differ from that of the background. Thus, it was revealed that QC results are influenced by radiation damage.

  15. Controlled Precipitation of Radiation Belt Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-23

    in support of the Air Force’s TIPER program, as well AFRL/NRL’s Injected whistler Precipitating HAARP facility in Gakona,waves Electrons Alaska. The...does LEP play in the losses of >100 keV radiation belt particles? (I A II II. Amplitude Data for 28- Mar -2001 47 N A A -LV t 9.." - 9.52" ---(b) -- SA

  16. Experimental Robust Control of Structural Acoustic Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.; Clark, Robert L.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This work addresses the design and application of robust controllers for structural acoustic control. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. H(infinity) and mu-synthesis design methods were used to design feedback controllers which minimize power radiated from a panel while avoiding instability due to unmodeled dynamics. Specifically, high order structural modes which couple strongly to the actuator-sensor path were poorly modeled. This model error was analytically bounded with an uncertainty model, which allowed controllers to be designed without artificial limits on control effort. It is found that robust control methods provide the control designer with physically meaningful parameters with which to tune control designs and can be very useful in determining limits of performance. Experimental results also showed, however, poor robustness properties for control designs with ad-hoc uncertainty models. The importance of quantifying and bounding model errors is discussed.

  17. CCP. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, J.; Levi, G.

    1998-10-01

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  18. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Jean R.; Levi, Gerald

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  19. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  20. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  1. LABCON - Laboratory Job Control program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reams, L. T.

    1969-01-01

    Computer program LABCON controls the budget system in a component test laboratory whose workload is made up from many individual budget allocations. A common denominator is applied to an incoming job, to which all effort is charged and accounted for.

  2. CRRES: Combined release and radiation effects satellite program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Laura D.; Miller, George P.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments that comprise the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Program (CRRES) (Apr. 1990 - Jul. 1992) are presented. The experiments are as follows: PEGSAT; El Coqui; the Kwajalein Campaign; and experiments G1 - G14.

  3. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  4. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

  5. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  6. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Uruguay: development of tissues quality control and quality management system in the National Multi-Tissue Bank of Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, I; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Saldías, M C; Pérez Campos, H; Wodowóz, O; Acosta, María; Vicentino, W; Silva, W; Rodríguez, G; Machín, D; Alvarez, O

    2009-05-01

    BNOT was created and regulated in 1977 and started its operation in 1978 according to the Decree No. 86/1977. By the Decree 248/005 is transformed in the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation of Cells, Tissues and Organs (Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Células, Tejidos y Organos--INDT). The organisation has been operating within the State University Medical School and the Public Health Secretary and it is the governmental organisation responsible for the regulation, policy and management of donation and transplantation in Uruguay. By the Decree 160/2006 is responsible for human cells and tissues regulation too. The participation of the INDT in the IAEA program facilitated the introduction of the radiation sterilisation technique for the first time in the country. The radiation sterilisation of tissues processed by INDT (ex BNOT), was initially carried out in the 60 Cobalt Industrial Plant in the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina and now is carried out in INDT, using a Gamma Cell 220 Excel, which was provided by the IAEA through the national project URU/7/005. The results of the implementation of tissues, quality control and quality management system, are showed.

  7. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses.

  8. NCRP PROGRAM AREA COMMITTEE 6: RADIATION DOSIMETRY AND MEASUREMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Zeman, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry – one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council’s expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards such as effects on lens of the eye, and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  9. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges.

  10. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  11. Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

    2013-06-01

    Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned.

  12. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  13. Non-ionizing radiation safety program management--one corporation's approach.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Michael A; Hinz, Michael W; Entwistle, Frederick B

    2004-08-01

    Development and implementation of non-ionizing radiation safety programs differ from ionizing radiation safety programs primarily due to the absence of prescriptive state and federal regulations. Industry consensus standards and research publications provide the basis for non-ionizing radiation safety program development. This work discusses the methodology used to develop a non-ionizing radiation safety program suitable, with minimal modification, for use both in research and industrial facilities. This program includes identification of industry consensus standards, measurement of actual or potential exposure, establishment of engineering and administrative controls, training and orientation of the workforce, and tracking of changes. Implementation of the program involves cooperation between a small corporate staff and many individuals representing various environmental, safety and health as well as manufacturing and research disciplines located in the facilities that contain the actual radiation sources. Challenges in program implementation include the wide variation in types, numbers, and uses of non-ionizing sources in numerous facilities located throughout the United States. Additional opportunities include providing advice and support to facilities located outside of the United States.

  14. User's manual for University of Arizona APART program (Analysis Program - Arizona Radiation Trace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A description and operating instructions for the Analysis Program Arizona Radiation Trace (APART) are given. This is a computer program that is able to efficiently and accurately predict the off-axis rejection characteristics of unwanted stray radiation for complex rotationally symmetric optical systems. The program first determines the critical objects or areas that scatter radiation to the image plane either directly or through imaging elements: this provides the opportunity to modify, if necessary, the design so that the number of critical areas seen by the image plane is reduced or the radiation to these critical areas is minimized. Next, the power distribution reaching the image plane and a sectional power map of all internal surfaces are computed. Angular information is also provided that relates the angle by which the radiation came into a surface to the angle by which the radiation is scattered out of the surface.

  15. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  16. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Tine; Wong, Lo Fo; Madsen, Mogens; Korsgaard, Helle; Bager, Flemming; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems. PMID:12890316

  17. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Control of the radiation parameters of a copper vapour laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, Yu P.; Yudin, Nikolai A.

    2003-09-01

    The possibility of controlling the pulse shape and duration and the beam divergence of a copper vapour laser operating in the mode of double pump pulses, when the first pulse excites lasing in the active medium and the second amplifies it. It is shown that a change in the delay of the second pump pulse relative to the laser pulse initiated by the first pump pulse allows an efficient control of the laser-radiation characteristics. In this case, the coefficient of laser-radiation conversion into a beam with a diffraction-limited divergence may reach ~80 %.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-05-05

    This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  1. Program control in NASA: Needs and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, William E.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has successfully managed some of this country's most complex technology and development programs. These successes have included the application of sound program control processes. The impetus for this study arose from the NASA Management Study Group findings that over time, some program control tools and disciplined procedures and processes had weakened. The Study Group recommended that steps be taken to establish a comprehensive training approach in program management, and specifically, in program control functions. This study looks at program control processes within NASA currently in use, defines a 'model' of program control functions, and provides recommendations on program control training needs and opportunities.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  3. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  4. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) -- Summer 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.; Ruderman, M.; Treiman, S.

    1995-10-01

    ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve the understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition the authors believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting. This report examines the issues of anomalous atmospheric absorption and makes recommendations concerning future directions for the ARM program.

  6. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  7. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  8. Control of radiation damage in the TEM.

    PubMed

    Egerton, R F

    2013-04-01

    The problem of electron-beam damage in the transmission electron microscope is reviewed, with an emphasis on radiolysis processes in soft materials and organic specimens. Factors that determine the dose-limited resolution are identified for three different operational modes: bright-field scattering-contrast, phase-contrast and dark-field microscopy. Methods of reducing radiation damage are discussed, including low-dose techniques, cooling or encapsulating the specimen, and the choice of imaging mode, incident-beam diameter and incident-electron energy. Further experiments are suggested as a means of obtaining a better understanding and control of electron-beam damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  10. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  11. Researchers develop four new radiation control methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J. )

    1989-10-01

    The author describes exploratory research into radiation transport processes which has resulted in four new products to help utilities reduce radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. According to the author, chemical decontamination, elevated pH chemistry, zinc passivation, and cobalt-free hardfacing alloys can reduce radiation fields. These four processes are discussed in this paper.

  12. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  13. An analysis of radiation therapy medical events in New York State: the role of the state radiation programs in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Janaki; Salame-Alfie, Adela; O'Connell, John

    2014-05-01

    From 2001 through 2009, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) has documented 244 reports of radiation therapy events, of which 228 have resulted from the delivery of radiation beam therapy using linear accelerators (LINACs). Historically, radiation therapy events involving LINACs have not been uniformly reported across the country because LINACs are regulated by state radiation control programs, and reporting requirements vary among states. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Material Events Database (NMED) only tracks events involving radioactive materials (RAM). Efforts to track medical events involving LINACs at a national level have begun only recently. This article highlights the importance of tracking and analyzing all medical radiation events in order to improve quality of care and patient safety. An analysis of a subset of the data collected by the NYSDOH from 2001-2009 is presented. This subset consists of only events arising from the use of LINACs in radiation therapy. There are very few publications on errors and error rates in the use of medical accelerators in radiation therapy. This analysis highlights the most common types of errors, causes and contributing factors, areas for improvement and actions taken to bring this information to the regulated community. An error rate of 0.07% per patient receiving radiation treatment is estimated using these data and the New York State Tumor Registry data for the same period. NY State Regulations governing the practice of Radiation Oncology have been revised recently to reflect the increased complexity in the delivery of therapeutic radiation. Collaboration and sharing of data such as those presented here, between federal, state and local regulators, professional organizations such as the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American College of Radiology (ACR), American

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  15. The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

    2003-01-01

    To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation,…

  16. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  18. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  19. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  20. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  1. Microprocessor program storage for missions with high radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahn, E.; Gliem, F.; Schwartz, P. U.; Bach, J.; Gaertner, M.

    1981-05-01

    Microprocessors have become an indispensable part of modern instruments for space research missions. A suitable selection of microprocessors and peripheral components must take into consideration also the operational performance of the devices when exposed to radiation, and their capability to withstand radiation. One of the devices to be considered is the memory unit employed for storing the program. Conditions of a particularly high exposure to radiation will exist during the Galileo and ISPM missions. While passing through the magnetic field of Jupiter, the equipment of the spacecraft will be exposed to a flux of high-energy electrons and protons. Performance under the expected conditions, availability, and cost are compared for several types of memory. It is found that the employment of bipolar PROMs has distinct advantages when compared to a use of CMOS ROMs or RAMs.

  2. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation Reactor Vessel Radiation Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, T.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Yanichko, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Westinghouse recognized that the disruption of the atomic lattice of metals by collision from energetic neutrons could alter the properties of the metals to such an extent that the changes could be of engineering significance. Furthermore, it was recognized that a physical-metallurgical phenomenon such as aging, both thermal and mechanical, also could alter the properties of a metal over its service life. Because of the potential changes in properties, reactor vessel radiation surveillance programs to monitor the effect of neutron radiation and other environmental factors on the reactor vessel materials during operational conditions over the life of the plant were initiated for Westinghouse plants with the insertion of reactor vessel material radiation surveillance capsules into the Yankee Atomic Company's Yankee Rowe plant in 1961.

  3. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. ); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. ); Ellingson, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  5. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  6. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-08-29

    ARM in Australia--The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched its newest Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in Darwin, Australia. This is the fifth research site established since ARM Program inception in 1989. The new Darwin site and two other ARCS sites--on Manus Island and the island of Nauru--are in the Tropical Western Pacific region. The North American sites in the U.S. Southern Great Plains and on the North Slope of Alaska represent two different climate regions. A goal of the ARM Program is to improve understanding of (1) the ways clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and (2) the effects of these interactions on both a local and global climate. Years of collected data are being used to improve computer climate models so that their predictions are more accurate. The new Darwin site is at the Darwin International Airport, adjacent to the Darwin Airport Meteorological Office. The site features state-of-the-art instrumentation used to measure solar radiation and surface radiation balance; cloud parameters; and standard meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric moisture, precipitation rates, and barometric pressure. A data management system (DMS) consisting of two computer workstations collects, stores, processes, and backs up data from each of the ARCS instruments. Data are transmitted via the Internet to the United States for further processing and archiving with data from the other ARM sites. All ARM data are freely available via the Internet to the public and the worldwide scientific community (http://www.arm.gov/). Operational since April 2002, the Darwin site was officially dedicated on July 30, 2002, by dignitaries from both the United States and Australia. The site is a collaborative effort between DOE and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Special Services Unit--the equivalent of the U.S. National Weather Service

  7. Control of sound radiating from an orthotropic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirovich, L.; Thangjitham, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of actively suppressing the acoustic radiation pressure generated by an orthotropic plate vibrating in air. The approach is to control the vibration of the modes of the plate most responsible for acoustic radiation pressure. This is accomplished by relating the far-field radiation pressure to the state of the plate. The control of the far-field radiation pressure is carried out by means of actuators placed on the elastic plate. A numerical example demonstrates the application of active control to suppress the far-field sound radiating from a simply-supported rectangular thin orthotropic plate subjected to a harmonic disturbance. The influence on the control of effectiveness of various design parameters, such as the number of controlled modes, the choice of controlled modes, and the number of actuators, is investigated.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Facilities Newsletter - September 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J., ed

    1999-09-27

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program September 1999 Facilities Newsletter discusses the several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) that the ARM SGP CART site will host in the near future. Two projects of note are the International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison and the Fall Single Column Model (SCM)/Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) IOP. Both projects will bring many US and international scientists to the SGP CART site to participate in atmospheric research.

  9. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  10. HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2002-01-31

    of the agreement are met. The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within NNSA implements the transparency provisions of the bilateral agreement. It is constantly making progress towards meeting its objectives and gathering the information necessary to confirm that Russian weapons-usable HEU is being blended into LEU. Since the first shipment in 1995 through December 2001, a total of 141 MT of weapons-grade HEU, about 28% of the agreed total and equivalent to 5,650 nuclear weapons, was converted to LEU, further reducing the threat of this material returning back into nuclear weapons. In the year 2001, the LEU sold to electric utility customers for fuel was sufficient to supply the annual fuel needs for about 50 percent of the U.S. installed nuclear electrical power generation capacity. There are four primary uranium processing activities involved in converting HEU metal components extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons into fuel for power reactors: (1) Converting HEU metal to purified HEU oxide; (2) Converting purified HEU oxide to HEU hexafluoride; (3) Downblending HEU hexafluoride to LEU hexafluoride; and (4) Converting LEU hexafluoride into reactor fuel. The first three processes are currently being performed at four Russian nuclear processing facilities: Mayak Production Association (MPA), Electrochemical Plant (ECP), Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), and Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP). Following the blending down of HEU, the LEU hexafluoride is loaded into industry, standard 30B cylinders at the downblending facilities and transported to St. Petersburg, Russia. From there the LEU is shipped by sea to the United States where it is converted into fuel to be used in nuclear power plants. There are six U.S. facilities processing LEU subject to the HEU purchase agreement: the Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant, Global Nuclear Fuel -America, Framatome-Lynchburg, Framatome-Richland, Westinghouse-Hematite, and

  11. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  12. A computer program to calculate radiation properties of reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the radiation properties of the reflector antennas is presented. It can be used for paraboloidal, spherical, or ellipsoidal reflector surfaces and is easily modified to handle any surface that can be expressed analytically. The program is general enough to allow any arbitrary location and pointing angle for the feed antenna. The effect of blockage due to the feed horn is also included in the computations. The computer program is based upon the technique of tracing the rays from the feed antenna to the reflector to an aperture plane. The far field radiation properties are then calculated by performing a double integration over the field points in the aperture plane. To facilitate the computation of double intergral, the field points are first aligned along the equispaced straight lines in the aperture plane. The computation time is relatively insensitive to the absolute size of the aperture and even though no limits on the largest reflector size have been determined, the program was used for reflector diameters of 1000 wavelenghts.

  13. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) survey of radiation biology educators in U.S. and Canadian radiation oncology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Barry S; Held, Kathryn D; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P; Zeman, Elaine M

    2009-11-01

    To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  14. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  15. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  16. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  17. Mentorship Programs in Radiation Oncology Residency Training Programs: A Critical Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Dhami, Gurleen; Gao, Wendy; Gensheimer, Michael F; Trister, Andrew D; Kane, Gabrielle; Zeng, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a nationwide survey to evaluate the current status of resident mentorship in radiation oncology. An anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to all residents and recent graduates at US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited radiation oncology residency programs, identified in the member directory of the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology. Factors predictive of having a mentor and satisfaction with the mentorship experience were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. The survey response rate was 25%, with 85% of respondents reporting that mentorship plays a critical role in residency training, whereas only 53% had a current mentor. Larger programs (≥ 10 faculty, P=.004; and ≥ 10 residents, P<.001) were more likely to offer a formal mentorship program, which makes it more likely for residents to have an active mentor (88% vs 44%). Residents in a formal mentoring program reported being more satisfied with the overall mentorship experience (univariate odds ratio 8.77, P<.001; multivariate odds ratio 5, P<.001). On multivariate analysis, women were less likely to be satisfied with the mentorship experience. This is the first survey focusing on the status of residency mentorship in radiation oncology. Our survey highlights the unmet need for mentorship in residency programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  19. The Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Education Program: An Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, F.; Marsh, L. K.; Springer, M.; Talus, C. E.; Haruta, A.; Kloesel, K.; Zak, B. D.; Clements, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education and Outreach program supports ARM Operations at all three CART sites (North Slope of Alaska, Tropical West Pacific, and Southern Great Plains) in ways that are relevant to the needs of the communities and regions that host the ARM program sites. The goal of the education and outreach program is to develop basic science awareness, critical thinking skills, and improve environmental science capacity building for communities, teachers and students in ARM host communities and regions. This year, the primary goal is to extend the existing program to cover all three sites and to coordinate activities among the sites. In order to achieve this goal, we: o Bring awareness of the ARM program to host communities through public education relevant to the culture of the region; o Aid capacity building and community involvement in developing and implementing ARM education at each site; o Promote a broader knowledge of regional and international climate concerns for teachers and students through integration of ARM education across sites; o Assist access to ARM data for educational programs as technical resources permit, and to provide real time research experiences for students; and o Increase the knowledge base for teachers and students in basic science and critical thinking skills using curriculum-based enrichment activities in climate, climate change, and climate change effects relevant to each region.

  20. Guidance, Navigation, and Control Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Tamblyn, Scott; Jackson, William L.; Foster, Chris; Brazzel, Jack; Manning, Thomas R.; Clark, Fred; Spehar, Pete; Barrett, Jim D.; Milenkovic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    The Rendezvous and Proximity Operations Program (RPOP) is real-time guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) domain piloting-aid software that provides 3D Orbiter graphics and runs on the Space Shuttle's Criticality-3 Payload and General Support Computer (PGSC) in the crew cockpit. This software provides the crew with Situational Awareness during the rendezvous and proximity operations phases of flight. RPOP can be configured from flight to flight, accounting for mission-specific flight scenarios and target vehicles, via initialization load (I-load) data files. The software provides real-time, automated, closed-loop guidance recommendations and the capability to integrate the crew s manual backup techniques. The software can bring all relative navigation sensor data, including the Orbiter's GPC (general purpose computer) data, into one central application to provide comprehensive situational awareness of the rendezvous and proximity operations trajectory. RPOP also can separately maintain trajectory estimates (past, current, and predicted) based on certain data types and co-plot them, in order to show how the various navigation solutions compare. RPOP s best estimate of the relative trajectory is determined by a relative Kalman filter processing data provided by the sensor suite s most accurate sensor, the trajectory control sensor (TCS). Integrated with the Kalman filter is an algorithm that identifies the reflector that the TCS is tracking. Because RPOP runs on PC laptop computers, the development and certification lifecycles are more agile, flexible, and cheaper than those that govern the Orbiter FSW (flight software) that runs in the GPC. New releases of RPOP can be turned around on a 3- to 6-month template, from new Change Request (CR) to certification, depending on the complexity of the changes.

  1. Accuracy control in Monte Carlo radiative calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almazan, P. Planas

    1993-01-01

    The general accuracy law that rules the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing algorithms used commonly for the calculation of the radiative entities in the thermal analysis of spacecraft are presented. These entities involve transfer of radiative energy either from a single source to a target (e.g., the configuration factors). or from several sources to a target (e.g., the absorbed heat fluxes). In fact, the former is just a particular case of the latter. The accuracy model is later applied to the calculation of some specific radiative entities. Furthermore, some issues related to the implementation of such a model in a software tool are discussed. Although only the relative error is considered through the discussion, similar results can be derived for the absolute error.

  2. NEW HIGHER PERFORMANCE LOW COST SELECTIVE SOLAR RADIATION CONTROL COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Ellison; Buddie Dotter; David Tsu

    2003-10-28

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., ECD, has developed a new high-speed low-cost process for depositing high quality dielectric optical coatings--Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD). This process can deposit SiO{sub x} about 10 times faster than the state-of-the-art conventional technology, magnetron sputtering, at about 1/10th the cost. This process is also being optimized for depositing higher refractive index materials such as Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiO{sub 2}. In this program ECD, in collaboration with Southwall Technologies, Inc. (STI), demonstrated that this process can be used to fabricate high performance low cost Selective Solar Radiation Control (SSRC) films for use in the automotive industry. These coatings were produced on thin (2 mil thick) PET substrates in ECD's pilot roll-to-roll pilot MPECVD deposition machine. Such film can be laminated with PVB in a vehicle's windows. This process can also be used to deposit the films directly onto the glass. Such highly selective films, with a visible transmission (T{sub vis}) of > 70% and a shading coefficient of < 60% can significantly reduce the heat entering a car from solar radiation. Consequently, passenger comfort is increased and the energy needed to operate air conditioning (a/c) systems is reduced; consequently smaller a/c systems can be employed resulting in improved vehicle fuel efficiency.

  3. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Beisser, K.; Fox, N.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program serves as a pipeline of activities to inspire and educate a broad audience about Heliophysics and the Sun-Earth system, specifically the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The program is comprised of a variety of formal, informal and public outreach activities that all align with the NASA Education Portfolio Strategic Framework outcomes. These include lesson plans and curriculum for use in the classroom, teacher workshops, internship opportunities, activities that target underserved populations, collaboration with science centers and NASA visitors' centers and partnerships with experts in the Heliophysics and education disciplines. This paper will detail the activities that make up the RBSP E/PO program, their intended audiences, and an explanation as to how they align with the NASA education outcomes. Additionally, discussions on why these activities are necessary as part of a NASA mission are included. Finally, examples of how the RBSP E/PO team has carried out some of these activities will be discussed throughout.

  4. Design and implementation of a programming circuit in radiation-hardened FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Wu; Xiaowei, Han; Yan, Zhao; Zhongli, Liu; Fang, Yu; Chen, Stanley L.

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel programming circuit used in our radiation-hardened field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. This circuit provides the ability to write user-defined configuration data into an FPGA and then read it back. The proposed circuit adopts the direct-access programming point scheme instead of the typical long token shift register chain. It not only saves area but also provides more flexible configuration operations. By configuring the proposed partial configuration control register, our smallest configuration section can be conveniently configured as a single data and a flexible partial configuration can be easily implemented. The hierarchical simulation scheme, optimization of the critical path and the elaborate layout plan make this circuit work well. Also, the radiation hardened by design programming point is introduced. This circuit has been implemented in a static random access memory (SRAM)-based FPGA fabricated by a 0.5 μm partial-depletion silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. The function test results of the fabricated chip indicate that this programming circuit successfully realizes the desired functions in the configuration and read-back. Moreover, the radiation test results indicate that the programming circuit has total dose tolerance of 1 × 105 rad(Si), dose rate survivability of 1.5 × 1011 rad(Si)/s and neutron fluence immunity of 1 × 1014 n/cm2.

  5. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    SciTech Connect

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O.

    1995-03-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up.

  6. Effect of individual blade control on noise radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, S. M.; Jacklin, Stephen A.; Niesl, G.; Blaas, Achim; Kube, R.

    1995-01-01

    In a joint research program of NASA Ames Research Center, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), and EUROCOPTER Deutschland, a wind tunnel test was performed to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on rotor noise. This test was conducted in the 40x80 ft wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, utilizing a full scale MBB-BO 105 four-bladed rotor system. Three microphones were installed for determination of the radiated noise, two of them on a moveable traverse below the advancing blade side and one in a fixed location below the retreating side. Acoustic results are presented for flight conditions with Blade-Vortex-Interaction (BVI) noise radiation. High noise level reductions were measured for single harmonic control inputs. In addition to the single harmonic inputs, multi-harmonic inputs were evaluated by superimposing 2/rev to 6/rev harmonics. For the first time the efficiency of sharp wavelets (60 deg and 90 deg width) on acoustic noise were measured. In order to achieve an adequate wavelet shape at the blade tip, corrections were made to account for the blade torsional behavior. In parallel with the acoustic measurements, vibratory loads were measured during the BVI flight condition to correlate the effects of IBC on noise and vibrations. It is shown how noise levels and vibrations are affected by specific IBC control inputs. In addition, correlations are made between noise levels and acoustic time histories with IBC phase and amplitude variations. For one IBC input mode with high noise reducing efficiency, a sweep of the moveable microphone traverse below the advancing side shows the effect on BVI noise directivity.

  7. Summary Report on Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D. F.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  8. Quality control and estimation of global solar radiation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenjun; He, Jie; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun

    2010-03-15

    Measurements of surface radiation in China are too sparse to meet demand for scientific research and engineering applications. Moreover, the radiation data often include erroneous and questionable values though preliminary quality-check has been done before the data release. Therefore, quality control of radiation data is often a prerequisite for using these data. In this study, a set of quality-check procedures were implemented to control the quality of the solar radiation measurements at 97 stations in China. A hybrid model for estimating global solar radiation was then evaluated against the controlled data. The results show that the model can estimate the global radiation with accuracy of MBE less than 1.5 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE less than 2.8 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE less than 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation at individual stations over most of China except at a few stations where unsatisfactory estimates were possibly caused by severe air pollution or too dense clouds. The MBE averaged over all stations are about 0.7 MJ m{sup -2} and RMSE about 2.0 MJ m{sup -2} for daily radiation and RMSE about 1.3 MJ m{sup -2} for monthly-mean daily radiation. Finally, this model was used to fill data gaps and to expand solar radiation data set using routine meteorological station data in China. This data set would substantially contribute to some radiation-related scientific studies and engineering applications in China. (author)

  9. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Dodson, Brian W.

    2001-10-02

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  10. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-01

    therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, December 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2003-01-09

    Radiometer Characterization System--The new Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) installed on the Guest Instrument Facility mezzanine at the SGP central facility will permit side-by-side evaluations of several new and modified broadband radiometers and comparisons with radiometers currently in use. If the new designs or modifications give substantially more accurate measurements, ARM scientists might elect to replace or modify the existing broadband radiometers. The RCS will also permit ARM scientists to determine whether the radiometers need cleaning more frequently than the current biweekly schedule, and an automatic radiometer washer will be evaluated for reliability and effectiveness in daily cleaning. A radiometer is an instrument used to measure radiant energy. ARM uses a pyranometer to measure the solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Clouds, water vapor, dust, and other aerosol particles can interfere with the transmission of solar radiation. The amount of radiant energy reaching the ground depends on the type and quantity of absorbers and reflectors between the sun and Earth's surface. A pyranometer can also measure solar radiation reflected from the surface. A pyranometer has a thermoelectric device (a wire-wound, plated thermopile) that produces an electric current proportional to the broadband shortwave solar radiation reaching a detector. The detector, which is painted black, is mounted in a precision-ground glass sphere for protection from the elements. The glass must be kept very clean, because dirt and dust scatter and absorb solar radiation and make the measurement incorrect. Accurate measurements of solar radiation are needed so that scientists can accurately replicate the interactions of solar radiation and clouds in global climate models--a major goal of the ARM program. TX-2002 AIRS Validation Campaign Winding Down--The TX-2002 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Validation Campaign ended on December 13, 2002. The National Aeronautics

  12. Research Program for Vibration Control in Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose of program to apply control theory to large space structures (LSS's) and design practical compensator for suppressing vibration. Program models LSS as distributed system. Control theory applied to produce compensator described by functional gains and transfer functions. Used for comparison of robustness of low- and high-order compensators that control surface vibrations of realistic wrap-rib antenna. Program written in FORTRAN for batch execution.

  13. Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: Experimental study and global active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, C.; Papantoni, V.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2017-08-01

    Active control of structural sound radiation is a promising technique to overcome the poor passive acoustic isolation performance of lightweight structures in the low-frequency region. Active structural acoustic control commonly aims at the suppression of the far-field radiated sound power. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound radiation into acoustic enclosures. Experimental results of a coupled rectangular plate-fluid system under stochastic excitation are presented. The amplitudes of the frequency-independent interior radiation modes are determined in real-time using a set of structural vibration sensors, for the purpose of estimating their contribution to the acoustic potential energy in the enclosure. This approach is validated by acoustic measurements inside the cavity. Utilizing a feedback control approach, a broadband reduction of the global acoustic response inside the enclosure is achieved.

  14. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of this...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation...

  16. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation...

  17. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of this...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation...

  19. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of this...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of this...

  2. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each radiation...

  3. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of this...

  4. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation Safety...

  5. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation Safety...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation Safety...

  7. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation Safety...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation Safety...

  9. Technical Justification for Radiation Controls at an Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DUPAQUIER, J.C.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the technical approach used to establish radiation protection controls over incoming radioactive materials to an environmental measurements laboratory at the Hanford Site. Conditions that would trigger internal dosimetry, posting.

  10. Cherenkov Radiation Control via Self-accelerating Wave-packets.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Li, Zhili; Wetzel, Benjamin; Morandotti, Roberto; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Jingjun

    2017-08-18

    Cherenkov radiation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature. It describes electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle moving in a medium with a uniform velocity larger than the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Such a picture is typically adopted in the investigation of traditional Cherenkov radiation as well as its counterparts in different branches of physics, including nonlinear optics, spintronics and plasmonics. In these cases, the radiation emitted spreads along a "cone", making it impractical for most applications. Here, we employ a self-accelerating optical pump wave-packet to demonstrate controlled shaping of one type of generalized Cherenkov radiation - dispersive waves in optical fibers. We show that, by tuning the parameters of the wave-packet, the emitted waves can be judiciously compressed and focused at desired locations, paving the way to such control in any physical system.

  11. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  12. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  13. Burnout in United States academic chairs of radiation oncology programs.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Aaron S; Thomas, Charles R; Bonner, James A; DeWeese, Theodore L; Formenti, Silvia C; Hahn, Stephen M; Lawrence, Theodore S; Mittal, Bharat B

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  15. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  16. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  17. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-08-13

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system.

  18. Compression force and radiation dose in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Waade, Gunvor G; Sanderud, Audun; Hofvind, Solveig

    2017-03-01

    Compression force is used in mammography to reduce breast thickness and by that decrease radiation dose and improve image quality. There are no evidence-based recommendations regarding the optimal compression force. We analyzed compression force and radiation dose between screening centers in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), as a first step towards establishing evidence-based recommendations for compression force. The study included information from 17 951 randomly selected screening examinations among women screened with equipment from four different venors at fourteen breast centers in the NBCSP, January-March 2014. We analyzed the applied compression force and radiation dose used on craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) view on left breast, by breast centers and vendors. Mean compression force used in the screening program was 116N (CC: 108N, MLO: 125N). The maximum difference in mean compression force between the centers was 63N for CC and 57N for MLO. Mean radiation dose for each image was 1.09mGy (CC: 1.04mGy, MLO: 1.14mGy), varying from 0.55mGy to 1.31mGy between the centers. Compression force alone had a negligible impact on radiation dose (r(2)=0.8%, p=<0.001). We observed substantial variations in mean compression forces between the breast centers. Breast characteristics and differences in automated exposure control between vendors might explain the low association between compression force and radiation dose. Further knowledge about different automated exposure controls and the impact of compression force on dose and image quality is needed to establish individualised and evidence-based recommendations for compression force. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Controlling Cocaine. Supply Versus Demand Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    treatment or supply- control programs. For example, most drug prevention programs are administered to preteens , while cocaine use does not normally start...and Kandel, Murphy, and Karus (1985) for the typical ages of initiation for various drugs. Prevention programs attempt to convince preteens to abstain

  20. Space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program for the design and operation of the space shuttle environmental and thermal control life support system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basic optimization program, (2) off design performance, (3) radiator/evaporator expendable usage, (4) component weights, and (5) computer program operating procedures.

  1. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives.

  2. Applications of radiation measurements in arms control and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, D.; Reinitz, K.; Barnette, S.; O'Connell, M.; Sheely, K.

    1994-12-01

    Radiation measurements play a vital role in the development and implementation of U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy. The President's Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy reflects the changing realities of a post-Cold-War world and makes nonproliferation one of our nation's highest priorities. Key elements of the Policy concern international controls on plutonium and highly-enriched uranium. Current DOE work contributing to arms control and nonproliferation policy implementation is described with an emphasis on the role of radiation measurements.

  3. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  4. Control-System Design Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    1987-01-01

    Control-theory design package, Optimal Regulator Algorithms for Control of Linear Systems (ORACLS), developed to aid in design of controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear, time-invariant differential and difference equations. Optimal linear quadratic regulator theory, Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problem, most widely accepted method of determining optimal control policy. Provides for solution to time-in-variant continuous or discrete LQG problems. Attractive to control-system designer providing rigorous tool for dealing with multi-input and multi-output dynamic systems in continuous and discrete form. CDO version written in FORTRAN IV. VAX version written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. The use of an active controlled enclosure to attenuate sound radiation from a heavy radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Yang, Tiejun; Zhu, Minggang; Pan, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Active structural acoustical control usually experiences difficulty in the control of heavy sources or sources where direct applications of control forces are not practical. To overcome this difficulty, an active controlled enclosure, which forms a cavity with both flexible and open boundary, is employed. This configuration permits indirect implementation of active control in which the control inputs can be applied to subsidiary structures other than the sources. To determine the control effectiveness of the configuration, the vibro-acoustic behavior of the system, which consists of a top plate with an open, a sound cavity and a source panel, is investigated in this paper. A complete mathematical model of the system is formulated involving modified Fourier series formulations and the governing equations are solved using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The coupling mechanisms of a partly opened cavity and a plate are analysed in terms of modal responses and directivity patterns. Furthermore, to attenuate sound power radiated from both the top panel and the open, two strategies are studied: minimizing the total radiated power and the cancellation of volume velocity. Moreover, three control configurations are compared, using a point force on the control panel (structural control), using a sound source in the cavity (acoustical control) and applying hybrid structural-acoustical control. In addition, the effects of boundary condition of the control panel on the sound radiation and control performance are discussed.

  6. Methionine Uptake and Required Radiation Dose to Control Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iuchi, Toshihiko; Hatano, Kazuo; Uchino, Yoshio; Itami, Makiko; Hasegawa, Yuzo; Kawasaki, Koichiro; Sakaida, Tsukasa; Hara, Ryusuke

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility of radiation therapy planning for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) based on the use of methionine (MET) positron emission tomography (PET), and the correlation among MET uptake, radiation dose, and tumor control. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with GBM who underwent MET-PET prior to radiation therapy were enrolled. MET uptake in 30 regions of interest (ROIs) from 22 GBMs, biologically effective doses (BEDs) for the ROIs and their ratios (MET uptake:BED) were compared in terms of whether the ROIs were controlled for >12 months. Results: MET uptake was significantly correlated with tumor control (odds ratio [OR], 10.0; P=.005); however, there was a higher level of correlation between MET uptake:BED ratio and tumor control (OR, 40.0; P<.0001). These data indicated that the required BEDs for controlling the ROIs could be predicted in terms of MET uptake; BED could be calculated as [34.0 × MET uptake] Gy from the optimal threshold of the MET uptake:BED ratio for tumor control. Conclusions: Target delineation based on MET-PET was demonstrated to be feasible for radiation therapy treatment planning. MET-PET could not only provide precise visualization of infiltrating tumor cells but also predict the required radiation doses to control target regions.

  7. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  8. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  9. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  10. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders—Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-12-01

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  11. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-12-02

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  12. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation Using Iterative Loop Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.

  13. Decentralized control of sound radiation using iterative loop recovery.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Noah H; Cabell, Randolph H; Fuller, Chris R

    2010-10-01

    A decentralized model-based control strategy is designed to reduce low-frequency sound radiation from periodically stiffened panels. While decentralized control systems tend to be scalable, performance can be limited due to modeling error introduced by the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units. Since bounds on modeling error are not known in advance, it is difficult to ensure the decentralized control system will be robust without making the controller overly conservative. Therefore an iterative approach is suggested, which utilizes frequency-shaped loop recovery. The approach accounts for modeling error introduced by neighboring control loops, requires no communication between subsystems, and is relatively simple. The control strategy is evaluated numerically using a model of a stiffened aluminum panel that is representative of the sidewall of an aircraft. Simulations demonstrate that the iterative approach can achieve significant reductions in radiated sound power from the stiffened panel without destabilizing neighboring control units.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, May 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-06-01

    This month the authors will visit an ARM CART site with a pleasant climate: the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) CART site, along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. The TWP locale lies between 10 degrees North latitude and 10 degrees South latitude and extends from Indonesia east-ward beyond the international date line. This area was selected because it is in and around the Pacific warm pool, the area of warm sea-surface temperatures that determine El Nino/La Nina episodes. The warm pool also adds heat and moisture to the atmosphere and thus fuels cloud formation. Understanding the way tropical clouds and water vapor affect the solar radiation budget is a focus of the ARM Program. The two current island-based CART sites in the TWP are in Manus Province in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru Island.

  15. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  16. Diffractive variable attenuator for femtosecond laser radiation control.

    PubMed

    Poleshchuk, Alexander G; Nasyrov, Ruslan K; Cherkashin, Vadim V; Dubov, Mykhaylo V; Mezentsev, Vladimir M; Bennion, Ian

    2009-02-01

    We present a diffractive phase variable attenuator for femtosecond laser radiation control. It allows the control of beam power up to 0.75.10(13) W/cm(2) without introducing serious distortions in spectra and beam shape while it operates in zero order diffraction. The attenuator can operate with wavelengths from DUV to IR.

  17. Coherent Radiative Control of Chemical Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    effective were determined and successful control was displayed using a model of Stilbene isomerization. F. Control over Chemically Distinct Products...than, the stilbene molecule for which Si(t>to) = Ia(to)Il14ru-(I’ f = 1, II11 (3) there is a vast array of data available art for which...mechanical o calculation of ground and first excited electronic potential surfaces _o for trans- and cis- stilbene . To minimize computational cost we 0

  18. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  19. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  20. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  1. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  2. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this survey was to obtain detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the U.S. and Canada. Methods and Materials In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the U.S. and Canada. Results The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the ASTRO Radiation & Cancer Biology Practice Exam used by residents and educators. Consoination and Study Guides, were widely lidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course, were viewed as unlikely to be employed by most programs. Conclusions A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses, but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology. PMID:19733012

  3. Environmental Restoration Program Document Control Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Document Control Plan has been developed to comply with the document control system requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), the Hanford Federal Facility and the ER Program. One of the five components, or summary subprojects, of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program is program management and support, which includes both management systems development and information and data management. Efforts within the management systems development area include the creation of a document control plan. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and established an overall document control system that governs the methods by which all WHC documents are generated, maintained, and disposed of. The ER Program performing organizations within WHC utilize the established WHC document control systems to the maximum extent possible. These systems are discussed in Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 of this plan. In addition, this plan describes the documents that require control within the ER Program and how they will be controlled.

  4. Report: EPA Travel Program Lacks Necessary Controls

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #10-P-0078, March 9, 2010. The EPA travel program, which comprises EPA policies and GovTrip, lacks necessary control procedures to assure all travel authorizations were necessary and in the best interest of the government.

  5. Silicon Controlled Switch for Detection of Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SILICON CONTROLLED ...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SILICON CONTROLLED SWITCH FOR DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Karl J... Controlled Switch (SCS), under the presence of a direct current (DC) voltage bias (VBIAS), was connected in series to a resistor and capacitor (RC) load

  6. Robust Feedback Control of Flow Induced Structural Radiation of Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heatwole, Craig M.; Bernhard, Robert J.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    1997-01-01

    A significant component of the interior noise of aircraft and automobiles is a result of turbulent boundary layer excitation of the vehicular structure. In this work, active robust feedback control of the noise due to this non-predictable excitation is investigated. Both an analytical model and experimental investigations are used to determine the characteristics of the flow induced structural sound radiation problem. The problem is shown to be broadband in nature with large system uncertainties associated with the various operating conditions. Furthermore the delay associated with sound propagation is shown to restrict the use of microphone feedback. The state of the art control methodologies, IL synthesis and adaptive feedback control, are evaluated and shown to have limited success for solving this problem. A robust frequency domain controller design methodology is developed for the problem of sound radiated from turbulent flow driven plates. The control design methodology uses frequency domain sequential loop shaping techniques. System uncertainty, sound pressure level reduction performance, and actuator constraints are included in the design process. Using this design method, phase lag was added using non-minimum phase zeros such that the beneficial plant dynamics could be used. This general control approach has application to lightly damped vibration and sound radiation problems where there are high bandwidth control objectives requiring a low controller DC gain and controller order.

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  8. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. Steve; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.; Konradi, Andrei; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  9. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  10. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from Winthrop University to the New York City Health & Hospitals Corporation d.b.a. the New York City...

  11. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  12. Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1995-07-18

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  14. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-01-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Refurbishment program of HANARO control computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H. K.; Choe, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Doo, S. K.; Jung, H. S.

    2012-07-01

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type research reactor with 30 MW thermal power, achieved its first criticality in 1995. The programmable controller system MLC (Multi Loop Controller) manufactured by MOORE has been used to control and regulate HANARO since 1995. We made a plan to replace the control computer because the system supplier no longer provided technical support and thus no spare parts were available. Aged and obsolete equipment and the shortage of spare parts supply could have caused great problems. The first consideration for a replacement of the control computer dates back to 2007. The supplier did not produce the components of MLC so that this system would no longer be guaranteed. We established the upgrade and refurbishment program in 2009 so as to keep HANARO up to date in terms of safety. We designed the new control computer system that would replace MLC. The new computer system is HCCS (HANARO Control Computer System). The refurbishing activity is in progress and will finish in 2013. The goal of the refurbishment program is a functional replacement of the reactor control system in consideration of suitable interfaces, compliance with no special outage for installation and commissioning, and no change of the well-proved operation philosophy. HCCS is a DCS (Discrete Control System) using PLC manufactured by RTP. To enhance the reliability, we adapt a triple processor system, double I/O system and hot swapping function. This paper describes the refurbishment program of the HANARO control system including the design requirements of HCCS. (authors)

  17. A computer program for calculation of spectral radiative properties of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code is described whereby calculations of radiative properties of gas mixtures may be made. The program is arranged so that distinct radiative processes for each species are computed in individual subroutines. Provision is made for calculating radiative properties in nonequilibrium situations - separate rotational, vibrational, and electronic temperatures may be used. These features should provide a flexibility not currently available in such programs. The basic equations and the program listing in FORTRAN 4 language are presented. Sample calculations are given for high temperature air and carbon dioxide and are compared to calculations made with previously developed programs.

  18. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  19. Employers should disband employee weight control programs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alfred; Khanna, Vikram; Montrose, Shana

    2015-02-01

    American corporations continue to expand wellness programs, which now reach an estimated 90% of workers in large organizations, yet no study has demonstrated that the main focus of these programs-weight control-has any positive effect. There is no published evidence that large-scale corporate attempts to control employee body weight through financial incentives and penalties have generated savings from long-term weight loss, or a reduction in inpatient admissions associated with obesity or even long-term weight loss itself. Other evidence contradicts the hypothesis that population obesity rates meaningfully retard economic growth or manufacturing productivity. Quite the contrary, overscreening and crash dieting can impact employee morale and even harm employee health. Therefore, the authors believe that corporations should disband or significantly reconfigure weight-oriented wellness programs, and that the Affordable Care Act should be amended to require such programs to conform to accepted guidelines for harm avoidance.

  20. Modeling and Control of the Automated Radiator Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Darren

    1991-01-01

    Many of the operations performed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are dangerous and repetitive tasks which make them ideal candidates for robotic applications. For one specific application, KSC is currently in the process of designing and constructing a robot called the Automated Radiator Inspection Device (ARID), to inspect the radiator panels on the orbiter. The following aspects of the ARID project are discussed: modeling of the ARID; design of control algorithms; and nonlinear based simulation of the ARID. Recommendations to assist KSC personnel in the successful completion of the ARID project are given.

  1. Control of the Oscillatory Interlayer Exchange Interaction with Terahertz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uta; Haack, Géraldine; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    The oscillatory interlayer exchange interaction between two magnetic layers separated by a metallic spacer is one of the few coherent quantum phenomena that persists at room temperature. Here, we show that this interaction can be controlled dynamically by illuminating the sample (e.g., a spin valve) with radiation in the 10-100 THz range. We predict that the exchange interaction can be changed from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic (and vice versa) by tuning the amplitude and/or the frequency of the radiation. Our chief theoretical result is an expression that relates the dynamical exchange interaction to the static one that has already been extensively measured.

  2. CRRES combined radiation and release effects satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, B. L. (Compiler); Mccook, M. A. (Compiler); Mccook, M. W. (Compiler); Miller, G. P. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.

  3. Effects of high energy simulated space radiation on polymeric second-surface mirrors. [thermal control coatings - performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eogdall, L. B.; Cannaday, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation effects experimental program was performed, in which second surface mirror type thermal control coatings were exposed to ultraviolet radiation, electrons, and protons simultaneously. Stability was assessed by making periodic spectral reflectance measurements in situ (and in air after testing for comparison). Solar absorption coefficients were derived by computer. Many of the exposed materials showed large amounts of degradation in reflectance absorptance, principally due to the electron exposure. A series of tests was conducted, leading to the identification of a modified second surface mirror that shows considerable improvement and promise for stability during thermal control applications in a charged particle space radiation environment.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

    2009-07-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  5. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  6. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-09-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  7. Radiation-induced conductivity control in polyaniline blends/composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güven, Olgun

    2007-08-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) blends with chlorine-containing polymers and copolymers and composites with HCl-releasing compounds were prepared to investigate their radiation response in terms of induced conductivities. Blends of non-conductive PANI with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(vinylidene chloride- co-vinyl acetate), [P(VDC- co-VAc)], poly(vinylidene chloride- co-vinyl chloride), [P(VDC- co-VC)] were prepared in the form of as-cast films. A number of blends which are different in composition were exposed to gamma radiation and accelerated electrons to various doses, and the effects of irradiation type and composition of polymers on the conductivity of films were investigated by using conductivity measurements and UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The results clearly showed that ionizing radiation is an effective tool to induce and control conductivity in the blends of PANI-base with chlorine-carrying polymers as well as its composites prepared from HCl-releasing compounds such as chloral hydrate. The main mechanism behind this radiation-induced conductivity is in situ doping of PANI-base with HCl released from partner polymers and low molecular weight compounds by the effect of radiation.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, June 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D.J.

    2001-07-10

    The ARM Program studies clouds, sunlight, and their interactions to understand how they affect Earth's climate. One of the many instruments used to look at clouds at the SGP CART site is the micropulse lidar (MPL; ''lidar'' was coined from ''light distance and ranging''). The ARM Program operates five MPLs. One is at the SGP central facility; one is at the North Slope of Alaska CART site in Barrow, Alaska; and three are for use at the Tropical Western Pacific site on Nauru and Manus islands. The MPL is a remote sensing instrument used to measure the height of overhead clouds and particles. An eye-safe laser in the system directs a beam vertically. As short pulses of laser light travel through the sky, they may encounter water droplets or aerosol particles in the atmosphere. These particles intercept the laser light and scatter it in different directions. Some of the scattered light returns to Earth's surface. A receiver on the ground collects backscattered light that bounces off atmospheric particles and uses the information to determine the distance between the ground and the particles. The signals detected are collected and plotted. The greater the signal strength, the more scatterers are present in the atmosphere. A plot based on this relationship provides a ''snapshot'' of the cloud overhead and shows the structure inside the cloud. In addition, the information gathered from the MPL can be used to determine the height of the planetary boundary layer, the well-mixed layer of the atmosphere that develops during daytime hours as the sun heats Earth's surface and sets up vertical mixing. Small airborne particles that can also be detected include smoke or dust carried into the atmosphere. This information is valuable to climate researchers. Because the MPL uses an eye-safe laser, it is not a danger to pilots of planes flying overhead and can be run continuously. The availability of continuous data is a great benefit to researchers in their efforts to incorporate the

  9. Agile radiation pattern control of metamaterial microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensafieddine, D.; Attachi, S.; Chaker, S. M.; Laamari, M.; Bouzouad, M.

    2017-01-01

    We are interested in this work, with the antenna radiation pattern agility. The aim is to control the radiation pattern using an agile metamaterial lens. This latter is based on an agile metamaterial. For this purpose we design an agile metamaterial unit cell which can flip between two different behaviors. The first one corresponds to an effective medium with a refractive index close to zero and the second one corresponds to an effective medium having a refractive index greater than unity. This agile lens is used to enhance a microstrip antenna gain and control its radiation pattern. The maximum realized gain obtained is up to 12 dB. The radiation pattern main lobe can be rotated from -47° to 47° in the E-plane and from -33° to 33° in the H-plane. We obtain also a main lobe beam width of 32° in the E-plane and 46° in the H-plane.

  10. HEALS Hypertension Control Program: Training Church Members as Program Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Dodani, Sunita; Beayler, Irmatine; Lewis, Jennifer; Sowders, Lindsey A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Health disparities related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including stroke have remained higher in the African-Americans (AAs) than in other populations. HEALS is a faith-based hypertension (HTN) control program modified according to AA community needs, and delivered by the church-lay members called church health advisors (CHAs). This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of training CHAs as HEALS program leaders. Design: Four CHAs completed a 10-hour HEALS program training workshop at the Church, conducted by the nutrition experts. Workshop was evaluated by CHAs on their level of satisfaction, clarity of contents covered and comfort in delivery the program to the church congregation. Results: The overall six main HEALS curriculum components were completed. Workshop was highly evaluated by CHAs on length of training, balance between content and skills development, and level of satisfaction with program delivery. Conclusion: Church-based culturally modified health promotion interventions conducted by the community lay members may be a way to reduce health disparities in ethnic minorities. PMID:25685245

  11. Diagnostic options for radiative divertor feedback control on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; McLean, A. G.; Raman, R.

    2012-10-01

    A radiative divertor technique is used in present tokamak experiments and planned for ITER to mitigate high heat loads on divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) to prevent excessive material erosion and thermal damage. In NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with lithium-coated graphite PFCs and high divertor heat flux (qpeak ≤ 15 MW/m2), radiative divertor experiments have demonstrated a significant reduction of divertor peak heat flux simultaneously with good core H-mode confinement using pre-programmed D2 or CD4 gas injections. In this work diagnostic options for a new real-time feedback control system for active radiative divertor detachment control in NSTX-U, where steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20–30 MW/m2, are discussed. Based on the NSTX divertor detachment measurements and analysis, the control diagnostic signals available for NSTX-U include divertor radiated power, neutral pressure, spectroscopic deuterium recombination signatures, infrared thermography of PFC surfaces, and thermoelectric scrape-off layer current. In addition, spectroscopic “security” monitoring of possible confinement or pedestal degradation is recommended. These signals would be implemented in a digital plasma control system to manage the divertor detachment process via an actuator (impurity gas seeding rate).

  12. Diagnostic options for radiative divertor feedback control on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Raman, R.

    2012-10-15

    A radiative divertor technique is used in present tokamak experiments and planned for ITER to mitigate high heat loads on divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) to prevent excessive material erosion and thermal damage. In NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with lithium-coated graphite PFCs and high divertor heat flux (q{sub peak} Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 15 MW/m{sup 2}), radiative divertor experiments have demonstrated a significant reduction of divertor peak heat flux simultaneously with good core H-mode confinement using pre-programmed D{sub 2} or CD{sub 4} gas injections. In this work diagnostic options for a new real-time feedback control system for active radiative divertor detachment control in NSTX-U, where steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m{sup 2}, are discussed. Based on the NSTX divertor detachment measurements and analysis, the control diagnostic signals available for NSTX-U include divertor radiated power, neutral pressure, spectroscopic deuterium recombination signatures, infrared thermography of PFC surfaces, and thermoelectric scrape-off layer current. In addition, spectroscopic 'security' monitoring of possible confinement or pedestal degradation is recommended. These signals would be implemented in a digital plasma control system to manage the divertor detachment process via an actuator (impurity gas seeding rate).

  13. Diagnostic options for radiative divertor feedback control on NSTX-U.

    PubMed

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Gerhardt, S P; Kaita, R; McLean, A G; Raman, R

    2012-10-01

    A radiative divertor technique is used in present tokamak experiments and planned for ITER to mitigate high heat loads on divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) to prevent excessive material erosion and thermal damage. In NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with lithium-coated graphite PFCs and high divertor heat flux (q(peak) ≤ 15 MW/m(2)), radiative divertor experiments have demonstrated a significant reduction of divertor peak heat flux simultaneously with good core H-mode confinement using pre-programmed D(2) or CD(4) gas injections. In this work diagnostic options for a new real-time feedback control system for active radiative divertor detachment control in NSTX-U, where steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m(2), are discussed. Based on the NSTX divertor detachment measurements and analysis, the control diagnostic signals available for NSTX-U include divertor radiated power, neutral pressure, spectroscopic deuterium recombination signatures, infrared thermography of PFC surfaces, and thermoelectric scrape-off layer current. In addition, spectroscopic "security" monitoring of possible confinement or pedestal degradation is recommended. These signals would be implemented in a digital plasma control system to manage the divertor detachment process via an actuator (impurity gas seeding rate).

  14. Automatic Circulation Control of Working Fluid in Liquid Droplet Radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tsuyoshi; Takekoshi, Takuhiro; Wakita, Masashi; Nagata, Harunori

    Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) is an important candidate for disposing large quantities of waste heat more than 1 MW which will be handled by large space structures such as Space Power Satellite. The working fluid is heated through a heat exchanger by the waste heat generated in a large structure in space. Then, the working fluid is emitted in space through nozzles of the droplet generator toward a droplet collector as multiple streams of droplets. During the flight in space, the droplets lose thermal energy via radiative heat transfer. After the cooled droplets are captured by the droplet collector, the working fluid is recycled to the heat exchanger by a circulating pump. The automatic control system on the circulation of working fluid in a liquid droplet radiator has been built using a programmable logic controller. The proportional control of flow rate with the term of the variation of the counter flow in the gear pump and the relaxation of the change of an target flow rate has succeeded within 5 percent at the automatic circulation control of the working fluid from 100 ml/min to 200 ml/min and from 200 ml/min to 100 ml/min.

  15. Efficient control variates for uncertainty quantification of radiation transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, A.; Iaccarino, G.

    2017-03-01

    Numerical simulations of problems involving radiation transport are challenging because of the associated computational cost; moreover, it is typically difficult to describe the optical properties of the system very precisely, and therefore uncertainties abound. We aim to represent the uncertainties explicitly and to characterize their impact on the output of interest. While stochastic collocation and polynomial chaos methods have been applied previously, these methods can suffer from the curse of dimensionality and fail in cases where the system response is discontinuous or highly non-linear. Monte Carlo methods are more robust, but they converge slowly. To that end, we apply the control variate method to uncertainty propagation via Monte Carlo. We leverage the modeling hierarchy of radiation transport to use low fidelity models such as the diffusion approximation and coarse angular discretizations to reduce the confidence interval on the quantity of interest. The efficiency of the control variate method is demonstrated in several problems involving stochastic media, thermal emission, and radiation properties with different quantities of interest. The control variates are able to provide significant variance reduction and efficiency increase in all problems considered. We conclude our study with a discussion of choosing optimal control variates and other extensions of Monte Carlo methods.

  16. Advanced Digital Controller Development Program, Task I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    The control will not allow more than 60*F overshoot above the specified steady-state turbine outlet gas temperature limit. Transient temperature...AD-A129 269 ADVANCED DIGITAL CONTROLLER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM TASK 1 1/1 ()GENERAL MOTORS CORP INDIANAPOLIS IN DETROIT DIESEL ALLISON D0. d H HUNTER JL... Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation P.O. Box 894 Indianapolis, Indiana 46206 July 1982 Interim Report for Period 1 September 1979-30

  17. Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) quality control of solar radiation data on the Gangneung-Wonju National University radiation station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zo, Il-Sung; Jee, Joon-Bum; Kim, Bu-Yo; Lee, Kyu-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Gangneung-Wonju National University (GWNU) radiation station has been collecting data on global, direct, and diffuse solar radiation since 2011. We conducted a quality control (QC) assessment of GWNU data collected between 2012 and 2014, using procedures outlined by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The QC process involved the comparison of observations, the correction of observational equipment, the examination of physically possible limits, and the comparative testing of observations and model calculations. Furthermore, we performed a shading check of the observational environment around the GWNU solar station. For each solar radiation element (observed every minute), we performed a QC check and investigated any flagged problems. 98.31% of the data were classified as good quality, while the remaining 1.69% were flagged as bad quality based on the shading check and comparison tests. We then compared the good-quality data to the global solar radiation data observed at the Gangwon Regional Office of Meteorology (GROM). After performing this comparison, the determination coefficient (R2; 0.98) and standard deviation (SD; 0.92 MJ m-2) increased compared to those computed before the QC check (0.97 and 1.09 MJ m-2). Even considering the geographical differences and weather effects between the two stations, these results are statistically significant. However, we also confirmed that the quality of the GROM data deteriorated in relation to weather conditions because of poor maintenance. Hence, we conclude that good-quality observational data rely on the maintenance of both observational equipment and the surrounding environment under optimal conditions.

  18. Control of broadband radiated sound with adaptive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. P.; Fuller, Chris R.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.

    1993-09-01

    Active structural acoustic control using adaptive structures has been demonstrated for harmonic disturbances. This paper presents an extension of this work to the attenuation of acoustic radiation from structures subject to broadband disturbances. An adaptive, multi-input multi-output (MIMO), feedforward broadband acoustic control system has been developed based on the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. The compensators are adaptive finite impulse response (FIR) filters. The control inputs are implemented with piezoelectric ceramic actuators. Both far-field microphones and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) structural sensors designed to observe the efficient acoustic radiating modes are used as error sensors. The disturbance is band-limited zero mean white noise and is implemented with a point force shaker. In the control of harmonically excited systems, satisfactory attenuation is possible with a single-input single-output (SISO) controller. In contrast, for systems excited with broadband disturbances, a MIMO controller is necessary for significant acoustic attenuation. Experimental results for the control of a simply supported plate are presented.

  19. Low-Cost Programmed Oven Temperature Controller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubine, Gerald D.

    1982-01-01

    A remote, programed oven temperature controller unit was built for about $425.00. Specifications, circuit diagrams, design details, and operations are discussed. Detailed information including complete schematics, parts list, and detailed theory of operation may be obtained by contacting the author. (Author/SK)

  20. Improved local control for advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma following twice daily radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.

    1985-12-01

    This paper presents the results of treatment on 99 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx irradiated by the twice-a-day radiation therapy program at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The program consisted of 1.6 Gy per fraction, two fractions per day with 4 hours between fractions, for 12 days, 5 days a week. After 38.4 Gy, the patients were given a 2 week break and then resumed twice-a-day radiation therapy for a total of 64 Gy and occasionally 67.2 Gy. Fifty-two patients had carcinoma of the faucial tonsil and 47 patients had carcinoma of the base of the tongue. For the entire group of patients, the 36 month actuarial local control rate was 58%, and for the T1-2 and T3-4 lesions, the rates were 77% and 48% respectively. In comparison with patients treated by once-a-day radiation therapy for a few years immediately prior to the twice-a-day program, the local control rates were improved to a statistically significant level. Likewise, the results as compared to those published in the literature were no worse and perhaps superior to those of patients treated by the once-a-day schedule.

  1. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  2. Control of synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Benson, Stephen; Li, Rui; Roblin, Yves; Tennant, Christopher; Krafft, Geoffrey; Terzic, Balsa; Tsai, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Studies of beam quality during recirculation have been extended to an arc providing bunch compression with positive momentum compaction. It controls both incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (ISR and CSR) using methods including optics balance and generates little microbunching gain. We detail the dynamical basis for the design, discuss the design process, give an example, and provide simulations of ISR and CSR effects. Reference will be made to a complete analysis of microbunching effects.

  3. Assessing the service provided by an institutional radiation safety survey program

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, R.J.; Sawyer, R.L.; Sprau, D.D.

    1996-05-01

    Routine radiation safety surveys are a required part of every institutional radiation protection program. Although mandated by regulation, surveys are really performed to help clinicians and researchers establish and maintain radiologically-safe working and learning environments. In some cases, however, the priorities established by a radiation protection program may not coincide with the needs perceived by the institution`s workers, leading to possible alienation, dissatisfaction, and non-compliance with policies, procedures, and regulations. To determine if a typical survey program was perceived as providing a good or valued service to workers, a simple questionnaire was created and utilized for a 6-mo period. The results obtained from this targeted assessment tool indicate that the radiation safety survey services were perceived as useful by most of the workers. In addition, the actual process of comment solicitation provided a positive feedback mechanism from the service recipients to the radiation safety staff, managers, committee members, and institution administrators. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2003-02-28

    visible light is not available for measurements. One of the three additional instruments is a commercially produced analyzer called the Nephelo. The Nephelo uses a series of infrared detectors to yield estimates of fractional sky cover. A second instrument to be tested is an infrared cloud imager. This instrument was previously deployed for testing at ARM's North Slope CART site in Barrow, Alaska. The third system to be tested will be a narrow-field-of-view infrared thermometer, operated in scanning mode rather than in the fixed vertical orientation. Scanning with the instrument and analyzing high-frequency samples of its data will increase the sky area covered. Collection of cloud data is not straightforward, because determination of actual cloud cover is subject to the definition of what is and is not a cloud. An instrument's determinations and calculations depend on its ability to detect a cloud either via collection of backscatter from a directed signal or by computer analysis of digital photographs. Verification of the data is restricted by the difficulty of the establishing a ''ground truth'' value. Thus, the emphasis in this IOP has to be on comparing measurements from the different instruments. Earth's climate is directly affected by the presence and absence of clouds. However, the accuracy of computer depictions and prognostications of future climate is limited by inadequacies in the parameterization of clouds in global climate models. A high-priority ARM Program goal is to increase our understanding of the interactions between clouds and solar radiation in the atmosphere, so that this complicated duo can be incorporated accurately into computer climate models.

  5. EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

  6. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor.

  7. Control of sound radiation with active/adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.; Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research is discussed in the area of active structural acoustic control with active/adaptive structures. Progress in the areas of structural acoustics, actuators, sensors, and control approaches is presented. Considerable effort has been given to the interaction of these areas with each other due to the coupled nature of the problem. A discussion is presented on actuators bonded to or embedded in the structure itself. The actuators discussed are piezoceramic actuators and shape memory alloy actuators. The sensors discussed are optical fiber sensors, Nitinol fiber sensors, piezoceramics, and polyvinylidene fluoride sensors. The active control techniques considered are state feedback control techniques and least mean square adaptive algorithms. Results presented show that significant progress has been made towards controlling structurally radiated noise by active/adaptive means applied directly to the structure.

  8. Control of sound radiation with active/adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.; Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research is discussed in the area of active structural acoustic control with active/adaptive structures. Progress in the areas of structural acoustics, actuators, sensors, and control approaches is presented. Considerable effort has been given to the interaction of these areas with each other due to the coupled nature of the problem. A discussion is presented on actuators bonded to or embedded in the structure itself. The actuators discussed are piezoceramic actuators and shape memory alloy actuators. The sensors discussed are optical fiber sensors, Nitinol fiber sensors, piezoceramics, and polyvinylidene fluoride sensors. The active control techniques considered are state feedback control techniques and least mean square adaptive algorithms. Results presented show that significant progress has been made towards controlling structurally radiated noise by active/adaptive means applied directly to the structure.

  9. Control of radiative processes using tunable plasmonic nanopatch antennas.

    PubMed

    Rose, Alec; Hoang, Thang B; McGuire, Felicia; Mock, Jack J; Ciracì, Cristian; Smith, David R; Mikkelsen, Maiken H

    2014-08-13

    The radiative processes associated with fluorophores and other radiating systems can be profoundly modified by their interaction with nanoplasmonic structures. Extreme electromagnetic environments can be created in plasmonic nanostructures or nanocavities, such as within the nanoscale gap region between two plasmonic nanoparticles, where the illuminating optical fields and the density of radiating modes are dramatically enhanced relative to vacuum. Unraveling the various mechanisms present in such coupled systems, and their impact on spontaneous emission and other radiative phenomena, however, requires a suitably reliable and precise means of tuning the plasmon resonance of the nanostructure while simultaneously preserving the electromagnetic characteristics of the enhancement region. Here, we achieve this control using a plasmonic platform consisting of colloidally synthesized nanocubes electromagnetically coupled to a metallic film. Each nanocube resembles a nanoscale patch antenna (or nanopatch) whose plasmon resonance can be changed independent of its local field enhancement. By varying the size of the nanopatch, we tune the plasmonic resonance by ∼ 200 nm, encompassing the excitation, absorption, and emission spectra corresponding to Cy5 fluorophores embedded within the gap region between nanopatch and film. By sweeping the plasmon resonance but keeping the field enhancements roughly fixed, we demonstrate fluorescence enhancements exceeding a factor of 30,000 with detector-limited enhancements of the spontaneous emission rate by a factor of 74. The experiments are supported by finite-element simulations that reveal design rules for optimized fluorescence enhancement or large Purcell factors.

  10. Controlling radiation fields in siemans designed light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, R.; Marchl, T.

    1995-03-01

    An essential item for the control of radiation fields is the minimization of the use of satellites in the reactor systems of Light Water Reactors (LWRs). A short description of the qualification of Co-replacement materials will be followed by an illustration of the locations where these materials were implemented in Siemens designed LWRs. Especially experiences in PWRs show the immense influence of reduction of cobalt sources on dose rate buildup. The corrosion and the fatique and wear behavior of the replacement materials has not created concern up to now. A second tool to keep occupational radiation doses at a low level in PWRs is the use of the modified B/Li-chemistry. This is practized in Siemens designed plants by keeping the Li level at a max. value of 2 ppm until it reaches a pH (at 300{degrees}C) of {approximately}7.4. This pH is kept constant until the end of the cycle. The substitution of cobalt base alloys and thus the removal of the Co-59 sources from the system had the largest impact on the radiation levels. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of the coolant chemistry should not be neglected either. Several years of successful operation of PWRs with the replacement materials resulted in an occupational radiation exposure which is below 0.5 man-Sievert/plant and year.

  11. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  12. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  13. The Pioneer Jupiter magnetic control program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. L.; Broce, R. D.; Inouye, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Jupiter spacecraft was required to have a sufficiently small magnetic field that accurate interplanetary-magnetic field measurements would not be compromised. In order to control the magnetic field throughout the program a running account of spacecraft magnetic fields was maintained by means of a periodically updated magnetic model. This model was used to make economic tradeoffs in subsystem magnetic moments within the allowed magnetic budget. The program was culminated with a measurement of the magnetic field of the spacecraft. A description of the magnetic tests and a comparison with estimates made with the magnetic model are also presented.

  14. The Pioneer Jupiter magnetic control program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. L.; Broce, R. D.; Inouye, G. T.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Jupiter spacecraft was required to have a sufficiently small magnetic field that accurate interplanetary-magnetic field measurements would not be compromised. In order to control the magnetic field throughout the program a running account of spacecraft magnetic fields was maintained by means of a periodically updated magnetic model. This model was used to make economic tradeoffs in subsystem magnetic moments within the allowed magnetic budget. The program was culminated with a measurement of the magnetic field of the spacecraft. A description of the magnetic tests and a comparison with estimates made with the magnetic model are also presented.

  15. An Ionizing Radiation Sensor Using a Pre-Programmed MAHAOS Device

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ching.; Lee, Hao-Tien Daniel.; Jong, Fuh-Cheng.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-aluminum oxide–hafnium aluminum oxide–silicon oxide–silicon (hereafter MAHAOS) devices can be candidates for ionizing radiation sensor applications. In this work, MAHAOS devices (SONOS-like structures with high k stack gate dielectric) were studied regarding the first known characterization of the ionization radiation sensing response. The change of threshold voltage VT for a MAHAOS device after gamma ray exposure had a strong correlation to the total ionization dose (TID) of gamma radiation up to at least 5 Mrad TID. In this paper, the gamma radiation response performances of the pre-programmed and virgin (non-pre-programmed) MAHAOS devices are presented. The experimental data show that the change of VT for the pre-programmed MAHAOS device with gamma irradiation is very significant. The data of pre-programmed MAHAOS devices written by 5 Mrad TID of gamma radiation was also stable for a long time with data storage. The sensing of gamma radiation by pre-programmed MAHAOS devices with high k stack gate dielectric reported in this study has demonstrated their potential application for non-volatile ionizing radiation sensing technology in the future. PMID:25116901

  16. An ionizing radiation sensor using a pre-programmed MAHAOS device.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Ching; Lee, Hao-Tien Daniel; Jong, Fuh-Cheng

    2014-08-11

    Metal-aluminum oxide-hafnium aluminum oxide-silicon oxide-silicon (hereafter MAHAOS) devices can be candidates for ionizing radiation sensor applications. In this work, MAHAOS devices (SONOS-like structures with high k stack gate dielectric) were studied regarding the first known characterization of the ionization radiation sensing response. The change of threshold voltage V(T) for a MAHAOS device after gamma ray exposure had a strong correlation to the total ionization dose (TID) of gamma radiation up to at least 5 Mrad TID. In this paper, the gamma radiation response performances of the pre-programmed and virgin (non-pre-programmed) MAHAOS devices are presented. The experimental data show that the change of VT for the pre-programmed MAHAOS device with gamma irradiation is very significant. The data of pre-programmed MAHAOS devices written by 5 Mrad TID of gamma radiation was also stable for a long time with data storage. The sensing of gamma radiation by pre-programmed MAHAOS devices with high k stack gate dielectric reported in this study has demonstrated their potential application for non-volatile ionizing radiation sensing technology in the future.

  17. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  18. Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry

  20. Low-Cost Radiator for Fission Power Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Taylor; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William; Hartenstine, John; Stern, Theodore; Walmsley, Nicholas; Briggs, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing fission power system technology for future Lunar surface power applications. The systems are envisioned in the 10 to 100kW(sub e) range and have an anticipated design life of 8 to 15 years with no maintenance. NASA GRC is currently setting up a 55 kW(sub e) non-nuclear system ground test in thermal-vacuum to validate technologies required to transfer reactor heat, convert the heat into electricity, reject waste heat, process the electrical output, and demonstrate overall system performance. Reducing the radiator mass, size, and cost is essential to the success of the program. To meet these goals, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) and Vanguard Space Technologies, Inc. (VST) are developing a single facesheet radiator with heat pipes directly bonded to the facesheet. The facesheet material is a graphite fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) and the heat pipes are titanium/water. By directly bonding a single facesheet to the heat pipes, several heavy and expensive components can be eliminated from the traditional radiator design such as, POC(TradeMark) foam saddles, aluminum honeycomb, and a second facesheet. A two-heat pipe radiator prototype, based on the single facesheet direct-bond concept, was fabricated and tested to verify the ability of the direct-bond joint to withstand coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) induced stresses during thermal cycling. The thermal gradients along the bonds were measured before and after thermal cycle tests to determine if the performance degraded. Overall, the results indicated that the initial uniformity of the adhesive was poor along one of the heat pipes. However, both direct bond joints showed no measureable amount of degradation after being thermally cycled at both moderate and aggressive conditions.

  1. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  2. Radiation mechanisms of pain control in classical trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Gorgulho, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Classical trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that was clinically recognized centuries ago. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanism(s) involved in the development of classical trigeminal neuralgia is still largely based on the theory of peripheral versus central nervous system origin. Limitations of both hypotheses are discussed. Evidence of radiation effects in the electrical conduction of peripheral nerves is reviewed. Results of experimental studies using modern and current radiosurgery techniques and doses are also brought to discussion in an attempt to elucidate the radiation mechanisms involved in the conduction block of excessive sensory information triggering pain attacks. Clinical features and prognostic factors associated with pain control, recurrence, and facial numbness in patients submitted to surgical procedures for classical trigeminal neuralgia are discussed in the context of the features related to the pathogenesis of this condition. Studies focusing on the electrophysiology properties of partially demyelinated trigeminal nerves submitted to radiosurgery are vital to truly advance our current knowledge in the field. PMID:22826806

  3. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  4. A computer program for calculation of approximate embryo/fetus radiation dose in nuclear medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Tuncay; Sönmez, Bircan

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. None declared.

  5. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a...

  15. Variability of physics education in radiation oncology medical residency programs.

    PubMed

    Das, Indra J; Moskvin, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of medical physics education for radiation oncology medical residents. An independent survey regarding physics education was carried out using e-mail. The survey contained 12 questions addressing the duration, length, and quality of education. Responses were tabulated and compared with the recommended educational scheme. Nearly 56% of institutions participated in this survey. Educational patterns were found to be significantly variable among institutions. Some have minimum physics education (10 lectures), and some have 90 lectures per year. In general, two-thirds of the institutions require residents to attend classes up to the third year. Significant variability of physics education for radiation oncology medical residents was observed, contrary to the national recommendations. With advanced treatment techniques, physics education should be given more importance, and the number of lectures should be increased to accommodate every aspect of radiation oncology practice. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid state power controller fuse development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spauhorst, V. R.; Curtis, W. H.; Kalra, V.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this development program is to design a family of fail-safe fuses (2-30A, 28VDC, 115/230V-400 Hz) for applications in aircraft electrical systems solid state power controllers (SSPCs). The SSPC functions as a circuit interrupter and a load controller, and when operating properly should protect the aircraft wiring between itself and the load. However, if the SSPC fails to open during a short or overload condition, excessive current can flow, resulting in serious damage to aircraft wiring. The purpose of the SSPC fuse is to prevent wire damage in this double fault condition.

  17. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  18. LANL material control indicator analysis program

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Several methods have been put in place to deter and or detect losses of SNM. These include inventory, material control physical barriers and the use of material control indicators (MCI). This paper will discuss the multi-tier LANL review mechanism for detecting and isolating missing SNM by the use of Material Control Indicators. Los Alamos MCI include daily analysis and review of item adjustments, weekly review of item adjustments, monthly analysis and review of inventory differences by Process Status and by Material Balance Areas, and quarterly analysis and review of Propagation of Variance. This paper, by providing an introduction to a site-specific application of MCI's, assists safeguards professionals in understanding the importance of an MCI Program in detecting accumulation for subsequent diversion/theft of special nuclear material.

  19. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  20. Integrating an academic radiation safety program into an environmental management system.

    PubMed

    Zurosky, Daniel M

    2003-08-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Program at the University of South Carolina recently developed an environmental management system (EMS) based on the ISO 14001 International Standard. Since our radiation safety program must already meet strict state licensing requirements, the process of conforming to this standard was relatively easy to accomplish. The EH&S program achieved certification to the ISO 14001 standard in August of 2002. The benefits of the EMS include: better interaction between radiation safety and other EH&S program entities, holds all employees accountable by closely tracking program activities, presents a clear picture of program accomplishments to the university administration, allows for better use of limited resources and provides for continuous program improvement.

  1. CONTROL OF RADIATION PARAMETERS Radiation phase locking in an array of globally coupled fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotskii, D. V.; Elkin, N. N.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    A model of an array of globally coupled fibre lasers, with the same fraction of the total output beam returned to each laser, is considered. The basic element of the model is a single laser controlled by an external signal. The output power of each laser in the array is found as a function of small-signal gain and frequency detuning. The maximum efficiency of phase locking and minimum fraction of output radiation that is necessary to form a feedback are calculated as functions of the number of lasers in the array. It is shown that gain saturation increases the efficiency of coherent beam summation in arrays containing up to 20 lasers.

  2. NASA's high efficiency and radiation damage solar cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion efficiency and the life expectancy of solar cells and arrays were evaluated for space applications. Efforts were made to improve the understanding of the conversion of electromagnetic radiation to useful forms of energy. A broad range of advanced concepts were evaluated.

  3. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O’Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P = .02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement. PMID:25539370

  4. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial; Kantarjian, Hagop; Allen, Pamela; Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow; O'Brien, Susan; Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D.; Thomas, Deborah A.; Gidley, Paul W.; Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  5. Boiling water reactor radiation shielded Control Rod Drive Housing Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Baversten, B.; Linden, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Control Rod Drive (CRD) mechanisms are located in the area below the reactor vessel in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Specifically, these CRDs are located between the bottom of the reactor vessel and above an interlocking structure of steel bars and rods, herein identified as CRD Housing Supports. The CRD Housing Supports are designed to limit the travel of a Control Rod and Control Rod Drive in the event that the CRD vessel attachement went to fail, allowing the CRD to be ejected from the vessel. By limiting the travel of the ejected CRD, the supports prevent a nuclear overpower excursion that could occur as a result of the ejected CRD. The Housing Support structure must be disassembled in order to remove CRDs for replacement or maintenance. The disassembly task can require a significant amount of outage time and personnel radiation exposure dependent on the number and location of the CRDs to be changed out. This paper presents a way to minimize personal radiation exposure through the re-design of the Housing Support structure. The following paragraphs also delineate a method of avoiding the awkward, manual, handling of the structure under the reactor vessel during a CRD change out.

  6. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin

    2017-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits “0” and “1” to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency‐spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments. PMID:28932671

  7. Controlling Energy Radiations of Electromagnetic Waves via Frequency Coding Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haotian; Liu, Shuo; Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-09-01

    Metamaterials are artificial structures composed of subwavelength unit cells to control electromagnetic (EM) waves. The spatial coding representation of metamaterial has the ability to describe the material in a digital way. The spatial coding metamaterials are typically constructed by unit cells that have similar shapes with fixed functionality. Here, the concept of frequency coding metamaterial is proposed, which achieves different controls of EM energy radiations with a fixed spatial coding pattern when the frequency changes. In this case, not only different phase responses of the unit cells are considered, but also different phase sensitivities are also required. Due to different frequency sensitivities of unit cells, two units with the same phase response at the initial frequency may have different phase responses at higher frequency. To describe the frequency coding property of unit cell, digitalized frequency sensitivity is proposed, in which the units are encoded with digits "0" and "1" to represent the low and high phase sensitivities, respectively. By this merit, two degrees of freedom, spatial coding and frequency coding, are obtained to control the EM energy radiations by a new class of frequency-spatial coding metamaterials. The above concepts and physical phenomena are confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments.

  8. Effect of a fluid layer on the sound radiation of a plate and its active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Pan, Jie; Yang, Tiejun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a baffled plate facing a layer of fluid is used to investigate the effects of the radiating environment on the plate's sound radiation and its active control. By varying the thickness of the fluid layer, different radiation environments are presented to the plate, resulting in a variation in the efficiencies and shapes of the radiation modes of the plate. As the design of feed-forward control of the radiated sound power and of feedback control of the vibration velocity or volume velocity is limited by the properties of the secondary control path (an open-loop frequency response function), the performance of the control system may be deteriorated if a controller optimally designed for one radiation environment is used for a different environment. The effects of radiation environment on the properties of the secondary control path and performance of active control are investigated.

  9. Noise control using a plate radiator and an acoustic resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control subassembly for reducing noise caused by a source (such as an aircraft engine) independent of the subassembly. A noise radiating panel is bendably vibratable to generate a panel noise canceling at least a portion of the source noise. A piezoceramic actuator plate is connected to the panel. A front plate is spaced apart from the panel and the first plate, is positioned generally between the source noise and the panel, and has a sound exit port. A first pair of spaced-apart side walls each generally abut the panel and the front plate so as to generally enclose a front cavity to define a resonator.

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  11. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  13. Engineering design of cryocondensation pumps for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, A.S.; Baxi, C.B.; Del Bene, J.V.; Laughon, G.J.; Reis, E.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Smith, J.P.

    1995-10-01

    A new double-null, slotted divertor configuration will be installed for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program at General Atomics in late 1996. Four cryocondensation pumps, three new and one existing, will be part of this new divertor. The purpose of the pumps is to provide plasma density control and to limit the impurities entering the plasma core by providing pumping at each divertor strike point. The three new pumps are based on the design of the existing pump, installed in 1992 as part of the Advanced Divertor Program. The new pumps require geometry modifications to the original design. Therefore, extensive modal and dynamic analyses were performed to determine the behavior of these pumps and their helium and nitrogen feed lines during disruption events. Thermal and fluid analyses were also performed to characterize the helium two-phase flow regime in the pumps and their feedlines. A flow testing program was completed to test the change in geometry of the pump feed lines with respect to helium flow stability. The results were compared to the helium thermal and fluid analyses to verify predicted flow regimes and flow stability.

  14. Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

  15. Computer program optimizes design of nuclear radiation shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program, OPEX 2, determines minimum weight, volume, or cost for shields. Program incorporates improved coding, simplified data input, spherical geometry, and an expanded output. Method is capable of altering dose-thickness relationship when a shield layer has been removed.

  16. A Radiation Safety Training Program Results in Reduced Radiation Exposure for Orthopaedic Residents Using the Mini C-arm.

    PubMed

    Gendelberg, David; Hennrikus, William; Slough, Jennifer; Armstrong, Douglas; King, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Fluoroscopy during fracture reduction allows a physician to assess fractures and immediately treat a pediatric patient. However, concern regarding the effects of radiation exposure has led us to find ways to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable. One potentially simple way, which to our knowledge has not been explored, to decrease radiation exposure is through formal education before mini C-arm use. We questioned whether a radiation safety educational program decreases radiation (1) time and (2) exposure among residents and patients. This is a retrospective study in which second-year residents underwent a 3-hour educational program regarding mini C-arm use and radiation safety taught by our institution's health physics department. We evaluated the records of all patients who underwent a pediatric both-bone forearm or distal radius fracture reduction in the emergency department 3 months before the educational program or after the program. To be included in the study, records included simple both-bone forearm fractures, simple distal radius fractures, and patient age younger than 18 years, and could not include patients with multiple fractures in the same limb. This resulted in study groups of 53 and 45 patients' records in the groups before and after the educational session, respectively. Radiation emission from the mini C-arm between both groups were compared. Exposure time with the mini C-arm was longer in patients treated before the educational intervention than in those treated after the intervention (patients with both-bone forearm fractures: mean = 41.2, SD = 24.7, 95% CI, 23.14-59.26 vs mean = 28.9, SD = 14.4, 95% CI, 15.91-41.89, p = 0.066; patients with distal radius fractures: mean = 38.1, SD = 26.1, 95% CI, 25.1-51.1 vs mean = 26.7, SD = 15.8, 95% CI, 16.44-36.96, p = 0.042). Calculated radiation exposure with the mini C-arm was larger in patients treated before the educational intervention than in those treated after the intervention

  17. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  18. Contamination control program for the Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the three state of the art instruments flown aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) were designed, fabricated, and integrated using unique contamination control procedures to ensure accurate characterization of the diffuse radiation in the universe. The most stringent surface level cleanliness specifications ever attempted by NASA were required by the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DRIBE) which is located inside a liquid helium cooled dewar along with the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS). The DRIBE instrument required complex stray radiation suppression that defined a cold primary optical baffle system surface cleanliness level of 100A. The cleanliness levels of the cryogenic FIRAS instrument and the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which were positioned symmetrically around the dewar were less stringent ranging from 300 to 500A. To achieve these instrument cleanliness levels, the entire flight spacecraft was maintained at level 500A throughout each phase of development. The COBE contamination control program is described along with the difficulties experienced in maintaining the cleanliness quality of personnel and flight hardware throughout instrument assembly.

  19. Using Solar Radiation Pressure to Control L2 Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tene, Noam; Richon, Karen; Folta, David

    1998-01-01

    The main perturbations at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points L1 and L2 are from solar radiation pressure (SRP), the Moon and the planets. Traditional approaches to trajectory design for Lagrange-point orbits use maneuvers every few months to correct for these perturbations. The gravitational effects of the Moon and the planets are small and periodic. However, they cannot be neglected because small perturbations in the direction of the unstable eigenvector are enough to cause exponential growth within a few months. The main effect of a constant SRP is to shift the center of the orbit by a small distance. For spacecraft with large sun-shields like the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the SRP effect is larger than all other perturbations and depends mostly on spacecraft attitude. Small variations in the spacecraft attitude are large enough to excite or control the exponential eigenvector. A closed-loop linear controller based on the SRP variations would eliminate one of the largest errors to the orbit and provide a continuous acceleration for use in controlling other disturbances. It is possible to design reference trajectories that account for the periodic lunar and planetary perturbations and still satisfy mission requirements. When such trajectories are used the acceleration required to control the unstable eigenvector is well within the capabilities of a continuous linear controller. Initial estimates show that by using attitude control it should be possible to minimize and even eliminate thruster maneuvers for station keeping.

  20. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  1. The control of the magnetosphere by power line radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luette, J. P.; Park, C. G.; Helliwell, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence is presented that radiated power line harmonics leak into high-altitude regions of the magnetosphere with sufficient intensity to control the starting frequencies of chorus emissions. OGO-3 data from three passes show that the starting frequencies of all measurable chorus emissions were within a few hertz of power line harmonics. It is also found that emissions detected over Western Europe were controlled by harmonics of 50 Hz; over the eastern United States and Canada by 60 Hz; and along the Alaska-New Zealand meridian by harmonics of both 50 and 60 Hz. These results indicate that man-made VLF noise plays an important role in the generation of chorus, one of the commonly observed forms of wave activity in the outer magnetosphere.

  2. Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.

    PubMed

    Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated.

  3. Quality control program for the Hanford External Dosimetry thermoluminescent processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, W.V.; Endres, A.W.; Reese, S.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Program is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program records official external occupational radiation doses for all Hanford Site employees and visitors in compliance with DOE Order requirements. This report documents the quality control (QC) program for External Dosimetry's thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) processing system. The focus of the External Dosimetry Program has been (1) to accurately calculate personnel radiation doses, and (2) to document the methods used to report doses in order, to meet DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) criteria. The purpose of this report is to describe the QC procedures used for dosimeters and processing equipment. Use of QC procedures allows for the prompt correction of unusual data before it is reported.

  4. Quality control program for the Hanford External Dosimetry thermoluminescent processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, W.V.; Endres, A.W.; Reese, S.R.

    1992-09-01

    The Hanford External Dosimetry Program is operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program records official external occupational radiation doses for all Hanford Site employees and visitors in compliance with DOE Order requirements. This report documents the quality control (QC) program for External Dosimetry`s thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) processing system. The focus of the External Dosimetry Program has been (1) to accurately calculate personnel radiation doses, and (2) to document the methods used to report doses in order, to meet DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) criteria. The purpose of this report is to describe the QC procedures used for dosimeters and processing equipment. Use of QC procedures allows for the prompt correction of unusual data before it is reported.

  5. Control system for ALID-7 linear accelerator used in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. I.; Jianu, A.; Bestea, V.; Toma, M.; Oproiu, C.; Marghitu, S.

    1999-07-01

    The data acquisition and control system for the electron linear accelerator ALID-7 of 5.5 MeV and 0.7 kW, built in Romania, used on pilot-scale radiation processing, is discussed. The system provides: personnel and sensitive device protection against dangerous events; programmed interlocking and warning signals during accelerator operation; single electron pulses or electron pulse trains with small variations in pulse dose; control of electron pulse length and repetition rate, electron beam intensity, magnetron frequency, high voltage level on magnetron and electron-gun modulators, sweeping amplitude and frequency, conveyor velocity, irradiation time, and electron pulses number; simultaneous electron beam and microwave treatment. An important feature of the installation is an original control technique for obtaining programmed beam single shots and pulse trains with programmed pulse number, pulse repetition frequency, and pulse duration, from a diode gun linear accelerator, by discrete pulse temporal position modulation of the gun electron pulses and the magnetron microwave pulses. It is particularly useful for automatic control of absorbed dose rate level, irradiation process control as well as in pulse radiolysis studies, single pulse dose measurement or for research experiments where pulse-to-pulse reproducibility is required.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-03-08

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled--The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded--New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''--Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog--Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-07-03

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and

  8. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-07-23

    Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  10. Computer program for pulsed thermocouples with corrections for radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed thermocouple was used for measuring gas temperatures above the melting point of common thermocouples. This was done by allowing the thermocouple to heat until it approaches its melting point and then turning on the protective cooling gas. This method required a computer to extrapolate the thermocouple data to the higher gas temperatures. A method that includes the effect of radiation in the extrapolation is described. Computations of gas temperature are provided, along with the estimate of the final thermocouple wire temperature. Results from tests on high temperature combustor research rigs are presented.

  11. PLC & DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation & Control Skid P

    SciTech Connect

    HORNER, T.M.

    2001-07-19

    This document describes the software programs for the programmable logic controller and the datable access module for pumping instrumentation and control skid P. The appendices contains copies of the printouts of these software programs.

  12. Research progress in radiation detectors, pattern recognition programs, and radiation damage determination in DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    The radiological implications of statistical variations in energy deposition by ionizing radiation were investigated in the conduct of the following experiments: (1) study of the production of secondary particles generated by the passage of the primary radiation through bone and muscle; (2) the study of the ratio of nonreparable to reparable damage in DNA as a function of different energy deposition patterns generated by X rays versus heavy fast charged particles; (3) the use of electronic radiography systems for direct fluoroscopic tomography and for the synthesis of multiple planes and; (4) the determination of the characteristics of systems response to split fields having different contrast levels, and of minimum detectable contrast levels between the halves under realistic clinical situations.

  13. NASA'S controls-structures interaction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, Brantley R.

    1989-01-01

    A NASA program is about to start which has the objective to advance Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology to a point where it can be used in spacecraft design for future missions. Because of the close interrelationships between the structure, the control hardware, and the analysis/design, a highly interdisciplinary activity is defined in which structures, dynamics, controls, computer and electronics engineers work together on a daily basis and are co-located to a large extent. Methods will be developed which allow the controls and structures analysis and design functions to use the same mathematical models. Hardware tests and applications are emphasized and will require development of concepts and test methods to carry out. Because of a variety of mission application problem classes, several time-phased, focus ground test articles are planned. They will be located at the Langley Researdh Center (LaRC), the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). It is anticipated that the ground tests will be subject to gravity and other environmental effects to the extent that orbital flights tests will be needed for verification of some technology items. The need for orbital flight experiments will be quantified based on ground test results and mission needs. Candidate on-orbit experiments will be defined and preliminary design/definition and cost studies will be carried out for one or more high-priority experiments.

  14. Designing, implementing, and conducting a web-based radiation safety training program to meet Texas standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Cerecero, Jennifer A; Charlton, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The implementation of a web-based radiation safety training program for a large biomedical research institution has the capability of increasing the knowledge of proper use of radionuclides in the laboratories in a more cost effective and efficient way of demonstrating this material. The design and implementation of the web-based course for the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio must meet Texas radioactive material regulations while ensuring that the content engages and challenges the student's health physics knowledge. The implementation of this course required updating the existing course to reflect current regulatory requirements for radiation safety training, emergency response, and biological effects risk coefficients. The final web-based radiation safety training program was evaluated by a standard examination that it is equivalent to the knowledge gained in the classroom course. The results of the scores for the standard examination were equivalent for both the classroom and the web-based course. However, the web-based version with 1 h in the classroom has saved 5,407 h total throughout the institution.

  15. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shih-Yew; Napier, Bruce A.

    2016-02-18

    The Program Area Committee 5 (PAC 5) of the National Council on Radiation protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The committee completed a number of reports in the subject areas, and specifically the most recent NCRP Report 175 (Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents). Historically PAC 5 addressed the emerging issues of the nation that pertain to radioactivity or radiation in the environment, or the radioactive waste issues due either to the natural origins or to the manmade activities

  16. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  17. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  18. NIH/NIAID Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    Medical Countermeasure Development – NIAID Omnibus ■Contracts –Oral Forms of DTPA (2) –RERF –Product Development Support Services ■Inter/intra Agency...radionuclides  Contract and Grant Programs - Oral Form of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ( DTPA ) - Oral Radionuclide Decorporation Agents Biodosimetry

  19. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  20. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  1. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  2. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  3. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  4. International Test Program for Synergistic Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2001-01-01

    The components and materials of spacecraft in low Earth orbit can degrade in thermal and optical performance through interaction with atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, which are predominant in low Earth orbit. Because of the importance of low Earth orbit durability and performance to manufacturers and users, an international test program for assessing the durability of spacecraft materials and components was initiated. Initial tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center consisted of exposure of samples representing a variety of thermal control paints, multilayer insulation materials, and Sun sensors that have been used in space. Materials donated from various international sources were tested alongside materials whose performance is well known, such as Teflon FEP, Kapton H, or Z-93-P white paint. The optical, thermal, or mass loss data generated during the tests were then provided to the participating material suppliers. Data were not published unless the participant donating the material consented to publication. The test program is intended to give spacecraft builders and users a better understanding of degradation processes and effects so that they can improve their predictions of spacecraft performance.

  5. BAC: A computer program for calculating shielding in buildings against initial radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G.

    1980-10-01

    Calculation methodology and transmission data for BAC in the event of a nuclear explosion are considered. The shielding factor is the rate between the radiation dose at one point in the building and the dose in open air. It is separately calculated for neutrons, gamma rays from fission products, and secondary gamma rays. For this calculation, BAC uses data for radiation transmission in concrete. This program is utilized for fallout shelters and other buildings where walls and floors/roofs are mostly made of concrete and bricks. Instructions for the program are given, and BAC results and values are in certain cases compared with those obtained with the Monte Carlo method.

  6. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  7. Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

  8. Orbit stability and feedback control in synchrotron radiation rings

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Stability of the electron orbit is essential for the utilization of a low emittance storage ring as a high brightness radiation source. We discuss the development of the measurement and feedback control of the closed orbit, with emphasis on the activities as the National Synchrotron Light Source of BNL. We discuss the performance of the beam position detectors in use and under development: the PUE rf detector, split ion chamber detector, photo-emission detector, solid state detector, and the graphite detector. Depending on the specific experiments, different beamlines require different tolerances on the orbit motion. Corresponding to these different requirements, we discuss two approaches to closed orbit feedback: the global and local feedback systems. Then we describe a new scheme for the real time global feedback by implementing a feedback system based upon a harmonic analysis of both the orbit movements and the correction magnetic fields. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

  10. Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, J. A.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper details a comparison analysis of the Zinc Oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuum reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 years in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuum reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectanc6 recovery after an additional 190 Equivalent Sun Hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

  11. Reconfigurable Array of Radiating Elements (RARE) controlled by light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovnik, Lev

    1994-01-01

    The parameters of a silicon - dielectric - metal microstrip line were compared with those of a metal - dielectric - metal microstrip line from an actual FLAPS antenna. The proposed structure has higher losses; this is caused by the electrical conductivity of the illuminated silicon electrode being lower than is the case with a line using a copper top electrode. However, the value of these conductive losses is on the same order as the radiative losses in the microstrip line used in FLAPS antenna. These results point to the feasibility of using the proposed type of a microstrip line in a light-controlled reconfigurable MMW antenna with reasonable energy losses and with a reasonable light flux.

  12. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  14. A Cooperatively Controlled Robot for Ultrasound Monitoring of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun Şen, H.; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) involves two main procedures, performed in different rooms on different days: (1) treatment planning in the simulator room on the first day, and (2) radiotherapy in the linear accelerator room over multiple subsequent days. Both the simulator and the linear accelerator include CT imaging capabilities, which enables both treatment planning and reproducible patient setup, but does not provide good soft tissue contrast or allow monitoring of the target during treatment. We propose a cooperatively-controlled robot to reproducibly position an ultrasound (US) probe on the patient during simulation and treatment, thereby improving soft tissue visualization and allowing real-time monitoring of the target. A key goal of the robotic system is to produce consistent tissue deformations for both CT and US imaging, which simplifies registration of these two modalities. This paper presents the robotic system design and describes a novel control algorithm that employs virtual springs to implement guidance virtual fixtures during “hands on” cooperative control. PMID:26823988

  15. The Intelligent Flight Control Program (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) is pleased to submit this closeout report for the Research Cooperative Agreement NCC4-00128 of accomplishments for the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project. It has been a pleasure working with NASA and NASA partners as we strive to meet the goals of this research initiative. ISR was engaged in this Research Cooperative Agreement beginning March 3, 2001 and ending March 31, 2003. During this time, a great deal has been accomplished and plans have been solidified for the continued success of this program. Our primary areas of involvement include the following: 1) ARTS II Master Test Plan; 2) ARTS II Hardware Design and Development; 3) ARTS II Software Design and Development; 4) IFCS PID/BLNN/OLNN Development; 5) Performed Preliminary and Formal Testing; 6) Documentation and Reporting.

  16. The Intelligent Flight Control Program (IFCS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) is pleased to submit this closeout report for the Research Cooperative Agreement NCC4-00128 of accomplishments for the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Project. It has been a pleasure working with NASA and NASA partners as we strive to meet the goals of this research initiative. ISR was engaged in this Research Cooperative Agreement beginning March 3, 2001 and ending March 31, 2003. During this time, a great deal has been accomplished and plans have been solidified for the continued success of this program. Our primary areas of involvement include the following: 1) ARTS II Master Test Plan; 2) ARTS II Hardware Design and Development; 3) ARTS II Software Design and Development; 4) IFCS PID/BLNN/OLNN Development; 5) Performed Preliminary and Formal Testing; 6) Documentation and Reporting.

  17. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-05-03

    Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled--Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes--The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the balloon rises through the air. The new RS-90 model is a high-performance radiosonde with fast-response sensors capable of providing data for each variable every second. The relatively environmentally friendly package is constructed of cardboard and steel rather than Styrofoam, and it has a water-activated battery that contains no toxic substances. The RS-90 Transition IOP is taking place during April. Operators will launch both the old RS-80 and the new RS-90 radiosondes simultaneously once each day to obtain duplicate vertical profiles of the atmosphere for comparison. This procedure will also allow data users to test the output from the old and new radiosondes in models. Narrow Field of View (NFOV) Solar Spectrometer Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval Campaign--The NFOV IOP is scheduled to take place on May 7-August 31, 2001. A researcher from Pennsylvania State University will be deploying a dual-spectrometer instrument that measures the hemispheric flux and zenith NFOV radiance over a wavelength range of 300- 1000 nanometers. (One nanometer equals 1 billionth of a meter or 0.000000039 inches.) This wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectra. These measurements are used to estimate cloud optical depth--a quantity related to the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a cloud--for broken cloud fields over vegetated surfaces. The IOP measurements will be compared with optical depth measurements made by SGP instruments. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS

  18. Radiation protection program for declared pregnant workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Margo

    2003-05-01

    This article presents an overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Fetal Radiation Protection Program (FRP) that satisfies the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 835 and LANL's Radiation Protection Program. At LANL, the FRP is one of three components of the larger Reproductive Health Hazards Program, which also includes Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Although pregnant employees usually enter the program through Occupational Medicine, coordination with all three groups is achieved. The most important part of the FRP Program is performance of the workplace evaluation at the pregnant worker's workplace. At the meeting between the health physicist and the pregnant employee, the following topics are reviewed: risks to the embryo/fetus of working around sources of ionizing radiation; LANL's requirements and 10 CFR 835 regulations; her dose history; basic methods of radiation protection; and a detailed discussion of the work assignments/locations that enables the health physicist to complete an evaluation of the level of radiological hazards. Interface with her supervisor and the Operational Health Physics health physicist in charge of her work areas is essential in acquiring additional information. All of these data, including the radiation dose history and recommendations for possible work modifications or reassignment, are summarized in the workplace evaluation memo, which becomes part of the pregnant employee's medical file. Using input from LANL's legal staff, the author developed a document titled "Guidance to the Supervisors Regarding Fetal Radiation Protection and Reproductive Health Hazards," which instructs supervisors regarding the requirements and regulations, contact names for workplace evaluations, and, very importantly, how to avoid discriminatory behavior against pregnant employees.

  19. Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

  20. Building the basis for a comprehensive radiation protection program for a multi-program laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    An explicit, workplace-specific training has been developed, implemented, and documented for all radiation workers. In addition to the radiation worker personnel located at reactors, accelerators, radiochemical laboratories, and waste treatment areas, we have trained other personnel who work in areas where a lesser potential for radiological/chemical exposure exists. These workforces include construction crews, site restoration crews, contracted special services such as scoping and site characterization teams, and short-term visitors. We are developing a comprehensive, integrated approach to radiation protection training suited for a multi-purpose research laboratory. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education.

    PubMed

    Hornbrook, M C; Stevens, V J; Wingfield, D J

    1993-03-01

    The Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education (SPICE) examines the effects of exercise and physical fitness on falls and related injuries among older persons. The design is a two-group, randomized trial with 2 years of follow-up. The study is at Northwest Region of Kaiser Permanente (NWKP), a large hospital-based prepaid group practice HMO in Portland, OR. The participants are 1,323 community-living persons 65 years or older who are enrolled in NWKP and are at moderate risk of falling. A multifaceted intervention strategy uses a group approach to falls and injury prevention which includes moderate intensity endurance-building exercise (walking), strength and balance training, home safety improvements, and mental practice. Sessions of 20-25 participants are led by two nurses. Participants set their own realistic goals for exercising to accommodate to differing functional abilities and baseline conditioning. The control group receives usual care from the HMO. Participants report all falls for 2 years after randomization. Outcome measures include health status, physical functioning, falls, and fall-related medical care use and cost. If SPICE is effective, cost-effectiveness analysis will examine the relative efficiency of SPICE versus other successful FICSIT interventions. Thus far, recruitment and intervention compliance goals have been met from a population of frail elderly HMO members.

  2. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly.

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-11-04

    Aerosol Observing System Upgraded--The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions will help climate change researchers integrate aerosol effects more accurately into global climate computer models. Polar Bears Make Work Dangerous at ARM North Slope of Alaska Site--The late development of seasonal sea ice has increased polar bear sitings at ARM's Barrow site. The bears were recently seen next to the ARM instrument towers at Barrow, making the normal work day a bit more tricky for the technicians who are at the site year-round. Polar bears are not afraid of people and will attack and kill. The bears usually spend most of their time on off-shore ice floes hunting seals. This season, a large storm pushed the floes out to sea while the bears were ashore at Barrow, leaving them to forage for food on land until the sea ice reforms with the onset of colder weather. The hungry bears have made working at the Barrow CART site a dangerous proposition. ARM workers carry shotguns with them at all times for protection. On a recent journey to the site, ARM instrument mentor Michael Ritsche encountered the animals. ''You become much more aware of your surroundings,'' said Ritsche after returning safely to Argonne. Barrow residents protect themselves by shooting warning shells to scare the bears away from developed areas. Hearing the firing in the early mornings and late evenings at Barrow reminded Ritsche that he was in a more dangerous world.

  5. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Space radiation effects mitigation has been identified as one of the highest priority technology development areas for human space flight in the NASA Strategic Space Technology Investment Plan (Dec. 2012). In this paper we review the special features of space radiation that lead to severe constraints on long-term (more than 180 days) human flight operations outside Earth's magnetosphere. We then quantify the impacts of human space radiation dose limits on spacecraft engineering design and development, flight program architecture, as well as flight program schedule and cost. A new Deep Space Habitat (DSH) concept, the hybrid inflatable habitat, is presented and shown to enable a flexible, affordable approach to long term manned interplanetary flight today.

  6. Recollections on Sixty Years of NBS Ionizing Radiation Programs for Energetic X Rays and Electrons1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, H. William

    2006-01-01

    These recollections are on ionizing radiation programs at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) that started in 1928 and ended in 1988 when NBS became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The independent Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) was formed in 1992. This article focuses on how measurements and standards for x rays, gamma rays, and electrons with energies above 1 MeV began at NBS and how they progressed. It also suggests how the radiation processors of materials and foods, the medical radiographic and radiological industries, and the radiological protection interests of the government (including homeland security) represented in CIRMS can benefit from NIST programs. PMID:27274947

  7. Factors associated with program utilization of radiation therapy treatment for VHA and medicare dually enrolled patients.

    PubMed

    French, Dustin D; Bradham, Douglas D; Campbell, Robert R; Haggstrom, David A; Myers, Laura J; Chumbler, Neale R; Hagan, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    We examine how distance to a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility, patient hometown classification (e.g., small rural town), and service-connected disability are associated with veterans' utilization of radiation therapy services across the VHA and Medicare. In 2008, 45,914 dually-enrolled veteran patients received radiation therapy. Over 3-quarters (35,513) of the patients received radiation therapy from the Medicare program. Younger age, male gender, shorter distance to a VHA facility, and VHA priority or disability status increased the odds of utilizing the VHA. However, veterans residing in urban areas were less likely to utilize the VHA. Urban dwelling patients' utilization of Medicare instead of the VHA suggests a complex decision that incorporates geographic access to VHA services, financial implications of veteran priority status, and the potential availability of multiple sources of radiation therapy in competitive urban markets.

  8. Reducing radiation dose in emergency computed tomography with automatic exposure control techniques.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Mannudeep K; Rizzo, Stefania M R; Novelline, Robert A

    2005-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is being increasingly used for evaluation of trauma, which most commonly involves younger individuals. As younger patients are at higher risk for radiation-induced cancer compared to older patients, radiation dose reduction is an important issue in emergency CT scanning. With automatic exposure control techniques, users select a desired image quality and the system adapts tube current to obtain the desired image quality with greater radiation dose efficiency. These techniques can help in reducing radiation dose by 10-60% in most instances. This review article presents a comprehensive description of fundamentals, clinical applications and radiation dose benefits of automatic exposure control in emergency CT scanning.

  9. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  10. Skylab S191, S192 program descriptions. [earth radiation data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, M.

    1976-01-01

    Software developed to assist in assessing and analyzing earth radiation data obtained from Skylab S191 and S192 experiments are described. A block data generation routine is included along with a plot program for the S191 experiment. Changes in format from that of the original JSC tapes are discussed.

  11. Feedback Control for Noise Reduction Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Langley Research Center's continuing noise reduction program, an active noise control system (ANC) is being developed to suppress noise inside an aircraft cabin. This interior noise reduction system consists of the following major components: 1. Several accelerometers. 2. An input amplifier. 3. A digital signal processor (DSP) system that includes an analog to digital converter (ADC) and a digital to analog converter (DAC). 4. A high voltage power amplifier. 5. PZT actuators. 6. Power supply and distribution. The accelerometers detect interior panel vibrations. The accelerometer signals are fed to the input amplifier where they are conditioned prior to being sent to the ADC. The DSP receives the digitized signals form the ADC, processes these signals, and sends the result to the DAC. The DAC's analog output is used as input to the high voltage power amplifier. The power amplifier drives the PZT actuators to cancel noise form 50 to 1,300 Hz. The specific area of concern for this work was development of a DSP system that could be used for an actual flight demonstration. It was decided to base the system on a commercially available DSP board, the Spectrum Digital eZdsp. This was complicated by the fact that the ADC and DAC capabilities available on the eZdsp board were not sufficient to meet the system specification. Designing and fabricating a special ADC and DAC daughter card for the eZdsp circumvented this problem. The DSP system hardware has been successfully tested and is currently being integrated into the complete noise reduction system. This work has been completed in collaboration with another ASEE Fellow, Dr.William Edmonson from Hampton University and was conducted under the direction of the principle investigator, Dr. Qamar A. Shams of the Instrumentation Systems Development Branch, as part of a continuing noise reduction program.

  12. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  13. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  14. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  15. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  16. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by the...

  17. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigemi

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  18. Radiation in controlled environments: influence of lamp type and filter material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Bugbee, B.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation in controlled environments was characterized using fluorescent and various high-intensity-discharge (HID) lamps, including metal halide, low-pressure sodium, and high-pressure sodium as the radiation source. The effects of water, glass, or Plexiglas filters on radiation were determined. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF, 400 to 700 nm), spectra (400 to 1000 nm), shortwave radiation (285-2800 nm), and total radiation (300 to 100,000 nm) were measured, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) and longwave radiation (2800 to 100,000 nm) were calculated. Measurement of PPF alone was not an adequate characterization of the radiation environment. Total radiant flux varied among lamp types at equal PPF. HID lamps provided a lower percentage of longwave radiation than fluorescent lamps, but, when HID lamps provided PPF levels greater than that possible with fluorescent lamps, the amount of longwave radiation was high. Water was the most effective longwave radiation filter. Glass and Plexiglas similarly filtered longwave more than shortwave radiation, but transmission of nonphotosynthetic shortwave radiation was less with Plexiglas than glass. The filter materials tested would not be expected to influence photomorphogenesis because radiation in the action spectrum of phytochrome was not altered, but this may not be the only pigment involved.

  19. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    PubMed

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  20. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  1. The program on radiative inputs of the sun to the Earth (rise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    General concerns about changes in the Earth's climate and in the ozone layer have increased the importance of measuring and understanding variations in the sun's radiative outputs. These outputs appear, for instance, at the top of the list of global change forcing agents in the recent FY-90 document on the U.S. Global Change Program. Significant advances have been made over the past decade in radiometry of the total solar irradiance. Photometry of light variations in stars similar to the sun, but much younger, is providing new insights into the sun's variations in luminosity and UV radiation at previous epochs of interest to paleoclimate studies. Measurement of the sun's 11-year output variability in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet still possess a challenge of great importance. All of these topics are addressed by the program on Radiative Inputs of the Sun to Earth (RISE). RISE is a 5-year program of observations, data analysis, and theory, that has been defined at two workshops held in Boulder, Colorado in November 1987, and in Tucson, Arizona in October 1989. These meetings involved about 60 solar and atmospheric physicists, and stellar astronomers. A proceedings of the 1987 workshop was issued in early 1988. A substantial component of the program, consisting of ground-based observations, data analysis, and theory, is directed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the program is seeking a FY-92 funding start at the NSF. RISE also makes recommendations on measurements required from NASA and NOAA satellites.

  2. The situation of radiation oncology training programs and their graduates in 1997.

    PubMed

    Crewson, P E; Sunshine, J H; Schepps, B

    1999-03-01

    In light of concerns about the job market, the American College of Radiology (ACR) studied the employment situation of 1997 radiation oncology graduates, and the status and plans of radiation oncology training programs. In April-May 1997, and in a December follow-up, the ACR surveyed all radiation oncology residency directors about the employment situation of their 1997 residency and fellowship graduates and about their programs. Ninety-four percent of those surveyed responded. We compared findings with surveys from 1995 and 1996. Differences were assessed with p < or = 0.05 as the test of statistical significance. By six months after graduation, 98% of residency graduates and all fellowship graduates were employed. Program directors reported approximately 95% of graduates had positions that reasonably matched their training and personal employment goals. Programs have reduced beginning residency slots by 22% over the past three years, and further reductions are planned. Many observers were disappointed with fill rates in the 1997 National Match, but by the December follow-up, 96% of beginning-year residency slots were filled. Unemployment continues to be low, and one "softer" indicator, the job market perceptions of residency program directors, showed improvement.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    1999-07-30

    Summer research efforts continue in July with the SGP99 Hydrology Campaign headed by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Other participants are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the ARM Program. This campaign focuses on measuring soil moisture by using satellite-based instruments and takes place July 7--22, 1999. Soil moisture is an important component of Earth's hydrologic cycle and climate, but the understanding of it and the ability to measure it accurately are limited. Scientists need to understand soil moisture better so that it can be incorporated correctly into general circulation models. As an important factor in growing crops, soil moisture dictates a farmer's success or failure. Too much soil moisture can drown out croplands and cause flooding, whereas too little can lead to drought conditions, robbing crops of their life-supporting water. Decisions about which crops to plant and other land use issues depend on the understanding of soil moisture patterns. Soil moisture can be measured in various ways. ARM employs several direct methods using soil moisture probes buried from 1 inch to 6.5 feet below the surface. One type of probe has two stainless steel screens separated by a piece of fiberglass. Electrical resistance, which is a function of soil moisture content, is measured between the screens. Another type of probe measures soil temperature and the increase in temperature after the soil is heated by small heating element. From this measurement, the volume of water in the soil can be calculated.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-09-03

    With the end of summer drawing near, the fall songbird migration season will soon begin. Scientists with the ARM Program will be able to observe the onset of the migration season as interference in the radar wind profiler (RWP) data. An RWP measures vertical profiles of wind and temperature directly above the radar from approximately 300 feet to 3 miles above the ground. The RWP accomplishes this by sending a pulse of electromagnetic energy skyward. Under normal conditions, the energy is scattered by targets in the atmosphere. Targets generally consist of atmospheric irregularities such as variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure over relatively short distances. During the spring and fall bird migration seasons, RWP beam signals are susceptible to overflying birds. The radar beams do not harm the birds, but the birds' presence hampers data collection by providing false targets to reflect the RWP beam, introducing errors into the data. Because of the wavelength of the molar beam, the number of individuals, and the small size of songbirds' bodies (compared to the larger geese or hawks), songbirds are quite likely to be sampled by the radar. Migrating birds usually fly with the prevailing wind, making their travel easier. As a result, winds from the south are ''enhanced'' or overestimated in the spring as the migrating birds travel northward, and winds from the north are overestimated in the fall as birds make their way south. This fact is easily confirmed by comparison of RWP wind data to wind data gathered by weather balloons, which are not affected by birds.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-08-03

    For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to personnel at the site or pilots of low-flying aircraft over the site. However, some of the specialized equipment brought to the central facility by visiting scientists during scheduled intensive observation periods (IOPs) might use higher-power laser beams that point skyward to make measurements of clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. If these beams were to strike the eye of a person in an aircraft flying above the instrument, damage to the person's eyesight could result. During IOPs, CART site personnel have obtained Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to temporarily close the airspace directly over the central facility and keep aircraft from flying into the path of the instrument's laser beam. Information about the blocked airspace is easily transmitted to commercial aircraft, but that does not guarantee that the airspace remains completely plane-free. For this reason, during IOPs in which non-eye-safe lasers were in use in the past, ARM technicians watched for low-flying aircraft in and around the airspace over the central facility. If the technicians spotted such an aircraft, they would manually trigger a safety shutter to block the laser beam's path skyward until the plane had cleared the area.

  6. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  7. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasoner, David L.; McCook, Morgan W.; Vaughan, William W.

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  8. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program: A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, David L.; Mccook, Morgan W. (Editor); Vaughan, William W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Defense Department and NASA have joined in a program to study the space environment which surrounds the earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with sub-orbital rocket probes. The chemical releases will 'paint' the magnetic and electric fields of earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments. Some of the topics discussed include the following: the effects of earthspace; the need for active experiments; types of chemical releases; the CRRES program schedule; international support and coordinated studies; photographing chemical releases; information on locating chemical releases for observation by the amateur; and CRRES as a program.

  9. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  10. Program Helps Specify Paths For Numerically Controlled Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, Timothy; Poland, James, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ESDAPT computer program provides graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. Establishes graphical user interface providing user with APT syntax-sensitive text-editing subprogram and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statements also created by use of menus and screen picks. Written in C language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4-series computers running SunOS.

  11. Program Helps Specify Paths For Numerically Controlled Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, Timothy; Poland, James, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    ESDAPT computer program provides graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. Establishes graphical user interface providing user with APT syntax-sensitive text-editing subprogram and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statements also created by use of menus and screen picks. Written in C language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4-series computers running SunOS.

  12. Development of a residency program in radiation oncology physics: an inverse planning approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rao F H; Dunscombe, Peter B

    2016-03-08

    Over the last two decades, there has been a concerted effort in North America to organize medical physicists' clinical training programs along more structured and formal lines. This effort has been prompted by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) which has now accredited about 90 residency programs. Initially the accreditation focused on standardized and higher quality clinical physics training; the development of rounded professionals who can function at a high level in a multidisciplinary environment was recognized as a priority of a radiation oncology physics residency only lately. In this report, we identify and discuss the implementation of, and the essential components of, a radiation oncology physics residency designed to produce knowledgeable and effective clinical physicists for today's safety-conscious and collaborative work environment. Our approach is that of inverse planning, by now familiar to all radiation oncology physicists, in which objectives and constraints are identified prior to the design of the program. Our inverse planning objectives not only include those associated with traditional residencies (i.e., clinical physics knowledge and critical clinical skills), but also encompass those other attributes essential for success in a modern radiation therapy clinic. These attributes include formal training in management skills and leadership, teaching and communication skills, and knowledge of error management techniques and patient safety. The constraints in our optimization exercise are associated with the limited duration of a residency and the training resources available. Without compromising the knowledge and skills needed for clinical tasks, we have successfully applied the model to the University of Calgary's two-year residency program. The program requires 3840 hours of overall commitment from the trainee, of which 7%-10% is spent in obtaining formal training in nontechnical "soft skills".

  13. Integrity of the National Resident Matching Program for Radiation Oncology: National Survey of Applicant Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Thomas, Charles R.; Kusano, Aaron S.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of radiation oncology applicants and to evaluate the prevalence of behaviors that may be in conflict with established ethical standards. Methods and Materials: An anonymous survey was sent to all 2013 applicants to a single domestic radiation oncology residency program through the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). Questions included demographics, survey of observed behaviors, and opinions regarding the interview and matching process. Descriptive statistics were presented. Characteristics and experiences of respondents who matched were compared with those who did not match. Results: Questionnaires were returned by 87 of 171 applicants for a 51% response rate. Eighty-two questionnaires were complete and included for analysis. Seventy-eight respondents (95.1%) reported being asked at least 1 question in conflict with the NRMP code of conduct. When asked where else they were interviewing, 64% stated that this query made them uncomfortable. Forty-five respondents (54.9%) reported unsolicited post-interview contact by programs, and 31 (37.8%) felt pressured to give assurances. Fifteen respondents (18.3%) reported being told their rank position or that they were “ranked to match” prior to Match day, with 27% of those individuals indicating this information influenced how they ranked programs. Half of respondents felt applicants often made dishonest or misleading assurances, one-third reported that they believed their desired match outcome could be improved by deliberately misleading programs, and more than two-thirds felt their rank position could be improved by having faculty from their home institutions directly contact programs on their behalf. Conclusions: Radiation oncology applicants report a high prevalence of behaviors in conflict with written NRMP policies. Post-interview communication should be discouraged in order to enhance fairness and support the professional development of future

  14. Development of a residency program in radiation oncology physics: an inverse planning approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rao F H; Dunscombe, Peter B

    2016-03-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a concerted effort in North America to organize medical physicists' clinical training programs along more structured and formal lines. This effort has been prompted by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) which has now accredited about 90 residency programs. Initially the accreditation focused on standardized and higher quality clinical physics training; the development of rounded professionals who can function at a high level in a multidisciplinary environment was recognized as a priority of a radiation oncology physics residency only lately. In this report, we identify and discuss the implementation of, and the essential components of, a radiation oncology physics residency designed to produce knowledgeable and effective clinical physicists for today's safety-conscious and collaborative work environment. Our approach is that of inverse planning, by now familiar to all radiation oncology physicists, in which objectives and constraints are identified prior to the design of the program. Our inverse planning objectives not only include those associated with traditional residencies (i.e., clinical physics knowledge and critical clinical skills), but also encompass those other attributes essential for success in a modern radiation therapy clinic. These attributes include formal training in management skills and leadership, teaching and communication skills, and knowledge of error management techniques and patient safety. The constraints in our optimization exercise are associated with the limited duration of a residency and the training resources available. Without compromising the knowledge and skills needed for clinical tasks, we have successfully applied the model to the University of Calgary's two-year residency program. The program requires 3840 hours of overall commitment from the trainee, of which 7%-10% is spent in obtaining formal training in nontechnical "soft skills". PACS

  15. Low dose radiation adaptive protection to control neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Doss, Mohan

    2014-05-01

    Concerns have been expressed recently regarding the observed increased DNA damage from activities such as thinking and exercise. Such concerns have arisen from an incomplete accounting of the full effects of the increased oxidative damage. When the effects of the induced adaptive protective responses such as increased antioxidants and DNA repair enzymes are taken into consideration, there would be less endogenous DNA damage during the subsequent period of enhanced defenses, resulting in improved health from the thinking and exercise activities. Low dose radiation (LDR), which causes oxidative stress and increased DNA damage, upregulates adaptive protection systems that may decrease diseases in an analogous manner. Though there are ongoing debates regarding LDR's carcinogenicity, with two recent advisory committee reports coming to opposite conclusions, data published since the time of the reports have overwhelmingly ruled out its carcinogenicity, paving the way for consideration of its potential use for disease reduction. LDR adaptive protection is a promising approach to control neurodegenerative diseases, for which there are no methods of prevention or cure. Preparation of a compelling ethics case would pave the way for LDR clinical studies and progress in dealing with neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses

  17. Evaluation of the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) radiation oncology data (1993-2003).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynn D; Haffty, Bruce G

    2003-11-15

    Radiation oncology continues to evolve as a specialty. In the early 1990s, issues of manpower oversupply, resource allocation, development of academic radiation oncology, and residency training curricula were fervently considered and evaluated. Much of this effort continues. This communication endeavors to examine the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) results as they pertain to radiation oncology to identify and document applicant trends over the last decade. The NRMP database tables for inclusive dates 1993-2003 were evaluated. The database figures were supplied directly from the executive staff at the AAMC/NRMP. Data were reviewed for radiation oncology, and the following variables were evaluated for the study period (1993-2003): Training program participation, positions offered, applicant totals, proportion of US senior applicants, US seniors as a percentage of those who successfully matched, ratio of applicants to positions, and percentage of training program positions filled. Trends over the study period were analyzed. Data were also analyzed for all specialties collectively as a comparison group. The number of training programs has remained relatively stable between 1993 and 2003. In 2003, each radiation oncology program in the NRMP on average accepted two new candidates. The number of positions offered has fluctuated over time. There appeared to be a downward trend until 2003, during which 107 positions were offered. The number of applicants continues to rise with totals of 209 and 214 in 2003 and 2001, respectively. Percentage of US senior applicants compared with the total pool has remained relatively stable, but raw numbers are rising. The number of US seniors as a percentage of those who successfully matched escalated during 2001 compared with previous years. This value has been consistent over the past 3 years, at a level of approximately 94%. The ratio of applicants to positions, which is a broad indicator of level of competition for entrance

  18. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  19. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  20. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  1. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  2. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  3. Improvement of electron beam shape control in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, A.; Fang, R.; Kuntz, F.

    1994-05-01

    The development of radiation processing using electron accelerators requires good control of the treatment parameters to improve the dosimetry quality. Especially, the analysis of the shape of the scanned electron beam that interacts with the product, is of prime necessity. A Multiwire Beam Shape Analyser (MBSA) has been developed by the AERIAL Laboratory in order to insure good monitoring of the scanning length and uniformity. This device consists of an aluminum beam-stop covered with a mesh of individually insulated stainless steel wires, placed under the scanning cone. The current generated by the impact of the electron beam on each wire is converted into voltage. After pulse shaping and multiplexing of the different channels, the beam profile can be displayed on an oscilloscope or on a PC screen. A prototype is now operating on an experimental irradiation plant based on a 2.5 MeV /300 W Van de Graaff electron accelerator. It allows almost continuous visualization of the beam profile (between two conveyor passes) and its response was compared to classical film dosimeters (Gafchromic, FWT 60.00). Considering FWHM and homogeneous treatment regions of the profiles, MBSA and the dosimeters give similar responses and variations remain lower than ± 12%. The acquisition of an electrical signal corresponding to the beam profile in air constitutes the original aspect of the MBSA and is in keeping with the general pattern of continuous control and automation of the irradiation processes. Hereafter, much work has to be done to adapt this device to an industrial use (higher energy, high power electron beams, non-destructive measurements…).

  4. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    PubMed

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  5. Double panel with skyhook active damping control units for control of sound radiation.

    PubMed

    Gardonio, Paolo; Alujević, Neven

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on decentralized velocity feedback control on a double panel consisting of an external aluminum panel and a honeycomb trim panel. The decentralized feedback loops are formed by a 3x3 array of coil-magnet electrodynamic actuators that react off the trim panel and a lightweight stiff frame structure located in the air gap between the two panels. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers are located on the opposite side of the trim panel in correspondence to the electrodynamic actuators. The grid structure is designed to provide an inertial reference to the actuators. In this way the velocity feedback control loops produce skyhook active damping on the double panel, which minimizes the vibrational response and sound radiation of the trim panel at low audio frequencies. Two configurations are considered where the grid structure is either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to the external panel. Both stability and control performance of the two configurations are analyzed experimentally. The study shows that the control configuration with the weakly coupled grid structure enables the implementation of larger stable feedback control gains, which lead to reductions of the sound radiated by the trim panel between 10 and 30 dB for the first seven resonance peaks.

  6. Control of Shortwave Radiation Parameterization on Tropical Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crétat, J.; Masson, S. G.; Berthet, S.; Samson, G.; Terray, P.; Dudhia, J.; Pinsard, F.; Hourdin, C.

    2015-12-01

    SST-forced tropical-channel simulations are used to quantify the control of shortwave (SW) parameterization on the mean tropical climate compared to other major model settings (convection, boundary layer turbulence, vertical and horizontal resolutions). The physical mechanisms whereby this control manifests are explored by the means of a large set of simulations with two widely used SW schemes. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution and magnitude of the net SW radiation budget at the surface (SWnet_SFC), latent heat fluxes, and rainfall at the annual timescale. The model skill and sensitivity to the settings tested are quantified relative to observations and reanalyses and using an ensemble approach. Model skill is mainly controlled by SW parameterization, especially the magnitude of SWnet_SFC and rainfall and both the spatial distribution and magnitude of latent heat fluxes over ocean. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of continental rainfall (SWnet_SFC) is mainly influenced by convection parameterization and horizontal resolution (boundary layer parameterization and orography). Physical understanding of both the control of SW parameterization and sensitivity to SW schemes is addressed by analyzing the thermal structure of the atmosphere and conducting sensitivity experiments to O3 absorption and SW scattering coefficient. SW parameterization shapes the stability of the atmosphere in two different ways according to whether surface is coupled to atmosphere or not, while O3 absorption has minor effects in our simulations. Over SST-prescribed regions, increasing the amount of SW absorption warms the atmosphere only because surface temperatures are fixed, resulting in increased atmospheric stability. Over surface-atmosphere coupled regions (i.e., land points in our simulations), increasing SW absorption warms both atmospheric and surface temperatures, leading to a shift towards a warmer state and a more intense hydrological cycle. This turns in reversal

  7. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  8. Representing Control in Parallel Applicative Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    Ease of programming should not come at the expense of expressiveness. Therefore we design a parallel applicative language Pscheme such that programmers...Pscheme in this chapter through our design motivation and short program examples. Formal semantics will be given later in chapter 4. 2.1 Main Features...Principles of Programming Languages, 1988. [16] M. Felleisen . Modeling continuations without continuations. In Annual ACM Sym- posium on Principles of

  9. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kairiyama, Eulogia; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking activities in Argentina started in 1993. The regulatory and controlling national authority on organ, tissue and cells for transplantation activity is the National Unique Coordinating Central Institute for Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). Three tissue banks were established under the IAEA program and nine other banks participated actively in the implementation of this program. As result of the implementation of the IAEA program in Argentina and the work done by the established tissue banks, more and more hospitals are now using, in a routine manner, radiation sterilised tissues processed by these banks. During the period 1992-2005, more than 21 016 tissues were produced and irradiated in the tissue banks participating in the IAEA program. Within the framework of the training component of the IAEA program, Argentina has been selected to host the Regional Training Centre for Latin American. In this centre, tissue bank operators and medical personal from Latin American countries were trained. Since 1999, Argentina has organised four regular regional training courses and two virtual regional training courses. More than twenty (20) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from Argentina were trained under the IAEA program in the six courses organised in the country. In general, ninety (96) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from eight Latin-American countries were trained in the Buenos Aires regional training centre. From Argentina 16 students graduated in these courses.

  10. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  11. Estimating the Infrared Radiation Wavelength Emitted by a Remote Control Device Using a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catelli, Francisco; Giovannini, Odilon; Bolzan, Vicente Dall Agnol

    2011-01-01

    The interference fringes produced by a diffraction grating illuminated with radiation from a TV remote control and a red laser beam are, simultaneously, captured by a digital camera. Based on an image with two interference patterns, an estimate of the infrared radiation wavelength emitted by a TV remote control is made. (Contains 4 figures.)

  12. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The technical assistance program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for its member states in the framework of the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking focuses on ensuring the availability of quality radiation-sterilised tissue grafts. The IAEA also helps its member states to develop quality control capabilities in order to ensure the safe use of the processed tissues in certain medical treatments. The majority of developing countries does not have such capacity, and must import expensive sterilised tissues from developed countries. The IAEA's core contribution to its program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions is a technology for sterilisation by gamma radiation and a training program for tissue bank operators and medical personnel. The Agency develops capabilities for radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts, both for reducing the pre-processing bacterial load, and as a terminal sterilisation process. Sterilising tissue grafts offers a clear advantage in terms of safety. Moreover, compared to alternative sterilisation methods, radiation sterilisation is considered particularly safe in relation to environmental concerns, and the deposition of harmful residuals in the tissue, which occurs for example in the use of chemical such as ethylene oxide gas. Radiation sterilisation, thus, has become the method of choice for an increasing number of tissue banks. Radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts is a critical component in the chain connecting donors to recipients of high quality tissue grafts. Due to this fact, the IAEA has evolved as the only organisation in the UN System with expertise related to tissue banking.

  13. Dynamic Programming Method for Impulsive Control Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkew, Teshome Mogessie

    2015-01-01

    In many control systems changes in the dynamics occur unexpectedly or are applied by a controller as needed. The time at which a controller implements changes is not necessarily known a priori. For example, many manufacturing systems and flight operations have complicated control systems, and changes in the control systems may be automatically…

  14. Dynamic Programming Method for Impulsive Control Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkew, Teshome Mogessie

    2015-01-01

    In many control systems changes in the dynamics occur unexpectedly or are applied by a controller as needed. The time at which a controller implements changes is not necessarily known a priori. For example, many manufacturing systems and flight operations have complicated control systems, and changes in the control systems may be automatically…

  15. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Fallahi, A.; Duraschlag, H.; Elliott, D.; Hartsough, J.; Shukla, N.; Kosny, J.

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  16. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Fallahi, A.; Durschlag, H.; Elliott, D.; Hartsough, J.; Shukla, N.; Kosny, J.

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulkinsulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosedreflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  17. 77 FR 75441 - Healthy Home and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs Data Collection; Progress Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Healthy Home and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs Data Collection; Progress... progress of Healthy Homes Demonstration Program, Healthy Homes Technical Studies Program, Lead Base paint Hazard Control program, Lead Hazard Reduction Demonstration Program, Lead Outreach Program, Lead...

  18. No Surprises: Controlling Risks in Volunteer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Kostin, Gwynne

    This booklet provides general and specific advice to volunteer programs to help them manage physical, economic, legal, personnel, and public relations risks. It examines various myths about the risks that volunteer programs face and outlines a strategy for implementing a risk management process. This process can be used to identify and assess…

  19. Controlling Cocaine: Supplying Versus Demand Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    programs are administered to preteens , while cocaine use does not normally start until the late teens and early twenties. 7 A primary activity of...initiation for various drugs. Prevention programs attempt to convince preteens to abstain from marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Therefore, to argue that

  20. The NASA/National Space Science Data Center trapped radiation environment model program, 1964 - 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The major effort that NASA, initially with the help of the United States Air Force (USAF), carried out for 27 years to synthesize the experimental and theoretical results of space research related to energetic charged particles into a quantitative description of the terrestrial trapped radiation environment in the form of model environments is detailed. The effort is called the Trapped Radiation Environment Modeling Program (TREMP). In chapter 2 the historical background leading to the establishment of this program is given. Also, the purpose of this modeling program as established by the founders of the program is discussed. This is followed in chapter 3 by the philosophy and approach that was applied in this program throughout its lifetime. As will be seen, this philosophy led to the continuation of the program long after it would have expired. The highlights of the accomplishments are presented in chapter 4. A view to future possible efforts in this arena is given in chapter 5, mainly to pass on to future workers the differences that are perceived from these many years of experience. Chapter 6 is an appendix that details the chronology of the development of TREMP. Finally, the references, which document the work accomplished over these years, are presented in chapter 7.

  1. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluating the Radiation Environment Design Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret B.; Howard, James W.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program, initiated to fulfill the Vision for Space Exploration, will create a new generation of vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit, the Moon, and beyond. Space radiation specifications for space system hardware are necessarily conservative to assure system robustness for a wide range of space environments. Spectral models of solar particle events and trapped radiation belt environments are used to develop the design requirements for estimating total ionizing radiation dose, displacement damage, and single event effects for Constellation hardware. We first describe the rationale using the spectra chosen to establish the total dose and single event design environmental specifications for Constellation systems. We then compare variability of the space environment to the spectral design models to evaluate their applicability as conservative design environments and potential vulnerabilities to extreme space weather events

  2. Development of a quality assurance program for ionizing radiation secondary calibration laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, H.T. II; Taylor, A.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    For calibration laboratories, routine calibrations of instruments meeting stated accuracy goals are important. One method of achieving the accuracy goals is to establish and follow a quality assurance program designed to monitor all aspects of the calibration program and to provide the appropriate feedback mechanism if adjustments are needed. In the United States there are a number of organizations with laboratory accreditation programs. All existing accreditation programs require that the laboratory implement a quality assurance program with essentially the same elements in all of these programs. Collectively, these elements have been designated as a Measurement Quality Assurance (MQA) program. This paper will briefly discuss the interrelationship of the elements of an MQA program. Using the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) as an example, it will focus on setting up a quality control program for the equipment in a Secondary Calibration Laboratory.

  3. Radiative and precipitation controls on root zone soil moisture spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Taro; Katul, Gabriel G.; Kotani, Ayumi; Igarashi, Yasunori; Ohta, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-11-01

    Temporal variability in root zone soil moisture content (w) exhibits a Lorentzian spectrum with memory dictated by a damping term when forced with white-noise precipitation. In the context of regional dimming, radiation and precipitation variability are needed to reproduce w trends prompting interest in how the w memory is altered by radiative forcing. A hierarchy of models that sequentially introduce the spectrum of precipitation, net radiation, and the effect of w on evaporative and drainage losses was used to analyze the spectrum of w at subtropical and temperate forested sites. Reproducing the w spectra at long time scales necessitated simultaneous precipitation and net radiation measurements depending on site conditions. The w memory inferred from observed w spectra was 25-38 days, larger than that determined from maximum wet evapotranspiration and field capacity. The w memory can be reasonably inferred from the Lorentzian spectrum when precipitation and evapotranspiration are in phase.

  4. Controlled study of CCNU and radiation therapy in malignant astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Reagan, T J; Bisel, H F; Childs, D S; Layton, D D; Rhoton, A L; Taylor, W F

    1976-02-01

    The authors report 63 patients with biopsy-proved malignant (Grades 3 and 4) astrocytomas who were randomly placed in one of three treatment schedules within 2 weeks of surgery. One group (22 patients) received radiation therapy alone; the second group (22 patients) received 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) orally at intervals of 8 weeks; and the third group (19 patients) received combined radiation and drug therapy. Patients who received radiation therapy, with or without the drug, had a significantly longer survival than did those who received the drug alone. There was no difference in survival between the two groups who received radiation. The nitrosourea derivative CCNU does not seem to be an effective agent in the therapy of primary malignant brain tumors.

  5. Design of an internationally accredited radiation oncology resident training program incorporating novel educational models.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Thomas Philip; Back, Michael Frederick; Lu, Jiade Jay; Wynne, Christopher John; Bloomfield, Leah

    2004-07-15

    Our primary aim was to design a new, internationally accredited, comprehensive radiation oncology (RO) training program for Singaporean residents that satisfied the needs of stake holders and incorporated published evidence. The evidence-based method included Medline literature review and broad-based training needs assessment. Literature review revealed few studies describing or evaluating RO resident training programs. Our program was designed by incorporating available published research and stakeholder views determined by the training needs assessment. The program includes novel evidence-based educational methods, including individually negotiated learning contracts, a mentor program, logbooks, task-based learning, tutorials, and formative plus summative assessments. The content and structure is consistent with most United States, United Kingdom, and Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologist (RANZCR) guidelines, with resident evaluation via RANZCR examinations. The RANZCR accredited the program in January 2002. We recommend institutions or countries introducing or revising RO resident training programs use an evidence-based approach, addressing the needs of stake holders (determined by a comprehensive training needs assessment) and incorporating published research. Novel educational methods may be considered in RO training. This new Singapore program is the first to achieve international accreditation by the RANZCR. It is clear that additional research in the design and evaluation of RO resident training programs is required.

  6. PC-Based Applications Programming on the SRS Control System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martlew, Brian; Owen, Hywel; Pugh, Martin; Rawlinson, Bill; Smith, Susan

    1997-05-01

    The CERN PC-based ISOLDE control system has been installed at the SRS electron storage ring at Daresbury Laboratory. The use of Windows NT for the control consoles together with PC and VME front-end computers running under several operating systems has resulted in a flexible and reliable system for accelerator control. The implementation and philosophy of control application programs, based around a suite of Microsoft Visual Basic and Excel programs, is described. In particular, the use of Excel to provide adaptable programs online allows rapid generation of new control functions; orbit correction and servoing at the application level are described as examples of this.

  7. Master control data handling program uses automatic data input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alliston, W.; Daniel, J.

    1967-01-01

    General purpose digital computer program is applicable for use with analysis programs that require basic data and calculated parameters as input. It is designed to automate input data preparation for flight control computer programs, but it is general enough to permit application in other areas.

  8. Modeling of Space Radiation Exposure Estimation Program for Pilots, Crew and Passengers on Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Dokgo, Kyunghwan; Choi, Enjin; Park, Jong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Hang-Pyo

    2014-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase of the concern on the space radiation effect on pilots, crew and passengers at the commercial aircraft altitude (~ 10 km) recently. It is because domestic airline companies, Korean Air and Asiana Airlines have just begun operating the polar routes over the North Pole since 2006 and 2009 respectively. CARI-6 and CARI-6M are commonly used space radiation estimation programs which are provided officially by the U.S. federal aviation administration (FAA). In this paper, the route doses and the annual radiation doses for Korean pilots and cabin crew were estimated by using CARI-6M based on 2012 flight records. Also the modeling concept was developed for our own space radiation estimation program which is composed of GEANT4 and NRLMSIS00 models. The GEANT4 model is used to trace the incident particle transports in the atmosphere and the NRLMSIS00 model is used to get the background atmospheric densities of various neutral atoms at the aircraft altitude. Also presented are the results of simple integration tests of those models and the plan to include the space weather variations through the solar proton event (SPE) prediction model such as UMASEP and the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) prediction model such as Badhwar-O¡¯Neill 2010.

  9. NSF's solar-terrestrial research program and RISE. [RISE (Radiative Inputs of the Sun to Earth)

    SciTech Connect

    Schatten, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    SunRISE has become a top priority proposed initiative for solar terrestrial science at NSF. NSF's priorities include People, Education, Infrastructure, and Competitiveness in Science. Within NSF's Atmospheric Division, the Solar Terrestrial (ST) Program considers the Sun as the principle driver of dynamic phenomena in the atmospheric and geospace environments. The ST [open quotes]Core[close quotes] program will place increased emphasis on the nature of solar variability and the resultant terrestrial responses. Solar variability, emphasized dramatically by flares is not well understood, particularly below the atmosphere. Yet in all its forms, outstanding problems exist from the base of the convection zone, through the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona, and into the solar wind, where interactions with the Earth system occur. Areas of increased emphasis will be to answer the following questions. How does solar variability manifest itself in terrestrial atmospheric effects What is the nature of solar activity and how does it change in its transit from deep within the Sun to the Earth How does the Sun's variable radiative emission, flares, and corpuscular radiation affect the Earth's atmosphere The impact the Sun has upon the Earth's climate through its radiative drivers is the focus for the new initiative [open quotes]SunRISE[close quotes] (Radiative Inputs of the Sun to Earth). At present, there are large uncertainties in the contribution of solar irradiance variations to global change. Properly subtracting out, the contribution of solar variability from the climate record is critical for determining human-induced changes during the present epoch.

  10. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  11. State oversight review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant radiation protection and measurement programs

    SciTech Connect

    Channell, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG), an interdisciplinary organization attached to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, has been providing an independent scientific oversight of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP project since 1978. Evaluations cover all aspects of the project that have potential radiological health and safety considerations. During the early years, most of the review emphasis was on site suitability and involved heavy emphasis on the disciplines of geology and hydrogeology. During the middle years, the amount of emphasis on facility design, waste characterization, waste transportation package development, and quality assurance increased. Now, as final preparations are being made for the receipt of radioactive wastes, EEG is heavily involved in evaluating on-site health physics programs and radiation-measurement systems. Also, EEG is conducting an independent environmental radiation-monitoring program.

  12. Using Space Weather Variability in Evaluation the Radiation Environment Specifications for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria N.; Minow, Joseph I.; Bruce, Margaret; Howard, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Hardware design environments for NASA's Constellation Program-the Vision for Space Exploration program to design and build new vehicles for servicing low Earth orbit and the Moon and beyond-have been developed that are necessarily conservative in nature to assure robust hardware design and development required to build space systems which will meet operational goals in a wide range of space environments, This presentation will describe the rationale used to establish the space radiation and plasma design environments specified for a variety of applications including total ionizing radiation dose, dose rate effects, and spacecraft charging and will compare the design environments with "space weather" variability to evaluate the applicability of the design environments and potential vulnerabilities of the system to extreme space weather events.

  13. The situation of radiation oncology practice training programs and their graduates in 1998.

    PubMed

    Busheé, G R; Sunshine, J H; Schepps, B

    2000-01-15

    To keep the profession apprised of current trends in the job market, the American College of Radiology (ACR) studied the employment situation of 1998 radiation oncology graduates and the status and plans of radiation oncology training programs in the United States. In April-May 1998, and again in a December 1998-January 1999 follow-up, the ACR surveyed all radiation oncology residency directors in the U.S. about the employment situation of their 1998 residency and fellowship graduates as well as changes in their programs. Eighty-five percent (71/84) of those surveyed responded. We compare current findings with similar 1997 and earlier surveys and report statistically significant differences (p < or = 0.05). By 6 months after graduation, there were no graduating residents or fellows who had not secured a position, although the status of two was unknown. At that time, about 93% of all graduates had secured positions that directors said reasonably matched graduates' training and personal goals. Program directors reported that accomplished and planned changes in their programs will reduce the annual number of residency graduates by about one-fifth since 1993. However, the number of beginning residency positions offered in 1998 was 149, up from 116 in 1997 and only a few percent below the 1993 level. By the December 1998-January 1999 follow-up, fill rates for offered training positions were 94% for residencies and 80% for fellowships, figures that are similar to those reported for past years. Directors' perceptions of the job market are much more positive. For example, only 11% of residency directors viewed the market as more difficult this year than typical of recent years, as against 48% in 1997 and 82% in 1996. Unemployment continues to be low, and another, "softer" indicator, the job market perceptions of residency program directors, continues to improve. Possibly as a result, plans for program reductions are evaporating.

  14. Programable Driver for Voltage-Controlled Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, L. E.; Mcneil, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Electronically programable read-only memory (EPROM) and digital-to-analog converter provide customized time-varying voltage for frequency modulation. Voltage used to modulate IMPATT oscillator that serves as microwave pump for solid-state maser in low-noise amplifier. EPROM simple to tailor voltage waveform to suit characteristics of given maser. Digital information for waveform programed into EPROM chip; digital-to-analog converter reads information and produces corresponding analog wave. Principle readily adapted to other applications.

  15. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Optically controlled spherical liquid-crystal lens: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gural'nik, I. R.; Samagin, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    A liquid-crystal lens with the focal distance depending on the transmitted light intensity is proposed and studied. A theoretical model is developed which adequately describes the wave-front formation by the lens. The results of visualisation of the wave-front control in a setup with crossed Polaroids and the intensity distributions, which characterise the focusing properties of the lens, are presented. To illustrate the application of the lens, an adaptive-optics system is built for stabilisation of radiation power on a 1-mm diaphragm, which reduces the power fluctuations by a factor of 30.

  16. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  17. Our Cost Control Program Is Real, and Good PR Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James; And Others

    The cost control program of the Beaverton School District (Oregon) is presented in three sections. Reviewing the role of the school board in cost control development, Jean Holt (a board member) outlines the fiscal management system, long-range financial strategies, energy conservation, and utilization of facilities. The programs have resulted in a…

  18. Our Cost Control Program Is Real, and Good PR Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, James; And Others

    The cost control program of the Beaverton School District (Oregon) is presented in three sections. Reviewing the role of the school board in cost control development, Jean Holt (a board member) outlines the fiscal management system, long-range financial strategies, energy conservation, and utilization of facilities. The programs have resulted in a…

  19. Overview of NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) Program: Highlights of the Model Improvement and the New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Plante, I.; George, Kerry; Cornforth, M. N.; Loucas, B. D.; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes several years of research done by the co-authors developing the NASARTI (NASA Radiation Track Image) program and supporting it with scientific data. The goal of the program is to support NASA mission to achieve a safe space travel for humans despite the perils of space radiation. The program focuses on selected topics in radiation biology that were deemed important throughout this period of time, both for the NASA human space flight program and to academic radiation research. Besides scientific support to develop strategies protecting humans against an exposure to deep space radiation during space missions, and understanding health effects from space radiation on astronauts, other important ramifications of the ionizing radiation were studied with the applicability to greater human needs: understanding the origins of cancer, the impact on human genome, and the application of computer technology to biological research addressing the health of general population. The models under NASARTI project include: the general properties of ionizing radiation, such as particular track structure, the effects of radiation on human DNA, visualization and the statistical properties of DSBs (DNA double-strand breaks), DNA damage and repair pathways models and cell phenotypes, chromosomal aberrations, microscopy data analysis and the application to human tissue damage and cancer models. The development of the GUI and the interactive website, as deliverables to NASA operations teams and tools for a broader research community, is discussed. Most recent findings in the area of chromosomal aberrations and the application of the stochastic track structure are also presented.

  20. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M.; Ferrer, S.; Villaescusa, J. I.; Verdú, G.; Salas, M. D.; Cuevas, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 × 10-6, 6 × 10-4] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 × 10-3. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  1. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. )

    1990-01-01

    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  2. AI challenges for spacecraft control programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightfoot, Patricia

    1986-01-01

    The application of AI technology to the spacecraft and experiment command and control systems environment is proposed. The disadvantages of the present methods for analyzing and resolving spacecraft experiment command and control problems are discussed. The potential capabilities and advantages of using AI for the spacecraft and experiment command and control systems are described.

  3. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  4. Analytical investigation of adaptive control of radiated inlet noise from turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risi, John D.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to predict the resulting far field radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. A feedforward control algorithm was simulated to predict the controlled far field radiation from the destructive combination of fan noise and secondary control sources. Numerical results were developed for two system configurations, with the resulting controlled far field radiation patterns showing varying degrees of attenuation and spillover. With one axial station of twelve control sources and error sensors with equal relative angular positions, nearly global attenuation is achieved. Shifting the angular position of one error sensor resulted in an increase of spillover to the extreme sidelines. The complex control inputs for each configuration was investigated to identify the structure of the wave pattern created by the control sources, giving an indication of performance of the system configuration. It is deduced that the locations of the error sensors and the control source configuration are equally critical to the operation of the active noise control system.

  5. NASA Space controls research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mciver, D. E.; Key, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA technological organization is outlined. The Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is one of the four major technical offices that comprise NASA. The Office of Space Science and Applications administers programs directed towards using space-based or related techniques to further understanding of the total universe and to apply that understanding to practical applications in such areas as Astrophysics, Solar System exploration, Earth Sciences, Life Sciences, Communications and Information Systems. The Office of Space Flight administers the programs for all U.S. civil launch capability, plus Spacelab development and operations. The Office of Space Tracking & Data Systems administers the programs that operate and maintain a world-wide network of facilities for data acquisition, processing, and ground to spacecraft communications for all NASA missions. The OAST has primary responsibility within NASA for conducting space research and technology development to support commercial and military as well as NASA space interests.

  6. A research program on radiative transfer model development in support of the ARM program

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, S.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research continued on the development of a radiative transfer model. This report discusses the revised continuum model. The water vapor continuum plays an important role in atmospheric radiative transfer providing increased opacity between spectral lines over the full spectral region from the microwave to the visible. The continuum has a significant influence on atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. Additionally the continuum is important to the physical solution of the inverse problem, the remote sensing of atmospheric state to retrieve temperature, water vapor, surface properties and other state parameters. There are two components to the continuum: The self-broadened continuum, dependent on the square of the partial pressure of water vapor, and the foreign-broadened continuum, principally dependent on the product of the water vapor partial pressure and the total pressure. As a consequence the self broadened continuum tends to be more important in the lower atmosphere while the foreign broadened continuum tends to be more important in the mid to upper troposphere. To address this situation and to improve overall accuracy, we have embarked on the development of an improved water vapor continuum model.

  7. Quality control methodology and implementation of X-radiation standards beams, mammography level, following the standard IEC 61267.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, E L; Vivolo, V; Potiens, M P A

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the results of the establishment of a quality control program developed and applied for the X-ray system of the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The X-ray standard beams, mammography level, using molybdenum and aluminum as additional filtration were established after the application of this quality control and the spectrometry of these qualities was made. The reference ionization chamber has traceability to the PTB. The radiation qualities RQR-M, RQA-M, RQN-M and RQB-M, following the recommendations of the IEC 61267 and the IAEA TRS 457 were established.

  8. Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  9. Learner Control versus Program Control as Adaptive Strategies for Selection of Instructional Support on Math Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Rakow, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    Subjects completed a self-paced lesson on math rules in which the number of supporting examples was adapted to pretest scores through program control, selected through learner control, or kept constant (nonadaptive). Program control means were consistently highest while learner control means were lowest. (Author/BW)

  10. "I sleep better at night:" How peer review of radiation treatment plans indirectly improves quality of care across radiation treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Brundage, Michael D; Hart, Margaret; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Reddeman, Lindsay; Gutierrez, Eric; Foxcroft, Sophie; Warde, Padraig

    Peer review of radiation oncology treatment plans is increasingly recognized as an important component of quality assurance in radiation treatment planning and delivery. Peer review of treatment plans can directly improve the quality of those plans and can also have indirect effects on radiation treatment programs. We undertook a systematic, qualitative approach to describing the indirect benefits of peer review, factors that were seen to facilitate or act as barriers to the implementation of peer review, and strategies to address these barriers across a provincial jurisdiction of radiation oncology programs (ROPs). Semistructured qualitative interviews were held with radiation oncology department heads and radiation therapy managers (or delegates) in all 14 ROPs in Ontario, Canada. We used a theoretically guided phenomenological qualitative approach to design and analyze the interview content. Themes were recorded by 2 independent reviewers, and any discordance was resolved by consensus. A total of 28 interviews were completed with 32 interviewees. Twenty-two unique themes addressed perceived benefits of peer review, relating to either peer review structure (n = 3), process (n = 9), or outcome (n = 10). Of these 22 themes, 19 related to indirect benefits to ROPs. In addition, 18 themes related to factors that facilitated peer review activities and 30 themes related to key barriers to implementing peer review were identified. Findings were consistent with, and enhanced the understanding of, previous survey-based assessments of the benefits and challenges of implementing peer review programs. Although challenges and concerns regarding the implementation of peer review were evident, the indirect benefits to radiation programs are numerous, far outweigh the implementation challenges, and strongly complement the direct individual-patient benefits that result from peer review quality assurance of radiation treatment plans. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Developing Comprehensive Smoking Control Programs in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Susan G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    To counteract influences which encourage children and adolescents to smoke, schools can provide smoking prevention and cessation education and a supportive nonsmoking environment. This article suggests resources to develop such programs through student education, school and district policy, and/or governmental regulation. (Author/JL)

  12. Public Communication Programs for Cancer Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Paisley, Matilda; And Others

    For many years several organizations and agencies at the national, regional, and local level have sought to reduce the incidence of cancer by publicizing facts on prevention, screening/detection, and treatment. This report reviews 41 public communication programs on cancer. Fifteen of these are presented as detailed case studies, each having…

  13. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  14. Active control of sound transmission/radiation from elastic plates by vibration inputs. I - Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Active control of sound radiation from vibrating plates by oscillating forces applied directly to the structure is analytically studied. The model consists of a plane acoustic wave incident on a clamped elastic circular thin plate. Control is achieved by point forces, and quadratic optimization is used to calculate the optimal control gains necessary to minimize a cost function proportional to the radiated acoustic power (the transmitted field). The results show that global attenuation of broadband radiated sound levels for low to mid-range frequencies can be achieved with one or two control forces, irrespective of whether the system is on or off resonance. The efficiency of the control strategy is demonstrated to be related to the nature of the coupling between the plate modes of response and the radiated field.

  15. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  16. Graphical programming: On-line robot simulation for telerobotic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M. J.; Palmquist, R. D.

    Sandia has developed an advanced operational control system approach, caged Graphical Programming, to design and operate robotic waste cleanup and other hazardous duty robotic systems. The Graphical Programming approach produces robot systems that are faster to develop and use, safer in operation, and cheaper overall than alternative teleoperation or autonomous robot control systems. The Graphical Programming approach uses 3-D visualization and simulation software with intuitive operator interfaces for the programming and control of complex robotic systems. Graphical Programming Supervisor software modules allow an operator to command and simulate complex tasks in a graphic preview mode and, when acceptable, command the actual robots and monitor their motions with the graphic system. Graphical Programming Supervisors maintain registration with the real world and allow the robot to perform tasks that cannot be accurately represented with models alone by using a combination of model and sensor-based control. This paper describes the Graphical Programming approach, several example control systems that use Graphical Programming, and key features necessary for implementing successful Graphical Programming systems.

  17. Community Radiation Monitoring Program annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    The events of FY 1990 indicate that another successful year in the evolution of the Community Radiation Monitoring Program is in the books. The agencies and organizations involved in the program have developed a sound and viable working relationship, and it appears that the major objectives, primarily dispelling some of the concerns over weapons testing and radiation on the part of the public, are being effectively addressed. The program is certainly a dynamic operation, growing and changing to meet perceived needs and goals as more experience is gained through our work. The change in focus on our public outreach efforts will lead us to contacts with more students and schools, service clubs and special interest groups in the future, and will refine, and hopefully improve, our communication with the public. If that can be accomplished, plus perhaps influencing a few more students to stay in school and even grow up to be scientists, engineers and better citizens, we will be closer to having achieved our goals. It is important to note that the success of the program has occurred only because the people involved, from the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Desert Research Institute, the University of Utah and the Station Managers and Alternates work well and hard together. Our extended family'' is doing a good job. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  19. Double-tick realization of binary control program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobylecki, Michał; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the implementation of control algorithms for hardware-bit compatible with the standard IEC61131-3. The described transformation based on the sets of calculus and graphs, allows translation of the original form of the control program to the form in full compliance with the original, giving the architecture represented by two tick. The proposed method enables the efficient implementation of the control bits in the FPGA with the use of a standardized programming language LD.

  20. Thermal Performance of Orion Active Thermal Control System With Seven-Panel Reduced-Curvature Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Yuko, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The active thermal control system (ATCS) of the crew exploration vehicle (Orion) uses radiator panels with fluid loops as the primary system to reject heat from spacecraft. The Lockheed Martin (LM) baseline Orion ATCS uses eight-panel radiator coated with silver Teflon coating (STC) for International Space Station (ISS) missions, and uses seven-panel radiator coated with AZ 93 white paint for lunar missions. As an option to increase the radiator area with minimal impact on other component locations and interfaces, the reduced-curvature (RC) radiator concept was introduced and investigated here for the thermal perspective. Each RC radiator panel has 15 percent more area than each Lockheed Martin (LM) baseline radiator panel. The objective was to determine if the RC seven-panel radiator concept could be used in the ATCS for both ISS and lunar missions. Three radiator configurations the LM baseline, an RC seven-panel radiator with STC, and an RC seven-panel radiator with AZ 93 coating were considered in the ATCS for ISS missions. Two radiator configurations the LM baseline and an RC seven-panel radiator with AZ 93 coating were considered in the ATCS for lunar missions. A Simulink/MATLAB model of the ATCS was used to compute the ATCS performance. Some major hot phases on the thermal timeline were selected because of concern about the large amount of water sublimated for thermal topping. It was concluded that an ATCS with an RC seven-panel radiator could be used for both ISS and lunar missions, but with two different coatings STC for ISS missions and AZ 93 for lunar missions to provide performance similar to or better than that of the LM baseline ATCS.

  1. Radiative property investigation. [digital computer programs for determining bidirectional reflectance of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed formulation of radiative heat transfer problems involving the use of bidirectional reflectance is discussed. Except for very simple systems this formulation is very intricate. For this reason and the fact that bidirectional data are scarce, such a formulation is not in common use. However, with the development of the digital computer there have been numerical methods developed for detailed radiative investigations using the bidirectional reflectance. Since computations using bidirectional reflectance are coming into use for spacecraft radiative studies, it is necessary to have reflectance data on the materials involved. Materials that are frequently studied are coatings which are used in controlling the thermal environment of spacecrafts. This study is primarily concerned with the bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide which is one constituent commonly used for coatings.

  2. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  3. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in radiation oncology residents: a pilot standardized patient program.

    PubMed

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Lamarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha

    2014-04-01

    There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of "bad news" to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Overall resident performance ratings were "good" to "excellent," with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Radiation Oncology Residents: A Pilot Standardized Patient Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; LaMarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills.

  5. Grid2: A Program for Rapid Estimation of the Jovian Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.; Brinza, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Grid2 is a program that utilizes the Galileo Interim Radiation Electron model 2 (GIRE2) Jovian radiation model to compute fluences and doses for Jupiter missions. (Note: The iterations of these two softwares have been GIRE and GIRE2; likewise Grid and Grid2.) While GIRE2 is an important improvement over the original GIRE radiation model, the GIRE2 model can take as long as a day or more to compute these quantities for a complete mission. Grid2 fits the results of the detailed GIRE2 code with a set of grids in local time and position thereby greatly speeding up the execution of the model-minutes as opposed to days. The Grid2 model covers the time period from 1971 to 2050 and distances of 1.03 to 30 Jovian diameters (Rj). It is available as a direct-access database through a FORTRAN interface program. The new database is only slightly larger than the original grid version: 1.5 gigabytes (GB) versus 1.2 GB.

  6. Two example applications of optimization techniques to US Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of ICRP Publication 37. In each case, the calculations are based on fairly well defined parameters and assumptions that were well understood. In this paper, we have examined two numerical examples that are based on empirical data and less certain assumptions. These examples may represent typical applications of optimization principles to the evaluation of specific elements of a radiation protection program. In the first example, the optimum bioassay frequency for tritium workers was found to be once every 95 days, which compared well with ICRP Publication 10 recommendations. However, this result depended heavily on the assumption that the value of a potential undetected rem was US $1000. The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating Cutie Pie (CP) type ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 102 days, which compared well with the Hanford standard frequency of once every 90 days. This result depended largely on the assumption that an improperly operating CP instrument could lead to a serious overexposure. These examples have led us to conclude that optimization of radiation protection programs must be a very dynamic process. Examples must be recalculated as empirical data expand and improve and as the uncertainties surrounding assumptions are reduced.

  7. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation using a High-Authority/Low-Authority Control Strategy with Anisotropic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a combined control strategy designed to reduce sound radiation from stiffened aircraft-style panels. The control architecture uses robust active damping in addition to high-authority linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control. Active damping is achieved using direct velocity feedback with triangularly shaped anisotropic actuators and point velocity sensors. While active damping is simple and robust, stability is guaranteed at the expense of performance. Therefore the approach is often referred to as low-authority control. In contrast, LQG control strategies can achieve substantial reductions in sound radiation. Unfortunately, the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units can destabilize decentralized control systems. Numerical simulations show that combining active damping and decentralized LQG control can be beneficial. In particular, augmenting the in-bandwidth damping supplements the performance of the LQG control strategy and reduces the destabilizing interaction between neighboring control units.

  8. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  9. Results of the 2014 Survey of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP).

    PubMed

    Jani, Ashesh B; Marshall, David; Vapiwala, Neha; Davis, Sara Beth; Langer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) conducted an in-depth survey of program directors along several axes. We report the results of this survey and compare the major findings with those of the 2007 ADROP survey. The survey was written and approved by ADROP leadership in 2012, announced online through broadcasts throughout 2013 and early 2014, and closed in mid-2014. The results based on question groups related to (1) hours spent in activities, (2) budget and nonprogram resources, (3) physics/biology didactics, (4) mock exams/didactics/research, (5) electives, (6) students, and (7) resources/challenges were tabulated. Descriptive comparisons with the 2007 survey were performed. There was 26% participation (23/88 programs). Major areas of time commitment were faculty and site organization, maintenance, and corrections (70 hours/year) and didactics/conferences and rounds (200 hours/year). The median program director protected time was 23% (range 0%-50%). All responding programs (100%) had biology and physics courses and assigned directors, but only approximately 20% of respondents had a threshold grade in these courses for graduation. Major resources desired were templates of goals/objectives by disease site, competency evaluations by level, journal club repository, and software for contouring, oral examination preparation, grant writing, publication writing, oral presentation, and effective teaching. Major activity challenges were Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education external review and time commitment. Overall, the 2014 results are similar to those of the 2007 survey. The average time commitment remains considerably higher than the 10% minimum required in the current ACGME program requirements. The survey results may guide ADROP membership in centralizing some of the identified resources needed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactive flight control system analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahesh, J. K.; Konar, A. F.; Ward, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of the development, use, and documentation of the interactive software (DIGIKON IV) for flight control system analyses is presented. A list of recommendations for future development is also included.

  11. A radiation protection program prospectus based on the collection of 10 years of key performance indicator data.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; McCrary, J R

    2003-11-01

    In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a novel program prospectus, displaying various indicator parameters in a format similar to that used in a commercial enterprise prospectus provided to potential investors. The consistent formatting of the data afforded a succinct and easily digestible snapshot of program activities and trends. Feedback from various program stakeholders, even those unschooled in radiation safety matters, was overwhelmingly positive. The prospectus aided in communicating the scope of work undertaken by the program, and has helped maintain program support, even in challenging economic times. The data summary is also proving to be useful in making future projections regarding program needs.

  12. Active/Passive Control of Sound Radiation from Panels using Constrained Layer Damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2003-01-01

    A hybrid passive/active noise control system utilizing constrained layer damping and model predictive feedback control is presented. This system is used to control the sound radiation of panels due to broadband disturbances. To facilitate the hybrid system design, a methodology for placement of constrained layer damping which targets selected modes based on their relative radiated sound power is developed. The placement methodology is utilized to determine two constrained layer damping configurations for experimental evaluation of a hybrid system. The first configuration targets the (4,1) panel mode which is not controllable by the piezoelectric control actuator, and the (2,3) and (5,2) panel modes. The second configuration targets the (1,1) and (3,1) modes. The experimental results demonstrate the improved reduction of radiated sound power using the hybrid passive/active control system as compared to the active control system alone.

  13. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  14. Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-03-16

    The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

  15. State Tobacco Control Program Spending--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jidong; Walton, Kimp; Gerzoff, Robert B; King, Brian A; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-06-26

    Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarettes sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs (Best Practices) outlines the elements of an evidence-based state tobacco control program and provides recommended state funding levels to substantially reduce tobacco-related disease, disability, and death. To analyze states' spending in relation to program components outlined within Best Practices, CDC assessed state tobacco control programs' expenditures for fiscal year 2011. In 2011, states spent approximately $658 million on tobacco control and prevention, which accounts for less than 3% of the states' revenues from the sale of tobacco products and only 17.8% of the level recommended by CDC. Evidence suggests that funding tobacco prevention and control efforts at the levels recommended in Best Practices could achieve larger and more rapid reductions in tobacco use and associated morbidity and mortality.

  16. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  17. Impact of a proposed change in the maximum permissible dose limit for neutrons to radiation-protection programs at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.

    1981-09-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has issued a statement advising that it is considering lowering the maximum permissible dose for neutrons. This action would present substantive problems to radiation protection programs at DOE facilities where a potential for neutron exposure exists. In addition to altering administrative controls, a lowering of the maximum permissible dose for neutrons will require advances in personnel neutron dosimetry systems, and neutron detection and measurement instrumentation. Improvement in the characterization of neutron fields and spectra at work locations will also be needed. DOE has initiated research and development programs in these areas. However, problems related to the control of personnel neutron exposure have yet to be resolved and investigators are encouraged to continue collaboration with both United States and international authorities.

  18. Proposal for a new radiation dose control system for future manned space flights.

    PubMed

    Semkova, J V; Dachev TsP; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Baynov, P T; Tomov, B T; Botolier-Depois, J F; Nguen, V D; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Siegrist, M; Duvivier, E; Almarcha, B; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V A; Makhmutov, V S

    1995-01-01

    Radiation risk on a future long-duration manned space mission appears to be one of the basic factors in planning and designing the mission. Since 1988 different active dosimetric investigations has been performed on board the MIR space station by the Bulgarian-Russian dosimeter-radiometer LIULIN and French tissue-equivalent proportional counters CIRCE and NAUSICAA. A joint French-Bulgarian-Russian dosimetry experiment and the dosimetry-radiometry system RADIUS-MD have been developed for the future MARS-96 mission. On the base of the results and experience of these investigations a conception for a new radiation dose control system for the future orbital stations, lunar bases and interplanetary space ships is proposed. The proposed system which consists of different instruments will allow personal radiation control for crew members, radiation monitoring inside and outside each habitat, analysis and forecasting of the situation and will suggest procedures to minimize the radiation risk.

  19. Radiation effects control: Eyes, skin. [space environment simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hightower, D.; Smathers, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Adverse effects on the lens of the eye and the skin due to exposure to proton radiation during manned space flight were evaluated. Actual proton irradiation which might be encountered in space was simulated. Irradiation regimes included single acute exposures, daily fractionated exposures, and weekly fractionated exposures. Animals were exposed and then maintained and examined periodically until data sufficient to meet the objective were obtained. No significant skin effects were noted and no serious sight impairment was exhibited.

  20. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  1. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.

    1983-12-01

    The Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  2. Advanced Control and Power System (ACAPS) Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advanced control and power system (ACAPS) program is to establish the technology necessary to satisfy space station and related large space structures requirements for efficient, reliable, and cost effective energy storage and attitude control. Technology advances in the area of integrated flywheel systems capable of performing the dual functions of energy storage and attitude control are outlined.

  3. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  4. Fundamental remote sensing science research program: The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deering, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Scene Radiation and Atmospheric Effects Characterization (SRAEC) Project was established within the NASA Fundamental Remote Sensing Science Research Program to improve our understanding of the fundamental relationships of energy interactions between the sensor and the surface target, including the effect of the atmosphere. The current studies are generalized into the following five subject areas: optical scene modeling, Earth-space radiative transfer, electromagnetic properties of surface materials, microwave scene modeling, and scatterometry studies. This report has been prepared to provide a brief overview of the SRAEC Project history and objectives and to report on the scientific findings and project accomplishments made by the nineteen principal investigators since the project's initiation just over three years ago. This annual summary report derives from the most recent annual principal investigators meeting held January 29 to 31, 1985.

  5. Empowering organizations: approaches to tobacco control through youth empowerment programs.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Lisa; Benet, Dana Jones; Mason, Theresa; Austin, W David; Mills, Sherry

    2004-10-01

    Whereas most evaluations of youth empowerment focus on individual outcomes (i.e., were individual youths empowered?), this article focuses on the program as the unit of analysis and seeks to explain how organizational structures, program design features, and processes lead to organizational empowerment (OE). OE is defined as organizational efforts that generate psychological empowerment among members and organizational effectiveness needed for goal achievement. Case studies of five American Legacy Foundation-funded tobacco control youth empowerment programs were conducted during the first 2 years of implementation. Using an OE framework, the authors assessed program design features of the youth empowerment programs that contributed to or detracted from processes leading to OE. Comparing and contrasting the programs led to the identification of models and strategies that contribute to OE. Ecological influences of the state contexts (i.e., political climate, history of tobacco control, and public health infrastructure) were also examined.

  6. The NASA controls-structures interaction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, Jerry R.; Layman, W. E.; Waites, H. B.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between a flexible spacecraft structure and its control system is commonly referred to as controls-structures interaction (CSI). The CSI technology program is developing the capability and confidence to integrate the structure and control system, so as to avoid interactions that cause problems and to exploit interactions to increase spacecraft capability. A NASA program has been initiated to advance CSI technology to a point where it can be used in spacecraft design for future missions. The CSI technology program is a multicenter program utilizing the resources of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The purpose is to describe the current activities, results to date, and future activities of the NASA CSI technology program.

  7. Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program at AFRPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.; Slimak, L. K. S.; Schloegel, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    A number of future DOD and NASA spacecraft such as the space based radar will be not only an order of magnitude larger in dimension than the current spacecraft, but will exhibit extreme structural flexibility with very low structural vibration frequencies. Another class of spacecraft (such as the space defense platforms) will combine large physical size with extremely precise pointing requirement. Such problems require a total departure from the traditional methods of modeling and control system design of spacecraft where structural flexibility is treated as a secondary effect. With these problems in mind, the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) initiated research to develop dynamics and control technology so as to enable the future large space structures (LSS). AFRPL's effort in this area can be subdivided into the following three overlapping areas: (1) ground experiments, (2) spacecraft modeling and control, and (3) sensors and actuators. Both the in-house and contractual efforts of the AFRPL in LSS are summarized.

  8. Broadband, wide-area active control of sound radiated from vibrating structures using local surface-mounted radiation suppression devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, V. Bradford; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Toth, G. K.

    A new active noise-control device, which offers a practical solution for complex noise problems, has been developed and experimentally evaluated. Noise reduction is achieved by distributing an array of control devices over the surface of the radiating structure (e.g., aircraft fuselage interior). Each device consists of a motion sensor, a control circuit, and a loudspeaker. The control circuits are independent and can be manufactured inexpensively from analog components. The loudspeaker is driven such that it reduces the volume velocity of the radiating structure within its close proximity. Experimental verification of this concept was performed using a uniformly vibrating circular plate with a single device. The controller transfer function was derived and implemented in an analog circuit. Broadband (50-500 Hz) sound reductions in the range of 10-20 dB were achieved over a wide spatial area, including the immediate vicinity of the device. The controller was found to be stable and robust. Since this device in its final implementation may be mounted behind the aircraft trim panels, it was covered by a large, flexible panel. The performance was measured and found to be excellent.

  9. Computed tomography radiation dose optimization: scanning protocols and clinical applications of automatic exposure control.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Mannudeep K; Naz, Nausheen; Rizzo, Stefania M R; Blake, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    As multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) technology evolves, manifold applications of CT scanning have been adopted in clinical practice and optimization of scanning protocols to comply with an "as low as reasonably achievable" radiation dose have become more complex. Automatic exposure control techniques, which have been recently introduced on most state-of-the-art CT equipment, aid in radiation dose optimization at a selected image quality. The present article reviews the fundamentals of automatic exposure control techniques in CT, along with the scanning protocols and associated radiation dose reduction.

  10. Stochastic Optimal Control and Linear Programming Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Buckdahn, R.; Goreac, D.; Quincampoix, M.

    2011-04-15

    We study a classical stochastic optimal control problem with constraints and discounted payoff in an infinite horizon setting. The main result of the present paper lies in the fact that this optimal control problem is shown to have the same value as a linear optimization problem stated on some appropriate space of probability measures. This enables one to derive a dual formulation that appears to be strongly connected to the notion of (viscosity sub) solution to a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. We also discuss relation with long-time average problems.

  11. Redundant actuator development program. [for flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenoweth, C. C.; Fain, D. M.; Svensson, C. I.

    1975-01-01

    Two concepts of redundant secondary actuator mechanization, applicable to future advanced flight control systems, were studied to quantitatively assess their design applicability to an AST. The two actuator concepts, a four-channel, force summed system and a three-channel, active/standby system have been developed and evaluated through analysis, analog computer simulation, and piloted motion simulation. The quantitative comparison of the two concepts indicates that the force summed concept better meet performance requirements, although the active/standby is superior in other respects. Both concepts are viable candidates for advanced control application dependent on the specific performance requirements.

  12. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  13. Graduates speak: the employment experience of 1995 graduates of diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology training programs.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, J H; Busheé, G R; Vydareny, K H; Shaffer, K A

    1997-06-01

    To determine the initial employment experience of 1995 graduates of radiology programs. A questionnaire was mailed to all graduates of radiation oncology programs and to a stratified, random sample of 600 graduates of diagnostic radiology programs. The final response rate was 66%. After graduation, 4%-10% of graduates worked for a period as locum tenens, worked in a job unrelated to radiology, or were unemployed. Immediate postgraduation unemployment was 2%-5%; 7-12 months later, it was less than 0.5%. Median actual salary was approximately equal to median expected salary. Radiation oncology fellowship graduates often had poorer outcomes. Almost half of the graduates with posttraining employment had a job with at least one characteristic regarded as unfavorable by some commentators (most commonly, undesirable location or no opportunity to become a partner), and at least one-fifth had and disliked such a characteristic. Geographic constraints, including the need to find employment for a spouse or companion, did not adversely affect employment outcome. Eventual unemployment was low, and starting salaries have not collapsed. Generally, the implications of job characteristics are best assessed by monitoring trends, but the prevalence of non-partnership track employment may well have increased.

  14. An Introduction to Numerical Control. Problems for Numerical Control Part Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    This combination text and workbook is intended to introduce industrial arts students to numerical control part programming. Discussed in the first section are the impact of numerical control, training efforts, numerical control in established programs, related information for drafting, and the Cartesian Coordinate System and dimensioning…

  15. The role of the EPA radiation quality assurance program in the measurement quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    As the nature and extent of radiological contamination becomes better documented and more public, radioanalytical laboratories are faced with a constantly expanding variety of new and difficult analytical requirements. Concurrent with those requirements is the responsibility to provide customers, regulatory officials, or the public with defensible data produced in an environment of verifiable, controlled quality. To meet that need, a quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories has been proposed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard will provide the organizational framework and functional requirements needed to assure the quality of laboratory outputs. Under the proposed program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Laboratory Intercomparison Program plays a key role as a reference laboratory. The current and proposed roles of the EPA Intercomparison Program are discussed, as are the functional relationships between EPA, the accreditating organization, and the service and monitoring laboratories.

  16. Aquatic Plant Control Program, New York State.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Description: The authorized project provides for work leading to the control and progressive eradication of waterchestnut in and from the waters...Item 7c. SKULL & CROSS BONES AND WORK " POISION " N/A Item 7d. STATEMENT OF PRACTICAL TREATMENT In case of contact, wash skin with soap and water; for

  17. National Shoreline Erosion Control Demonstration Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    between Jones and Fire Island Inlets. Northeasters and hurricanes periodically impact the southern shores of Long Island. These storms produce tides...form of beach erosion control at Gilgo beach is the placement of sand material removed from Fire Island Inlet every two to three years. An engineered

  18. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  19. Preliminary Quality Control System Design for the Pell Grant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    A preliminary design for a quality control (QC) system for the Pell Grant Program is proposed, based on the needs of the Office of Student Financial Assistance (OSFA). The applicability of the general design for other student aid programs administered by OSFA is also considered. The following steps included in a strategic approach to QC system…

  20. Budgeting and Control of Pharmacy Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Jean Paul

    1978-01-01

    Cash budgeting concepts employed in businesses are discussed, the results of a survey of pharmacy school continuing education directors regarding their budgeting procedures are described, and suggestions on how a pharmacy school's continuing education program could be budgeted are offered. A control form for program revenues is appended. (JMD)

  1. Locus of Control and Completion in an Adult Retraining Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice C.

    Since attrition is often a problem in adult training programs, a study was conducted to investigate the relationship between locus of control and course completion of adults enrolled in a retraining program. Rotter's Social Learning Theory of Personality was used as a starting point for the study. The study population was a sample of 108…

  2. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  3. Update on college and university programs in air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Cota, H.M.

    1983-04-01

    A survey of academic programs in air pollution control was made. Results from the 127 schools reporting are tabulated by state. Faculty involved in air pollution instruction are identified. Some conclusions and recommendations are presented. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  4. Control research in the NASA high-alpha technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Gera, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    NASA is conducting a focused technology program, known as the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, to accelerate the development of flight-validated technology applicable to the design of fighters with superior stall and post-stall characteristics and agility. A carefully integrated effort is underway combining wind tunnel testing, analytical predictions, piloted simulation, and full-scale flight research. A modified F-18 aircraft has been extensively instrumented for use as the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle used for flight verification of new methods and concepts. This program stresses the importance of providing improved aircraft control capabilities both by powered control (such as thrust-vectoring) and by innovative aerodynamic control concepts. The program is accomplishing extensive coordinated ground and flight testing to assess and improve available experimental and analytical methods and to develop new concepts for enhanced aerodynamics and for effective control, guidance, and cockpit displays essential for effective pilot utilization of the increased agility provided.

  5. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking: a successful program for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Jorge Morales

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized tissues was 224,706 grafts, with an estimated value of at least $51,768,553 million dollars at the mean current charge rate in non-commercial banks in Europe and USA. During the period 1997-2002 several countries from Asia and the Pacific region produced more than 155,000 grafts, with an estimated value of about $36.7 million dollars. Training was considered to be one of the most important tasks to be supported. A total of 192 students were registered in the training program and 146 students graduated with a University Diploma. For many developing countries an additional benefit is not having to import expensive sterilized tissues from developed countries, but the exposure of orthopedic and plastic surgeons working, to new methods of using allografts in specific surgical treatments.

  6. The status of radiation oncology training programs and their graduates in 1999.

    PubMed

    Busheé, G R; Sunshine, J H; Schepps, B

    2001-01-01

    To keep the profession apprised of current trends in the job market, the American College of Radiology (ACR) studied the employment situation of 1999 radiation oncology graduates and the status and plans of radiation oncology training programs. During mid-April to the beginning of June 1999, the ACR surveyed all radiation oncology residency directors about the employment situation of their residency and fellowship graduates, changes in their programs, and incoming trainees. Eighty-four percent (74/88) responded. We compared current findings to those of similar surveys conducted over the 1995-1998 period and report statistically significant differences (p < or = 0.05. Directors responded that as of the survey date, 88% (71/81) of all residency graduates had secured commitments for a position, about the same as reported throughout the 1995-1998 period. Planned and accomplished changes in residency program size since 1993 will reduce the annual number of beginning residency slots by approximately 33. This represents about a 20% decrease in the number of graduates relative to the 160 typical during the early 1990s. Residency directors' perceptions of the job market were optimistic, with 40% viewing the market as "somewhat" or "much" better than in recent years vs. 13% viewing it as worse, much as in 1998. On average, directors viewed 1999's residency applicants as, if anything, somewhat better than those who had applied one or three years earlier. Directors' perceptions of graduates' job prospects remain optimistic, and the employment situation remains the same as in past years, when reported unemployment was approximately 1%-2% or less by six months after graduation.

  7. Data systems for science integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gracio, D.K.; Hatfield, L.D.; Yates, K.R.; Voyles, J.W.; Tichler, J.L.; Cederwall, R.T.; Laufersweiler, M.J.; Leach, M.J.; Singley, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was developed by the US Department of Energy to support the goals and mission of the US Global Change Research Program. The purpose of the ARM program is to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCMs) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. Three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments to collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCMs. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in early 1996 in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Approximately 1.5 GB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the CART sites, and external data sources to the ARM Experiment Center (EC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experimental Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis and delivery of ARM data. Data from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems and from external data sources are transferred to the Experiment Center. The EC processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while maintaining a three-month running archive of data.

  8. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  9. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  10. Control of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the geosynchronous orbit using solar radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yong-Gang; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Sun, Rong-Yu

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the control of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) using solar radiation pressure is investigated. The long term disturbing effect of the main zonal and tesseral harmonics J2 and J_{22} of the geopotential are eliminated by adjusting the initial orbital elements, and a tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the GEO is designed. Then a control system using solar radiation pressure is further proposed to maintain the tetrahedron satellite formation, in which a sliding mode control (SMC) is developed to determine the control force. The control force is acquired from the solar sails equipped on the satellites, and the final control law and strategy using solar radiation pressure are presented. Moreover, three kinds of numerical simulations are especially given to verify the validity of the control system using solar radiation. It shows that Laplace precession of the GEO satellite can be avoided effectively, and the in-plane and out-of-plane errors of the formation can be eliminated easily. And hence the control of tetrahedron satellite formation flying in the GEO using solar radiation pressure is proved to be feasible.

  11. The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

  12. The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite program (CRRES): A unique series of scientific experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    CRRES is a program to study the space environment which surrounds Earth and the effects of space radiation on modern satellite electronic systems. The satellite will carry an array of active experiments including chemical releases and a complement of sophisticated scientific instruments to accomplish these objectives. Other chemical release active experiments will be performed with suborbital rocket probes. These chemical releases will paint the magnetic and electric fields in Earthspace with clouds of glowing ions. Earthspace will be a laboratory, and the releases will be studied with an extensive network of ground-, aircraft-, and satellite-based diagnostic instruments.

  13. Control of Hazards to Health From Laser Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    generated air contaminants 8–5 77 Collateral and plasma radiation 8–6 77 Fire hazards 8–7 78 Explosion hazards 8–8 78 Compressed gases 8–9 78 Laser...elliptical beams B–11 143 Beam diameter versus range B–12 144 Atmospheric attenuation B–13 145 Laser range equation B–14 145 Nominal ocular...mathematical symbols 111 B–2 Atmospherically corrected values of nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) in kilometers, assuming µ = 0.05 km-1, when

  14. Biomass Burning Controlled Modulation of the Solar Radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Abreu, S. L.; Couto, P.; Colle, S.; Stuhlmann, R.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric combustion products from forest fires in Brazil can affect routine satellite techniques for the assessment of solar energy resource information. The mean overestimation of solar irradiance by BRASIL-SR clear sky model was up to 2.5 times larger than that found outside the region of biomass burnings. Within the region of biomass burnings the overestimation was over 5 times larger at the peak of the burning season when compared to the rest of the year. A positive correlation between combustion products and the number of fire spots counted by satellite technique suggests a possible method for the parameterization of these effects in radiation transfer models

  15. Controlling attosecond angular streaking with second harmonic radiation.

    PubMed

    Hammond, T J; Kim, Kyung Taec; Zhang, Chunmei; Villeneuve, D M; Corkum, P B

    2015-04-15

    High harmonic generation, which produces a coherent burst of radiation every half cycle of the driving field, has been combined with ultrafast wavefront rotation to create a series of spatially separated attosecond pulses, called the attosecond lighthouse. By adding a coherent second harmonic beam with polarization parallel to the fundamental, we decrease the generating frequency from twice per optical cycle to once. The increased temporal separation increases the pulse contrast. By scanning the carrier envelope phase, we see that the signal is 2π periodic.

  16. Control of an orbiting flexible square platform in the presence of solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, P. M.; Krishna, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis is made of the dynamics of a thin, homogeneous, flexible square plate exposed to solar radiation disturbance. It is shown that only the first three flexible modes of the plate generate a first order net moment about the center of mass and that the solar radiation pressure does not influence the flexible modes of the plate for small-amplitude vibrations. In the absence of control, for a symmetrical homogeneous square platform, the solar radiation induces a steady angular drift about one of the body principal axes. For extremely flexible platforms, nominally oriented in the local horizontal plane, appreciable rigid modal amplitudes can be induced due to solar radiation, even in the presence of both active and passive control. Optimal control law and feedback gain values are obtained using linear quadratic Gaussian methods.

  17. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  18. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOEpatents

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  19. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ezekiel; Reyes, Delfino; Rojas, Miguel Mayorga; Krokhin, Arkadii; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2014-10-01

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k00-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.

  20. Tunable ultrasonic phononic crystal controlled by infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ezekiel; Neogi, Arup E-mail: arup@unt.edu; Reyes, Delfino; Rojas, Miguel Mayorga; Krokhin, Arkadii; Wang, Zhiming E-mail: arup@unt.edu

    2014-10-06

    A tunable phononic crystal based ultrasonic filter was designed by stimulating the phase of the polymeric material embedded in a periodic structure using infrared radiation. The acoustic filter can be tuned remotely using thermal stimulation induced by the infrared radiation. The filter is composed of steel cylinder scatterers arranged periodically in a background of bulk poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) polymer hydrogel. The lattice structure creates forbidden bands for certain sets of mechanical waves that cause it to behave as an ultrasonic filter. Since the bandstructure is determined by not only the arrangement of the scatterers but also the physical properties of the materials composing the scatterers and background, modulating either the arrangement or physical properties will alter the effect of the crystal on propagating mechanical waves. Here, the physical properties of the filter are varied by inducing changes in the polymer hydrogel using an electromagnetic thermal stimulus. With particular focus on the k{sub 00}-wave, the transmission of ultrasonic wave changes by as much as 20 dBm, and band widths by 22% for select bands.