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Sample records for radiation mass casualties

  1. Some considerations for mass casualty management in radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hopmeier, Michael; Abrahams, Jonathan; Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    Radiation emergencies are rather new to humankind, as compared to other types of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes. Fortunately, they are rare, but because of that, planning for response to large-scale radiation emergencies is least understood. Along with the specific technical aspects of response to radiation emergencies, there are some general guiding principles of responding to mass casualty events of any nature, as identified by the World Health Organization in its 2007 manual for mass casualty management systems. The paper brings forward such general considerations as applicable to radiation mass casualty events, including (1) clear lines of communication; (2) scalability of approach; (3) whole-of-health approach; (4) knowledge based approach; and (5) multisectoral approach. Additionally, some key considerations of planning for mass casualty management systems are discussed, namely, health systems surge capacity and networking, risk and resources mapping, and others. PMID:20445382

  2. Some considerations for mass casualty management in radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hopmeier, Michael; Abrahams, Jonathan; Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    Radiation emergencies are rather new to humankind, as compared to other types of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes. Fortunately, they are rare, but because of that, planning for response to large-scale radiation emergencies is least understood. Along with the specific technical aspects of response to radiation emergencies, there are some general guiding principles of responding to mass casualty events of any nature, as identified by the World Health Organization in its 2007 manual for mass casualty management systems. The paper brings forward such general considerations as applicable to radiation mass casualty events, including (1) clear lines of communication; (2) scalability of approach; (3) whole-of-health approach; (4) knowledge based approach; and (5) multisectoral approach. Additionally, some key considerations of planning for mass casualty management systems are discussed, namely, health systems surge capacity and networking, risk and resources mapping, and others.

  3. Radiation accident preparedness: a European approach to train physicians to manage mass radiation casualties.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Mark E; Fliedner, Theodor M; Meineke, Viktor

    2010-06-01

    Mass casualties after radiation exposure pose an enormous logistical challenge for national health services worldwide. Successful medical treatment of radiation victims requires that a plan for medical radiation accident management be established, that the plan be tested in regular exercises, and that it be found to be effective in the management of actual victims of a radiological incident. These activities must be provided by a critical mass of clinicians who are knowledgeable in the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. Here, we describe efforts to provide education to physicians engaged in clinical transplantation. Following intensive discussion among European experts at the International Center for Advanced Studies in Health Sciences and Services, University of Ulm, Germany, an advanced training program on "radiation syndromes" was developed for physicians with experience in the management of patients with pancytopenia and multi-organ failure occurring in a transplant setting. The first European advanced training course using this educational tool took place at Oberschleissheim, Germany, on 28-30 November 2007. Small group discussions and practical exercises were employed to teach general principles and unique features of whole body radiation exposure. Topics included the biological effects of contamination, incorporation of radionuclides, clinical consequences of exposure to radiation, and approaches to medical management. Recommendations resulting from this initial educational experience include (1) provision of funding for attending, conducting and updating the curriculum, and (2) development of an educational program that is harmonized among European and non-European experts in medical management of mass casualties from a radionuclear incident. PMID:20445401

  4. Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN): Healthcare professionals preparing for a mass casualty radiological or nuclear incident

    PubMed Central

    ROSS, JOEL R.; CASE, CULLEN; CONFER, DENNIS; WEISDORF, DANIEL J.; WEINSTOCK, DAVID; KRAWISZ, ROBERT; CHUTE, JOHN; WILHAUK, JULIE; NAVARRO, WILLIS; HARTZMAN, ROBERT; COLEMAN, C. NORMAN; HATCHETT, RICHARD; CHAO, NELSON

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the history, composition, and activities of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN). The Radiation Injury Treatment Network® is a cooperative effort of the National Marrow Donor Program and the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The goals of RITN are to educate hematologists, oncologists, and stem cell transplant practitioners about their potential involvement in the response to a radiation incident and provide treatment expertise. Injuries to the marrow system readily occur when a victim is exposed to ionising radiation. This focus therefore leverages the expertise of these specialists who are accustomed to providing the intensive supportive care required by patients with a suppressed marrow function. Following a radiological incident, RITN centres may be asked to: Accept patient transfers to their institutions; provide treatment expertise to practitioners caring for victims at other centres; travel to other centres to provide medical expertise; or provide data on victims treated at their centres. Moving forward, it is crucial that we develop a coordinated interdisciplinary approach in planning for and responding to radiological and nuclear incidents. The ongoing efforts of radiation biologists, radiation oncologists, and health physicists can and should complement the efforts of RITN and government agencies. Conclusion RITN serves as a vital partner in preparedness and response efforts for potential radiological and nuclear incidents. PMID:21801106

  5. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  6. The hematologist and radiation casualties.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Waselenko, Jamie K; Armitage, James O; MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and

  7. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients. PMID:19377134

  8. Oxygen supplies during a mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ray H; Previtera, Joseph E

    2008-02-01

    Mass casualty and pandemic events pose a substantial challenge to the resources available in our current health care system. The ability to provide adequate oxygen therapy is one of the systems that could be out-stripped in certain conditions. Natural disasters can disrupt manufacturing or delivery, and pandemic events can increase consumption beyond the available supply. Patients may require manual resuscitation, basic oxygen therapy, or positive-pressure ventilation during these scenarios. Available sources of oxygen include bulk liquid oxygen systems, compressed gas cylinders, portable liquid oxygen (LOX) systems, and oxygen concentrators. The last two are available in a variety of configurations, which include personal and home systems that are suitable for individual patients, and larger systems that can provide oxygen to multiple patients or entire institutions. Bulk oxygen systems are robust and are probably sustainable during periods of high consumption, but are at risk if manufacturing or delivery is disrupted. Compressed gas cylinders offer support during temporary periods of need but are not a solution for extended periods of therapy. Personal oxygen concentrators and LOX systems are limited in their application during mass casualty scenarios. Large-capacity oxygen concentrators and LOX systems may effectively provide support to alternative care sites or larger institutions. They may also be appropriate selections for governmental emergency-response scenarios. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of each of these options can reduce the impact of a mass casualty event. PMID:18218152

  9. Nuclear terrorism: triage and medical management of radiation and combined-injury casualties.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Daniel F; Goans, Ronald E

    2006-06-01

    This article addresses the medical effects of nuclear explosions and other forms of radiation exposure, assessment of radiation dose, triage of victims, definitive treatment of radiation and combined-injury casualties, and planning for emergency services after a terrorist attack involving a nuclear device. It reviews historical events of mass radiation-induced casualties and fatalities at Hiroshima, Chernobyl, and Goiania, and discusses various scenarios for nuclear terrorism.

  10. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination.

  11. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination. PMID:22823588

  12. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events.

    PubMed

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2008-11-01

    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE.

  13. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote. PMID:27308865

  14. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events.

    PubMed

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2008-11-01

    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE. PMID:19070282

  15. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  16. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  17. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  18. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-16

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  19. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  20. Casualties.

    PubMed

    Shay, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Privation and disease have mainly killed soldiers until very recently. Now that enemy action predominates, faster and better control of bleeding and infection before and during evacuation spares ever more lives today. This essay focuses on psychological war wounds, placing them in the context of military casualties. The surgeon's concepts of 'primary' wounds in war, and of would 'complications' and 'contamination', serve as models for psychological and moral injury in war. 'Psychological injury' is explained and preferred to 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder', being less stigmatizing and more faithful to the phenomenon. Primary psychological injury equates to the direct damage done by a bullet; the complications - for example, alcohol abuse - equate to hemorrhage and infection. Two current senses of 'moral injury' equate to wound contamination. As with physical wounds, it is the complications and contamination of mental wounds that most often kill service members or veterans, or blight their lives. PMID:21898967

  1. Development and Validation of a Mass Casualty Conceptual Model

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Joan M.; Effken, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a conceptual model that provides a framework for the development and evaluation of information systems for mass casualty events. Design The model was designed based on extant literature and existing theoretical models. A purposeful sample of 18 experts validated the model. Open-ended questions, as well as a 7-point Likert scale, were used to measure expert consensus on the importance of each construct and its relationship in the model and the usefulness of the model to future research. Methods Computer-mediated applications were used to facilitate a modified Delphi technique through which a panel of experts provided validation for the conceptual model. Rounds of questions continued until consensus was reached, as measured by an interquartile range (no more than 1 scale point for each item); stability (change in the distribution of responses less than 15% between rounds); and percent agreement (70% or greater) for indicator questions. Findings Two rounds of the Delphi process were needed to satisfy the criteria for consensus or stability related to the constructs, relationships, and indicators in the model. The panel reached consensus or sufficient stability to retain all 10 constructs, 9 relationships, and 39 of 44 indicators. Experts viewed the model as useful (mean of 5.3 on a 7-point scale). Conclusions Validation of the model provides the first step in understanding the context in which mass casualty events take place and identifying variables that impact outcomes of care. Clinical Relevance This study provides a foundation for understanding the complexity of mass casualty care, the roles that nurses play in mass casualty events, and factors that must be considered in designing and evaluating information-communication systems to support effective triage under these conditions. PMID:20487188

  2. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  3. Pediatric and neonatal interfacility transport medicine after mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Calvin G

    2009-08-01

    Pediatric and neonatal interfacility transport medicine is a relatively young but a rapidly evolving specialty. Transport teams are essential for the safe interfacility movement of critically ill patients. A mass casualty incident (MCI) can present major challenges for a critical care transport team. This article will examine the capabilities and limitations of pediatric and neonatal critical care transport teams. The predicaments brought about by Hurricane Katrina that hindered the evacuation of pediatric and neonatal patients out of ravaged hospitals are also reviewed. From these experiences, recommendations to improve the efficiency and efficacy of interfacility transport of pediatric patients will be presented.

  4. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    PubMed

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients.

  5. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p <0.05). Current mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  6. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  7. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  8. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Christopher N.; Mills, Gregory H.

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  9. Mass casualty triage: an evaluation of the data and development of a proposed national guideline.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Schwartz, Richard B; Coule, Phillip L; Weinstein, Eric S; Cone, David C; Hunt, Richard C; Sasser, Scott M; Liu, J Marc; Nudell, Nikiah G; Wedmore, Ian S; Hammond, Jeffrey; Bulger, Eileen M; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Sanddal, Teri L; Markenson, David; O'Connor, Robert E

    2008-09-01

    Mass casualty triage is a critical skill. Although many systems exist to guide providers in making triage decisions, there is little scientific evidence available to demonstrate that any of the available systems have been validated. Furthermore, in the United States there is little consistency from one jurisdiction to the next in the application of mass casualty triage methodology. There are no nationally agreed upon categories or color designations. This review reports on a consensus committee process used to evaluate and compare commonly used triage systems, and to develop a proposed national mass casualty triage guideline. The proposed guideline, entitled SALT (sort, assess, life-saving interventions, treatment and/or transport) triage, was developed based on the best available science and consensus opinion. It incorporates aspects from all of the existing triage systems to create a single overarching guide for unifying the mass casualty triage process across the United States.

  10. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550.

  11. Mass-casualty triage: time for an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jennifer Lee; McCarthy, Melissa L; Sauer, Lauren M; Green, Gary B; Stuart, Stephanie; Thomas, Tamara L; Hsu, Edbert B

    2008-01-01

    Mass-casualty triage has developed from a wartime necessity to a civilian tool to ensure that constrained medical resources are directed at achieving the greatest good for the most number of people. Several primary and secondary triage tools have been developed, including Simple Treatment and Rapid Transport (START), JumpSTART, Care Flight Triage, Triage Sieve, Sacco Triage Method, Secondary Assessment of Victim Endpoint (SAVE), and Pediatric Triage Tape. Evidence to support the use of one triage algorithm over another is limited, and the development of effective triage protocols is an important research priority. The most widely recognized mass-casualty triage algorithms in use today are not evidence-based, and no studies directly address these issues in the mass-casualty setting. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated existing mass-casualty triage algorithms regarding ease of use, reliability, and validity when biological, chemical, or radiological agents are introduced. Currently, the lack of a standardized mass-casualty triage system that is well validated, reliable, and uniformly accepted, remains an important gap. Future research directed at triage is recognized as a necessity, and the development of a practical, universal, triage algorithm that incorporates requirements for decontamination or special precautions for infectious agents would facilitate a more organized mass-casualty medical response.

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  13. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  14. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna C.; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury. PMID:21829319

  15. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Aruna C; Kumar, S

    2010-07-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury.

  16. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  17. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate. PMID:25915603

  18. Carbamate poisoning: treatment recommendations in the setting of a mass casualties event.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Yossi; Makarovsky, Igor; Bentur, Yedidia; Shrot, Shai; Dushnistky, Tsvika; Krivoy, Amir

    2009-11-01

    The threat of using chemical compounds by terrorists as weapons of mass casualties has been a rising concern in recent years. Carbamates, a group of reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, could be potentially involved in such toxic mass casualty events because they can cause cholinergic crisis that could lead to fatality, similar to that of organophosphate poisoning. The medical management of carbamate poisoning consists of supportive measures and specific antidotal treatment, that is, the anticholinergic compound atropine. The administration of oximes, acetylcholinesterase reactivators, in carbamate poisoning is controversial because of the potential toxicity of oximes in conjunction with carbamate especially in the case of the carbamate--"carbaryl" poisoning. However, recent data suggest that this concern may be unwarranted. In this article, we review the current data regarding the pros and cons of using oximes against carbamates poisoning in a mass casualties event scenario. We also propose a new decision-making algorithm for the medical first responders in a mass casualties event suspected to be caused by a cholinergic substance (organophosphate or carbamate). According to this algorithm, treatment should consist of atropine and oxime regardless of the exact toxic compound involved. We speculate that in a mass casualties event, the benefits of using oximes outweigh the low level of potential risk.

  19. 'Just send them all to a burn centre': managing burn resources in a mass casualty incident.

    PubMed

    Conlon, Kathe M; Martin, Shawn

    2011-06-01

    Burn experts estimate that 20-30 per cent of injuries from mass casualty events result in serious burns, many requiring specialised care only available at burn centres. Yet, in the USA there are less then 1,850 burn beds available to provide such a level and quality of care. To address this concern, burn centres are beginning to put into practice new mass casualty triage and transport guidelines that must coordinate with local, regional and federal response plans, while still adhering to an accepted standard of care. This presentation describes how one US burn centre developed and implemented a Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) designed mass casualty incident (MCI) exercise focused on coordinating 'the right patient to the right facility at the right time', based upon acuity and bed availability. Discussion will enable planners to identify methodologies adaptable for incorporation into catastrophic emergency management operations within their regions.

  20. Development of Mass-casualty Life Support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anan, Hideaki; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Homma, Masato; Koido, Yuichi; Morino, Kazuma; Oshiro, Kenichi; Harikae, Kiyokazu; Akasaka, Osamu

    2016-10-01

    This report outlines the need for the development of an advanced course in mass-casualty life support (MCLS) and introduces the course content. The current problems with education on disasters involving chemical agents, biological agents, radiation/nuclear attacks, or explosives (CBRNE) in Japan are presented. This newly developed "MCLS-CBRNE" program was created by a Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare (Tokyo, Japan) research group based on these circumstances. Modifications were then made after a trial course. Training opportunities for relevant organizations to learn how to act at a CBRNE disaster site currently are lacking. The developed course covers initial responses at a disaster site. This one-day training course comprises lectures, three tabletop simulations, and practical exercises in pre-decontamination triage and post-decontamination triage. With regard to field exercises conducted to date, related organizations have experienced difficulties in understanding each other and adapting their approaches. Tabletop simulations provide an opportunity for participants to learn how organizations working on-site, including fire, police, and medical personnel, act with differing goals and guiding principles. This course appears useful as a means for relevant organizations to understand the importance of developing common guidelines. The MCLS-CBRNE training is proposed to support CBRNE disaster control measures during future events. Anan H , Otomo Y , Kondo H , Homma M , Koido Y , Morino K , Oshiro K , Harikae K , Akasaka O . Development of mass-casualty life support-CBRNE (MCLS-CBRNE) in Japan. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):547-550. PMID:27531062

  1. Assessment of biodosimetry methods for a mass-casualty radiological incident: medical response and management considerations.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julie M; Prasanna, Pataje G S; Grace, Marcy B; Wathen, Lynne K; Wallace, Rodney L; Koerner, John F; Coleman, C Norman

    2013-12-01

    Following a mass-casualty nuclear disaster, effective medical triage has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives. In order to best use the available scarce resources, there is an urgent need for biodosimetry tools to determine an individual's radiation dose. Initial triage for radiation exposure will include location during the incident, symptoms, and physical examination. Stepwise triage will include point of care assessment of less than or greater than 2 Gy, followed by secondary assessment, possibly with high throughput screening, to further define an individual's dose. Given the multisystem nature of radiation injury, it is unlikely that any single biodosimetry assay can be used as a standalone tool to meet the surge in capacity with the timeliness and accuracy needed. As part of the national preparedness and planning for a nuclear or radiological incident, the authors reviewed the primary literature to determine the capabilities and limitations of a number of biodosimetry assays currently available or under development for use in the initial and secondary triage of patients. Understanding the requirements from a response standpoint and the capability and logistics for the various assays will help inform future biodosimetry technology development and acquisition. Factors considered include: type of sample required, dose detection limit, time interval when the assay is feasible biologically, time for sample preparation and analysis, ease of use, logistical requirements, potential throughput, point-of-care capability, and the ability to support patient diagnosis and treatment within a therapeutically relevant time point.

  2. Assessment of Biodosimetry Methods for a Mass-Casualty Radiological Incident: Medical Response and Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Julie M.; Prasanna, Pataje G. S.; Grace, Marcy B.; Wathen, Lynne; Wallace, Rodney L.; Koerner, John F.; Coleman, C. Norman

    2013-01-01

    Following a mass-casualty nuclear disaster, effective medical triage has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives. In order to best use the available scarce resources, there is an urgent need for biodosimetry tools to determine an individual’s radiation dose. Initial triage for radiation exposure will include location during the incident, symptoms, and physical examination. Stepwise triage will include point of care assessment of less than or greater than 2 Gy, followed by secondary assessment, possibly with high throughput screening, to further define an individual’s dose. Given the multisystem nature of radiation injury, it is unlikely that any single biodosimetry assay can be used as a stand-alone tool to meet the surge in capacity with the timeliness and accuracy needed. As part of the national preparedness and planning for a nuclear or radiological incident, we reviewed the primary literature to determine the capabilities and limitations of a number of biodosimetry assays currently available or under development for use in the initial and secondary triage of patients. Understanding the requirements from a response standpoint and the capability and logistics for the various assays will help inform future biodosimetry technology development and acquisition. Factors considered include: type of sample required, dose detection limit, time interval when the assay is feasible biologically, time for sample preparation and analysis, ease of use, logistical requirements, potential throughput, point-of-care capability, and the ability to support patient diagnosis and treatment within a therapeutically relevant time point. PMID:24162058

  3. Research issues in preparedness for mass casualty events, disaster, war, and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Hinton Walker, Patricia; Garmon Bibb, Sandra C; Elberson, Karen L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a perspective on the types of research questions that might be explored and strategies used in relation to disaster,terrorism, and mass casualty events. Research is addressed in the context of three areas of focus: issues related to the health care provider; issues affecting the patient, individual, family, and community; and issues related to the health care system.

  4. A national system for disseminating information on victims during mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi; Cohen, Robert; Laor, Danny

    2010-04-01

    Immediate provision of information to the public is vital during mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Failure to implement rapidly a communication response system may result in the public overwhelming hospitals. This paper shares Israel's experience in developing and maintaining a national system for supplying information on the location and identification of casualties. ADAM interfaces online with hospitals' patient registration systems, and allows for immediate electronic transfer of designated data. The system permits information centres to access information on which hospital has admitted identified and unidentified casualties. The latter are photographed at the entrance to the hospital and the picture is stored in ADAM. The system enables hospitals and municipalities to ensure immediate availability and accessibility of information and thus (in our belief) mitigate the concerns of family and friends. Use of such an interface system is recommended as an integral element of emergency preparedness. PMID:20002707

  5. Mobile DIORAMA-II: infrastructure less information collection system for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Yang, Zhuorui; Yi, Jun; Lord, Graydon; Ciottone, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce DIORAMA-II system that provides real time information collection in mass casualty incidents. Using a mobile platform that includes active RFID tags and readers as well as Smartphones, the system can determine the location of victims and responders. The system provides user friendly multi dimensional user interfaces as well as collaboration tools between the responders and the incident commander. We conducted two simulated mass casualty incidents with 50 victims each and professional responders. DIORAMA-II significantly reduces the evacuation time by up to 43% when compared to paper based triage systems. All responders that participated in all trials were very satisfied. They felt in control of the incident and mentioned that the system significantly reduced their stress level during the incident. They all mentioned that they would use the system in an actual incident.

  6. Mobilized progenitor cells as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties: a brief review of tocopherol succinate-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Singh, Pankaj K; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear detonation through either military or terrorist action would most likely lead to a mass-casualty scenario involving victims with varying degrees of exposure to ionizing radiation. As a result of radiation injury to the hematopoietic system, victims would suffer from a lack of red blood cells that deliver oxygen, immune cells that detect and eliminate infectious agents, and blood platelets that promote blood clot formation. In part, these symptoms are generally referred to as acute radiation syndrome (ARS). While some victims of moderate to high levels of radiation will be beyond saving, most will have received enough radiation to injure but not kill their bone marrow cells completely. Such people will recover from their injuries but face a 30-60day period during which they cannot fully fight infections and are prone to uncontrolled bleeding and anemia. To keep them alive until their hematopoietic system recovers, they must receive supportive care. Recently, using experimental animal models of ARS, transfusion of myeloid progenitor cells have been tried as a bridging therapy for radiation-exposed animals. Such cells have been shown to be effective in protecting animals exposed to lethal doses of radiation. These myeloid progenitors (along with of other hematopoietic progenitor cell types) can be mobilized out of the bone marrow into the blood for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis. This review discusses various approaches to the mobilization of progenitors using different mobilizing agents, and their utility as a bridging therapy for radiation casualties. We suggest that α-tocopherol succinate (TS) is an optimal mobilizing agent for progenitors. The extent of progenitor mobilization TS elicits in experimental mice is comparable to clinically used drugs such as recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factor rhG-CSF/Neupogen® and the bicyclam AMD3100 (plerixafor/Mozobil); therefore, we propose that TS be considered for further translational development

  7. A Consensus-Based Gold Standard for the Evaluation of Mass Casualty Triage Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; McKee, Courtney H.; Cady, Charles E.; Cone, David C.; Colella, M. Riccardo; Cooper, Arthur; Coule, Phillip L.; Lairet, Julio R.; Liu, J. Marc; Pirrallo, Ronald; Sasser, Scott M.; Schwartz, Richard; Shepherd, Greene; Swienton, Raymond E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Accuracy and effectiveness analyses of mass casualty triage systems are limited because there are no gold standard definitions for each of the triage categories. Until there is agreement on which patients should be identified by each triage category, it will be impossible to calculate sensitivity and specificity or to compare accuracy between triage systems. Objective To develop a consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category. Methods National experts were recruited through the lead investigators’ contacts and their suggested contacts. Key informant interviews were conducted to develop a list of potential criteria for defining each triage category. Panelists were interviewed in order of their availability until redundancy of themes was achieved. Panelists were blinded to each other’s responses during the interviews. A modified Delphi survey was developed with the potential criteria identified during the interview and delivered to all recruited experts. In the early rounds, panelists could add, remove, or modify criteria. In the final rounds edits were made to the criteria until at least 80% agreement was achieved. Results Thirteen national and local experts were recruited to participate in the project. Six interviews were conducted. Three rounds of voting were performed, with 12 panelists participating in the first round, 12 in the second round, and 13 in the third round. After the first two rounds, the criteria were modified according to respondent suggestions. In the final round, over 90% agreement was achieved for all but one criterion. A single e-mail vote was conducted on edits to the final criterion and consensus was achieved. Conclusion A consensus-based, functional gold standard definition for each mass casualty triage category was been developed. These gold standard definitions can be used to evaluate the accuracy of mass casualty triage systems after an actual incident, during training, or for

  8. The role dentists can play in mass casualty and disaster events.

    PubMed

    Guay, Albert H

    2007-10-01

    Dentistry has valuable assets, both in personnel and facilities, to bring to the initial response to a mass casualty event when the local traditional medical system is overwhelmed. This article describes the services dentists can provide to allow physicians to provide the services only they can provide. The education and training of dentists that is required for preparation and the need to develop an integrated emergency response plan are discussed.

  9. Adolescent epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, B.S.

    1989-08-01

    Discussed is a case of explosive epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic inhalation incident. Fifteen adolescent female students were triaged from a school of 700 persons exposed to sewer gas and arrived simultaneously at the emergency department complaining of a variety of nonspecific symptoms without physical findings. These symptoms quickly remitted with reassurance and dispersion of the group. Factors important in the recognition and treatment of epidemic hysteria are presented.

  10. Disaster planning: the basics of creating a burn mass casualty disaster plan for a burn center.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Conlon, Kathe M; Valenta, Andrea L; Lord, Graydon C; Cairns, Charles B; Holmes, James H; Johnson, Daryhl D; Matherly, Annette F; Sawyer, Dalton; Skarote, Mary Beth; Siler, Sean M; Helminiak, Radm Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the American Burn Association published burn disaster guidelines. This work recognized that local and state assets are the most important resources in the initial 24- to 48-hour management of a burn disaster. Historical experiences suggest there is ample opportunity to improve local and state preparedness for a major burn disaster. This review will focus on the basics of developing a burn surge disaster plan for a mass casualty event. In the event of a disaster, burn centers must recognize their place in the context of local and state disaster plan activation. Planning for a burn center takes on three forms; institutional/intrafacility, interfacility/intrastate, and interstate/regional. Priorities for a burn disaster plan include: coordination, communication, triage, plan activation (trigger point), surge, and regional capacity. Capacity and capability of the plan should be modeled and exercised to determine limitations and identify breaking points. When there is more than one burn center in a given state or jurisdiction, close coordination and communication between the burn centers are essential for a successful response. Burn surge mass casualty planning at the facility and specialty planning levels, including a state burn surge disaster plan, must have interface points with governmental plans. Local, state, and federal governmental agencies have key roles and responsibilities in a burn mass casualty disaster. This work will include a framework and critical concepts any burn disaster planning effort should consider when developing future plans.

  11. Disaster planning: the basics of creating a burn mass casualty disaster plan for a burn center.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Conlon, Kathe M; Valenta, Andrea L; Lord, Graydon C; Cairns, Charles B; Holmes, James H; Johnson, Daryhl D; Matherly, Annette F; Sawyer, Dalton; Skarote, Mary Beth; Siler, Sean M; Helminiak, Radm Clare; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, the American Burn Association published burn disaster guidelines. This work recognized that local and state assets are the most important resources in the initial 24- to 48-hour management of a burn disaster. Historical experiences suggest there is ample opportunity to improve local and state preparedness for a major burn disaster. This review will focus on the basics of developing a burn surge disaster plan for a mass casualty event. In the event of a disaster, burn centers must recognize their place in the context of local and state disaster plan activation. Planning for a burn center takes on three forms; institutional/intrafacility, interfacility/intrastate, and interstate/regional. Priorities for a burn disaster plan include: coordination, communication, triage, plan activation (trigger point), surge, and regional capacity. Capacity and capability of the plan should be modeled and exercised to determine limitations and identify breaking points. When there is more than one burn center in a given state or jurisdiction, close coordination and communication between the burn centers are essential for a successful response. Burn surge mass casualty planning at the facility and specialty planning levels, including a state burn surge disaster plan, must have interface points with governmental plans. Local, state, and federal governmental agencies have key roles and responsibilities in a burn mass casualty disaster. This work will include a framework and critical concepts any burn disaster planning effort should consider when developing future plans. PMID:23877135

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/ Nuclear Incident: Further Guiding Principles

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard; Williams, Richard; Rubin, G. James; Drury, John

    2016-01-01

    This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al. (2016). In this short report, we summarise the available evidence around likely public behaviour during mass decontamination, effective communication strategies, and potential issues resulting from a lack of privacy. Our intention is to help further focus the research needs in this area and highlight topics on which more research is needed. PMID:27790381

  13. K-plan for patient repatriation after mass casualty events abroad.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, François-Xavier; Verner, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In addition to requests for individual aeromedical evacuation (AE), medical assistance companies also may respond to mass casualty incidents abroad. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the effectiveness of our primary casualty plan, based on experience involving a January 2010 bus crash in southern Egypt. The main evaluative criterion was time elapsed from the initial call until the return of victims to their home country. Three critically injured patients underwent an initial AE to Cairo for advanced trauma care. After stabilization, they arrived back in their home country 42 hours after the initial call. The remaining group of patients arrived 27 hours later, or a total of 69 hours after the first call. These findings suggest that the "K-Plan" standardized operating process may be effective for rapid and appropriate repatriation of numerous victims. Some specific issues, such as efficiently locating a large-capacity charter aircraft, require further improvement.

  14. Mass casualty incident after the Taba terrorist attack: an organisational and medical challenge.

    PubMed

    Karp, Erez; Sebbag, Gilbert; Peiser, Jochanan; Dukhno, Oleg; Ovnat, Amnon; Levy, Isaac; Hyam, Eytan; Blumenfeld, Amir; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Shaked, Gad

    2007-03-01

    Two suicide bombings in and around Taba, Egypt, on 7 October 2004 created a complex medical and organisational situation. Since most victims were Israeli tourists, the National Emergency and Disaster Management Division handled their evacuation and treatment. This paper describes the event chronologically, as well as the organisational and management challenges confronted and applied solutions. Forty-nine emergency personnel and physicians were flown early to the disaster area to reinforce scarce local medical resources. Two hundred casualties were recorded: 32 dead and 168 injured. Eilat hospital was transformed into a triage facility. Thirty-two seriously injured patients were flown to two remote trauma centres in central Israel. Management of mass casualty incidents is difficult when local resources are inadequate. An effective response should include: rapid transportation of experienced trauma teams to the disaster zone; conversion of local medical amenities into a triage centre; and rapid evacuation of the seriously injured to higher level medical facilities.

  15. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-01

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  16. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-04

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  17. Autonomous mobile platform for enhanced situational awareness in Mass Casualty Incidents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongyi; Schafer, James; Wang, Sili; Ganz, Aura

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of the search and rescue process of a Mass Casualty Incident, we introduce a low cost autonomous mobile platform. The mobile platform motion is controlled by an Android Smartphone mounted on a robot. The pictures and video captured by the Smartphone camera can significantly enhance the situational awareness of the incident commander leading to a more efficient search and rescue process. Moreover, the active RFID readers mounted on the mobile platform can improve the localization accuracy of victims in the disaster site in areas where the paramedics are not present, reducing the triage and evacuation time. PMID:25570104

  18. Explosive outbreak of gastroenteritis on an aircraft carrier: an infectious disease mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Bohnker, B; McEwen, G; Feeks, E; Palombaro, J

    1993-07-01

    An aircraft carrier experienced 777 cases of acute gastroenteritis while deployed in the eastern Mediterranean over a 16-d period. These cases were noted in the 5,000-man crew, suggesting a cumulative incidence rate of 15%, though many sailors did not seek medical care for their symptoms. The onboard medical department response included epidemiological investigation with unique shipboard facility considerations, development of a treatment plan, and implementation of preventive/educational programs. Implications for nontrauma related mass casualty situations are discussed. Flight surgeons and operational medicine physicians must have a solid foundation in general preventive medicine to fulfill their responsibilities.

  19. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  20. The development and features of the Spanish prehospital advanced triage method (META) for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Cuartas Alvarez, Tatiana; Garijo Gonzalo, Gracia; Martinez Monzon, Carlos; Pelaez Corres, Nieves; Rodriguez Soler, Alberto; Turegano Fuentes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text describes the process of development of the new Spanish Prehospital Advanced Triage Method (META) and explain its main features and contribution to prehospital triage systems in mass casualty incidents. The triage META is based in the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, patient's anatomical injuries and mechanism of injury. It is a triage method with four stages including early identification of patients with severe trauma that would benefit from a rapid evacuation to a surgical facility and introduces a new patient flow by-passing the advanced medical post to improve evacuation. The stages of triage META are: I) Stabilization triage that classifies patients according to severity to set priorities for initial emergency treatment; II) Identifying patients requiring urgent surgical treatment, this is done at the same time than stage I and creates a new flow of patients with high priority for evacuation; III) Implementation of Advanced Trauma Life Support protocols to patients previously classified according to stablished priority; and IV) Evacuation triage, stablishing evacuation priorities in case of lacks of appropriate transport resources. The triage META is to be applied only by prehospital providers with advanced knowledge and training in advanced trauma life support care and has been designed to be implemented as prehospital procedure in mass casualty incidents (MCI). PMID:27130042

  1. On constant alert: lessons to be learned from Israel's emergency response to mass-casualty terrorism incidents.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-12-01

    In its short modern history, Israel has had to contend with numerous mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorism. As a result, it has developed practical national preparedness policies for responding to such events. Israel's Supreme Health Authority, a committee of the Ministry of Health, coordinates emergency management nationwide. All emergency personnel, health care providers, and medical facilities operate under national policies designed to ensure a swift and coordinated response to any incident, based on an "all hazards" approach that emphasizes core elements commonly encountered in mass-casualty incidents. Israel's emergency management system includes contingency planning, command and control, centrally coordinated response, cooperation, and capacity building. Although every nation is unique, many of the lessons that Israel has learned may be broadly applicable to preparation for mass-casualty incidents in the United States and other countries. PMID:24301403

  2. On constant alert: lessons to be learned from Israel's emergency response to mass-casualty terrorism incidents.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-12-01

    In its short modern history, Israel has had to contend with numerous mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorism. As a result, it has developed practical national preparedness policies for responding to such events. Israel's Supreme Health Authority, a committee of the Ministry of Health, coordinates emergency management nationwide. All emergency personnel, health care providers, and medical facilities operate under national policies designed to ensure a swift and coordinated response to any incident, based on an "all hazards" approach that emphasizes core elements commonly encountered in mass-casualty incidents. Israel's emergency management system includes contingency planning, command and control, centrally coordinated response, cooperation, and capacity building. Although every nation is unique, many of the lessons that Israel has learned may be broadly applicable to preparation for mass-casualty incidents in the United States and other countries.

  3. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal.

  4. Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents. The review focuses on five psychosocial aspects of incident management: likely public behaviour; responder management style; communication strategy; privacy/ modesty concerns; and vulnerable groups. Methods: Two structured literature reviews were carried out; one to identify decontamination guidance documents for first responders, and another to identify evidence which is relevant to the understanding of the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination.  The guidance documents and relevant research were reviewed to identify whether the guidance documents contain information relating to psychosocial issues and where it exists, that the guidance is consistent with the existing evidence-base. Results: Psychosocial aspects of incident management receive limited attention in current decontamination guidance.  In addition, our review has identified a number of gaps and inconsistencies between guidance and research evidence.  For each of the five areas we identify: what is currently presented in guidance documents, to what extent this is consistent with the existing research evidence and where it diverges.  We present a series of evidence-based recommendations for updating decontamination guidance to address the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination. Conclusions: Effective communication and respect for casualties’ needs are critical in ensuring

  5. Management of the irradiated casualty.

    PubMed

    Bland, S A

    2004-09-01

    The initial management of any irradiated casualty is the early identification of the possibility of a significant exposure through dose prediction and recognition of prodromal symptoms. Subsequent management is aimed at supporting the effected systems until there is recovery. Where there is haematological failure, transplantation (bone marrow / stem cell) is possible although limited value in a mass casualty scenario. The provision of gold standard therapy within the field is unlikely to occur and early medical evacuation to an Echelon / Role 4 facility with specialist services will be required. Within the field, early assessment using the above systems of classification could be achieved at Echelon / Role 3 and may be enhanced with the establishment of Radiation Assessment Units. These would select casualties that could benefit from the advanced therapies. A summary of the levels of care is shown in Figure 3.

  6. Oral and Enteral Resuscitation of Burn Shock The Historical Record and Implications for Mass Casualty Care

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, George C.; Michell, Michael W.; Oliveira, Hermes; Brown, Tim La H.; Herndon, David; Baker, R. David; Muller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a mass disaster, standard care methods for treatment of burn injury will often not be available for all victims. A method of fluid resuscitation for burns that has largely been forgotten by contemporary burn experts is enteral resuscitation. We identified 12 studies with over 700 patients treated with enteral resuscitation, defined as drinking or gastric infusion of salt solutions, from the literature. These studies suggest that enteral resuscitation can be an effective treatment for burn shock under conditions in which the standard IV therapy is unavailable or delayed, such as in mass disasters and combat casualties. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock was effective in patients with moderate (10–40% TBSA) and in some patients with more severe injuries. The data suggests that some hypovolemic burn and trauma patients can be treated exclusively with enteral resuscitation, and others might benefit from enteral resuscitation as an initial alternative and a supplement to IV therapy. A complication of enteral resuscitation was vomiting, which occurred less in children and much less when therapy was initiated within the first postburn hour. Enteral resuscitation is contra-indicated when the patient is in “peripheral circulatory collapse”. The optimal enteral solution and regimen has not yet been defined, nor has its efficacy been tested against modern IV resuscitation. The oldest studies used glucose-free solutions of buffered isotonic and hypotonic saline. Studies that are more recent show benefit of adding glucose to electrolyte solutions similar to those used in the treatment of cholera. If IV therapy for mass casualty care is delayed due to logistical constraints, enteral resuscitation should be considered. PMID:20827301

  7. Mass casualty incident surveillance and monitoring using identity aware video analytics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an identity aware video analytic system that can assist securing the perimeter of a mass casualty incident scene and generate identity annotated video records for forensics and training purposes. Establishing a secure incident scene perimeter and enforcing access control to different zones is a demanding task for current video surveillance systems which lack the ability to provide the identity of the target and its security clearance. Our system which combines active RFID sensors with video analytic tools recovers the identity of the target enabling the activation of suitable alert policies. The system also enables annotation of incident scene video with identity metadata, facilitating the incident response process reconstruction for forensics analysis and emergency response training. PMID:21096870

  8. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Regens, James L.; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database. PMID:26347857

  9. Loss of cabin pressure in a military transport: a mass casualty with decompression illnesses.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Mickaila J

    2008-04-01

    Presented here is the sudden cabin depressurization of a military C-130 aircraft carrying 66 personnel. They suffered a depressurization from 2134 to 7317 m, resulting in a potential 66-person mass casualty. The aircrew were able to descend to below 3049 m in less than 5 min. They landed in the Kingdom of Bahrain--the nearest hyperbaric recompression facility. Three cases of peripheral neurologic DCS and one case of spinal DCS were identified. Limited manning, unique host nation concerns, and limited available assets led to difficulties in triage, patient transport, and asset allocation. These led to difficult decisions regarding when and for whom to initiate ground level oxygen or hyperbaric recompression therapy.

  10. MASCAL: RFID Tracking of Patients, Staff and Equipment to Enhance Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Emory A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Most medical facilities practice managing the large numbers of seriously injured patients expected during catastrophic events. As the demands on the healthcare team increase, however, the challenges faced by managers escalate, workflow bottlenecks develop and system capacity decreases. This paper describes MASCAL, an integrated software–hardware system designed to enhance management of resources at a hospital during a mass casualty situation. MASCAL uses active 802.11b asset tags to track patients, equipment and staff during the response to a disaster. The system integrates tag position information with data from personnel databases, medical information systems, registration applications and the US Navy’s TACMEDCS triage application in a custom visual disaster management environment. MASCAL includes interfaces for a hospital command center, local area managers (emergency room, operating suites, radiology, etc.) and registration personnel. MASCAL is an operational system undergoing functional evaluation at the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA. PMID:16779042

  11. Truth hurts--hard lessons from Australia's largest mass casualty exercise with contaminated patients.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nicholas A; Caldicott, David G E; Eliseo, Tony; Pearce, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    In response to the increasing threat of a mass casualty incident involving chemical, biological or radiological agents, and concern over the preparedness of our hospital system to cope with patients from such an incident, we conducted the largest hospital-based field exercise involving contaminated patients that has been held in Australia. In the present paper, we outline the background to, and methodology of, Exercise Supreme Truth, and the efforts made to increase its realism. We focus our discussion on three issues highlighted by the exercise, which we believe have enormous implications for the development of hospital chemical, biological or radiological plans and the likelihood of their success--hospital security, crowd control and decontamination.

  12. Regional Variation in Causes of Injuries among Terrorism Victims for Mass Casualty Events.

    PubMed

    Regens, James L; Schultheiss, Amy; Mould, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The efficient allocation of medical resources to prepare for and respond to mass casualty events (MCEs) attributable to intentional acts of terrorism is a major challenge confronting disaster planners and emergency personnel. This research article examines variation in regional patterns in the causes of injures associated with 77,258 successful terrorist attacks that occurred between 1970 and 2013 involving the use of explosives, firearms, and/or incendiaries. The objective of this research is to estimate regional variation in the use of different conventional weapons in successful terrorist attacks in each world region on variation in injury cause distributions. Indeed, we find that the distributions of the number of injuries attributable to specific weapons types (i.e., by cause) vary greatly among the 13 world regions identified within the Global Terrorism Database.

  13. Predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training for US Army forward surgical teams.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno M T; Ryan, Mark L; Ogilvie, Michael P; Gomez-Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; McAndrew, Patrick; Garcia, George D; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    Since the beginning of the program in 2002, 84 Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) have rotated through the Army Trauma Training Center (ATTC) at the University of Miami/Ryder Trauma Center including all those deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was to provide the latest updates of our experience with FSTs at the ATTC. Before deployment, each FST participates in a 2-week training rotation at the ATTC. The rotation is divided into 3 phases. Phase 1 is to refresh FST knowledge regarding the initial evaluation and management of the trauma patient. Phase 2 is the clinical phase and is conducted entirely at the Ryder Trauma Center. The training rotation culminates in phase 3, the Capstone exercise. During the Capstone portion of their training, the entire 20-person FST remains at the Ryder Trauma Center and is primarily responsible for the evaluation and resuscitation of all patients arriving over a 24-hour period. Subject awareness concerning their role within the team improved from 71% to 95%, indicating that functioning as a team in the context of the mass casualty training exercise along with clinical codes was beneficial. The clinical component of the rotation was considered by 47% to be the most valuable aspect of the training. Our experience strongly suggests that a multimodality approach is beneficial for preparing a team of individuals with minimal combat (or trauma) experience for the rigors of medical care and triage on the battlefield. The data provided by participants rotating through the ATTC show that through clinical exposure and simulation over a 2-week period, FST performance is optimized by defining provider roles and improving communication. The mass casualty training exercise is a vital component of predeployment training that participants feel is valuable in preparing them for the challenges that lay ahead. PMID:20613574

  14. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dal Ponte, Silvana T; Dornelles, Carlos F D; Arquilla, Bonnie; Bloem, Christina; Roblin, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses. PMID:25544145

  15. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Water-Soluble Salts of the Dithiane (Sulfanegen) from 3-Mercaptopyruvate for Intramuscular Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Steven E.; Monteil, Alexandre R.; Cohen, Jonathan F.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T.

    2013-01-01

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

  16. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  17. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  18. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  19. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience.

  20. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties : reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device (RDD).

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick Taylor; Smith, James M.

    2005-04-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event.

  1. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations. PMID:27574325

  2. Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Gunn, S William A; Dibo, S

    2013-03-31

    A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

  3. Use of alternate healthcare facilities as alternate transport destinations during a mass-casualty incident.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Erik S; Parrillo, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to review the use of destinations other than the hospital emergency department, to transport patients injured as a result of a mass-casualty incident (MCI). A MCI has the ability to overwhelm traditional hospital resources normally thought of as appropriate destinations for the transport of injured patients. As a result, those with less severe injuries often are required to wait before they can receive definitive treatment. This waiting period, either at the scene of the incident or in the emergency department, can increase morbidity and drain resources that can be better directed toward the transport and care of those more severely injured. Potential alternate transport destinations include physician office buildings, ambulatory care centers, ambulatory surgery centers, and urgent care centers. By allowing for transport to alternate locations, these less severely injured patients can be removed rapidly from the scene, treated, and potentially released. This effort can decrease the strain on traditional resources within the system, better allowing these resources to treat more seriously injured patients.

  4. Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Gunn, S. William A.; Dibo, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions. PMID:23966900

  5. Gaming to Predict Human Responses to Mass Casualty Events: An Approach for Quick Look Tools for Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.; Papatyi, Anthony F.

    2009-10-09

    There is a need to better understand and describe social intelligence in the realm of handling mass casualty events such as pandemic influenza, earthquakes, and other natural or manmade disasters. A comprehension of social intelligence is needed in order to accurately feed and drive models and simulations that attempt to describe and quantify human responses to such mass casualty events, which can allow decision makers to identify potential mitigation strategies that might be used to minimize the impacts of these events by reducing numbers of deaths, injuries, and other societal (e.g., economic) consequences. We propose to develop a better understanding of social intelligence and socially driven human responses through the use of games and game-like interfaces with a direct application focused on infectious diseases.

  6. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Ok; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Hong, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jungeun

    2016-03-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs' epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6-5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals' resources. PMID:26955248

  7. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs’ epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6–5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals’ resources. PMID:26955248

  8. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... limited and, therefore, FDA may limit the number of participants from each organization. If time and space... serious thermal burns. With respect to a nuclear detonation, these injuries could affect hundreds to... casualty incident such as a nuclear detonation--whereupon an estimated 10,000 or more individuals...

  9. A Wireless First Responder Handheld Device for Rapid Triage, Patient Assessment and Documentation during Mass Casualty Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, James P.; Chan, Theodore C.; Buono, Colleen; Griswold, William G.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    Medical care at mass casualty incidents and disasters requires rapid patient triage and assessment, acute care and disposition often in the setting of overwhelming numbers of victims, limited time, and little resources. Current systems rely on a paper triage tag on which rescuers and medical providers mark the patient’s triage status and record limited information on injuries and treatments administered in the field. In this manuscript, we describe the design, development and deployment of a wireless handheld device with an electronic medical record (EMR) for use by rescuers responding to mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and disasters. The components of this device, the WIISARD First Responder (WFR), includes a personal digital assistant (PDA) with 802.11 wireless transmission capabilities, microprocessor and non-volatile memory, and a unique EMR software that replicates the rapidity and ease of use of the standard paper triage tag. WFR also expands its functionality by recording real-time medical data electronically for simultaneous access by rescuers, mid-level providers and incident commanders on and off the disaster site. WFR is a part of the Wireless Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD) architecture. PMID:17238377

  10. Clinical review: The role of the intensive care physician in mass casualty incidents: planning, organisation, and leadership

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Peter J; Mandersloot, Gerlinde

    2008-01-01

    There is a long-standing, broad assumption that hospitals will ably receive and efficiently provide comprehensive care to victims following a mass casualty event. Unfortunately, the majority of medical major incident plans are insufficiently focused on strategies and procedures that extend beyond the pre-hospital and early-hospital phases of care. Recent events underscore two important lessons: (a) the role of intensive care specialists extends well beyond the intensive care unit during such events, and (b) non-intensive care hospital personnel must have the ability to provide basic critical care. The bombing of the London transport network, while highlighting some good practices in our major incident planning, also exposed weaknesses already described by others. Whilst this paper uses the events of the 7 July 2005 as its point of reference, the lessons learned and the changes incorporated in our planning have generic applications to mass casualty events. In the UK, the Department of Health convened an expert symposium in June 2007 to identify lessons learned from 7 July 2005 and disseminate them for the benefit of the wider medical community. The experiences of clinicians from critical care units in London made a large contribution to this process and are discussed in this paper. PMID:18492221

  11. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  12. Mass-casualty victim "surge" management. Preparing for bombings and blast-related injuries with possibility of hazardous materials exposure.

    PubMed

    Severance, Harry W

    2002-01-01

    Bombings and other blast-related events place severe demands on pre-hospital and in-hospital systems. The resulting surge of victims can overwhelm the resources of any facility not prepared for such an event. The September 11 terrorist attacks underscore the urgency of our need for preparedness. The challenges become even more daunting when there is possible hazmat exposure as well; this means that adequate and rapid disposition of victims is even more critical in order to avoid contamination of hospitals systems or whole communities. Federal agencies have been designated and federal mandates have been issued to address mass casualty events, but federal or even regional systems cannot respond in time to address the massive and immediate needs generated by an explosion. Local communities must take the lead in developing incident command systems for initial management of such events. Hospital and pre-hospital providers play a key role in such planning. Ultimate management and disposition of large numbers of casualties, especially if contaminated, cannot follow standard patient management protocols; new protocols are needed. To avoid a total, overwhelming break down of in-hospital resources, hospitals need to assume a lead role in addressing such issues in their local communities. PMID:12970967

  13. Book review of "The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine" by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sonal

    2007-01-01

    Public health ethics is neither taught widely in medical schools or schools of public health in the US or around the world. It is not surprising that health care professionals are particularly challenged when faced with ethical questions which extend beyond safeguarding the interests of their individual patients to matters that affect overall public good. The perceived threat of terror after September 11 2007, the anthrax attacks and the Katrina debacle are recent circumstances which may result in coercion. These have piqued the interest of medical professionals and the general public on public health ethics. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine written by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD attempts to fill a timely void in this area by examining the ethics of coercion in times of public health disasters.

  14. Using a joint triage model for multi-hospital response to a mass casualty incident in New York city

    PubMed Central

    Arquilla, Bonnie; Paladino, Lorenzo; Reich, Charlotte; Brandler, Ethan; Lucchesi, Michael; Shetty, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines a specific plan which allows two separate institutions, with different capabilities, to function as a single receiving entity in the event of a mass casualty incident. The street between the two institutions will be closed to traffic and a two-phase process initiated. Arriving ambulances will first be quickly screened to expedite the most critical patients followed by formal triage and directing patients to one of the two facilities. Preparation for this plan requires prior coordination between local authorities and the administrations of both institutions. This plan can serve as a general model for disaster preparedness when two or more institutions with different capabilities are located in close proximity. PMID:19561971

  15. Rural mass casualty preparedness and response: the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kristin P; Bass, Robert; Wijetunge, Gamunu; Altevogt, Bruce M

    2012-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events hosted a workshop at the request of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS) that brought together a range of stakeholders to broadly identify and confront gaps in rural infrastructure that challenge mass casualty incident (MCI) response and potential mechanisms to fill them. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions around 6 major issues specific to rural MCI preparedness and response: (1) improving rural response to MCI through improving daily capacity and capability, (2) leveraging current and emerging technology to overcome infrastructure deficits, (3) sustaining and strengthening relationships, (4) developing and sharing best practices across jurisdictions and sectors, (5) establishing metrics research and development, and (6) fostering the need for federal leadership to expand and integrate EMS into a broader rural response framework. PMID:23077273

  16. High-fidelity human patient simulators compared with human actors in an unannounced mass-casualty exercise.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian M; Skrzypczak, Matthias; Raith, Stefan; Hinzmann, Dominik; Krautheim, Veronika; Heuser, Fabian; Mayer, Valentin; Kreuzer, Christoph; Himsl, Meike; Holl, Michael; Lipp, Christina; Kochs, Eberhard F; Wagner, Klaus J

    2014-04-01

    High-fidelity simulators (HFSs) have been shown to prompt critical actions at a level equal to that of trained human actors (HAs) and increase perceived realism in intrahospital mass-casualty incident (MCI) exercises. For unannounced prehospital MCI exercises, however, no data are available about the feasibility of incorporating HFSs. This case report describes the integration of HFSs in such an unannounced prehospital MCI drill with HAs and provides data about the differences concerning triage, treatment, and transport of HFSs and HAs with identical injury patterns. For this purpose, 75 actors and four high-fidelity simulators were subdivided into nine groups defined by a specific injury pattern. Four HFSs and six HAs comprised a group suffering from traumatic brain injury and blunt abdominal trauma. Triage results, times for transport, and number of diagnostic and therapeutic tasks were recorded. Means were compared by t test or one-way ANOVA. Triage times and results did not differ between actors and simulators. The number of diagnostic (1.25, SD = 0.5 in simulators vs 3.5, SD = 1.05 in HAs; P = .010) and therapeutic tasks (2.0, SD = 1.6 in simulators vs 4.8, SD = 0.4 in HAs; P = .019) were significantly lower in simulators. Due to difficulties in treating and evacuating the casualties from the site of the accident in a timely manner, all simulators died. Possible causal factors and strategies are discussed, with the aim of increasing the utility of simulators in emergency medicine training. PMID:24650543

  17. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    PubMed

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  18. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    PubMed

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  19. Consensus on items and quantities of clinical equipment required to deal with a mass casualties big bang incident: a national Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major short-notice or sudden impact incidents, which result in a large number of casualties, are rare events. However health services must be prepared to respond to such events appropriately. In the United Kingdom (UK), a mass casualties incident is when the normal response of several National Health Service organizations to a major incident, has to be supported with extraordinary measures. Having the right type and quantity of clinical equipment is essential, but planning for such emergencies is challenging. To date, the equipment stored for such events has been selected on the basis of local clinical judgment and has evolved without an explicit evidence-base. This has resulted in considerable variations in the types and quantities of clinical equipment being stored in different locations. This study aimed to develop an expert consensus opinion of the essential items and minimum quantities of clinical equipment that is required to treat 100 people at the scene of a big bang mass casualties event. Methods A three round modified Delphi study was conducted with 32 experts using a specifically developed web-based platform. Individuals were invited to participate if they had personal clinical experience of providing a pre-hospital emergency medical response to a mass casualties incident, or had responsibility in health emergency planning for mass casualties incidents and were in a position of authority within the sphere of emergency health planning. Each item’s importance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantity of items required was measured numerically. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Results Experts achieved consensus on a total of 134 items (54%) on completion of the study. Experts did not reach consensus on 114 (46%) items. Median quantities and interquartile ranges of the items, and their recommended quantities were identified and are presented. Conclusions This study is the first to produce an expert consensus on the

  20. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  1. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking.

  2. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  3. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    PubMed

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface.

  4. Mass casualties and health care following the release of toxic chemicals or radioactive material--contribution of modern biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-12-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons "at risk" of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or "worried well". We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  5. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    PubMed

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface. PMID:24412538

  6. Modified critical care and treatment space considerations for mass casualty critical illness and injury.

    PubMed

    Hotchkin, David L; Rubinson, Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Mass critical care events are increasingly likely, yet the resource challenges to augment everyday, unrestricted critical care for a surge of disaster victims are insurmountable for nearly all communities. In light of these limitations, an expert panel defined a circumscribed set of key critical care interventions that they believed could be offered to many additional people and yet would also continue to offer substantial life-sustaining benefits for nonmoribund critically ill and injured people. They proposed Emergency Mass Critical Care, which is based on the set of key interventions and includes recommendations for necessary surge medical equipment, treatment space characteristics, and staffing competencies for mass critical care response. To date, Emergency Mass Critical Care is untested, and the real benefits of implementation remain uncertain. Nonetheless, Emergency Mass Critical Care currently remains the only comprehensive construct for mass critical care preparedness and response. This paper reviews current concepts to provide life-sustaining care for hundreds or thousands of people outside of traditional critical care sites. PMID:18173861

  7. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries. PMID:22748536

  8. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries.

  9. Dynamic 3D visual analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2010-04-01

    Maintaining Situational Awareness (SA) is crucial to the success of high tempo operations, such as war fighting and mass casualty events (bioterrorism, natural disasters). Modern computer and software applications attempt to provide command and control manager's situational awareness via the collection, integration, interrogation and display of vast amounts of analytic data in real-time from a multitude of data sources and formats [1]. At what point does the data volume and displays begin to erode the hierarchical distributive intelligence, command and control structure of the operation taking place? In many cases, people tasked with making decisions, have insufficient experience in SA of high tempo operations and become overwhelmed easily as vast amounts of data begin to be displayed in real-time as an operation unfolds. In these situations, where data is plentiful and the relevance of the data changes rapidly, there is a chance for individuals to target fixate on those data sources they are most familiar. If these individuals fall into this type of pitfall, they will exclude other data that might be just as important to the success of the operation. To counter these issues, it is important that the computer and software applications provide a means for prompting its users to take notice of adverse conditions or trends that are critical to the operation. This paper will discuss a new method of displaying data called a Crisis ViewTM, that monitors critical variables that are dynamically changing and allows preset thresholds to be created to prompt the user when decisions need to be made and when adverse or positive trends are detected. The new method will be explained in basic terms, with examples of its attributes and how it can be implemented.

  10. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty Management: Some Useful Observations from the Israeli Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  11. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow.

  12. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI), yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Trauma-Society was retrospectively analyzed to calculate the duration of life-saving operations as well as their predictors. Inclusion criteria were an ISS ≥ 16 and the performance of relevant ICPM-coded procedures within 6 h of admission. Results From 1,228 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria 1,793 operations could be identified as life-saving operations. Acute injuries to the abdomen accounted for 54.1% followed by head injuries (26.3%), pelvic injuries (11.5%), thoracic injuries (5.0%) and major amputations (3.1%). The mean cut to suture time was 130 min (IQR 65-165 min). Logistic regression revealed 8 variables associated with an emergency operation: AIS of abdomen ≥ 3 (OR 4,00), ISS ≥ 35 (OR 2,94), hemoglobin level ≤ 8 mg/dL (OR 1,40), pulse rate on hospital admission < 40 or > 120/min (OR 1,39), blood pressure on hospital admission < 90 mmHg (OR 1,35), prehospital infusion volume ≥ 2000 ml (OR 1,34), GCS ≤ 8 (OR 1,32) and anisocoria (OR 1,28) on-scene. Conclusions The mean operation time of 130 min calculated for emergency life-saving surgical operations provides a realistic guideline for the prospective treatment capacity which can be estimated and projected into an actual incident admission capacity. Knowledge of predictive factors for life-saving emergency operations helps to identify those patients that need most urgent operative treatment in case of blunt MCI. PMID:20149987

  13. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  14. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan. PMID:27158765

  15. [Organizational problems of disaster victim identification in mass casualties as exemplified by Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Kolkutin, V V; Klevno, V A; Shkol'nikov, B V; Kornienko, I V

    2008-01-01

    Managerial experience is described that was gained during the large-scale work on victim identification following mass casualties in the Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes. The authors emphasize the necessity to set up a specialized agency of constant readiness meeting modern requirements for the implementation of a system of measures for personality identification. This agency must incorporate relevant departments of the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Emergency Situations as well as investigative authorities and other organizations. PMID:19048869

  16. Triage performance of Swedish physicians using the ATLS algorithm in a simulated mass casualty incident: a prospective cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a mass casualty situation, medical personnel must rapidly assess and prioritize patients for treatment and transport. Triage is an important tool for medical management in disaster situations. Lack of common international and Swedish triage guidelines could lead to confusion. Attending the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) provider course is becoming compulsory in the northern part of Europe. The aim of the ATLS guidelines is provision of effective management of single critically injured patients, not mass casualties incidents. However, the use of the ABCDE algorithms from ATLS, has been proposed to be valuable, even in a disaster environment. The objective for this study was to determine whether the mnemonic ABCDE as instructed in the ATLS provider course, affects the ability of Swedish physician’s to correctly triage patients in a simulated mass casualty incident. Methods The study group included 169 ATLS provider students from 10 courses and course sites in Sweden; 153 students filled in an anonymous test just before the course and just after the course. The tests contained 3 questions based on overall priority. The assignment was to triage 15 hypothetical patients who had been involved in a bus crash. Triage was performed according to the ABCDE algorithm. In the triage, the ATLS students used a colour-coded algorithm with red for priority 1, yellow for priority 2, green for priority 3 and black for dead. The students were instructed to identify and prioritize 3 of the most critically injured patients, who should be the first to leave the scene. The same test was used before and after the course. Results The triage section of the test was completed by 142 of the 169 participants both before and after the course. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in triage knowledge among Swedish physicians who attended the ATLS provider course. The results also showed that Swedish physicians have little experience of real mass

  17. Analysis of responses of radiology personnel to a simulated mass casualty incident after the implementation of an automated alarm system in hospital emergency planning.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Geyer, Lucas L; Wirth, Stefan; Meisel, Claus-Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response to an automated alarm system of a radiology department during a mass casualty incident simulation. An automated alarm system provided by an external telecommunications provider handling up to 480 ISDN lines was used at a level I trauma center. During the exercise, accessibility, availability, and estimated time of arrival (ETA) of the called in staff were recorded. Descriptive methods were used for the statistical analysis. Of the 49 employees, 29 (59%) were accessible, of which 23 (79%) persons declared to be available to come to the department. The ETA was at an average 29 min (SD ±23). Radiologists and residents reported an ETA to their workplace almost two times shorter compared with technicians (19 ± 16 and 22 ± 16 vs. 40 ± 27 min, p > 0.05). Additional staff reserve is crucial for handling mass casualty incidents. An automated alarm procedure might be helpful. However, the real availability of the employees could not be exactly determined because of unpredictable parameters. But our results allow estimation of the manpower reserve and calculation of maximum radiology service capacities.

  18. Electronic Mass Casualty Assessment and Planning Scenarios (EMCAPS): development and application of computer modeling to selected National Planning Scenarios for high-consequence events.

    PubMed

    Scheulen, James J; Thanner, Meridith H; Hsu, Edbert B; Latimer, Christian K; Brown, Jeffrey; Kelen, Gabor D

    2009-02-01

    Few tools exist that are sufficiently robust to allow manipulation of key input variables to produce casualty estimates resulting from high-consequence events reflecting local or specific regions of concern. This article describes the design and utility of a computerized modeling simulation tool, Electronic Mass Casualty Assessment and Planning Scenarios (EMCAPS), developed to have broad application across emergency management and public health fields as part of a catastrophic events preparedness planning process. As a scalable, flexible tool, EMCAPS is intended to support emergency preparedness planning efforts at multiple levels ranging from local health systems to regional and state public health departments to Metropolitan Medical Response System jurisdictions. Designed around the subset of the National Planning Scenarios with health effects, advanced by the US Department of Homeland Security, the tool's platform is supported by the detailed descriptions and readily retrievable evidence-based assumptions of each scenario. The EMCAPS program allows the user to manipulate key scenario-based input variables that would best reflect the region or locale of interest. Inputs include population density, vulnerabilities, event size, and potency, as applicable. Using these inputs, EMCAPS generates the anticipated population-based health surge influence of the hazard scenario. Casualty estimates are stratified by injury severity/types where appropriate. Outputs are graph and table tabulations of surge estimates. The data can then be used to assess and tailor response capabilities for specific jurisdictions, organizations, and health care systems. EMCAPS may be downloaded without cost from http://www.hopkins-cepar.org/EMCAPS/EMCAPS.html as shareware.

  19. Creating order from chaos: part II: tactical planning for mass casualty and disaster response at definitive care facilities.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Current events highlight the need for disaster preparedness. We have seen tsunamis, hurricanes, terrorism, and combat in the news every night. There are many variables in a disaster, such as damage to facilities, loss of critical staff members, and overwhelming numbers of casualties. Each medical treatment facility should have a plan for everything from caring for staff members to getting the laundry done and providing enhanced security or mortuary services. Communication and agreements with local, regional, and federal agencies are vital. Then we must train and drill to shape the tools to impose order on chaos and to provide the most care to the greatest number.

  20. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident. PMID:26635995

  1. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean-René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-11-02

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative's Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident.

  2. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G.; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean- René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative’s Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident. PMID:26635995

  3. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  4. Orthopaedic management in a mega mass casualty situation. The Israel Defence Forces Field Hospital in Haiti following the January 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Lebel, Ehud; Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Benedict, Shaike; Gill, Amit; Lee, Evgeny; Pirotsky, Anatoly; Shirov, Taras; Blumberg, Nehemia

    2011-10-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) established a field hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital started operating 89 h after the earthquake. We describe the experience of the orthopaedic department in a field hospital operating in an extreme mass casualty situation. The hospital contained 4 operating table and 72 hospitalization beds. The orthopaedic department included 8 orthopaedic surgeons and 3 residents. 1111 patients were treated in the hospital, 1041 of them had adequate records for inclusion. 684 patients were admitted due to trauma with a total of 841 injuries. 320 patients sustained 360 fractures, 18 had joint dislocations and 22 patients were admitted after amputations. 207 patients suffered 315 soft tissue injuries. 221 patients were operated on under general or regional anaesthesia. External fixation was used for stabilization of 48 adult femoral shaft fractures, 24 open tibial fractures and 1 open humeral fracture. All none femoral closed fractures were treated non-operatively. 18 joint reductions and 23 amputations were performed. Appropriate planning, training, operational versatility, and adjustment of therapeutic guidelines according to a constantly changing situation, enabled us to deliver optimal care to the maximal number of patients, in an overwhelming mass trauma situation.

  5. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  6. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  7. Medical response of a physician and two nurses to the mass-casualty event resulting in the Phi Phi Islands from the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ammartyothin, Surasak; Ashkenasi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Leiba, Adi; Nakash, Guy; Pelts, Rami; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    The Phi Phi Islands are isolated islands located about one hour by ship from the mainland in Krabi province of Thailand. There is a small medical facility where the director is the one physician that provides care to residents and tourists. This small medical facility faced an enormous mass casualty incident due to the 2004 Tsunami. The hospital was damaged by the Tsunami wave and was not functional, one crew member died and another was injured. Medical care and evacuation posed a unique problem in the Phi Phi Islands due to remoteness, limited medical resources, lack of effective communication with the main land and the large number of victims. An alternative medical facility was located in a nearby hotel. The crew included the medical director, two nurses, two additional staff members, 10 local volunteers, and hotel staff members. The medical crew had to treat 600-700 casualties in 24 hours. Most of the victims were mildly injured, but approximately 100 (15%) of the victims could not walk due to their injuries. The medical director, made a conscious decision to initially treat only circulation ("C") problems, by controlling external hemorrhages. This decision was driven by the lack of equipment and personnel to deal with airway ("A") and breathing ("B") problems. In the post-disaster debriefing, the Phi Phi Island hospital physician noted five major lessons concerning disaster management in such extreme situation in a small facility located in a remote area: (1) effective resistant communication facilities must be ensured; (2) clear, simple "evacuation plans" should be made in advance; (3) plans should be made to ensure automatic reinforcement of remote areas with evacuation vehicles, medical equipment and medical personnel; (4) efficient cooperation with medical volunteers must be planned and drilled; and (5) every team member of such a hospital must participate in an educational program and periodic drills should be done to improve the disaster and emergency

  8. Medical response of a physician and two nurses to the mass-casualty event resulting in the Phi Phi Islands from the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ammartyothin, Surasak; Ashkenasi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Leiba, Adi; Nakash, Guy; Pelts, Rami; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    The Phi Phi Islands are isolated islands located about one hour by ship from the mainland in Krabi province of Thailand. There is a small medical facility where the director is the one physician that provides care to residents and tourists. This small medical facility faced an enormous mass casualty incident due to the 2004 Tsunami. The hospital was damaged by the Tsunami wave and was not functional, one crew member died and another was injured. Medical care and evacuation posed a unique problem in the Phi Phi Islands due to remoteness, limited medical resources, lack of effective communication with the main land and the large number of victims. An alternative medical facility was located in a nearby hotel. The crew included the medical director, two nurses, two additional staff members, 10 local volunteers, and hotel staff members. The medical crew had to treat 600-700 casualties in 24 hours. Most of the victims were mildly injured, but approximately 100 (15%) of the victims could not walk due to their injuries. The medical director, made a conscious decision to initially treat only circulation ("C") problems, by controlling external hemorrhages. This decision was driven by the lack of equipment and personnel to deal with airway ("A") and breathing ("B") problems. In the post-disaster debriefing, the Phi Phi Island hospital physician noted five major lessons concerning disaster management in such extreme situation in a small facility located in a remote area: (1) effective resistant communication facilities must be ensured; (2) clear, simple "evacuation plans" should be made in advance; (3) plans should be made to ensure automatic reinforcement of remote areas with evacuation vehicles, medical equipment and medical personnel; (4) efficient cooperation with medical volunteers must be planned and drilled; and (5) every team member of such a hospital must participate in an educational program and periodic drills should be done to improve the disaster and emergency

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Surveyed Emergency Responders and the Identified Factors That Affect First Stage of Primary Triage Decision-Making of Mass Casualty Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kelly R.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Swienton, Raymond; King, Richard V.; Lehman, Thomas; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. Methods: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage. Results: 403 unique completed surveys were analyzed. 92% practiced a structural triage approach with the rest reporting they used “gestalt”.(gut feeling) Twelve per cent were identified as having placed patients in an expectant category during triage. Respiratory status, ability to speak, perfusion/pulse were all ranked in the top three. Gut feeling regardless of statistical analysis was fourth. Supplies were ranked in the top four when analyzed for those who had placed patients in the expectant category. Conclusion: Primary triage decisions in a mass casualty scenario are multifactorial and encompass patient mobility, life saving interventions, situational instincts, and logistics.

  10. Clinical guidelines for responding to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and trauma/burn mass casualty incidents: Quick reference guides for emergency department staff.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Joseph; Burich, David; Smith, Deborah; Hayes, Lynn; Paturas, James; Tomassoni, Anthony

    The word 'DISASTER' may be used as a mnemonic for listing the critical elements of emergency response. The National Disaster Life Support Education Foundation's (NDLSEC) DISASTER paradigm emphasises out-of-hospital emergency response and includes the following elements: (1) detect; (2) incident command system; (3) security and safety; (4) assessment; (5) support; (6) triage and treatment; (7) evacuate; and (8) recovery. This paper describes how the DISASTER paradigm was used to create a series of clinical guidelines to assist the preparedness effort of hospitals for mitigating chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear incidents or explosive devices resulting in trauma/burn mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and their initial response to these events. Descriptive information was obtained from observations and records associated with this project. The information contributed by a group of subject matter experts in disaster medicine, at the Yale New Haven Health System Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response was used to author the clinical guidelines. Akin to the paradigm developed by the NDLSEC for conducting on-scene activities, the clinical guidelines use the letters in the word 'disaster' as a mnemonic for recalling the main elements required for mitigating MCIs in the hospital emergency department.

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Surveyed Emergency Responders and the Identified Factors That Affect First Stage of Primary Triage Decision-Making of Mass Casualty Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kelly R.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Swienton, Raymond; King, Richard V.; Lehman, Thomas; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. Methods: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage. Results: 403 unique completed surveys were analyzed. 92% practiced a structural triage approach with the rest reporting they used “gestalt”.(gut feeling) Twelve per cent were identified as having placed patients in an expectant category during triage. Respiratory status, ability to speak, perfusion/pulse were all ranked in the top three. Gut feeling regardless of statistical analysis was fourth. Supplies were ranked in the top four when analyzed for those who had placed patients in the expectant category. Conclusion: Primary triage decisions in a mass casualty scenario are multifactorial and encompass patient mobility, life saving interventions, situational instincts, and logistics. PMID:27651979

  12. Emergency imaging after a mass casualty incident: role of the radiology department during training for and activation of a disaster management plan.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ferco H; Körner, Markus; Bernstein, Mark P; Sodickson, Aaron D; Beenen, Ludo F; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Kool, Digna R; Bilow, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    In the setting of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), hospitals need to divert from normal routine to delivering the best possible care to the largest number of victims. This should be accomplished by activating an established hospital disaster management plan (DMP) known to all staff through prior training drills. Over the recent decades, imaging has increasingly been used to evaluate critically ill patients. It can also be used to increase the accuracy of triaging MCI victims, since overtriage (falsely higher triage category) and undertriage (falsely lower triage category) can severely impact resource availability and mortality rates, respectively. This article emphasizes the importance of including the radiology department in hospital preparations for a MCI and highlights factors expected to influence performance during hospital DMP activation including issues pertinent to effective simulation, such as establishing proper learning objectives. After-action reviews including performance evaluation and debriefing on issues are invaluable following simulation drills and DMP activation, in order to improve subsequent preparedness. Historically, most hospital DMPs have not adequately included radiology department operations, and they have not or to a little extent been integrated in the DMP activation simulation. This article aims to increase awareness of the need for radiology department engagement in order to increase radiology department preparedness for DMP activation after a MCI occurs.

  13. The Haiti earthquake: the provision of wound care for mass casualties utilizing negative-pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allen; Gialich, Shelby; Kirk, Julie; Edwards, Sheriden; Beck, Brooke; Sorocéanu, Alexandra; Nelson, Scott; Gabriel, Cassie; Gupta, Subhas

    2011-10-01

    Many months after the devastating earthquake in January 2010, wounds remain a major disease burden in Haiti. Since January 2010, through the efforts of corporations, nonprofit charitable organizations, and medical professionals, advanced wound care techniques, including negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), have been introduced into the wound care regimens of various hospitals in Haiti. In June 2010, the authors completed their second volunteer trip at a Haitian hospital specializing in orthopedic wounds. The medical team was composed of a plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, anesthesiologist, medical assistant, scrub technician, and registered nurse (specializing in plastic surgery and orthopedics). The authors' team supplied NPWT devices, reticulated open-cell foam dressings, and canisters donated by Kinetic Concepts, Inc, San Antonio, Texas, for use at the hospital. This report describes the medical challenges in postearthquake Haiti (including limb salvage and infection), benefits of adjunctive use of NPWT/reticulated open-cell foam, and current wound care status in a Haitian orthopedic hospital. The future role of NPWT in Haiti and during mass catastrophe in a least-developed country is also discussed. PMID:21926673

  14. The Haiti earthquake: the provision of wound care for mass casualties utilizing negative-pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allen; Gialich, Shelby; Kirk, Julie; Edwards, Sheriden; Beck, Brooke; Sorocéanu, Alexandra; Nelson, Scott; Gabriel, Cassie; Gupta, Subhas

    2011-10-01

    Many months after the devastating earthquake in January 2010, wounds remain a major disease burden in Haiti. Since January 2010, through the efforts of corporations, nonprofit charitable organizations, and medical professionals, advanced wound care techniques, including negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), have been introduced into the wound care regimens of various hospitals in Haiti. In June 2010, the authors completed their second volunteer trip at a Haitian hospital specializing in orthopedic wounds. The medical team was composed of a plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, anesthesiologist, medical assistant, scrub technician, and registered nurse (specializing in plastic surgery and orthopedics). The authors' team supplied NPWT devices, reticulated open-cell foam dressings, and canisters donated by Kinetic Concepts, Inc, San Antonio, Texas, for use at the hospital. This report describes the medical challenges in postearthquake Haiti (including limb salvage and infection), benefits of adjunctive use of NPWT/reticulated open-cell foam, and current wound care status in a Haitian orthopedic hospital. The future role of NPWT in Haiti and during mass catastrophe in a least-developed country is also discussed.

  15. Radiative neutrino mass, dark matter, and leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-05-15

    We propose an extension of the standard model, in which neutrinos are Dirac particles and their tiny masses originate from a one-loop radiative diagram. The new fields required by the neutrino mass generation also accommodate the explanation for the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe.

  16. Predictive models of radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julio, J.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss two models of radiative neutrino mass generation. The first model features one-loop Zee model with Z4 symmetry. The second model is the two-loop neutrino mass model with singly- and doubly-charged scalars. These two models fit neutrino oscillation data well and predict some interesting rates for lepton flavor violation processes.

  17. Radiation Monitoring for the Masses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric; Sorom, Rich; Wiles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, many commercial vendors have produced applications and equipment targeted at the average member of the public in order to enable them to make radiation measurements themselves at little to no cost. The authors have evaluated a small selection of these items in order to validate their performance when exposed to a calibrated 137Cs dose rate irradiator. The products fall into two primary categories: the first using the CMOS from the camera on ubiquitous smartphones and the second using an accessory that performs the radiation measurement. Presented here are the performance data of a selection and recommendations on how to interpret the produced values. PMID:26606063

  18. Radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a radiatively induced quark and lepton mass model in the first and second generation with extra U (1) gauge symmetry and vector-like fermions. Then we analyze the allowed regions which simultaneously satisfy the FCNCs for the quark sector, LFVs including μ- e conversion, the quark mass and mixing, and the lepton mass and mixing. Also we estimate the typical value for the (g - 2) μ in our model.

  19. Tsunami Casualty Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  20. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.; Estriplet, Isnard

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  1. The simplest models of radiative neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Sandy S. C.; McDonald, Kristian L.

    2014-04-01

    The complexity of radiative neutrino-mass models can be judged by: (i) whether they require the imposition of ad hoc symmetries, (ii) the number of new multiplets they introduce and (iii) the number of arbitrary parameters that appear. Considering models that do not employ new symmetries, the simplest models have two new multiplets and a minimal number of new parameters. With this in mind, we search for the simplest models of radiative neutrino mass. We are led to two models, containing a real scalar triplet and a charged scalar doublet (respectively), in addition to the charged singlet scalar considered by Zee [h+ (1, 1, 2)]. These models are essentially simplified versions of the Zee model and appear to be the simplest models of radiative neutrino mass. However, despite successfully generating nonzero masses, present-day data is sufficient to rule these simple models out. The Zee and Zee-Babu models therefore remain as the simplest viable models. Moving beyond the minimal cases, we find a new model of two-loop masses that employs the charged doublet Φ (1, 2, 3) and the doubly-charged scalar k++ (1, 1, 4). This is the sole remaining model that employs only three new noncolored multiplets.

  2. Flavour dependent gauged radiative neutrino mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon; Okada, Hiroshi; Yagyu, Kei

    2015-04-01

    We propose a one-loop induced radiative neutrino mass model with anomaly free flavour dependent gauge symmetry: μ minus τ symmetry U(1) μ- τ . A neutrino mass matrix satisfying current experimental data can be obtained by introducing a weak isospin singlet scalar boson that breaks U(1) μ- τ symmetry, an inert doublet scalar field, and three right-handed neutrinos in addition to the fields in the standard model. We find that a characteristic structure appears in the neutrino mass matrix: two-zero texture form which predicts three non-zero neutrino masses and three non-zero CP-phases from five well measured experimental inputs of two squared mass differences and three mixing angles. Furthermore, it is clarified that only the inverted mass hierarchy is allowed in our model. In a favored parameter set from the neutrino sector, the discrepancy in the muon anomalous magnetic moment between the experimental data and the the standard model prediction can be explained by the additional neutral gauge boson loop contribution with mass of order 100 MeV and new gauge coupling of order 10-3.

  3. Prairie North: a joint civilian/military mass casualty exercise highlights the role of the National Guard in community disaster response.

    PubMed

    Vukotich, George; Bayram, Jamil D; Miller, Miriam I

    2012-01-01

    In a joint military/civilian exercise conducted in June 2010, military National Guard medical and decontamination response efforts proved to be paramount in supporting hospital resources to sustain an adequate response during a simulated terrorist event. Traditionally, hospitals include local responders in their disaster preparedness but overlook other available state and federal resources such as the National Guard. Lessons learned from the exercise included the value of regular joint disaster planning and training between the military and civilian medical sectors. Additionally, military communication and medical equipment compatibility with the civilian infrastructure was identified as one of the top areas for the improvement of this joint exercise. Involving the National Guard in community disaster planning provides a valuable medical support asset that can be critical in responding to multiple casualty events. National Guard response is inherently faster than its federal counterpart. Based on the findings from our joint exercise, states are encouraged to incorporate their corresponding National Guard in civilian critical medical infrastructure disaster preparedness activities, as the National Guard can be an integral part of the disaster response efforts in real multiple casualty events.

  4. Prairie North: a joint civilian/military mass casualty exercise highlights the role of the National Guard in community disaster response.

    PubMed

    Vukotich, George; Bayram, Jamil D; Miller, Miriam I

    2012-01-01

    In a joint military/civilian exercise conducted in June 2010, military National Guard medical and decontamination response efforts proved to be paramount in supporting hospital resources to sustain an adequate response during a simulated terrorist event. Traditionally, hospitals include local responders in their disaster preparedness but overlook other available state and federal resources such as the National Guard. Lessons learned from the exercise included the value of regular joint disaster planning and training between the military and civilian medical sectors. Additionally, military communication and medical equipment compatibility with the civilian infrastructure was identified as one of the top areas for the improvement of this joint exercise. Involving the National Guard in community disaster planning provides a valuable medical support asset that can be critical in responding to multiple casualty events. National Guard response is inherently faster than its federal counterpart. Based on the findings from our joint exercise, states are encouraged to incorporate their corresponding National Guard in civilian critical medical infrastructure disaster preparedness activities, as the National Guard can be an integral part of the disaster response efforts in real multiple casualty events. PMID:22649870

  5. Predictive model of radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Julio, J.

    2014-03-01

    We present a simple and predictive model of radiative neutrino masses. It is a special case of the Zee model which introduces two Higgs doublets and a charged singlet. We impose a family-dependent Z4 symmetry acting on the leptons, which reduces the number of parameters describing neutrino oscillations to four. A variety of predictions follow: the hierarchy of neutrino masses must be inverted; the lightest neutrino mass is extremely small and calculable; one of the neutrino mixing angles is determined in terms of the other two; the phase parameters take CP-conserving values with δCP=π; and the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay lies in a narrow range, mββ=(17.6-18.5) meV. The ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is determined to be either 1.9 or 0.19 from neutrino oscillation data. Flavor-conserving and flavor-changing couplings of the Higgs doublets are also determined from neutrino data. The nonstandard neutral Higgs bosons, if they are moderately heavy, would decay dominantly into μ and τ with prescribed branching ratios. Observable rates for the decays μ →eγ and τ→3μ are predicted if these scalars have masses in the range of 150-500 GeV.

  6. New development in radiative neutrino mass generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julio

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple and predictive model of radiative neutrino masses. It is a special case of the Zee model with a family-dependent Z4 symmetry acting on the leptons. A variety of predictions follow: The hierarchy of neutrino masses must be inverted; the lightest neutrino mass is extremely small and calculable; one of the neutrino mixing angles is determined in terms of the other two; the phase parameters take CP-conserving values with δCP = π and the effective mass in neutrinoless double beta decay lies in a narrow range, mββ =(17.6-18.5) meV. The ratio of vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tan β, is determined to be either 1.9 or 0.19 from neutrino oscillation data. Flavor-conserving and flavor-changing couplings of the Higgs doublets are also determined from neutrino data. The non-standard neutral Higgs bosons, if they are moderately heavy, decay significantly into μ and τ with prescribed branching ratios. Observable rates for the decays μ → eγ and τ → 3μ are predicted if these scalars have masses in the range of 150-500 GeV.

  7. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  8. User-managed inventory: an approach to forward-deployment of urgently needed medical countermeasures for mass-casualty and terrorism incidents.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Hrdina, Chad; Casagrande, Rocco; Cliffer, Kenneth D; Mansoura, Monique K; Nystrom, Scott; Hatchett, Richard; Caro, J Jaime; Knebel, Ann R; Wallace, Katherine S; Adams, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    The user-managed inventory (UMI) is an emerging idea for enhancing the current distribution and maintenance system for emergency medical countermeasures (MCMs). It increases current capabilities for the dispensing and distribution of MCMs and enhances local/regional preparedness and resilience. In the UMI, critical MCMs, especially those in routine medical use ("dual utility") and those that must be administered soon after an incident before outside supplies can arrive, are stored at multiple medical facilities (including medical supply or distribution networks) across the United States. The medical facilities store a sufficient cache to meet part of the surge needs but not so much that the resources expire before they would be used in the normal course of business. In an emergency, these extra supplies can be used locally to treat casualties, including evacuees from incidents in other localities. This system, which is at the interface of local/regional and federal response, provides response capacity before the arrival of supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and thus enhances the local/regional medical responders' ability to provide life-saving MCMs that otherwise would be delayed. The UMI can be more cost-effective than stockpiling by avoiding costs due to drug expiration, disposal of expired stockpiled supplies, and repurchase for replacement.

  9. User-managed inventory: an approach to forward-deployment of urgently needed medical countermeasures for mass-casualty and terrorism incidents.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Hrdina, Chad; Casagrande, Rocco; Cliffer, Kenneth D; Mansoura, Monique K; Nystrom, Scott; Hatchett, Richard; Caro, J Jaime; Knebel, Ann R; Wallace, Katherine S; Adams, Steven A

    2012-12-01

    The user-managed inventory (UMI) is an emerging idea for enhancing the current distribution and maintenance system for emergency medical countermeasures (MCMs). It increases current capabilities for the dispensing and distribution of MCMs and enhances local/regional preparedness and resilience. In the UMI, critical MCMs, especially those in routine medical use ("dual utility") and those that must be administered soon after an incident before outside supplies can arrive, are stored at multiple medical facilities (including medical supply or distribution networks) across the United States. The medical facilities store a sufficient cache to meet part of the surge needs but not so much that the resources expire before they would be used in the normal course of business. In an emergency, these extra supplies can be used locally to treat casualties, including evacuees from incidents in other localities. This system, which is at the interface of local/regional and federal response, provides response capacity before the arrival of supplies from the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) and thus enhances the local/regional medical responders' ability to provide life-saving MCMs that otherwise would be delayed. The UMI can be more cost-effective than stockpiling by avoiding costs due to drug expiration, disposal of expired stockpiled supplies, and repurchase for replacement. PMID:23241473

  10. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  11. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties are reported in accordance with 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40...

  12. Eye casualty services in London

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  13. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  14. Contribution of forensic autopsy to scene reconstruction in mass fire casualties: a case of alleged arson on a floor consisting of small compartments in a building.

    PubMed

    Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (<20% of body surface) in most victims, except for three victims found between the entrance and the estimated fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374

  15. Hubble induced mass in radiation-dominated universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takesako, Tomohiro

    2012-05-01

    We reconsider the effective mass of a scalar field which interact with visible sector via Planck-suppressed coupling in supergravity framework. We focus on the radiation-dominated (RD) era after inflation. In this era, the effective mass is given by thermal average of interaction terms. To make our analysis clear, we rely on Kadanoff-Baym equations to evaluate the thermal average. We find that, in RD era, a scalar field acquires the effective mass of the order of H.

  16. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  17. CBRNE TC3: A Hybrid Approach to Casualty Care in the CBRNE Environment.

    PubMed

    Strain, John W

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines for the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom contingency operations has dramatically reduced preventable combat deaths. A study of these principles and their application to medical treatment in the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), weapons of mass destruction (WMD) environment is presented as a potential readiness and force multiplier for units engaged in this area of operations. Preparing medical operators for support of WMD sampling and mitigation missions requires extensive preventive medicine and post-exposure and downrange trauma threat preparedness. Training and equipping CBRN operators with treatment skills and appropriate interventional material requires pre-implementation planning specific to WMD threats (e.g., anthrax, radiation, organophosphates, and contaminated trauma). A scenario-based study reveals the tactics, techniques, and procedures for training, resourcing, and fielding the CBRN operator of the future. PMID:23817878

  18. CBRNE TC3: A Hybrid Approach to Casualty Care in the CBRNE Environment.

    PubMed

    Strain, John W

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines for the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom contingency operations has dramatically reduced preventable combat deaths. A study of these principles and their application to medical treatment in the chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), weapons of mass destruction (WMD) environment is presented as a potential readiness and force multiplier for units engaged in this area of operations. Preparing medical operators for support of WMD sampling and mitigation missions requires extensive preventive medicine and post-exposure and downrange trauma threat preparedness. Training and equipping CBRN operators with treatment skills and appropriate interventional material requires pre-implementation planning specific to WMD threats (e.g., anthrax, radiation, organophosphates, and contaminated trauma). A scenario-based study reveals the tactics, techniques, and procedures for training, resourcing, and fielding the CBRN operator of the future.

  19. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect.

    PubMed

    Putnam, F W

    1998-05-12

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947-1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken.

  20. Development and organization for casualty management on a 1,000-bed hospital ship in the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Ochsner, M G; Harviel, J D; Stafford, P W; Blankenship, C; Bosse, M J; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1992-04-01

    A 1,000-bed hospital ship designed for trauma patients was deployed to the Middle East with the objectives of preparing for large numbers of casualties resulting from Operation Desert Storm from conventional, chemical, and biological weapons. Plans for receipt and decontamination of casualties, triage, and optimal utilization of the 1,000-bed facility were developed. Mass casualty drills were conducted, involving all aspects of patient care from the flight deck to the wards. Trauma and critical care registries were developed to collect casualty data that could then be analyzed for specific military purposes and compared with current civilian registries. Attempts were made to identify the advances in shock resuscitation, systems management, and operative treatment from the civilian community that could be applied to care of combat casualties. Difficulties with accomplishing these objectives included limited trauma experience and supplies and poorly defined medical regulating and evacuation policies. The development of these programs, as well as the unique difficulties encountered, are discussed.

  1. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  2. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  3. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  4. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  5. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  6. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  7. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  9. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident. 173.55 Section 173.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or...

  10. Radiative corrections to the masses of supersymmetric Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio

    1991-03-01

    The lightest neutral Higgs boson in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model has a tree-level mass less than that of the Z0. We calculate radiative corrections to its mass and to that of the heavier CP-even neutral Higgs boson. We find large corrections that increase with the top quark and squark masses, and vary with the ratio of vacuum expectation values ν2/ν1. These radiative corrections can be as large as O(100) GeV, and have the effect of (i) invalidating lower bounds on ν2/ν1 inferred from unsuccessful Higgs searches at LEP I, (ii) in many cases, increasing the mass of the lighter CP-even Higgs boson beyond mz, (iii) often, increasing the mass of the heavier CP-even Higgs boson beyond the LEP reach, into a range more accessible to the LHC or SSC. On leave from Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua, Italy.

  11. Consistency of WIMP Dark Matter as radiative neutrino mass messenger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, Alexander; Platscher, Moritz; Rojas, Nicolás; Valle, José W. F.; Vicente, Avelino

    2016-07-01

    The scotogenic scenario provides an attractive approach to both Dark Matter and neutrino mass generation, in which the same symmetry that stabilises Dark Matter also ensures the radiative seesaw origin of neutrino mass. However the simplest scenario may suffer from inconsistencies arising from the spontaneous breaking of the underlying ℤ 2 symmetry. Here we show that the singlet-triplet extension of the simplest model naturally avoids this problem due to the presence of scalar triplets neutral under the ℤ 2 which affect the evolution of the couplings in the scalar sector. The scenario offers good prospects for direct WIMP Dark Matter detection through the nuclear recoil method.

  12. [Managing an influx of casualties in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Planchet, Mathieu; Cazes, Nicolas; Pudupin, Alain; Leyral, Jarome; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    Forward medical support is a fundamental principle of French army health service doctrine. During operations, the mission of army doctors and nurses is to treat casualties as high up the rescue chain as possible. This article describes the example of Afghanistan, in 2012, when the French army had to manage in a hostile environment an influx of casualties, sometimes massive and causing resources to become saturated. PMID:25464629

  13. Radiation therapy of lymphoblastic renal masses - benefit or hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Saarinen, U.M.

    1985-05-01

    A child with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and massively enlarged kidneys received a single dose of 300 rad (3 Gy) to the right kidney before initiation of chemotherapy. Measurement of the split renal function with 99m-Tc-DTPA four days postirradiation revealed that the function of the right kidney had substantially deteriorated, suggesting that hazards may be involved with the use of radiation therapy for lymphoblastic renal masses.

  14. Mass growth of the first stars under radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, Athena; Greif, Thomas H.; Bromm, Volker

    2012-09-01

    We perform 3-D cosmological simulations to examine the growth of metal-free, Population III (Pop III) stars under radiative feedback. We trace the evolution of gas and dark matter until the formation of the first minihalo, and follow the collapse of the minihalo's gas up to densities of n = 1012cm-3. We then implement the sink particle method while modeling the effect of Lyman-Werner (LW) and ionizing radiation emitted by the initial protostar over the next 5000 yr. A disk assembles around the first protostar, and radiative feedback does not prevent further fragmentation of the disk to form multiple Pop III stars. Feedback leads to heating of the dense gas to several thousand Kelvin, and this warm region expands outward at the gas sound speed. Once this region extends to the size of the disk, the disk mass declines while the accretion rate onto the protostars is reduced by an order of magnitude. The main sink will approach an asymptotic value of 30 Msolar by the time it reaches the main sequence. Such unexpectedly low Pop III masses may have important consequences for the occurrence of pair-instability supernovae in the early Universe as well as the Pop III chemical signature in the oldest stars observable today.

  15. Optimization of NTP System Truss to Reduce Radiation Shield Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharber, Luke L.; Kharofa, Adam; Caffrey, Jarvis A.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear thermal propulsion are numerous and relevant to the current NASA mission goals involving but not limited to the crewed missions to mars and the moon. They do however also present new and unique challenges to the design and logistics of launching/operating spacecraft. One of these challenges, relevant to this discussion, is the significant mass of the shielding which is required to ensure an acceptable radiation environment for the spacecraft and crew. Efforts to reduce shielding mass are difficult to accomplish from material and geometric design points of the shield itself, however by increasing the distance between the nuclear engines and the main body of the spacecraft the required mass of the shielding is lessened considerably. The mass can be reduced significantly per unit length, though any additional mass added by the structure to create this distance serves to offset those savings, thus the design of a lightweight structure is ideal. The challenges of designing the truss are bounded by several limiting factors including; the loading conditions, the capabilities of the launch vehicle, and achieving the ideal truss length when factoring for the overall mass reduced. Determining the overall set of mass values for a truss of varying length is difficult since to maintain an optimally designed truss the geometry of the truss or its members must change. Thus the relation between truss mass and length for these loading scenarios is not linear, and instead has relation determined by the truss design. In order to establish a mass versus length trend for various truss designs to compare with the mass saved from the shield versus length, optimization software was used to find optimal geometric properties that still met the design requirements at established lengths. By solving for optimal designs at various lengths, mass trends could be determined. The initial design findings show a clear benefit to extending the engines as far from the main

  16. On the radiation problem of high mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadzirayi Nyambuya, Golden

    2010-11-01

    A massive star is defined as one with mass greater than ~ 8-10 . Central to the on-going debate on how these objects [massive stars] come into being is the so-called Radiation Problem. For nearly forty years, it has been argued that the radiation field emanating from massive stars is high enough to cause a global reversal of direct radial in-fall of material onto the nascent star. We argue that only in the case of a non-spinning isolated star does the gravitational field of the nascent star overcome the radiation field. An isolated non-spinning star is a non-spinning star without any circumstellar material around it, and the gravitational field beyond its surface is described exactly by Newton's inverse square law. The supposed fact that massive stars have a gravitational field that is much stronger than their radiation field is drawn from the analysis of an isolated massive star. In this case the gravitational field is much stronger than the radiation field. This conclusion has been erroneously extended to the case of massive stars enshrouded in gas and dust. We find that, for the case of a non-spinning gravitating body where we take into consideration the circumstellar material, at ~ 8-10 , the radiation field will not reverse the radial in-fall of matter, but rather a stalemate between the radiation and gravitational field will be achieved, i.e. the in-fall is halted but not reversed. This picture is very different from the common picture that is projected and accepted in the popular literature where at ~ 8-10 , all the circumstellar material, from the surface of the star right up to the edge of the molecular core, is expected to be swept away by the radiation field. We argue that massive stars should be able to start their normal stellar processes if the molecular core from which they form has some rotation, because a rotating core exhibits an Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field which causes there to be an accretion disk and along this equatorial disk

  17. RADIATIVE AND KINETIC FEEDBACK BY LOW-MASS PRIMORDIAL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; McConkie, Thomas O.

    2010-03-20

    Ionizing UV radiation and supernova (SN) flows amidst clustered minihalos at high redshift regulated the rise of the first stellar populations in the universe. Previous studies have addressed the effects of very massive primordial stars on the collapse of nearby halos into new stars, but the absence of the odd-even nucleosynthetic signature of pair-instability SNe in ancient metal-poor stars suggests that Population III stars may have been less than 100 M{sub sun}. We extend our earlier survey of local UV feedback on star formation to 25-80 M{sub sun} stars and include kinetic feedback by SNe for 25-40 M{sub sun} stars. We find radiative feedback to be relatively uniform over this mass range, primarily because the larger fluxes of more massive stars are offset by their shorter lifetimes. Our models demonstrate that prior to the rise of global UV backgrounds, Lyman-Werner (LW) photons from nearby stars cannot prevent halos from forming new stars. These calculations also reveal that violent dynamical instabilities can erupt in the UV radiation front enveloping a primordial halo, but that they ultimately have no effect on the formation of a star. Finally, our simulations suggest that relic H II regions surrounding partially evaporated halos may expel LW backgrounds at lower redshifts, allowing stars to form that were previously suppressed. We provide fits to radiative and kinetic feedback on star formation for use in both semianalytic models and numerical simulations.

  18. Deployed Assessment and Management of mTBI Casualties.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed a spotlight on screening, evaluation, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, otherwise known as concussion. The author presents a mass casualty case in which a Ranger company medical section assessed and managed 30 Servicemembers (SM) diagnosed with concussion. Through the process of treating these Servicemembers, a consolidated checklist was created based on existing Department of Defense, United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), and United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) guidelines. During this and subsequent clinical encounters, utilization of this checklist resulted in efficient identification of concussed personnel, appropriate treatment, and documentation. PMID:24048990

  19. Gauge U(1) dark symmetry and radiative light fermion masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest

    2016-09-01

    A gauge U (1) family symmetry is proposed, spanning the quarks and leptons as well as particles of the dark sector. The breaking of U (1) to Z2 divides the two sectors and generates one-loop radiative masses for the first two families of quarks and leptons, as well as all three neutrinos. We study the phenomenological implications of this new connection between family symmetry and dark matter. In particular, a scalar or pseudoscalar particle associated with this U (1) breaking may be identified with the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  20. How to Explain the Non-Zero Mass of Electromagnetic Radiation Consisting of Zero-Mass Photons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Gabovich, Nadezhda A.

    2007-01-01

    The mass of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity is considered using the correct relativistic approach based on the concept of a scalar mass not dependent on the particle (system) velocity. It is shown that due to the non-additivity of mass in the special theory of relativity the ensemble of chaotically propagating mass-less photons in the cavity…

  1. Radiative neutrino mass generation from WIMP dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineros, Roberto A.

    2016-05-01

    The minimal seesaw extension of the Standard Model requires two electroweak singlet fermions in order to accommodate the neutrino oscillation parameters at tree level. Here we consider a next to minimal extension where light neutrino masses are generated radiatively by two electroweak fermions: one singlet and one triplet under SU(2). These should be odd under a parity symmetry and their mixing gives rise to a stable weakly interactive massive particle dark matter candidate. For mass in the GeV-TeV range, it reproduces the correct relic density, and provides an observable signal in nuclear recoil direct detection experiments. The fermion triplet component of the dark matter has gauge interactions, making it also detectable at present and near future collider experiments.

  2. A literature review of dental casualty rates.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, G D; Coombs, M

    2000-10-01

    The ability to determine dental casualty rates for the Australian Defence Force in a given situation is vital for military planners. This article reviews the literature and the available Australian Defence Force data on the subject to give some guide to planners. The review found the studies to be fairly consistent in that a well-prepared dentally fit force can expect 150 to 200 dental casualties per 1,000 soldiers per year. If the force were less prepared, as in the case of a reserve call out, this figure would be likely to increase; in the extreme case of an ill-prepared force or a force assisting in humanitarian aid, the emergency rate could be five times that figure. The literature also indicates a change in the nature of dental casualties. Although maxillofacial cases have remained steady at 25%, dental disease has decreased and endodontic cases have had a corresponding increase.

  3. Simulated casualties and medics for emergency training.

    PubMed

    Chi, D M; Kokkevis, E; Ogunyemi, O; Bindiganavale, R; Hollick, M J; Clarke, J R; Webber, B L; Badler, N I

    1997-01-01

    The MediSim system extends virtual environment technology to allow medical personnel to interact with and train on simulated casualties. The casualty model employs a three-dimensional animated human body that displays appropriate physical and behavioral responses to injury and/or treatment. Medical corpsmen behaviors were developed to allow the actions of simulated medical personnel to conform to both military practice and medical protocols during patient assessment and stabilization. A trainee may initiate medic actions through a mouse and menu interface; a VR interface has also been created by Stansfield's research group at Sandia National Labs. PMID:10168943

  4. Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2003-08-01

    The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 μm, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

  5. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty. (a) The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of a unit for which a report of casualty is... of casualty. (6) Navigation work books. (7) Compass deviation cards. (8) Gyrocompass records. (9...) The radio log. (14) Personnel list. (15) Crane record book. (c) The owner, agent, master, or person...

  6. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the vessel at the time of the casualty; (8) The weather conditions at the time of the casualty, if the weather caused or contributed to the cause of the casualty; (9) The damages to or by the vessel, its... commercial fishing industry vessel must be reported to an organization that has knowledge and experience...

  7. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the vessel at the time of the casualty; (8) The weather conditions at the time of the casualty, if the weather caused or contributed to the cause of the casualty; (9) The damages to or by the vessel, its... commercial fishing industry vessel must be reported to an organization that has knowledge and experience...

  8. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the vessel at the time of the casualty; (8) The weather conditions at the time of the casualty, if the weather caused or contributed to the cause of the casualty; (9) The damages to or by the vessel, its... commercial fishing industry vessel must be reported to an organization that has knowledge and experience...

  9. 46 CFR 28.80 - Report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the vessel at the time of the casualty; (8) The weather conditions at the time of the casualty, if the weather caused or contributed to the cause of the casualty; (9) The damages to or by the vessel, its... commercial fishing industry vessel must be reported to an organization that has knowledge and experience...

  10. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  11. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  12. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  13. Generation of the Higgs Mass through Radiative Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Tanvir

    We consider the effective potential V in the Standard Model with a single Higgs doublet in the limit that the only mass scale mu present is radiatively generated. Using a technique that has been shown to determine V completely in terms of the renormalization group (RG) functions when using the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) renormalization scheme, we first sum leading-log (LL) contributions to V using the one loop RG functions, associated with five couplings (the top quark Yukawa coupling x, the quartic coupling of the Higgs field y, the SU(3) gauge coupling z, and the SU(2) ⊗U(1) couplings r and s). We then employ the two loop RG functions with the three couplings x, y, z to sum the next-to-leading-log (NLL) contributions to V and then the three to five loop RG functions with one coupling y to sum all the N2LL ... N 4LL contributions to V. In order to compute these sums, it is necessary to convert those RG functions that have been originally computed explicitly in the minimal subtraction (MS) scheme to their form in the CW scheme. The Higgs mass can then be determined from the effective potential: the LL result is m H = 219 GeV/c2 decreases to mH = 188 GeV/c2 at N2LL order and mH = 163 GeV/c2 at N 4LL order. No reasonable estimate of m H can be made at orders VNLL or VN3LL, since the method employed gives either negative or imaginary values for the quartic scalar coupling. The fact that we get reasonable values for m H from the LL, N2LL and N4LL approximations is taken to be an indication that this mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking is in fact viable, though one in which there is slow convergence towards the actual value of mH. If the decrease in the values of mH observed when we get from the LL to the N4 LL estimate were to continue, then mH = 163 GeV/c2 would be an upper bound on the mass of the Higgs. Keywords: lagrangian; action; field; standard model; effective action; effective potential; abelian; gauge transformation; gauge field; gauge-fixing; self

  14. Bushfire disaster burn casualty management: the Australian "Black Saturday" bushfire experience.

    PubMed

    Seifman, Marc; Ek, Edmund W; Menezes, Hana; Rozen, Warren M; Whitaker, Iain S; Cleland, Heather J

    2011-11-01

    Mass burn disasters are among the most difficult disasters to manage, with major burns requiring complex management in a multidisciplinary setting and specialist burns services having limited capacity to deal with large numbers of complex patients. There is a paucity of literature addressing health system responses to mass burn disasters resulting from wildfires, with the events of the "Black Saturday" disaster in the state of Victoria, Australia, able to provide a unique opportunity to draw lessons and increase awareness of key management issues arising in mass burn casualty disasters. The event comprised the worst natural disaster in the state's history and one of the worst wildfire disasters in world history, claiming 173 lives and costing more than AUD 4 billion. This article draws on the national burns disaster plan instituted, Australian Mass Casualty Burn Disaster Plan (AUSBURNPLAN), and details the management of mass burn cases through a systems-based perspective. PMID:22001422

  15. Rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study presents a new solution to the Einstein field equations for a rotating, radiating mass imbedded in a de Sitter universe, the Kerr de Sitter-Vaidya or KDV line element. Solutions presented were precursers to the new solution. One of these, the Vaidya-Mallett or VM metric is used as a starting point to derive the KDV metric by a method called complexification. The mathematical framework for the KDV metric is the Newman-Penrose formalism, a powerful tool that provides insight into the various properties of the space-time geometry and optical properties of the radiation field. Using this formalism, the metric can be expressed in tetrad form and the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient equations solved for tetrad components of the trace-free Ricci tensor, Ricci scalar, Maxwell tensor, and Weyl tensor. Using the tetrad components of the Weyl tensor, the Petrov type for the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are found. The new solution is shown to be a solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations for a particular choice of energy-momentum tensor which is studied in detail.

  16. Radiation Injury Treatment Network®: Preparedness Through a Coalition of Cancer Centers.

    PubMed

    Case, Cullen

    2016-08-01

    This article provides an overview of Radiation Injury Treatment Network® (RITN), its preparedness activities and capabilities, including training and educating over 11,500 hospital staff, coordinating over 500 exercises, developing treatment guidelines, developing standard operating procedures, and being recognized by the U.S. federal government as a national response asset. The RITN provides comprehensive evaluation and treatment for victims with marrow toxic injuries. Many of the casualties from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) (a.k.a. terrorist nuclear bomb) with only radiation injuries will be salvageable; however, they would require outpatient and/or inpatient care. Recognizing this, the U.S. National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), U.S. Navy, and American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) collaboratively developed RITN, which comprises medical centers with expertise in the management of bone marrow failure. The medical community will undoubtedly be taxed by the resulting medical surge from an IND despite the well-defined United States emergency medical system, the National Disaster Medical System; however, one area that is unique for radiological disasters is the care for casualties with acute radiation syndrome. Hematologists and oncologists purposefully expose their cancer patients to high doses of radiation and toxic chemicals for chemotherapy as they treat their patients, resulting in symptoms not unlike casualties with exposure to ionizing radiation from a radiological disaster. This makes the staff from cancer centers ideal for the specialized care that will be required for thousands of casualties following a mass casualty radiological incident. The RITN is a model for how a collaborative effort can fill a readiness gap-through its network of 76 hospitals, blood donor centers, and cord blood banks, the RITN is preparing to provide outpatient care and specialized supportive care to up to 63,000 radiological casualties

  17. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Barausse, E.; Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L.

    2012-10-10

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  18. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  19. Hospital preparedness for possible nonconventional casualties: an Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Shaul; Yoeli, Naomi; Paz, Gedalia; Barbash, Gabriel I; Varssano, David; Fertel, Nurit; Hassner, Avi; Drory, Margalit; Halpern, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    Since 9/11, hospitals and health authorities have been preparing medical response in case of various mass terror attacks. The experience of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in treating suicide-bombing mass casualties served, in the time leading up to the war in Iraq, as a platform for launching a preparedness program for possible attacks with biological and chemical agents of mass destruction. Adapting Quarantelli's criteria on disaster mitigation to the "microinfrastructure" of the hospital, and including human behavior experts, we attempted to foster an interactive emergency management process that would deal with contingencies stemming from the potential hazards of chemical and biological (CB) weapons. The main objective of our work was to encourage an organization-wide communication network that could effectively address the contingent hazards unique to this unprecedented situation. A stratified assessment of needs, identification of unique dangers to first responders, and assignment of team-training sessions paved the way for program development. Empowerment through leadership and resilience training was introduced to emergency team leaders of all disciplines. Focal subject matters included proactive planning, problem-solving, informal horizontal and vertical communication, and coping through stress-management techniques. The outcome of this process was manifested in an "operation and people" orientation supporting a more effective and compatible emergency management. The aim of article is to describe this process and to point toward the need for a broad-spectrum view in such circumstances. Unlike military units, the civilian hospital staff at risk, expected to deal with CB casualties, requires adequate personal consideration to enable effective functioning. Issues remain to be addressed in the future. We believe that collaboration and sharing of knowledge, information, and expertise beyond the medical realm is imperative in assisting hospitals to expedite

  20. Responding to and managing casualties: detection, personal protection, and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lepler, Lawrence; Lucci, Edward

    2004-03-01

    Unfortunately, a mass casualty caused by chemical or biologic terrorism has become a real threat to the United States. A well-considered preparedness plan is needed to minimize tOe impact of a chemical or biologic attack on civilians and responders. This article describes some of the key elements in a preparedness plan, specifically issues regarding early detection, decontamination. and personal protection. Although chemical and biologic terrorism is often considered as a single entity, there are important distinctions in detection, decontamination, and personal protection procedures that effect preparedness planning. Therefore, any preparedness plan needs to be flexible enough to deal with both biologic and chemical terrorism. Preparedness plans also need to be thorough enough to deal with the differences in response to a variety of specific chemical or biologic agents. PMID:15062224

  1. Chemically contaminated casualties: different problems and possible solutions.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The initial response to mass casualty incidents is usually informal as uninjured and injured survivors and passersby assist the injured and take them to medical centers. This creates some problems, for example, most victims go to one or two hospitals and the least injured arrive first; but, on the whole, it works. However, the same response does not work when victims are contaminated, and some of the solutions that work when victims are only injured do not work when victims are contaminated. This article suggests an approach that accepts the reality of what happens-the first receiving hospital becomes contaminated--and suggests how planning can begin with that as a starting point. It stressed that current plans are based on false assumptions and that this can lead to inadequate preparation.

  2. Analysis of driver casualty risk for different work zone types.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Meng, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    Using driver casualty data from the Fatality Analysis Report System, this study examines driver casualty risk and investigates the risk contributing factors in the construction, maintenance and utility work zones. The multiple t-tests results show that the driver casualty risk is statistically different depending on the work zone type. Moreover, construction work zones have the largest driver casualty risk, followed by maintenance and utility work zones. Three separate logistic regression models are developed to predict driver casualty risk for the three work zone types because of their unique features. Finally, the effects of risk factors on driver casualty risk for each work zone type are examined and compared. For all three work zone types, five significant risk factors including road alignment, truck involvement, most harmful event, vehicle age and notification time are associated with increased driver casualty risk while traffic control devices and restraint use are associated with reduced driver casualty risk. However, one finding is that three risk factors (light condition, gender and day of week) exhibit opposing effects on the driver casualty risk in different types of work zones. This may largely be due to different work zone features and driver behavior in different types of work zones.

  3. Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  4. Radiation disasters: role of the BMT team.

    PubMed

    Confer, Dennis L; Weisdorf, Daniel; Weinstock, David; Case, Cullen; Chao, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow transplant (BMT) teams do not generally consider themselves to be emergency responders. But the bone marrow is the most radiosensitive organ in the body, and early changes in peripheral blood counts remain the best indicator of major total-body radiation exposures. Following a mass casualty incident, such as that occasioned by a nuclear detonation, BMT teams should expect that they will be called upon for their expertise in managing severe myelosuppression. Numerous resources, including the Radiation Injury Treatment Network, are available to assist BMT teams in planning for such a role. PMID:22226106

  5. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Operations § 169.807 Notice of casualty. (a) The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of a vessel..., agent, master, or other person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty shall retain for..., navigation charts, navigation work books, compass deviation cards, gyrocompass records, record of draft,...

  6. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  7. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  8. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  9. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  10. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  11. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  12. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  13. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  14. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to the requirements of subpart 4.05 of this chapter and 33 CFR 146.30, the person-in-charge shall notify the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if...

  15. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  16. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  18. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  19. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  20. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  1. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  2. Effect of radiator position and mass flux on the dryer room heat transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.; Sulistyowati, E. D.; Okariawan, I. D. K.

    A room radiator as usually used in cold countries, is actually able to be used as a heat source to dry goods, especially in the rainy season where the sun seldom shines due to much rain and cloud. Experiments to investigate effects of radiator position and mass flux on heat transfer rate were performed. This study is to determine the best position of the radiator and the optimum mass flux. The radiator used was a finned radiator made of copper pipes and aluminum fins with an overall dimension of 220 mm × 50 mm × 310 mm. The prototype room was constructed using plywood and wood frame with an overall size of 1000 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm. The working fluid was heated water flowing inside the radiator and air circulating naturally inside the prototype room. The nominal mass fluxes employed were 800, 900 and 1000 kg/m2 s. The water was kept at 80 °C at the radiator entrance, while the initial air temperature inside the prototype room was 30 °C. Three positions of the radiator were examined. The results show that the effect of the mass flux on the forced and free convection heat transfer rate is insignificant but the radiator position strongly affects the heat transfer rate for both forced and free convection.

  3. The Role of Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics in Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrew D.; Lanz, Christian; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation metabolomics can be defined as the global profiling of biological fluids to uncover latent, endogenous small molecules whose concentrations change in a dose-response manner following exposure to ionizing radiation. In response to the potential threat of nuclear or radiological terrorism, the Center for High-Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry (CMCR) was established to develop field-deployable biodosimeters based, in principle, on rapid analysis by mass spectrometry of readily and easily obtainable biofluids. In this review, we briefly summarize radiation biology and key events related to actual and potential nuclear disasters, discuss the important contributions the field of mass spectrometry has made to the field of radiation metabolomics, and summarize current discovery efforts to use mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to identify dose-responsive urinary constituents, and ultimately to build and deploy a noninvasive high-throughput biodosimeter. PMID:19890938

  4. The importance of radiative feedback for the stellar initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the effect of radiative feedback on the star formation process using radiation hydrodynamical simulations. We repeat the previous hydrodynamical star cluster formation simulations of Bate et al. and Bate & Bonnell, but we use a realistic gas equation of state and radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation rather than the original barotropic equation of state. Whereas star formation in the barotropic simulations continued unabated until the simulations stopped, we find that radiative feedback, even from low-mass stars, were essentially terminates the production of new objects within low-mass dense molecular cloud cores after roughly one local dynamical time. Radiative feedback also dramatically decreases the propensity of massive circumstellar discs to fragment and inhibits fragmentation of other dense gas (e.g. filaments) close to existing protostellar objects. These two effects decrease the numbers of protostars formed by a factor of ~4 compared with the original hydrodynamical simulations using the barotropic equation of state. In particular, whereas the original simulations produced more brown dwarfs than stars, the radiative feedback results in a ratio of stars to brown dwarfs of approximately 5:1, in much better agreement with observations. Most importantly, we find that although the characteristic stellar mass in the original calculations scaled linearly with the initial mean Jeans mass in the clouds, when radiative feedback is included the characteristic stellar mass is indistinguishable for the two calculations, regardless of the initial Jeans mass of the clouds. We thus propose that the reason the observed initial mass function appears to be universal in the local Universe is due to self-regulation of the star formation process by radiative feedback. We present an analytic argument showing how a characteristic mass may be derived that is relatively independent of initial conditions such as the cloud's density.

  5. The effects of mass on the radiation of a relativistically rotating neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, R. S.; Qadir, A.; Momoniat, E.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of mass on the radiation of a relativistically rotating neutron star. The method of Haxton and Ruffini is used to find the radiation flux from a relativistically rotating neutron star. By extending the idea of a point charge orbiting a black hole, a pulsar is modeled by simulating a relativistically rotating magnetic dipole embedded within a neutron star. The resulting equations retain the mass of the neutron star, thereby introducing effects of general relativity on the radiation from the dipole. We present exact solutions to the modeling equation as well as plots of energy spectra at different rotational velocities and inclination angles. We also present plots of total energy versus mass and two tables containing a comparison of energy ratios. These demonstrate that, for realistic neutron star masses, the high speed enhancement of the radiation is always more than compensated by the frame dragging effect, leading to a net reduction of radiation from the star. It is found that the inclusion of mass not only reduced the special relativistic enhancement, but negates it entirely as the mass of the neutron star approaches the mass limit.

  6. Decontamination of multiple casualties who are chemically contaminated: a challenge for acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Simon F J; Chilcott, Rob P; Wilson, James C; Kamanyire, Robie; Baker, David J; Hallett, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have been contaminated by chemical compounds present a number of difficulties to emergency departments, in particular, the risk of secondary contamination of healthcare staff and facilities. The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has provided equipment to decontaminate chemically contaminated casualties who present at emergency departments. The capacity of this equipment is limited, and although both the ambulance and fire services have equipment to cope with mass casualties at the scene of a chemical incident, there is still the possibility that acute hospitals will be overwhelmed by large numbers of self-presenting patients. The risks and potential consequences of this gap in resilience are discussed and a number of possible practical solutions are proposed.

  7. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1.

    PubMed

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W

    2012-01-01

    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue.

  8. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2012-11-01

    Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the momentum carried in mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can reach several times L/c, corresponding to outflow rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. Radiation pressure on resonant absorption lines alone may not be sufficient to provide this momentum deposition, and the transfer of reprocessed IR radiation in dusty nuclear gas has been postulated to provide the extra enhancement. The efficacy of this mechanism, however, will be sensitive to multi-dimensional effects such as the tendency for the reprocessed radiation to preferentially escape along sightlines of lower column density. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to determine the radiation force on dusty gas residing within approximately 30 parsecs from an accreting supermassive black hole. We calculate the net rate of momentum deposition in the surrounding gas and estimate the mass-loss rate in the resulting outflow as a function of solid angle for different black hole luminosities, sightline-averaged column densities, clumping parameters, and opening angles of the dusty gas. We find that these dust-driven winds carry momentum fluxes of 1-5 times L/c and correspond to mass-loss rates of 10-100 M {sub Sun} per year for a 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} black hole radiating at or near its Eddington limit. These results help to explain the origin of high velocity molecular and atomic outflows in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and can inform numerical simulations of galaxy evolution including AGN feedback.

  9. Predictive model for radiatively induced neutrino masses and mixings with dark matter.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Michael; No, Jose M; Rivera, Maximiliano A

    2013-05-24

    A minimal extension of the standard model to naturally generate small neutrino masses and provide a dark matter candidate is proposed. The dark matter particle is part of a new scalar doublet field that plays a crucial role in radiatively generating neutrino masses. The symmetry that stabilizes the dark matter also suppresses neutrino masses to appear first at three-loop level. Without the need of right-handed neutrinos or other very heavy new fields, this offers an attractive explanation of the hierarchy between the electroweak and neutrino mass scales. The model has distinct verifiable predictions for the neutrino masses, flavor mixing angles, colliders, and dark matter signals. PMID:23745861

  10. Predictive model for radiatively induced neutrino masses and mixings with dark matter.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Michael; No, Jose M; Rivera, Maximiliano A

    2013-05-24

    A minimal extension of the standard model to naturally generate small neutrino masses and provide a dark matter candidate is proposed. The dark matter particle is part of a new scalar doublet field that plays a crucial role in radiatively generating neutrino masses. The symmetry that stabilizes the dark matter also suppresses neutrino masses to appear first at three-loop level. Without the need of right-handed neutrinos or other very heavy new fields, this offers an attractive explanation of the hierarchy between the electroweak and neutrino mass scales. The model has distinct verifiable predictions for the neutrino masses, flavor mixing angles, colliders, and dark matter signals.

  11. Effects of anisotropic conduction and heat pipe interaction on minimum mass space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Lund, Kurt O.

    1991-01-01

    Equations are formulated for the two dimensional, anisotropic conduction of heat in space radiator fins. The transverse temperature field was obtained by the integral method, and the axial field by numerical integration. A shape factor, defined for the axial boundary condition, simplifies the analysis and renders the results applicable to general heat pipe/conduction fin interface designs. The thermal results are summarized in terms of the fin efficiency, a radiation/axial conductance number, and a transverse conductance surface Biot number. These relations, together with those for mass distribution between fins and heat pipes, were used in predicting the minimum radiator mass for fixed thermal properties and fin efficiency. This mass is found to decrease monotonically with increasing fin conductivity. Sensitivities of the minimum mass designs to the problem parameters are determined.

  12. Is radiative electroweak symmetry breaking consistent with a 125 GeV Higgs mass?

    PubMed

    Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2013-04-12

    The mechanism of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking occurs through loop corrections, and unlike conventional symmetry breaking where the Higgs mass is a parameter, the radiatively generated Higgs mass is dynamically predicted. Padé approximations and an averaging method are developed to extend the Higgs mass predictions in radiative electroweak symmetry breaking from five- to nine-loop order in the scalar sector of the standard model, resulting in an upper bound on the Higgs mass of 141 GeV. The mass predictions are well described by a geometric series behavior, converging to an asymptotic Higgs mass of 124 GeV consistent with the recent ATLAS and CMS Collaborations observations. Similarly, we find that the Higgs self-coupling converges to λ=0.23, which is significantly larger than its conventional symmetry breaking counterpart for a 124 GeV Higgs mass. In addition to this significant enhancement of the Higgs self-coupling and HH→HH scattering, we find that Higgs decays to gauge bosons are unaltered and the scattering processes WL(+)WL(+)→HH, ZLZL→HH are also enhanced, providing signals to distinguish conventional and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking mechanisms.

  13. A NEW MECHANISM FOR MASS ACCRETION UNDER RADIATION PRESSURE IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2010-05-01

    During the formation of a massive star, strong radiation pressure from the central star acts on the dust sublimation front and tends to halt the accretion flow. To overcome this strong radiation pressure, it has been considered that a strong ram pressure produced by a high-mass accretion rate of 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} or more is needed. We reinvestigated the necessary condition to overcome the radiation pressure and found a new mechanism for overcoming it. Accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps the mass accretion by its weight. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation. We call this mechanism the 'OMOSHI effect', where OMOSHI is an acronym for 'One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weIght'. Additionally, in Japanese, OMOSHI is a noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. We investigate the generation of the OMOSHI effect using local one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The radiation pressure and the gravitational force are connected through the gas pressure, and to sum up, the radiation pressure is balanced or overcome by the gravitational force. We also discuss the global structure and temporal variation of the accretion flow.

  14. Coupled Fluids-Radiation Analysis of a High-Mass Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Allen, Gary; Tang, Chun; Brown, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code has been incorporated into the DPLR Navier-Stokes flow solver such that the NEQAIR subroutines are now callable functions of DPLR. The coupled DPLR-NEQAIR code was applied to compute the convective and radiative heating rates over high-mass Mars entry vehicles. Two vehicle geometries were considered - a 15 m diameter 70-degree sphere cone configuration and a slender, mid-L/D vehicle with a diameter of 5 m called an Ellipsled. The entry masses ranged from 100 to 165 metric tons. Solutions were generated for entry velocities ranging from 6.5 to 9.1 km/s. The coupled fluids-radiation solutions were performed at the peak heating location along trajectories generated by the Traj trajectory analysis code. The impact of fluids-radiation coupling is a function of the level of radiative heating and the freestream density and velocity. For the high-mass Mars vehicles examined in this study, coupling effects were greatest for entry velocities above 8.5 km/s where the surface radiative heating was reduced by up 17%. Generally speaking, the Ellipsled geometry experiences a lower peak radiative heating rate but a higher peak turbulent convective heating rate than the MSL-based vehicle.

  15. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  16. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  17. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  18. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  19. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or... until advised by the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, that records need not be retained onboard....

  20. Pre-Hawking radiation may allow for reconstruction of the mass distribution of the collapsing object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-07-01

    Hawking radiation explicitly depends only on the black hole's total mass, charge and angular momentum. It is therefore generally believed that one cannot reconstruct the information about the initial mass distribution of an object that made the black hole. However, instead of looking at radiation from a static black hole, we can study the whole time-dependent process of the gravitational collapse, and pre-Hawking radiation which is excited because of the time-dependent metric. We compare radiation emitted by a single collapsing shell with that emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. We calculate the gravitational trajectory and the momentum energy tensor. We show that the flux of energy emitted during the collapse by a single shell is significantly different from the flux emitted by two concentric shells of the equivalent total mass. When the static black hole is formed, the fluxes become indistinguishable. This implies that an observer studying the flux of particles from a collapsing object could in principle reconstruct information not only about the total mass of the collapsing object, but also about the mass distribution.

  1. Emergency slaughter of casualty cattle increases the prevalence of anthelmintic drug residues in muscle.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K M; Whyte, M; Danaher, M; Kennedy, D G

    2012-08-01

    The ProSafeBeef project studied the prevalence of residues of anthelmintic drugs used to control parasitic worms and fluke in beef cattle in Ireland. Injured (casualty) cattle may enter the human food chain under certain conditions, verified by an attending veterinarian and the livestock keeper. An analytical survey was conducted to determine if muscle from casualty cattle contained a higher prevalence of anthelmintic drug residues than healthy (full slaughter weight) cattle as a result of possible non-observance of complete drug withdrawal periods. A validated analytical method based on matrix solid-phase dispersive extraction (QuEChERS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 37 anthelmintic drugs and metabolites in muscle (assay decision limits, CCα, 0.15-10.2 µg kg⁻¹). Of 199 control samples of beef purchased in Irish shops, 7% contained detectable anthelmintic drug residues but all were compliant with European Union Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). Of 305 muscle samples from injured cattle submitted to abattoirs in Northern Ireland, 17% contained detectable residues and 2% were non-compliant (containing either residues at concentrations above the MRL or residues of a compound unlicensed for use in cattle). Closantel and ivermectin were the most common residues, but a wider range of drugs was detected in muscle of casualty cattle than in retail beef. These data suggest that specific targeting of casualty cattle for testing for anthelmintic residues may be warranted in a manner similar to the targeted testing for antimicrobial compounds often applied in European National Residues Surveillance Schemes. PMID:22632575

  2. Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-06-01

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ˜ 5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.

  3. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Radiative Feedback from Primordial Protostars and Final Mass of the First Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our efforts toward understanding the typical mass-scale of primordial stars. Our direct numerical simulations show that, in both of Population III.1 and III.2 cases, strong UV stellar radiative feedback terminatesmass accretion onto a protostar.AnHII region formed around the protostar very dynamically expands throughout the gas accreting envelope, which cuts off the gas supply to a circumstellar disk. The disk is exposed to the stellar UV radiation and loses its mass by photoevaporation. The derived final masses are 43 Stellar Mass and 17 Stellar Mass in our fiducial Population III.1 and III.2 cases. Much more massive stars should form in other exceptional conditions. In atomic-cooling halos where H2 molecules are dissociated, for instance, a protostar grows via very rapid mass accretion with the rates M* approx. 0.1 - 1 Stellar Mass/yr. Our newstellar evolution calculations show that the protostar significantly inflates and never contracts to reach the ZAMS stage in this case. Such the "supergiant protostars" have very low UV luminosity, which results in weak radiative feedback against the accretion flow. In the early universe, supermassive stars formed through this process might provide massive seeds of supermassive black holes.

  5. Leptogenesis, radiative neutrino masses and inert Higgs triplet dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wen-Bin; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2016-05-01

    We extend the standard model by three types of inert fields including Majorana fermion singlets/triplets, real Higgs singlets/triplets and leptonic Higgs doublets. In the presence of a softly broken lepton number and an exactly conserved Z2 discrete symmetry, these inert fields together can mediate a one-loop diagram for a Majorana neutrino mass generation. The heavier inert fields can decay to realize a successful leptogenesis while the lightest inert field can provide a stable dark matter candidate. As an example, we demonstrate the leptogenesis by the inert Higgs doublet decays. We also perform a systematic study on the inert Higgs triplet dark matter scenario where the interference between the gauge and Higgs portal interactions can significantly affect the dark matter properties.

  6. A new radiative neutrino mass generation mechanism with higher dimensional scalar representations and custodial symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda, Alfredo; Peinado, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    A new realization for radiative neutrino mass generation is presented. Based on the requirement of tree-level custodial symmetry and the introduction of higher (greater than two) dimensional representations for scalar fields, a specific scenario with a scalar septet is presented that generates neutrino Majorana masses radiatively. This is accomplished through an eleven dimensional operator that requires the addition of several scalar fields and a SU(2) 5-plet of new fermions, together with a Z2 that guarantees the preservation of custodial symmetry. The phenomenology of the setup is rather rich and includes a dark matter candidate.

  7. Data quality for situational awareness during mass-casualty events.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Barry; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2007-01-01

    Incident Command systems often achieve situational awareness through manual paper-tracking systems. Such systems often produce high latencies and in-complete data, resulting in inefficient and ineffective resource deployment. WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) collects much more data than a paper-based system, dramatically reducing latency while increasing the kinds and quality of information available to incident commanders. Yet, the introduction of IT into a disaster setting is not problem-free. Notably, system component failures can delay the delivery of data. The type and extent of a failure can have varying effects on the usefulness of information displays. We describe a small, coherent set of customizble information overlays to address this problem, and we discuss reactions to these displays by medical commanders. PMID:18693821

  8. Mass casualty management for radiological and nuclear incidents.

    PubMed

    Bland, S A

    2004-09-01

    The decisions required for the provision of an appropriate medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident range from the traditional major incident response through to a compromised response due to a catastrophic event. A summary of the most likely clinical findings in the first 12-24 hours is given in Table 4. From these findings, appropriate management based upon the needs and available resources can be planned. This includes triage for surgery and the use of the expectant (T4) triage category.

  9. Data Quality for Situational Awareness during Mass-Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Demchak, Barry; Griswold, William G.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2007-01-01

    Incident Command systems often achieve situational awareness through manual paper-tracking systems. Such systems often produce high latencies and incomplete data, resulting in inefficient and ineffective resource deployment. WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) collects much more data than a paper-based system, dramatically reducing latency while increasing the kinds and quality of information available to incident commanders. Yet, the introduction of IT into a disaster setting is not problem-free. Notably, system component failures can delay the delivery of data. The type and extent of a failure can have varying effects on the usefulness of information displays. We describe a small, coherent set of customizble information overlays to address this problem, and we discuss reactions to these displays by medical commanders. PMID:18693821

  10. PBH mass growth through radial accretion during the radiation dominated era

    SciTech Connect

    Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; Guzmán, F.S.; Cruz-Osorio, A. E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx

    2013-12-01

    We model the radial accretion of radiation on Primordial Black Holes (PBH) by numerically solving Einstein's equations coupled to an ultrarelativistic ideal gas with equation of state p = ρ/3. We calculate the final mass of a black hole by the integration of the accreted radiation energy density during the leptonic era between t ∼ 10{sup −4}s to t ∼ 10{sup 2}s after the Big Bang. Our results indicate that small PBHs with initial masses between 10{sup −4} to 1M{sub ⊙} may grow up to hundreds of solar masses, and thus can be SMBH seeds. On the other hand, PBHs formed at t ∼ 1s with initial mass between 900 and ∼ 980M{sub ⊙}, by the time t ∼ 100s show masses of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} which are masses of seeds or already formed SMBHs. The fact that we consider only radial flow implies that our results work well as limiting cases, and it is expected that under more general scenarios the accretion rates may change significantly. Nevertheless we show that it is possible that SMBHs can be PBHs that grew due to the accretion of radiation.

  11. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity?

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W

    2009-11-01

    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world.

  12. Radiation-tolerant, low-mass, high bandwidth, flexible printed circuit cables for particle physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, N. C.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Seidel, S.

    2016-09-01

    The design of meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low-mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider is described. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with 100 Ω nominal impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. Several dielectric materials are compared. To reduce mass, a cross hatched ground plane is applied. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests, attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to temperature induced stress, and dimensional implications on radiation length. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2×1016/cm2 and 800 MeV protons to 2×1016 1-MeV neutron equivalent/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable with cross hatched ground plane, effective bandwidth of 4.976 gigabits per second, 0.0160% of a radiation length, and no detectable radiation-induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  13. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  14. Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2012-03-01

    Angiosperms evolved rapidly in the late Mesozoic. Data from the genetic-based approach called ‘molecular clock’ permit an evaluation of the radiation of flowering plants through geological time and of the possible influences of Mesozoic mass extinctions. A total of 261 divergence ages of angiosperm families are considered. The radiation of flowering plants peaked in the Albian, early Campanian, and Maastrichtian. From the three late Mesozoic mass extinctions (Jurassic/Cretaceous, Cenomanian/Turonian, and Cretaceous/Palaeogene), only the Cretaceous/Palaeogene event coincided with a significant, abrupt, and long-term decline in angiosperm radiation. If their link will be further proven, this means that global-scale environmental perturbation precluded from many innovations in the development of plants. This decline was, however, not unprecedented in the history of the angiosperms. The implication of data from the molecular clock for evolutionary reconstructions is limited, primarily because this approach deals with only extant lineages.

  15. Geometry and mass model of ionizing radiation experiments on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstrong, T. W.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive measurements related to ionizing radiation environments and effects were made on the LDEF satellite during its mission lifetime of almost 6 years. These data, together with the opportunity they provide for evaluating predictive models and analysis methods, should allow more accurate assessments of the space radiation environment and related effects for future missions in low Earth orbit. The LDEF radiation dosimetry data is influenced to varying degrees by material shielding effects due to the dosimeter itself, nearby components and experiments, and the spacecraft structure. A geometry and mass model is generated of LDEF, incorporating sufficient detail that it can be applied in determining the influence of material shielding on ionizing radiation measurements and predictions. This model can be used as an aid in data interpretation by unfolding shielding effects from the LDEF radiation dosimeter responses. Use of the LDEF geometry/mass model, in conjunction with predictions and comparisons with LDEF dosimetry data currently underway, will also allow more definitive evaluations of current radiation models for future mission applications.

  16. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  17. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively. PMID:27426066

  18. Implications for modeling casualty sustainment during peacekeeping operations.

    PubMed

    Blood, Christopher G; Zhang, Jinjin; Walker, G Jay

    2002-10-01

    Projections of the casualties expected during peacekeeping operations allow medical planners to assess in advance the medical resources needed to support such operations. Data detailing fatalities incurred in previous peacekeeping operations were extracted from several U.N. sources. From these data, rates of killed-in-action were computed for the deployed forces. One hundred eighty-eight peacekeeping incidents in which casualties were sustained were also examined to derive wounded-in-action rates. The estimated mean wounded-in-action rate for these operations was 3.16 per 1,000 strength per year; the estimated wounded-in-action rate for individual operations ranged from 0.49 to 12.50. There were an average of 3.8 wounded and 0.86 killed in the 188 casualty incidents examined. Thirty-eight percent of the wounds were described as serious. The casualty incidence derived in this study can provide a basis for estimating the casualties likely in future peacekeeping operations. PMID:12392258

  19. LOW-METALLICITY PROTOSTARS AND THE MAXIMUM STELLAR MASS RESULTING FROM RADIATIVE FEEDBACK: SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki E-mail: hosokawa@th.nao.ac.j

    2009-10-01

    The final mass of a newborn star is set at the epoch when the mass accretion onto the star is terminated. We study the evolution of accreting protostars and the limits of accretion in low-metallicity environments under spherical symmetry. Accretion rates onto protostars are estimated via the temperature evolution of prestellar cores with different metallicities. The derived rates increase with decreasing metallicity, from M-dot{approx_equal}10{sup -6} M odot yr{sup -1} at Z = Z {sub sun} to 10{sup -3} M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} at Z = 0. With the derived accretion rates, the protostellar evolution is numerically calculated. We find that, at lower metallicity, the protostar has a larger radius and reaches the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) at higher stellar mass. Using this protostellar evolution, we evaluate the upper stellar mass limit where the mass accretion is hindered by radiative feedback. We consider the effects of radiation pressure exerted on the accreting envelope, and expansion of an H II region. The mass accretion is finally terminated by radiation pressure on dust grains in the envelope for Z approx> 10{sup -3} Z {sub sun} and by the expanding H II region for lower metallicity. The mass limit from these effects increases with decreasing metallicity from M {sub *} {approx_equal} 10 M {sub sun} at Z = Z {sub sun} to {approx_equal}300 M {sub sun} at Z = 10{sup -6} Z {sub sun}. The termination of accretion occurs after the central star arrives at the ZAMS at all metallicities, which allows us to neglect protostellar evolution effects in discussing the upper mass limit by stellar feedback. The fragmentation induced by line cooling in low-metallicity clouds yields prestellar cores with masses large enough that the final stellar mass is set by the feedback effects. Although relaxing the assumption of spherical symmetry will alter feedback effects, our results will be a benchmark for more realistic evolution to be explored in future studies.

  20. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter.

  1. Radiative origin of all quark and lepton masses through dark matter with flavor symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-03-01

    The fundamental issue of the origin of mass for all quarks and leptons (including Majorana neutrinos) is linked to dark matter, odd under an exactly conserved Z2 symmetry which may or may not be derivable from an U(1)D gauge symmetry. The observable sector interacts with a proposed dark sector which consists of heavy neutral singlet Dirac fermions and suitably chosen new scalars. Flavor symmetry is implemented in a renormalizable context with just the one Higgs doublet (ϕ(+), ϕ(0)) of the standard model in such a way that all observed fermions obtain their masses radiatively through dark matter. PMID:24655241

  2. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  3. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  4. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  5. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  6. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  7. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  9. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  10. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  11. 46 CFR 167.65-65 - Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records. 167... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-65 Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records. The requirements for providing notice and reporting of marine casualties...

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  14. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in polymer solutions exposed to intermittent infrared radiation heating

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.; Lin, J.D.

    1998-06-01

    Drying is one of the essential steps in a number of industrial applications, such as the preserving of food and the drying of paint, pulp, and paper. The quality of paper tubes is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer process. The drying of polymer solution plays a crucial role in the manufacturer of photographic film, synthetic fibers, adhesives, and a variety of other polymeric products. During drying of wet materials, simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurs both inside the medium and in the boundary layer of the drying agent. Drying is one of the most energy-consuming processes in the industrial sector and can also be very time consuming as, for example, in conventional convective drying by hot air, while minimum cost and energy consumption and maximum product quality are among the main concerns in industry today. Here, a theoretical study is performed that describes heat transfer and moisture variation while a polymer solution is exposed to high-intensity infrared radiation flux and/or an airflow. While the intermittent heating is considered, the authors investigate the influences of various radiation and convection parameters on the transfer of heat and moisture variation of coated layers on an optically thick substrate. During the tempering stage in the intermittent heating process, the convective mass transfer is included to simulate the ambient air in reality. The effects of radiation and convection parameters on the transfer processes are presented in terms of the rate of water content removal, heat transfer, and moisture distributions. Numerical results show that the rate of water removal from the polymer solution is dominated by both the adsorbed radiative heat energy and the distributions of water mass fraction in the polymer solution.

  15. Losses of Energetic Electrons in Earth's Outer Radiation Belt During Unusual Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, Noé; Huang, Chia-Lin; Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Farrugia, Charles; Winslow, Reka

    2016-07-01

    The most extreme changes in solar wind parameters important for the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere (dynamic pressure, dawn-to-dusk electric field, Alfven Mach number, plasma beta, …) occur during the passage at Earth of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While the response of Earth's radiation belts to CMEs and CME-driven shocks has been investigated in great details, few studies have focused on what makes some CMEs and their shocks especially effective in driving losses of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Here, we present specific examples of losses during the passage at Earth of a coronal mass ejection. In particular, we discuss the conditions which may result in the magnetopause to retreat earthward up to geosynchronous orbit, resulting in significant losses of energetic electrons due to magnetopause shadowing. We also present the result of a low-density magnetic ejecta which impacted Earth in January 2013. Combining interplanetary, magnetosheath, outer magnetosphere and radiation belt measurements by more than ten satellites, including the Van Allen Probes, THEMIS and Cluster, we show how a period of extremely low Mach number and dynamic pressure during the passage of the magnetic cloud resulted in dramatic losses in the outer radiation belt and a large-scale reorganization of the entire day-side magnetosphere.

  16. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  17. Cancer risk from low dose radiation depends directly on the organ mass in a general model of radiation-induced cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W

    2014-04-01

    Current methods of evaluating radiation-induced cancer risk depend on the organ dose but not explicitly on extensive quantities such as the organ mass. However, at the same organ dose, one may expect the larger number of cells in a larger organ to lead to a higher cancer risk. Here the author introduces organ- and radiation type-specific cell cancer risk coefficients and obtains analytical relations between cancer risk and the radiation environment, which contains the dependence of cancer risk on organ masses. The excess cancer risk induced by low dose radiation for an organ is shown to be directly proportional to the organ mass. Therefore the total excess risk for all solid cancers depends directly on organ masses and consequently on body weight or size. This method is also being compared with three existing methods of evaluating the radiation-induced cancer risk, and special cases where this formulation matches each method are demonstrated. The results suggest that the direct dependence of cancer risk on organ masses needs to be checked against existing epidemiological data and, if verified, should be included in the methodology for the evaluation of radiation-induced cancer risk, in particular the individual risk. This dependence is also expected to affect the cancer risk transport from one population group to another that is different in organ mass, body weight or height. PMID:24562066

  18. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of...

  19. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of...

  20. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of...

  1. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a written report, in narrative form, when the diving installation is on a facility. The written report must...

  2. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... under control number 1625-0001)...

  3. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 46 CFR 4.05-12. (b) The written report required by paragraph (a) of this section... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of...

  4. Battlefield Documentation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John B; Smith, Michael P; Gross, Kirby R; Sauer, Samual W; Geracci, James J; Day, Charlie D; Kotwal, Russ S

    2016-01-01

    Performance improvement is reliant on information and data, as you cannot improve what you do not measure. The US military went to war in 2001 without an integrated trauma care system to collect and analyze combat casualty care data. By 2006, the conflict in Afghanistan began appreciating the capture and consolidation of hospital care documentation into the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. In contrast, a paucity of documentation has existed for prehospital or tactical combat casualty care (TCCC). Using the 75th Ranger casualty documentation model established in 2005, the Joint Trauma System developed a casualty data collection system for prehospital care using the TCCC Card, the TCCC After Action Report (AAR), and the Prehospital Trauma Registry. In 2013, this system was mandated for use by US forces in Afghanistan. The Joint Trauma System also created and deployed a prehospital team to be an integral part of the Joint Theater Trauma System in Afghanistan. This prehospital team provided prehospital training and facilitated prehospital data capture. Described and analyzed in this report are prehospital data captured in Afghanistan from 2013 to 2014 using the TCCC Card and the TCCC AAR. PMID:27215873

  5. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  6. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  7. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  8. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 169.807 Section 169.807 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... to mariners, radiograms sent and received, the radio log, and crew, sailing school...

  9. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Notice given as required by 33 CFR 160.215 satisfies the requirement of this section if the marine casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.204. (c) Except as otherwise required... by paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a report made pursuant to 33 CFR 153.203, 40 CFR 117.21, or...

  11. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Notice given as required by 33 CFR 160.215 satisfies the requirement of this section if the marine casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.204. (c) Except as otherwise required... by paragraph (a)(8) of this section, a report made pursuant to 33 CFR 153.203, 40 CFR 117.21, or...

  12. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in a marine casualty shall notify the nearest Sector Office, Marine Inspection Office, or Coast Guard... fire extinguishing systems, lifesaving equipment, auxiliary power generating equipment, or bilge... Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 185.203 satisfies the requirement of...

  13. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in a marine casualty shall notify the nearest Sector Office, Marine Inspection Office, or Coast Guard... fire extinguishing systems, lifesaving equipment, auxiliary power generating equipment, or bilge... Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 185.203 satisfies the requirement of...

  14. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.204. (c) Except as otherwise required... meets any criterion of paragraphs (a) (3) through (8); (3) A loss of main propulsion, primary steering..., lifesaving equipment, auxiliary power-generating equipment, or bilge-pumping systems; (5) A loss of life;...

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... casualty involves a hazardous condition as defined by 33 CFR 160.203. (c) Except as otherwise required... meets any criterion of paragraphs (a) (3) through (8); (3) A loss of main propulsion, primary steering..., lifesaving equipment, auxiliary power-generating equipment, or bilge-pumping systems; (5) A loss of life;...

  16. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS...) The radio log. (14) Personnel list. (15) Crane record book. (c) The owner, agent, master, or person...

  17. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS...) The radio log. (14) Personnel list. (15) Crane record book. (c) The owner, agent, master, or person...

  18. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS...) The radio log. (14) Personnel list. (15) Crane record book. (c) The owner, agent, master, or person...

  19. 46 CFR 109.415 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 109.415 Section 109.415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS...) The radio log. (14) Personnel list. (15) Crane record book. (c) The owner, agent, master, or person...

  20. Limits on luminosity and mass accretion rate of a radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinwu; Gu, Wei-Min

    2015-04-01

    There is a maximum for the gravity of a black hole in the vertical direction in the accretion disc. Outflows may probably be driven from the disc if the radiation flux of the disc is greater than a critical value corresponding to the maximal vertical gravity. We find that outflows are driven by the radiation force from the disc if the dimensionless mass accretion rate at the outer radius dot{m}_out≳ 1 (dot{m}=dot{m}/dot{m}_Edd, dot{m} is the mass accretion rate, dot{m}_Edd=L_Edd/0.1c^2, and LEdd is the Eddington luminosity). Assuming the outflow to be strong to carry away sufficient gas from the disc surface, we find that the radiation of the disc is limited by such outflows. The disc luminosity, L_disc/L_Edd∝ ln dot{m}_out, at large-dot{m}_out cases. The Eddington ratio of the disc is ˜3 for dot{m}_out˜ 100, which is significantly lower than that of a conventional slim disc without outflows (but it is comparable with that given in the study by Kawaguchi). This implies that the emission from some ultraluminous X-ray sources with highly super Eddington luminosity should be Doppler beamed, or intermediate-mass black holes are in these sources instead of stellar mass black holes. The spectra of the discs surrounding massive black holes with outflows are saturated in the high-frequency end provided dot{m}_out≳ 2. We suggest that the saturated emission can be observed to estimate the masses of the black holes accreting at high rates, such as the narrow-line Seyfert galaxies, with the model calculations. The rate of the mass accreted by the black hole always dot{m}_in˜eq dot{m}_Edd even if the mass accretion rate at the outer radius dot{m}_out≫ dot{m}_Edd, because most of the gas is removed into the outflows by the radiation force. If this is the case, the luminous quasars at high redshifts z ≳ 6 should have grown up through persistent accretion at a rate close to the Eddington rate.

  1. Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

  2. Analysis of Mass Loss of a Polymeric Composite under Space Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric materials find ever-widening application in space technique. This is tied with the simplicity of producing the polymeric-based composites with the predetermined set of properties. However, these materials in space become the sources of volatile products that increase density of spacecraft outer atmosphere that undermines on serviceability of the on-board equipment. Therefore, study of mass loss of spacecraft materials in service conditions is a vital task. Polymeric composites are often used as thermal control coatings (TCC), which are subjected to maximum radiation exposure in service. It is known that irradiation of a PC is accompanied by intense gas formation but evolution of volatile products (VP) through the material-vacuum surface is limited by diffusion. Well-developed surface together with little thickness of a TCC film facilitate migration of radiolysis products to free coating surface. In this case outgassing and destruction of material augment permeability of the film, accelerate migration processes and make them easier. This work is devoted to studying action of separate (electron, proton, and electromagnetic), paired, and the whole set of radiations on mass loss of a pattern material in vacuum. The primary focus was on studying and interpretation of synergistic effects appearing in the course of mass loss of the pattern materials EKOM-1 and EKOM-2 polymeric composites, the widely used spacecraft TCC. Irradiation was made by 20-50-keV electrons and 20-keV protons and electromagnetic radiation in vacuum chamber of the UV-1/2 test facility. It was found that parameters characterizing the synergistic effects of mass loss of the material for fixed conditions of electron-proton and combined radiations are the functions of irradiation time. To interpret the experimental data, a physical-mathematical model of mass loss of polymeric materials in vacuum was proposed. The obtained data can be explained by diffusion fluxes associated with the gradient of

  3. Dynamic Universe Model predicts frequency shifting in electromagnetic radiation near gravitating masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model studies the light rays and other electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass. This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. Change in frequency depends on relative direction between ray and the Gravitating mass. Here in this paper we will mathematically derive the results and show these predictions. Dynamic Universe Model uses a new type of Tensor. There are no differential or integral equations here. No singularities and body to body collisions in this model. Many papers were published in USA and CANADA. See Dynamic Universe Model Blog for further details and papers Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Hubble Space telescope (HST), SITA simulations , singularity-free cosmology,

  4. Astrophysical constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos with mass between 10 and 100 eV/c-squared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, R.; Bowyer, S.; Jakobsen, P.

    1981-01-01

    Upper limits to astronomical photon backgrounds are used to derive constraints on the radiative lifetime of neutrinos. With the assumption that the radiative decay dominates the decay routes available, comparisons with predicted fluxes exclude radiative lifetimes between 10 to the 13th and 10 to the 22nd-23rd sec for neutrinos which decay to lighter neutrinos and 5-50 eV photons. For a secondary neutrino mass much less than the parent neutrino mass, this photon-energy range corresponds to a parent-neutrino-mass range of 10-100 eV/c-squared.

  5. Episodic Mass Loss on the Timescale of Thermal Pulses: Radiative Transfer Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Angela; Nenkova, Maia; Meixner, Margaret; Eltizur, Moshe; Knapp, Gillian

    Using far-infrared observations obtained from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have discovered extremely large dust shells around two post-AGB stars (the Egg Nebula and AFGL 618; Speck, Meixner & Knapp 2001). These circumstellar shells contain the fossil record of their previous AGB mass loss. The radial profiles of these dust shells suggest that episodic mass loss has occurred with mass-loss enhancements on timescales corresponding to theoretical predictions of thermal pulses on the AGB. By modeling the dust emission, we can constrain how the mass loss varies as stars evolve on the AGB, which will constrain the mass-loss mechanisms. Furthermore this modeling allows the determination of the density distribution of the dust around the protoplanetary nebulae as a function of radius. However, modeling such large dust shells is not trivial. Previous studies of very large circumstellar shells showed that most of the outer shell is heated by the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) rather than the central star. Therefore using radiative transfer models with only the central star heating the dust is unrealistic. Furthermore, where the circumstellar shell ploughs into the surrounding interstellar medium may lead to a pile up of material at the outer edge of the dust shell. We present results of modeling the very large dust shells around the Egg Nebula and AFGL 618 using a version of the 1-d radiative transfer code DUSTY which includes external heating of the dust by the ISRF. The models require that the innermost regions has a rapid (1r3) dust density drop-off, indicative of the increased mass-loss rate towards the end of the AGB. Further out, the dust shell has an underlying 1r2 density drop-off, with two superimposed density enhancements. These results provide constraints on the spatial extent of increased density regions and therefore on the duration of increased mass-loss episodes. Furthermore, the modeling suggests that the mass loss rate was either higher in

  6. On radiative corrections to supersymmetric Higgs boson masses and their implications for LEP searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio

    1991-06-01

    We present calculations of the one-loop radiative corrections to the mass of the neutral CP-odd Higgs boson (A) in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, as well as to the neutral CP-even Higgs (h, H) masses and mixing angles. We use these results to recalculate the cross-sections for Higgs production at LEP in the h+(Z*+ff), h(H)Z0 and h(H)A final states. We delineate the domains of parameter space accessible at LEP I at the Z0 peak and at LEP II with a center-of-mass energy of 180, 190 or 200 GeV. On leave from Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua, Italy.

  7. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  8. Prompt Radiation and Mass Outflows from the Stream–Stream Collisions of Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Guillochon, James; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    Stream–stream collisions play an important role in the circularization of highly eccentric streams that result from tidal disruption events (TDEs). We perform three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to show that stream collisions can contribute significant optical and ultraviolet light to the flares produced by TDEs, and can explain the majority of the observed emission. Our simulations focus on the region near the radiation-pressure-dominated shock produced by a collision and track how the kinetic energy of the stream is dissipated by the associated shock. When the mass flow rate of the stream \\dot{M} is a significant fraction of the Eddington accretion rate, ≳2% of the initial kinetic energy is converted to radiation as a result of the collision. In this regime, the collision redistributes the specific kinetic energy into the downstream gas and more than 16% of the mass can become unbound. The fraction of unbound gas decreases rapidly as \\dot{M} drops significantly below the Eddington limit, with no unbound gas being produced when \\dot{M} drops to 1% of Eddington; we find, however, that the radiative efficiency increases slightly to ≲8% in these cases of low \\dot{M}. The effective radiation temperature and size of the photosphere are determined by the stream velocity and \\dot{M}, and we find them to be a few times 104 K and 1014 cm in our calculations, comparable to the values inferred for some TDE candidates. The size of the photosphere is directly proportional to \\dot{M}, which can explain its rapidly changing size as seen in TDE candidates such as PS1-10jh.

  9. Study of mass loss of spacecraft polymeric thermal control coatings under electron and proton radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev; Galygin, Alexander

    Polymeric composites have a number of properties that give a possibility to apply them as spacecraft external coatings. In space environment, however, such materials become one of the main sources of volatile products that form the outer spacecraft atmosphere and are able to con-dense on contamination-sensitive surfaces of onboard equipment. Thermal control coatings oc-cupy a considerable part of a satellite surface and are mostly subjected to ionizing radiations ac-companying by outgassing. The main stages of the process are the following: formation of vola-tile radiolysis products, diffusion of the products to free material surface, and desorption. Radia-tion-induced destruction and outgassing of material increase its permeability and accelerate mi-gration processes in it. Experimental data of effect of radiation on mass loss of polymeric composites used as thermal control coatings was analyzed and interpreted in the work. As a particular case, it was shown that mass loss of a polymeric composite irradiated by protons is greater than by electrons if energies and flux densities of the particles are the same. It can be explained that volatile products, in the first case, generate within a thin near-surface layer of material which permeability increases together with the absorbed dose, and quickly escape in vacuum. In the second case, a bulk of volatile products emerges far enough from the free surface of material which permeability increases slower as compared with proton radiation. Therefore, migration time of volatile products to the free surface grows and quantity of chemical reactions which they are involved in increases. To analyze and interpret experimental data, a mathematical model describing mass loss of polymeric composites subject to its growth of permeability under radiation is proposed. Based upon analysis of experiments and numerical simulation results, thresholds of fluen-cies and flux densities of electron and proton were determined. Exceeding these

  10. Integration of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Into the National Tactical Emergency Medical Support Competency Domains.

    PubMed

    Pennardt, Andre; Kamin, Rich; Llewellyn, Craig; Shapiro, Geoff; Carmona, Philip A; Schwartz, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Tactical emergency medical support (TEMS) is a critical component of the out-of-hospital response to domestic high-threat incidents such as hostage scenarios, warrant service, active shooter or violent incidents, terrorist attacks, and other intentional mass casualty-producing acts. From its grass-roots inception in the form of medical support of select law enforcement special weapons and tactics (SWAT) units in the 1980s, the TEMS subspecialty of prehospital care has rapidly grown and evolved over the past 40 years. The National TEMS Initiative and Council (NTIC) competencies and training objectives are the only published recommendations of their kind and offer the opportunity for national standardization of TEMS training programs and a future accreditation process. Building on the previous work of the NTIC and the creation of acknowledged competency domains for TEMS and the acknowledged civilian translation of TCCC by the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC), the Joint Review Committee (JRC) has created an opportunity to bring forward the work in a form that could be operationally useful in an all-hazards and whole of community format. PMID:27450605

  11. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  12. Center of mass and spin for isolated sources of gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozameh, Carlos N.; Quiroga, Gonzalo D.

    2016-03-01

    We define the center of mass and spin of an isolated system in general relativity. The resulting relationships between these variables and the total linear and angular momentum of the gravitational system are remarkably similar to their Newtonian counterparts, though only variables at the null boundary of an asymptotically flat spacetime are used for their definition. We also derive equations of motion linking their time evolution to the emitted gravitational radiation. The results are then compared to other approaches. In particular, one obtains unexpected similarities as well as some differences with results obtained in the post-Newtonian literature. These equations of motion should be useful when describing the radiation emitted by compact sources, such as coalescing binaries capable of producing gravitational kicks, supernovas, or scattering of compact objects.

  13. Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong-Pu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Feng; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-01-25

    By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the electromagnetic emission from radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin mass-limited foils. When a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiates the foil, the laser radiation pressure pushes the foil forward as a whole. The outer wings of the pulse continue to propagate and act as a natural undulator. Electrons move together with ions longitudinally but oscillate around the latter transversely, forming a self-organized helical electron bunch. When the electron oscillation frequency coincides with the laser frequency as witnessed by the electron, betatronlike resonance occurs. The emitted x rays by the resonant electrons have high brightness, short durations, and broad band ranges which may have diverse applications.

  14. Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

  15. Development and application of a 3-D geometry/mass model for LDEF satellite ionizing radiation assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colborn, B. L.; Armstong, T. W.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional geometry and mass model of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) spacecraft and experiment trays was developed for use in predictions and data interpretation related to ionizing radiation measurements. The modeling approach, level of detail incorporated, example models for specific experiments and radiation dosimeters, and example applications of the model are described.

  16. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study.

    PubMed

    Jablon, S

    1985-05-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification.

  17. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode

  18. Detection of Radiation-Exposure Biomarkers by Differential Mobility Prefiltered Mass Spectrometry (DMS-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Coy, Stephen L.; Krylov, Evgeny V.; Schneider, Bradley B.; Covey, Thomas R.; Brenner, David J.; Tyburski, John B.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Krausz, Kris W.; Fornace, Albert J.; Nazarov, Erkinjon G.

    2010-01-01

    Technology to enable rapid screening for radiation exposure has been identified as an important need, and, as a part of a NIH / NIAD effort in this direction, metabolomic biomarkers for radiation exposure have been identified in a recent series of papers. To reduce the time necessary to detect and measure these biomarkers, differential mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) systems have been developed and tested. Differential mobility ion filters preselect specific ions and also suppress chemical noise created in typical atmospheric-pressure ionization sources (ESI, MALDI, and others). Differential-mobility-based ion selection is based on the field dependence of ion mobility, which, in turn, depends on ion characteristics that include conformation, charge distribution, molecular polarizability, and other properties, and on the transport gas composition which can be modified to enhance resolution. DMS-MS is able to resolve small-molecule biomarkers from nearly-isobaric interferences, and suppresses chemical noise generated in the ion source and in the mass spectrometer, improving selectivity and quantitative accuracy. Our planar DMS design is rapid, operating in a few milliseconds, and analyzes ions before fragmentation. Depending on MS inlet conditions, DMS-selected ions can be dissociated in the MS inlet expansion, before mass analysis, providing a capability similar to MS/MS with simpler instrumentation. This report presents selected DMS-MS experimental results, including resolution of complex test mixtures of isobaric compounds, separation of charge states, separation of isobaric biomarkers (citrate and isocitrate), and separation of nearly-isobaric biomarker anions in direct analysis of a bio-fluid sample from the radiation-treated group of a mouse-model study. These uses of DMS combined with moderate resolution MS instrumentation indicate the feasibility of field-deployable instrumentation for biomarker evaluation. PMID:20305793

  19. Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices

  20. Implementing and preserving the advances in combat casualty care from Iraq and Afghanistan throughout the US Military.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K; Smith, David J; Carmona, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts. This article contains recommendations designed to accomplish those goals. For the proposed actions to benefit all branches of our armed services, the direction will need to come from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in partnership with the Joint Staff. Effective translation of military advances in prehospital trauma care may also increase survival for law enforcement officers wounded in the line of duty and for civilian victims of Active Shooter or terrorist-related mass-casualty incidents.

  1. Implementing and preserving the advances in combat casualty care from Iraq and Afghanistan throughout the US Military.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K; Smith, David J; Carmona, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts. This article contains recommendations designed to accomplish those goals. For the proposed actions to benefit all branches of our armed services, the direction will need to come from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in partnership with the Joint Staff. Effective translation of military advances in prehospital trauma care may also increase survival for law enforcement officers wounded in the line of duty and for civilian victims of Active Shooter or terrorist-related mass-casualty incidents. PMID:26218704

  2. Gauge B-L model of radiative neutrino mass with multipartite dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2016-08-01

    We propose an extension of the Standard Model of quarks and leptons to include gauge B-L symmetry with an exotic array of neutral fermion singlets for anomaly cancellation. With the addition of suitable scalars also transforming under U(1)B-L, this becomes a model of radiative seesaw neutrino mass with possible multipartite dark matter. If leptoquark fermions are added, necessarily also transforming under U(1)B-L, the diphoton excess at 750 GeV, recently observed at the Large Hadron Collider, may also be explained.

  3. Impact of semi-annihilation of Bbb Z3 symmetric dark matter with radiative neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Mayumi; Toma, Takashi

    2014-09-01

    We investigate a Bbb Z3 symmetric model with two-loop radiative neutrino masses. Dark matter in the model is either a Dirac fermion or a complex scalar as a result of an unbroken Bbb Z3 symmetry. In addition to standard annihilation processes, semi-annihilation of the dark matter contributes to the relic density. We study the effect of the semi-annihilation in the model and find that those contributions are important to obtain the observed relic density. The experimental signatures in dark matter searches are also discussed, where some of them are expected to be different from the signatures of dark matter in Bbb Z2 symmetric models.

  4. Spectroscopic investigations of a field emission generated radiative zone: Mass spectroscopic measurements. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterauer, J.

    1981-10-01

    In view of the application of liquid metal field ion sources as electric thrustors for space propulsion, the basic physical features of the field ionization mechanism were analyzed experimentally. An ultrahigh vacuum test chamber and a liquid metal ion source were built. Diagnostic methods, e.g., basic measurements of the emission characteristics, probe measurements of the ion current distribution, mass spectroscopic measurements of the particles emitted from the ion source, and spectroscopic measurements of the visible radiation accompanying field ionization, were developed. Experimental data which can be transferred to prototype field ion thrusters are presented, but experimental facilities limit conclusions regarding theoretical aspects of field ionization.

  5. PQ-symmetry for a small Dirac neutrino mass, dark radiation and cosmic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Wan-Il

    2014-06-01

    We propose a supersymmetric scenario in which the small Yukawa couplings for the Dirac neutrino mass term are generated by the spontaneous-breaking of Pecci-Quinn symmetry. In this scenario, a right amount of dark matter relic density can be obtained by either right-handed sneutrino or axino LSP, and a sizable amount of axion dark radiation can be obtained. Interestingly, the decay of right-handed sneutrino NLSP to axino LSP is delayed to around the present epoch, and can leave an observable cosmological background of neutrinos at the energy scale of O(10−100) GeV.

  6. Radiative decay of keV-mass sterile neutrinos in a strongly magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Alexandra A.; Mikheev, Nicolay V.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2014-12-01

    The radiative decay of sterile neutrinos with typical masses of 10 keV is investigated in the presence of a strong magnetic field and degenerate plasma. A full account is taken of the strongly modified photon dispersion relation relative to vacuum. The limiting cases of relativistic and nonrelativistic plasma are analyzed. The decay rate in a strongly magnetized plasma as a function of the electron number density is compared with the unmagnetized case. We find that a strong magnetic field suppresses the catalyzing influence of the plasma on the decay rate.

  7. The use of multiple intraosseous catheters in combat casualty resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debjeet; Philbeck, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    During the current military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, establishing intravenous (IV) access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties remains a persistent challenge. Intraosseous (IO) access has emerged as a viable alternative in resuscitation. In this case report, a 19 year-old male soldier was severely wounded by a roadside bomb in Iraq. Given the heavy initial blood loss, anatomic location of the injuries and gross wound contamination, peripheral IV access could not be established. Instead, multiple IO catheters were used to initiate fluid resuscitation prior to transfer to a combat support hospital. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such extensive usage of IO catheters. Multiple IO catheters can be placed rapidly and safely and may help solve the challenge of establishing vascular access for resuscitation of critically injured casualties. PMID:19317188

  8. Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as trigger for the Mesozoic radiation of crocodylomorphs.

    PubMed

    Toljagic, Olja; Butler, Richard J

    2013-06-23

    Pseudosuchia, one of the two main clades of Archosauria (Reptilia: Diapsida), suffered a major decline in lineage diversity during the Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (approx. 201 Ma). Crocodylomorpha, including living crocodilians and their extinct relatives, is the only group of pseudosuchians that survived into the Jurassic. We reassess changes in pseudosuchian morphological diversity (disparity) across this time interval, using considerably larger sample sizes than in previous analyses. Our results show that metrics of pseudosuchian disparity did not change significantly across the TJ boundary, contrasting with previous work suggesting low pseudosuchian disparity in the Early Jurassic following the TJ mass extinction. However, a significant shift in morphospace occupation between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa is recognized, suggesting that the TJ extinction of many pseudosuchian lineages was followed by a major and geologically rapid adaptive radiation of crocodylomorphs. This marks the onset of the spectacularly successful evolutionary history of crocodylomorphs in Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems.

  9. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  10. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  11. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range. PMID:21231094

  12. Mass Spectrometry of 3D-printed plastic parts under plasma and radiative heat environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.; Takeno, J.; Knop, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the design and preliminary results of a mass spectrometry system used to assess vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed parts, developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory of the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). A decrease in outgassing was observed when electroplated parts were inserted in the test chamber vs. non electroplated ones. Outgassing will also be tested under different environments such as plasma and radiative heat. Heat will be generated by a titanium getter pump placed inside a 90 degree elbow, such that titanium does not coat the part. A mirror inside the elbow will be used to throttle the heat arriving at the part. Plasma exposure of 3D printed parts will be achieved by placing the parts in a separate chamber connected to the spectrometer by a vacuum line that is differentially pumped. The signals from the mass spectrometer will be analyzed to see how the vacuum conditions fluctuate under different plasma discharges.

  13. Normalizing the thermal effects of radiofrequency radiation: body mass versus total body surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current guideline for exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 0.4 W/kg may have inadvertently been set too high. The guideline is based on the rate of RFR absorption normalized with respect to body mass. Based primarily on data for work stoppage in the rat, the 0.4 W/kg guideline was calculated by the dividing the 4.0 W/kg dose by a safety factor of 10. However, if the RFR dose in the rat had been normalized with respect to surface area rather than body mass, the exposure guideline would be 2.3 W/sq m which translates, for a 80 kg adult, to an SAR of approximately 0.06 W/kg. Thus, the current RF exposure guideline may be several-fold greater than originally intended.

  14. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  15. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  16. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  17. Investigation of work zone crash casualty patterns using association rules.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jinxian; Zhu, Jia-Zheng; Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the casualty crash characteristics and contributory factors is one of the high-priority issues in traffic safety analysis. In this paper, we propose a method based on association rules to analyze the characteristics and contributory factors of work zone crash casualties. A case study is conducted using the Michigan M-94/I-94/I-94BL/I-94BR work zone crash data from 2004 to 2008. The obtained association rules are divided into two parts including rules with high-lift, and rules with high-support for the further analysis. The results show that almost all the high-lift rules contain either environmental or occupant characteristics. The majority of association rules are centered on specific characteristics, such as drinking driving, the highway with more than 4 lanes, speed-limit over 40mph and not use of traffic control devices. It should be pointed out that some stronger associated rules were found in the high-support part. With the network visualization, the association rule method can provide more understandable results for investigating the patterns of work zone crash casualties. PMID:27038500

  18. Radiation-reaction in classical off-shell electrodynamics. I. The above mass-shell case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonovich, I.; Horwitz, L. P.

    2012-03-01

    Offshell electrodynamics based on a manifestly covariant off-shell relativistic dynamics of Stueckelberg, Horwitz, and Piron, is five-dimensional. In this paper, we study the problem of radiation reaction of a particle in motion in this framework. In particular, the case of above-mass-shell is studied in detail, where the renormalization of the Lorentz force leads to a system of non-linear differential equations for 3 Lorentz scalars. The system is then solved numerically, where it is shown that the mass-shell deviation scalar ɛ either smoothly falls down to 0 (this result provides a mechanism for the mass stability of the off-shell theory), or strongly diverges under more extreme conditions. In both cases, no runaway motion is observed. Stability analysis indicates that the system seems to have chaotic behavior. It is also shown that, although a motion under which the mass-shell deviation ɛ is constant but not-zero, is indeed possible, but, it is unstable, and eventually it either decays to 0 or diverges.

  19. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  20. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. II. THE RADIATIVE COOLING CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Michael, Scott; McConnell, Caitlin R.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: carmccon@indiana.edu

    2013-05-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protoplanetary disk subject to gravitational instabilities (GIs) at a time of approximate balance between heating produced by the GIs and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine cooling times, characterize GI-driven spiral waves and their resultant gravitational torques, and evaluate how accurately mass transport can be represented by an {alpha}-disk formulation. Four simulations, identical except for azimuthal resolution, are conducted with a grid-based three-dimensional hydrodynamics code. There are two regions in which behaviors differ as resolution increases. The inner region, which contains 75% of the disk mass and is optically thick, has long cooling times and is well converged in terms of various measures of structure and mass transport for the three highest resolutions. The longest cooling times coincide with radii where the Toomre Q has its minimum value. Torques are dominated in this region by two- and three-armed spirals. The effective {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses is typically a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and is only roughly consistent with local balance of heating and cooling when time-averaged over many dynamic times and a wide range of radii. On the other hand, the outer disk region, which is mostly optically thin, has relatively short cooling times and does not show convergence as resolution increases. Treatment of unstable disks with optical depths near unity with realistic radiative transport is a difficult numerical problem requiring further study. We discuss possible implications of our results for numerical convergence of fragmentation criteria in disk simulations.

  1. Earthquakes and crush syndrome casualties: lessons learned from the Kashmir disaster.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, R; van der Tol, A; De Smet, M; Hoste, E; Koç, M; Hussain, A; Khan, S; Sever, M S

    2007-01-01

    Major earthquakes may provoke a substantial number of crush casualties complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI). After the 1988 Armenian earthquake, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) to organize renal care in large disasters; this approach proved to be useful in several recent disasters. This paper depicts the organizational aspects of the rescue intervention during the Kashmir earthquake, in 2005. Specific problems were fierce geographic circumstances, lack of pre-registered local keymen, transportation problems, and inexperience of local teams to cope with problems related to mass disasters. Once treatment was installed, global outcomes were favorable. It is concluded that well-organized international help in renal disasters can be effective in saving many lives, but still necessitates conceptual adaptations owing to specific local circumstances.

  2. A new methodology for estimating nuclear casualties as a function of time.

    PubMed

    Zirkle, Robert A; Walsh, Terri J; Disraelly, Deena S; Curling, Carl A

    2011-09-01

    The Human Response Injury Profile (HRIP) nuclear methodology provides an estimate of casualties occurring as a consequence of nuclear attacks against military targets for planning purposes. The approach develops user-defined, time-based casualty and fatality estimates based on progressions of underlying symptoms and their severity changes over time. This paper provides a description of the HRIP nuclear methodology and its development, including inputs, human response and the casualty estimation process. PMID:21799345

  3. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin ("Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry" [1], "UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis" [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D(290)VDGAYMTK(298) (P1) and N(258)MQDMVEDYR(267) (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met(259), Met(262), and Met(296) in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

  4. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D290VDGAYMTK298 (P1) and N258MQDMVEDYR267 (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met259, Met262, and Met296 in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  5. Multi-Injury Casualty Stream Simulation in a Shipboard Combat Environment.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Edwin; Wing, Vern; Zouris, James; Vickers, Ross; Lawnick, Mary; Galarneau, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate forecasts of casualty streams are essential for estimating personnel and materiel requirements for future naval combat engagements. The scarcity of recent naval combat data makes accurate forecasting difficult. Furthermore, current forecasts are based on single injuries only, even though empirical evidence indicates most battle casualties suffer multiple injuries. These anticipated single-injury casualty streams underestimate the needed medical resources. This article describes a method of simulating realistic multi-injury casualty streams in a maritime environment by combining available shipboard data with ground combat blast data. The simulations, based on the Military Combat Injury Scale, are expected to provide a better tool for medical logistics planning. PMID:26741479

  6. Assessing surge capacity for radiation victims with marrow toxicity.

    PubMed

    Davids, Matthew S; Case, Cullen; Hornung, Raymond; Chao, Nelson J; Chute, John P; Coleman, C Norman; Weisdorf, Daniel; Confer, Dennis L; Weinstock, David M

    2010-10-01

    Hematologists/oncologists would provide essential care for victims of a catastrophic radiation incident, such as the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND). The US Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN) is a voluntary consortium of 37 academic medical centers, 8 blood donor centers, and 7 umbilical cord banks focused on preparedness for radiation incidents. The RITN conducted 2 tabletop exercises to evaluate response capability after a hypothetical IND detonation in a U.S. city. In the 2008 exercise, medical centers voluntarily accepted 1757 victims at their institutions, a small fraction of the number in need. In the 2009 exercise, each center was required to accept 300 victims. In response, the centers outlined multiple strategies to increase bed availability, extend staff and resources, and support family and friends accompanying transferred victims. The exercises highlighted shortcomings in current planning and future steps for improving surge capacity that are applicable to various mass casualty scenarios. PMID:20399880

  7. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles from Dyonic Reissner-Nordström Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyse the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed in reading the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  8. Radiation-hydrodynamic Model of High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čechura, J.; Hadrava, P.

    2014-10-01

    The topic of circumstellar matter in the X-ray binaries and its spectroscopic diagnostics is addressed by method of generating synthetic Dopplerograms for direct comparison with observations. The presented results were obtained using our improved three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic model of the stellar wind in HMXBs. We use the model to simulate dynamics, anisotropy and other characteristics of the wind, e.g. the density distribution and ionization structure. We adopt parameters of Cygnus X-1 in our simulations and use the Doppler tomography to probe the structure of radiation-emitting material in the system. We introduce a data interpretation method of observed Doppler tomograms via direct comparison with synthetic Dopplerograms obtained from our model. We test the reliability of the model as well as set constrains on various physical parameters and processes, e.g. the accretion rate. We take into account the Coriolis force, the ionization structure of the medium, the gravity darkening, and we investigate the effects these phenomena have on the accretion process. E.g. the Coriolis force substantially influences the mass-loss of the donor and by that the accretion rate of the compact companion. Additionally, focusing of the stellar wind by the gravitational field of the compact companion leads to the formation of an unstable gaseous tail behind the companion. This tail shows signs of quasi-periodic oscillations and its existence presents us with other means to explain the switching mechanism among the various X-ray states.

  9. RADIATION PRESSURE AND MASS EJECTION IN {rho}-LIKE STATES OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a unifying scenario to address the physical origin of the diversity of X-ray light curves within the {rho} variability class of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This 'heartbeat' state is characterized by a bright flare that recurs every {approx}50-100 s, but the profile and duration of the flares vary significantly from observation to observation. Based on a comprehensive, phase-resolved study of heartbeats in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive, we demonstrate that very different X-ray light curves do not require origins in different accretion processes. Indeed, our detailed comparison of the phase-resolved spectra of a double-peaked oscillation and a single-peaked oscillation shows that different cycles can have basically similar X-ray spectral evolution. We argue that all heartbeat oscillations can be understood as the result of a combination of a thermal-viscous radiation pressure instability, a local Eddington limit in the disk, and a sudden, radiation-pressure-driven evaporation or ejection event in the inner accretion disk. This ejection appears to be a universal, fundamental part of the {rho} state, and is largely responsible for a hard X-ray pulse seen in the light curve of all cycles. We suggest that the detailed shape of oscillations in the mass accretion rate through the disk is responsible for the phenomenological differences between different {rho}-type light curves, and we discuss how future time-dependent simulations of disk instabilities may provide new insights into the role of radiation pressure in the accretion flow.

  10. Paper and people: the work of the casualty reception clerk.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D

    1989-12-01

    This paper examines the exercise of discretion by casualty reception staff, focussing on the problems of accountability that arise when their judgements help shape the process of patient categorization that culminates in clinical diagnosis. Rules and guidelines which ostensibly relate to bureaucratic objectives, are applied in ways which reflect situational exigencies of reception work, and values embedded in organisational culture. But reception staff are reluctant to acknowledge the importance of their decisions, and, particularly where judgements relate to patient condition, present rule-use as a straightforward and certain activity in which interpretation plays little part. PMID:10304220

  11. The Formation of the First Stars. II. Radiative Feedback Processes and Implications for the Initial Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Christopher F.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2008-07-01

    We consider the radiative feedback processes that operate during the formation of the first stars. (1) Photodissociation of H2 in the local dark matter minihalo occurs early in the growth of the protostar but does not affect subsequent accretion. (2) Lyα radiation pressure acting at the boundary of the H II region that the protostar creates in the accreting envelope reverses infall in the polar directions when the star reaches ~20-30 M⊙ but cannot prevent infall from other directions. (3) Expansion of the H II region beyond the gravitational escape radius for ionized gas occurs at masses ~50-100 M⊙. However, accretion from the equatorial regions can continue since the neutral accretion disk shields a substantial fraction of the accretion envelope from direct ionizing flux. (4) At higher stellar masses, ~140 M⊙ in the fiducial case, photoevaporation-driven mass loss from the disk, together with declining accretion rates, halts the increase in the protostellar mass. We identify this process as the mechanism that determines the mass of Population III.1 stars (i.e., stars with primordial composition that have not been affected by prior star formation). The initial mass function of these stars is set by the distribution of entropy and angular momentum. The Appendix gives approximate solutions to a number of problems relevant to the formation of the first stars: the effect of Rayleigh scattering on line profiles in media of very large optical depth, the intensity of Lyα radiation in very opaque media, radiative acceleration in terms of the gradient of a modified radiation pressure, the flux of radiation in a shell with an arbitrary distribution of opacity, and the vertical structure of an accretion disk supported by gas pressure with constant opacity.

  12. Laser ablation and ionisation by laser plasma radiation in the atmospheric-pressure mass spectrometry of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, A V; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Grechnikov, A A; Alimpiev, S S

    2013-01-31

    A new method was developed for the mass spectrometric analysis of organic and bioorganic compounds, which involves laser ablation with the ionisation of its products by laser-plasma radiation and enables analysing gaseous, liquid, and solid substances at atmospheric pressure without sample preparation. The capabilities of this method were demonstrated by the examples of fast pharmaceutical composition screening, real-time atmosphere composition analysis, and construction of the mass spectrometric images of organic compound distributions in biological materials. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  13. Lepton flavor violating decay of SM-like Higgs boson in a radiative neutrino mass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuc, T. T.; Hue, L. T.; Long, H. N.; Nguyen, T. Phong

    2016-06-01

    The lepton flavor violating decay of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson (LFVHD) is discussed in the framework of the radiative neutrino mass model built in [K. Nishiwaki, H. Okada, and Y. Orikasa, Phys. Rev. D 92, 093013 (2015)]. The branching ratio (BR) of the LFVHD is shown to reach 10-5 in the most interesting region of the parameter space shown in [K. Nishiwaki, H. Okada, and Y. Orikasa, Phys. Rev. D 92, 093013 (2015)]. The dominant contributions come from the singly charged Higgs mediations, namely, the coupling of h2± with exotic neutrinos. Furthermore, if the doubly charged Higgs boson is heavy enough to allow the mass of h2± around 1 TeV, the mentioned BR can reach 10-4 . In addition, we obtain that the large values of Br (h →μ τ ) lead to very small ones of Br (h →e τ ) , much smaller than the various sensitivities of current experiments.

  14. 46 CFR 122.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty for which a..., compass deviation cards, gyrocompass records, stowage plans, records of draft, aids to mariners, night... the cause of the casualty. The owner, agent, master, other officer, or person responsible for...

  15. Casualties from guided missile impact in warships from another point of view.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, C F

    1991-06-01

    From Kamikaze to Exocet, by learning from history a tool for casualty calculation in modern naval warfare is available, indicating absolute casualty figures per SS guided missile hit. The figures 35 wounded and 30 killed per hit ought to be used. PMID:1852281

  16. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  17. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  18. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  19. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  20. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  1. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  2. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  3. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  4. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  5. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  6. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...'s rules of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 4.40-15... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine...

  7. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of practice for transportation accident hearings in 49 CFR part 845 shall apply. (b) The Board shall... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS §...

  8. Drink-driver casualties in Victoria. Peak periods on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T; Hughes, E S

    1983-06-25

    Blood alcohol estimations are compulsory for all road accident casualties aged 15 years or older who present at public hospitals in Victoria. This article examines the results of blood alcohol estimations performed between 1978 and 1980 in casualties known to have been motor vehicle drivers (excluding motorcyclists). There were three times more male than female driver casualties. Blood alcohol levels in excess of the legal limit of 11 mmol/L (0.05 g/100 mL) were found in 36% of male and 12% of female driver casualties; in approximately half of these, blood alcohol levels exceeded 33 mmol/L (0.15 g/100 mL). Between Monday and Wednesday inclusive, the legal limit was exceeded in 19% of driver casualties. On Friday, Saturday and Sunday, the percentage of driver casualties with blood alcohol levels above the legal limit was 30%, 40%, and 32%, respectively. The percentage of male driver casualties with illegal blood alcohol levels was highest on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.), and attained 56%, 62%, and 65% respectively. Of all drink-driver casualties, 56% sustained their injuries on these three nights. These results direct attention to the need for improved driver education and behaviour, and for intensified law enforcement by traffic police during Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights. PMID:6855680

  9. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. 185.210 Section 185.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals...

  10. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  11. A redundant resource: a pre-planned casualty clearing station for a FIFA 2010 Stadium in Durban.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Rajen; Hendrikse, Steven; Gloster, Alex; Ramlal, Melvin; Ngema, Sibongiseni; Rowe, Michael

    2012-10-01

    This report details the background, planning, and establishment of a mass-casualty management area for the Durban Moses Mabhida Stadium at the Natal Mounted Rifles base, by the Department of Health and the eThekwini Fire and Rescue Service, for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup. The report discusses the use of the site during the seven matches played at that stadium, and details the aspects of mass-gathering major incident site planning for football (soccer). The area also was used as a treatment area for other single patient incidents outside of the stadium, but within the exclusion perimeter, and the 22 patients treated by the Casualty Clearing Station (CCS) team are described and briefly discussed. A site-specific patient presentation rate of 0.48 per 10,000 and transport-to-hospital rate (TTHR) of 0.09/10,000 are reported. Lessons learned and implications for future event planning are discussed in the light of the existing literature. PMID:22591650

  12. A redundant resource: a pre-planned casualty clearing station for a FIFA 2010 Stadium in Durban.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Rajen; Hendrikse, Steven; Gloster, Alex; Ramlal, Melvin; Ngema, Sibongiseni; Rowe, Michael

    2012-10-01

    This report details the background, planning, and establishment of a mass-casualty management area for the Durban Moses Mabhida Stadium at the Natal Mounted Rifles base, by the Department of Health and the eThekwini Fire and Rescue Service, for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup. The report discusses the use of the site during the seven matches played at that stadium, and details the aspects of mass-gathering major incident site planning for football (soccer). The area also was used as a treatment area for other single patient incidents outside of the stadium, but within the exclusion perimeter, and the 22 patients treated by the Casualty Clearing Station (CCS) team are described and briefly discussed. A site-specific patient presentation rate of 0.48 per 10,000 and transport-to-hospital rate (TTHR) of 0.09/10,000 are reported. Lessons learned and implications for future event planning are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  13. Late Ordovician graptolite mass mortality and subsequent early silurian re-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William B. N.; Wilde, Pat; Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.

    Late Ordovician graptolite mass mortality has been examined closely in only a few continuous stratal succession. These sections include those at Dob's Linn, Scotland; Anhui, China; and Mirny Creek, USSR. Correlations among these areas are not precise; however, many characteristic Late Ordovician graptolites appear to persist longer in the Anhui area than at either Dob's Linn or Mirny Creek. Graptolites disappear from the stratigraphic record more sharply at Dob's Linn than at the other localities. Lithologic and chemical aspects of the strata at each locality suggest that a significant environmental change occurred at the stratigraphic position at which the graptolites disappeared. That change appears to reflect both a diminution and a deterioration in environmental conditions under which the graptolites previously had flourished. The optimal conditions for graptolites appear to have been in low oxygen but bacteria-rich waters similar to those found in the modern Eastern Tropical Pacific. Areal reduction in those environments as well as reduction in food resources preferred by graptolites resulted in diminished graptolite populations. These reductions took place gradually in many parts of the world, generally commencing in high latitudes. The final Late Ordovician mortality, in the Tropics, may have been the result of introduction of toxins to graptolites or their food supply by local overturn and increased vertical advection from moderate depths. The timing of such events in the Tropics is non-synchronous, suggesting local environmental influences. Geochemical and lithologic evidence links the Late Ordovician graptolite mass extinction to progressive latitudinal habitat destruction commensurate with the final pulse of the Late Ordovician glaciation. Re-radiation of the surviving taxa in the Early Silurian followed deglaciation and redevelopment of marine environments preferred by graptolites.

  14. Impact of Saturn Main Ring Mass on interpretation of Pioneer 11 and Cassini SOI Radiation Measurements Across the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, Steven J.; Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Kollmann, Peter; Roussos, Elias; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    The Pioneer 11 (1979) and Cassini Orbiter (2004) missions measured the energetic particle and gamma ray flux environments across the A, B, and outer C rings of Saturn. This radiation originates as secondary proton, neutron, electron, and gamma ray emissions from the interaction of high-energy (> 20 GeV) galactic cosmic ray protons and other ions with bulk ice material in the rings and is sensitive to the surface mass density of the rings. The Pioneer 11 analysis from the University of Chicago High Energy Telescope, published in 1985, was consistent with a average surface density of about 50 g/cm2, assuming pure water ice, and a total ring mass of 2.7x10-8 Saturn masses (MS). This independently-derived value confirmed the post-Voyager result of 3x10-8 MS from radio and stellar occultations, and from observed damping of density waves in the rings. Although some later ring models in the Cassini mission era (2004 - present) allow for a greater mass by an order of magnitude, the latest density wave analysis from Cassini indicates that the Pioneer-Voyager value may be correct. GEANT radiation transport simulations have been performed to update the ring radiation model and enable ongoing assessments of the Pioneer 11 HET and Cassini MIMI/LEMMS responses to this radiation. The O2 gas production by radiation chemistry within the ring material is also estimated as a function of ring mass for comparison to Cassini and earlier measurements of the ring atmosphere and ionosphere. More massive rings would produce more O2.

  15. The neutral current sheet and its radiation pairs of side sources in coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shu-Chen

    Using the data observed with the soft X-ray telescope, hard X-ray telescope aboard on Yohkoh and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph on 1998 April 23, a comprehensive study on soft X-ray coronal mass ejection (SXRCME) and radio Type IV burst is carried out and some significant results are obtained as follows: A magnetic capacity belt (MCB) between two magnetic dipole sources (MDSs) was found and there were only a few activitation sources (ASs). During the MCB changed into a magnetic energy belt (MEB) by the ASs, activating energy and shining material both concentrated to the neutral current sheet (NCS) in the course of its formation. When two MDSs were put through by the MEB, the NCS formed and the SXRCME occurred. The matter ejected not only from the NCS, but also from the whole MEB. The expanding loop of the SXRCME had two foot points, both were just two MDSs. The head of the expanding loop always tended to the foot point of the weak source, because it was equilibrium point of magnetic pressures coming from two foot points. For this reason, its locus was neutral line. From this, the neutral line can also determine the position of NCS. Finally, the radiation pairs of side sources of NCS on the MEB are found.

  16. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  17. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    “There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning.” (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare. PMID:23372577

  18. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    PubMed

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare. PMID:23372577

  19. Definitive treatment of combat casualties at military medical centers.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Romney C; Frisch, H Michael; Farber, Gerald L; Hayda, Roman A

    2006-01-01

    More than 9,000 casualties have been evacuated during the current conflict, and more than 40,000 orthopaedic surgical procedures have been performed. The most severely injured patients are treated in the United States at military medical centers. Individualized reconstructive plans are developed, and patients are treated with state-of-the-art techniques. Rehabilitation includes the assistance of the physical medicine and rehabilitation, physical therapy, and occupational therapy services, as well as, when necessary, psychiatric or other services. The extreme challenges of treating war-related soft-tissue defects include neurovascular injuries, burns, heterotopic ossification, infection, prolonged recovery, and persistent pain. Such injuries do not allow full restoration of function. Because of such devastating injuries, and despite use of up-to-date methods, outcomes can be less than optimal.

  20. Health care emergency management: establishing the science of managing mass casualty and mass effect incidents.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Anthony G; Barbera, Joseph A; Brewster, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Particularly since 2001, the health care industry has witnessed many independent and often competing efforts to address mitigation and preparedness for emergencies. Clinicians, health care administrators, engineers, safety and security personnel, and others have each developed relatively independent efforts to improve emergency response. A broader conceptual approach through the development of a health care emergency management profession should be considered to integrate these various critical initiatives. When based on long-standing emergency management principles and practices, health care emergency management provides standardized, widely accepted management principles, application concepts, and terminology. This approach could also promote health care integration into the larger community emergency response system. The case for a formally defined health care emergency management profession is presented with discussion points outlining the advantages of this approach. PMID:19491589

  1. Toxicological mass disaster management - a hospital deployment scheme.

    PubMed

    Baniel, J; Ram, Z; Kami, A; Schindel, D

    1986-09-01

    Toxicological mass disasters have occurred frequently in past years and constitute a permanent threat in urban areas. From the standpoint of hospital planning, special consideration is required to treat a large number of poisoned casualties in a relatively short period. Several unique medical aspects characterize toxicological mass disasters: casualties present a single disease entity with many "borderline" cases, most medical personnel are unfamiliar with the problem and casualties present a potential contamination hazard to the hospital. A hospital deployment scheme is presented recommending Decontamination, Triage and simple Treatment Algorithms to meet the medical and organizational challenge of such a mass casualty situation. A further specific deployment scheme for treatment of organophosphorus agents poisoning is described to illustrate the principles presented.

  2. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  3. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  4. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  5. Estimating shaking-induced casualties and building damage for global earthquake events: a proposed modelling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    So, Emily; Spence, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7.0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6.9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found.

  6. Care of the Burn Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C

    2015-01-01

    Burns are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some burn injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for burn casualties. Stopping the burning process, total burn surface area (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill burn casualty.

  7. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain

  8. First Order Chemical Reaction Effects on Exponentially Accelerated Vertical Plate with Variable Mass Diffusion in the Presence of Thermal Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthucumaraswamy, R.; Lakshmi, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Effects of transfer of mass and free convection on the flow field of an incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass diffusion are studied. Results for velocity, concentration, temperature are obtained by solving governing equations using the Laplace transform technique. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing values of the chemical reaction parameter or radiation parameter. But the trend is just reversed with respect to the time parameter. The skin friction is also studied.

  9. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  10. Development of Radiation-Tolerant, Low Mass, High Bandwidth Flexible Printed Circuit Cables for Particle Detection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Design options for meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment at the High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described. Two dielectric materials were considered in this study, Kapton and a Kapton/Teflon mixture. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with nominal 100 Ω impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests (BERT), attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to stress and temperature change, and RLC decomposition. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2x1016/cm 2 and 800 MeV protons to 2x1016 1 MeV-neq/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable, with bandwidth of 6.22 gigabits per second, 0.03% of a radiation length, and no radiation induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  11. LISA-PF radiation monitor performance during the evolution of SEP events for the monitoring of test-mass charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Ao, X.; Fabi, M.; Laurenza, M.; Li, G.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at energies >100 MeV/n charge and induce spurious forces on free-floating test masses on board interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space. LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF), the technology testing mission for eLISA/NGO, will carry radiation monitors for on board test-mass charging monitoring. We present here the results of a simulation of radiation monitor performance during the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events of different intensity. This simulation was carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo package by taking into account for the first time both energy and spatial distributions of solar protons for the SEP events of 23 February 1956, 15 November 1960 and 7 May 1978. Input data for the Monte Carlo simulations was inferred from neutron monitor measurements. Conversely, for the SEP event of 13 December 2006 observed by the PAMELA experiment in space, we used the proton pitch angle distribution (PAD) computed from the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (PATH) code. We plan to adopt this approach at the time of LISA-PF data analysis in order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor observations and test-mass charging. The results of this work can be extended to the future space interferometers and other space missions carrying instruments for SEP detection.

  12. An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

    2006-07-10

    Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

  13. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  14. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries.

  15. Determination of the b-quark Mass and Nonperturbative parameters in Semileptonic and Radiative Penguin Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Tackmann, Kerstin; collaboration, for the BABAR

    2008-01-23

    Knowing the mass of the b-quark is essential to the study of the structure and decays of B mesons as well as to future tests of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation. We present recent preliminary measurements of the b-quark mass and related nonperturbative parameters from moments of kinematic distributions in charmed and charmless semileptonic and radiative penguin B decays. Their determination from charmless semileptonic B decays is the first measurement in this mode. The data were collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at a center-of-momentum energy of 10:58 GeV.

  16. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  17. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of hemoperitoneum in war casualties.

    PubMed

    Miletić, D; Fuckar, Z; Mraović, B; Dimec, D; Mozetic, V

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the detection of hemoperitoneum among war casualties, and to compare the results of this method in a specific war situation and civil conditions. Ninety-four wounded individuals with suspected blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma were treated at a level I war hospital (group W), and 242 civilians with multiple injuries with suspected blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated at the emergency center of a university hospital (group C). All examinations were performed in less than 5 minutes with a portable ultrasonographic scanner, and typical points were scanned (Morison's pouch, Douglas and perisplenic spaces, paracolic gutter). In group W, hemoperitoneum was identified correctly in 19 patients, with three false-negative and no false-positive findings, whereas group C presented 98 true-positive results, 13 false-negative results, and again no false-positive results. We observed that ultrasonography in specific war conditions showed sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 100%, accuracy as high as 97%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96%, whereas in civil conditions the corresponding values were 88%, 100%, 95%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of hemoperitoneum are approximately equal in war and civil conditions. PMID:10459274

  18. Radiation Pressure Forces, the Anomalous Acceleration, and Center of Mass Motion for the TOPEX/POSEIDON Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.

  19. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    PubMed

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks.

  20. Photon spectra and radiative properties of supercritical accretion flows with Comptonizing outflows around stellar-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Tomohisa; Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) have recently been found in the off-center region of nearby external galaxies. The typical photon luminosities of ULXs range 1039.5-41 [erg/s], which ex-ceeds the Eddington luminosity for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. There are two possible models considered to account for such large photon luminosities: subcritical accretion (i.e., accretion below the Eddington accretion rate) onto an intermediate-mass black hole and supercritical accretion (i.e., accretion exceeding the Eddington accretion rate) onto a stellar-mass black hole. Since the black hole masses of ULXs are poorly known at present, we cannot discriminate between these two models. The study of radiation spectra of supercritical accre-tion flows may give a clue to resolve this issue. We calculated X-ray spectra of supercritical accretion flows with mildly hot outflows by Monte-Carlo techniques using two-dimensional ra-diation hydrodynamic simulation data of Kawashima et al. (2009). Our method is based on Pozdnyakov et al. (1977), and we incorporated radiative processes such as the modified black-body radiation with special relativistic effects (i.e., the Doppler shift and the aberration) at the photosphere, the free-free absorption, the photon trapping effect, the thermal Comptoniza-tion, and the bulk Comptonization. We found that the thermal inverse Compton scattering by electrons of the outflow affects the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the supercritical accretion flow. The fraction of the hard emission increases as the mass accretion rate increases (i.e., the photon luminosity increases). When the isotropic X-ray luminosity is below about 10 Eddington luminosity, the SED is similar to that of the slim disk state (i.e., the one-dimensional model of the supercritical accretion flow). By contrast, when the isotropic X-ray luminosity is larger than about 10 Eddington luminosity, the SED becomes harder at high energy region and deviates from the slim

  1. Solar Radiation Pressure Estimation and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of deep space objects is thought to be high area-to-mass ratio (AMR) debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. The typical AMR values have been observed to range anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(sup 2)/kg, and hence, higher than average solar radiation pressure effects result in long-term migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination over time. However, the nature of the debris orientation-dependent dynamics also results time-varying solar radiation forces about the average which complicate the short-term orbit determination processing. The orbit determination results are presented for several of these debris objects, and highlight their unique and varied dynamic attributes. Estimation or the solar pressure dynamics over time scales suitable for resolving the shorter term dynamics improves the orbit estimation, and hence, the orbit predictions needed to conduct follow-up observations.

  2. Fermion masses and neutrino mixing in an U(1){sub H} flavor symmetry model with hierarchical radiative generation for light charged fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Galeana, Albino

    2007-11-01

    I report the analysis performed on fermion masses and mixing, including neutrino mixing, within the context of a model with hierarchical radiative mass generation mechanism for light charged fermions, mediated by exotic scalar particles at one and two loops, respectively, meanwhile the neutrinos get Majorana mass terms at tree level through the Yukawa couplings with two SU(2){sub L} Higgs triplets. All the resulting mass matrices in the model, for the u, d, and e fermion charged sectors, the neutrinos and the exotic scalar particles, are diagonalized in exact analytical form. Quantitative analysis shows that this model is successful to accommodate the hierarchical spectrum of masses and mixing in the quark sector as well as the charged lepton masses. The lepton mixing matrix, V{sub PMNS}, is written completely in terms of the neutrino masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, and m{sub 3}. Large lepton mixing for {theta}{sub 12} and {theta}{sub 23} is predicted in the range of values 0.7 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 12} < or approx. 0.7772 and 0.87 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} < or approx. 0.9023 by using 0.033 < or approx. s{sub 13}{sup 2} < or approx. 0.04. These values for lepton mixing are consistent with 3{sigma} allowed ranges provided by recent global analysis of neutrino data oscillation. From {delta}m{sub sol}{sup 2} bounds, neutrino masses are predicted in the range of values m{sub 1}{approx_equal}(1.706-2.494)x10{sup -3} eV, m{sub 2}{approx_equal}(6.675-12.56)x10{sup -3} eV, and m{sub 3}{approx_equal}(1.215-2.188)x10{sup -2} eV, respectively. The above allowed lepton mixing leads to the quark-lepton complementary relations {theta}{sub 12}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 12}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}41.543 deg. -44.066 deg. and {theta}{sub 23}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 23}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}36.835 deg. -38.295 deg. The new exotic scalar particles induce flavor changing neutral currents and contribute to lepton flavor violating processes such as E{yields}e{sub 1}e

  3. On-ground casualty risk reduction by structural design for demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Funke, Quirin; Krag, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, awareness concerning the on-ground risk posed by un-controlled re-entering space systems has increased. On average over the past decade, an object with mass above 800 kg re-enters every week from which only a few, e.g. ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS in 2011, appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations have discussed requirements to limit the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft with a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in SCARAB to serve as test-bed for D4D analyses on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented with respect to the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  4. Radiative proton capture cross sections in the mass range 40-54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Dipti; Dutta, Saumi; Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhattacharyya, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    Proton capture cross sections in the energy range of astrophysical interest for mass region 40-54 have been calculated in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism with the reaction code talys1.6. The density-dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction folded with target radial matter densities from the relativistic mean field approach is used to obtain the semimicroscopic optical potential. A definite normalization of potential well depths has been used over the entire mass region. The (p ,γ ) rates of some reactions, important in the astrophysical scenario, are calculated using the potential in the relevant mass region.

  5. Radiative contributions to quark and lepton masses in grand unified theories

    SciTech Connect

    de Teramond, G.F.

    1982-12-15

    The mass perturbation and the evolution equation of fermion masses are studied in different gauge models on the basis of the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking, we recover the results obtained using the renormalization-group method for momentum scales well above symmetry breaking and obtain new results for energies close to or well below, the symmetry-violating scale, where spontaneous symmetry breaking gives an important contribution to the self-mass of a fermion. We examine the contribution to self-masses in the SU(3) x U(1)/sub em/ gauge theory and in the SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) model and discuss the relevance of embedding the standard component model in the structure of SU(5). For asymptotically free grand unified models, the self-masses are individually finite with no constraint on the number of quark or lepton flavors. Within this context we examine the possibility that the proton-neutron mass difference is determined by the very short distance scale associated with the unified theory of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions.

  6. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  7. Epidemiology of child pedestrian casualty rates: can we assume spatial independence?

    PubMed

    Hewson, Paul J

    2005-07-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are often investigated by means of ecological studies, yet are clearly part of a complex spatial phenomena. Spatial dependence within such ecological analyses have rarely been assessed, yet the validity of basic statistical techniques rely on a number of independence assumptions. Recent work from Canada has highlighted the potential for modelling spatial dependence within data that was aggregated in terms of the number of road casualties who were resident in a given geographical area. Other jurisdictions aggregate data in terms of the number of casualties in the geographical area in which the collision took place. This paper contrasts child pedestrian casualty data from Devon County UK, which has been aggregated by both methods. A simple ecological model, with minimally useful covaraties relating to measures of child deprivation, provides evidence that data aggregated in terms of the casualty's home location cannot be assumed to be spatially independent and that for analysis of these data to be valid there must be some accounting for spatial auto-correlation within the model structure. Conversely, data aggregated in terms of the collision location (as is usual in the UK) was found to be spatially independent. Whilst the spatial model is clearly more complex it provided a superior fit to that seen with either collision aggregated or non-spatial models. Of more importance, the ecological level association between deprivation and casualty rate is much lower once the spatial structure is accounted for, highlighting the importance using appropriately structured models.

  8. The Importance of XUV Radiation as a Solution to the P V Mass Loss Rate Discrepancy in O Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    2010-03-01

    A controversy has developed regarding the stellar wind mass loss rates in O stars. The current consensus is that these winds may be clumped, which implies that all previously derived mass loss rates using density-squared diagnostics are overestimated by a factor of ≈2. However, arguments based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the P V resonance line doublet suggest that these rates should be smaller by another order of magnitude, provided that P V is the dominant phosphorous ion among these stars. Although a large mass loss rate reduction would have a range of undesirable consequences, it does provide a straightforward explanation of the unexpected symmetric and un-shifted X-ray emission-line profiles observed in high-energy resolution spectra. But acceptance of such a large reduction then leads to a contradiction with an important observed X-ray property: the correlation between He-like ion source radii and their equivalent X-ray continuum optical depth unity radii. Here we examine the phosphorous ionization balance since the P V fractional abundance, q (P V), is fundamental to understanding the magnitude of this mass loss reduction. We find that strong emission line radiation in the XUV energy band (defined here as 54 to 124 eV) can significantly reduce q (P V). Furthermore, owing to the unique energy distribution of these XUV lines, there is a negligible impact on the S V fractional abundance (a key component in the FUSE mass loss argument). We conclude that large reductions in O star mass loss rates are not required, and the X-ray optical depth unity relation remains valid.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF XUV RADIATION AS A SOLUTION TO THE P V MASS LOSS RATE DISCREPANCY IN O STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P. E-mail: cassinelli@astro.wisc.edu

    2010-03-01

    A controversy has developed regarding the stellar wind mass loss rates in O stars. The current consensus is that these winds may be clumped, which implies that all previously derived mass loss rates using density-squared diagnostics are overestimated by a factor of {approx}2. However, arguments based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of the P V resonance line doublet suggest that these rates should be smaller by another order of magnitude, provided that P V is the dominant phosphorous ion among these stars. Although a large mass loss rate reduction would have a range of undesirable consequences, it does provide a straightforward explanation of the unexpected symmetric and un-shifted X-ray emission-line profiles observed in high-energy resolution spectra. But acceptance of such a large reduction then leads to a contradiction with an important observed X-ray property: the correlation between He-like ion source radii and their equivalent X-ray continuum optical depth unity radii. Here we examine the phosphorous ionization balance since the P V fractional abundance, q (P V), is fundamental to understanding the magnitude of this mass loss reduction. We find that strong emission line radiation in the XUV energy band (defined here as 54 to 124 eV) can significantly reduce q (P V). Furthermore, owing to the unique energy distribution of these XUV lines, there is a negligible impact on the S V fractional abundance (a key component in the FUSE mass loss argument). We conclude that large reductions in O star mass loss rates are not required, and the X-ray optical depth unity relation remains valid.

  10. MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with radiation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Yasin, Mohd Hafizi; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2016-06-01

    The steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet with radiation effects is investigated. The similarity transformation is introduced to transform the governing partial differential equations into a system of ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically using a shooting method. The results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number as well as the velocity, temperature and the concentration profiles for some values of the governing parameters, namely, suction/injection parameter S, stretching/shrinking parameter λ, magnetic parameter M, radiation parameter R, heat source/sink Q and chemical rate parameter K. For the shrinking case, there exist two solutions for a certain range of parameters, but the solution is unique for the stretching case. The stability analysis verified that the upper branch solution is linearly stable and physically reliable while the lower branch solution is not. For the reliable solution, the skin friction coefficient increases in the present of magnetic field. The heat transfer rate at the surface decreases in the present of radiation.

  11. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  12. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  13. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  14. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake casualty loss estimation, which depends primarily on building-specific casualty rates, has long suffered from a lack of cross-disciplinary collaboration in post-earthquake data gathering. An increase in our understanding of what contributes to casualties in earthquakes involve coordinated data-gathering efforts amongst disciplines; these are essential for improved global casualty estimation models. It is evident from examining past casualty loss models and reviewing field data collected from recent events, that generalized casualty rates cannot be applied globally for different building types, even within individual countries. For a particular structure type, regional and topographic building design effects, combined with variable material and workmanship quality all contribute to this multi-variant outcome. In addition, social factors affect building-specific casualty rates, including social status and education levels, and human behaviors in general, in that they modify egress and survivability rates. Without considering complex physical pathways, loss models purely based on historic casualty data, or even worse, rates derived from other countries, will be of very limited value. What’s more, as the world’s population, housing stock, and living and cultural environments change, methods of loss modeling must accommodate these variables, especially when considering casualties. To truly take advantage of observed earthquake losses, not only do damage surveys need better coordination of international and national reconnaissance teams, but these teams must integrate difference areas of expertise including engineering, public health and medicine. Research is needed to find methods to achieve consistent and practical ways of collecting and modeling casualties in earthquakes. International collaboration will also be necessary to transfer such expertise and resources to the communities in the cities which most need it. Coupling the theories and findings from

  15. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE MODELS: AVOIDING CATASTROPHIC INFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2010-06-01

    Outward migration of low-mass planets has recently been shown to be a possibility in non-barotropic disks. We examine the consequences of this result in evolutionary models of protoplanetary disks. Planet migration occurs toward equilibrium radii with zero torque. These radii themselves migrate inwards because of viscous accretion and photoevaporation. We show that as the surface density and temperature fall the planet orbital migration and disk depletion timescales eventually become comparable, with the precise timing depending on the mass of the planet. When this occurs, the planet decouples from the equilibrium radius. At this time, however, the gas surface density is already too low to drive substantial further migration. A higher mass planet, of 10 M {sub +}, can open a gap during the late evolution of the disk, and stops migrating. Low-mass planets, with 1 or 0.1 M {sub +}, released beyond 1 AU in our models avoid migrating into the star. Our results provide support for the reduced migration rates adopted in recent planet population synthesis models.

  16. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Silva, Hector; Berti, Emanuele; Sotani, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Compact objects such as neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories to test our understanding of the fundamental interactions in the regime of supranuclear densities, unachievable by terrestrial experiments. Despite recent progress, the description of matter (i.e., the equation of state) at such densities is still debatable. This translates into uncertainties in the bulk properties of neutron stars, masses and radii for instance. Here we will consider low-mass neutron stars. Such stars are expected to carry important information on nuclear matter near the nuclear saturation point. It has recently been shown that the masses and surface redshifts of low-mass neutron stars smoothly depend on simple functions of the central density and of a characteristic parameter η associated with the choice of equation of state. Here we extend these results to slowly-rotating and tidally deformed stars and obtain empirical relations for various quantities, such as the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love numbers, and rotational apsidal constants. We discuss how these relations might be used to constrain the equation of state by future observations in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra.

  17. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Sotani, Hajime; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range 1.0-1.1 M⊙, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass M/M⊙ = 1.174 ± 0.004 (Martinez et al. 2015) in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al. recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of non-rotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter η ≡ (K0L2)1/3, where K0 is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and L is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al. to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love number and apsidal constant of slowly rotating neutron stars by integrating the Hartle-Thorne equations at second order in rotation, and we fit all of these quantities as functions of η and of the central density. These fits may be used to constrain η, either via observations of binary pulsars in the electromagnetic spectrum, or via near-future observations of inspiralling compact binaries in the gravitational-wave spectrum.

  18. Proposed triage categories for large-scale radiation incidents using high-accuracy biodosimetry methods.

    PubMed

    Rea, Michael E; Gougelet, Robert M; Nicolalde, Roberto J; Geiling, James A; Swartz, Harold M

    2010-02-01

    A catastrophic event such as a nuclear device detonation in a major U.S. city would cause a mass casualty with millions affected. Such a disaster would require screening to accurately and effectively identify patients likely to develop acute radiation syndrome (ARS). A primary function of such screening is to sort the unaffected, or worried-well, from those patients who will truly become symptomatic. This paper reviews the current capability of high-accuracy biodosimetry methods as screening tools for populations and reviews the current triage and medical guidelines for diagnosing and managing ARS. This paper proposes that current triage categories, which broadly categorize patients by likelihood of survival based on current symptoms, be replaced with new triage categories that use high-accuracy biodosimetry methods. Using accurate whole-body exposure dose assessment to predict ARS symptoms and subsyndromes, clinical decision-makers can designate the appropriate care setting, initiate treatment and therapies, and best allocate limited clinical resources, facilitating mass-casualty care following a nuclear disaster. PMID:20065675

  19. Quantitative Estimates of the Numbers of Casualties to be Expected due to Major Earthquakes Near Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.; Wenzel, F.

    2004-12-01

    Defining casualties as the sum of the fatalities plus injured, we use their mean number, as calculated by QUAKELOSS (developed by Extreme Situations Research Center, Moscow) as a measure of the extent of possible disasters due to earthquakes. Examples of cities we examined include Algiers, Cairo, Istanbul, Mumbai and Teheran, with populations ranging from about 3 to 20 million. With the assumption that the properties of the building stock has not changed with time since 1950, we find that the number of expected casualties will have increased about 5 to 10 fold by the year 2015. This increase is directly proportional to the increase of the population. For the assumed magnitude, we used M7 and M6.5 because shallow earthquakes in this range can occur in the seismogenic layer, without rupturing the surface. This means, they could occur anywhere in a seismically active area, not only along known faults. As a function of epicentral distance the fraction of casualties of the population decrease from about 6% at 20 km, to 3% at 30 km and 0.5% at 50 km, for an earthquake of M7. At 30 km distance, the assumed variation of the properties of the building stock from country to country give rise to variations of 1% to 5% for the estimate of the percent of the population that become casualties. As a function of earthquake size, the expected number of casualties drop by approximately an order of magnitude for an M6.5, compared to an M7, at 30 km distance. Because the computer code and database in QUAKELOSS are calibrated based on about 1000 earthquakes with fatalities, and verified by real-time loss estimates for about 60 cases, these results are probably of the correct order of magnitude. However, the results should not be taken as overly reliable, because (1) the probability calculations of the losses result in uncertainties of about a factor of two, (2) the method has been tested for medium size cities, not for megacities, and (3) many assumptions were made. Nevertheless, it is

  20. Comparison of female and male casualty cohorts from conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hylden, Christina; Johnson, Anthony E; Rivera, Jessica C

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been interest in the literature regarding the casualties within the recent US military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, very little to date has looked specifically at a difference between the sexes. As the role of the female Soldier has changed over the years, so have the risk and the nature of the female casualty. Combat injuries in women are an important medical consideration that has yet to be studied. For the purposes of this study, the following questions pertained: Do female and male casualties from the US military in recent conflicts differ in age, service, rank, military operation, or other demographic characteristics? Do female and male casualties from the US military in recent conflicts differ in their injury characteristics such as Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS), injury type (blunt versus penetrating), injury cause (mechanism of injury), and injury date? The Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DoDTR) was queried, returning results for 425 female and 14,982 male subjects who sustained musculoskeletal injuries from October 2003 (beginning of hostilities in Iraq) to December 2012. The female and male cohorts were compared and analyzed for significance in demographics (age, service, rank, and military operation) and injury characteristics (ISS, AIS, injury type, injury cause, and injury date). Female casualties differ from their male counterparts in that they are slightly younger (F=26.11, M=27.83 years; P<.001), proportionally more female casualties were in the Army (F=81.5%, M=72.2%; P<.001), and proportionally more women were injured during Operation Iraqi Freedom (F=75.6%, M=63.2%; P<.001). Female casualties showed on average lower ISS (F=7.49; M=9.68; P<.001) and lower AIS specific to the skeletal anatomic region (F=2.06; M=2.36; P<.001); however when broken down into battle versus nonbattle injury, the difference disappeared. Women were less likely to be injured in battle (F=33.1%; M=70.9%; P<.001

  1. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  2. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  3. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.65 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... separation of administration (account XX-51-01). yard operations...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.65 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... separation of administration (account XX-51-01). yard operations...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.65 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... separation of administration (account XX-51-01). yard operations...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.41 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and 50-26-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.41 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-26-99 and... administration (account XX-26-01). freight cars...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  15. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  16. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  17. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  18. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and... administration (account XX-27-01). Operating Expenses—Transportation train operations...

  2. 49 CFR 1242.72 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52-99 and 50-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.72 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-52... separation of administration (account XX-52-01). train and yard operations common...

  3. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.82 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55-99 and 50-55-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.82 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-55... separation of administration (account XX-55-01). Operating Expenses general and administration...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.65 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51-99 and 50-51-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.65 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-51... separation of administration (account XX-51-01). yard operations...

  6. Early-response biomarkers for assessment of radiation exposure in a mouse total-body irradiation model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Condliffe, Donald P; Ney, Patrick H; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P; Rahman, Arifur; Sandgren, David J

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. Early biomarkers of radiation injury will be critical for triage, treatment, and follow-up of such individuals. The authors evaluated the utility of multiple blood biomarkers for early-response assessment of radiation exposure using a murine (CD2F1, males) total-body irradiation (TBI) model exposed to ⁶⁰Co γ rays (0.6 Gy min⁻¹) over a broad dose range (0-14 Gy) and timepoints (4 h-5 d). Results demonstrate: 1) dose-dependent changes in hematopoietic cytokines: Flt-3 ligand (Flt3L), interleukin 6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), thrombopoietin (TPO), erythropoietin (EPO), and acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA); 2) dose-dependent changes in blood cell counts: lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, and ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes; 3) protein results coupled with peripheral blood cell counts established very successful separation of groups irradiated to different doses; and 4) enhanced separation of dose was observed as the number of biomarkers increased. Results show that the dynamic changes in the levels of SAA, IL-6, G-CSF, and Flt3L reflect the time course and severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results also demonstrate proof-in-concept that plasma proteins show promise as a complimentary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and, coupled with peripheral blood cell counts, provide early diagnostic information to manage radiation casualty incidents effectively, closing a gap in capabilities to rapidly and effectively assess radiation exposure early, especially needed in case of a mass-casualty radiological incident.

  7. Measurements of mechanical dissipation in high sound velocity materials: implications for resonant-mass gravitational radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, En-Ke; Zhou, C.; Mann, L.; Michelson, P. F.; Price, J. C.

    1991-07-01

    The sensitivity of resonant-mass gravitational radiation detectors depends on both the antenna cross-section and the detector noise. The cross-section is determined by the sound velocity vs and density ϱ of the antenna material, while the principal detector noise sources are thermal Nyquist noise and noise due to the readout electromechanical amplifier. The thermal noise is proportional to T/Q, where T is the temperature and Q is the antenna's mechanical quality factor. For a given frequency and antenna geometry, the cross-section is proportional to ϱ v5s. Thus the speed of sound and Q are important figures-of-merit in selecting the antenna material. Materials with high vs are available that in principle could provide about a hundred-fold increase in the cross-section of resonant-mass gravity wave detectors as compared to current generation detectors. In this Letter we report the results of measurements of the temperature-dependent mechanical losses associated with excitation of the fundamental longitudinal acoustic mode in several potentially suitable materials. We also discuss the impact that these materials could have on the sensitivity of resonant-mass detectors.

  8. In situ measurements of aerosol mass concentration and radiative properties in Xianghe, southeast of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhry, Zahra; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Li, Zhanqing; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Pucai; Wen, Tianxue; Li, Can; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2007-12-01

    As a part of the EAST-AIRE study, Nuclepore filters were collected in two size ranges (coarse, 2.5 μm < d < 10 μm, and fine, d < 2.5 μm) from January to May 2005 in Xianghe, about 70 km southeast of Beijing, and analyzed for aerosol mass concentration, spectral absorption efficiency and absorption coefficient. Twelve-hour aerosol mass concentration measurements showed an average concentration of 120 μg/m3 in the coarse mode and an average concentration of 25 μg/m3 in the fine mode. To determine how representative ground-based measurements are of the total column, the mass concentration data was compared with AERONET AOT at 500 nm and AERONET size distribution data. The vertical distribution of the aerosols were studied with a micropulse lidar and in the cases where the vertical column was found to be fairly homogenous, the comparisons of the filter results with AERONET agreed favorably, while in the cases of inhomogeneity, the comparisons have larger disagreement. For fine mode aerosols, the average spectral absorption efficiency equates well to a λ-1 model, while the coarse mode shows a much flatter spectral dependence, consistent with large particle models. The coarse mode absorption efficiency was compatible with that of the fine mode in the NIR region, indicating the much stronger absorption of the coarse mode due to its composition and sizable mass. Single scattering albedo results are presented from a combination between absorption coefficients derived from the filter measurements, from a PSAP and from a three-wavelength Nephelometer.

  9. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF INTERACTING LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE TURBULENT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Brandon; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Lyra, Wladimir; Sandor, Zsolt E-mail: wlyra@amnh.org E-mail: zsolt.sandor@uibk.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    The torques exerted by a locally isothermal disk on an embedded planet lead to rapid inward migration. Recent work has shown that modeling the thermodynamics without the assumption of local isothermality reveals regions where the net torque on an embedded planet is positive, leading to outward migration of the planet. When a region with negative torque lies directly exterior to this, planets in the inner region migrate outward and planets in the outer region migrate inward, converging where the torque is zero. We incorporate the torques from an evolving non-isothermal disk into an N-body simulation to examine the behavior of planets or planetary embryos interacting in the convergence zone. We find that mutual interactions do not eject objects from the convergence zone. Small numbers of objects in a laminar disk settle into near resonant orbits that remain stable over the 10 Myr periods that we examine. However, either or both increasing the number of planets or including a correlated, stochastic force to represent turbulence drives orbit crossings and mergers in the convergence zone. These processes can build gas giant cores with masses of order 10 Earth masses from sub-Earth mass embryos in 2-3 Myr.

  10. Improved statistical determination of absolute neutrino masses via radiative emission of neutrino pairs from atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The atomic transition from an excited state |e ⟩ to the ground state |g ⟩ by emitting a neutrino pair and a photon, i.e., |e ⟩→|g ⟩+|γ ⟩+|νi⟩+|ν¯j⟩ with i , j =1 , 2, 3, has been proposed by Yoshimura and his collaborators as an alternative way to determine the absolute scale m0 of neutrino masses. More recently, a statistical analysis of the fine structure of the photon spectrum from this atomic process has been performed [N. Song et al. Phys. Rev. D 93, 013020 (2016)] to quantitatively examine the experimental requirements for a realistic determination of absolute neutrino masses. In this paper, we show how to improve the statistical analysis and demonstrate that the previously required detection time can be reduced by one order of magnitude for the case of a 3 σ determination of m0˜0.01 eV with an accuracy better than 10%. Such an improvement is very encouraging for further investigations on measuring absolute neutrino masses through atomic processes.

  11. Impact of semi-annihilation of ℤ{sub 3} symmetric dark matter with radiative neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Mayumi; Toma, Takashi

    2014-09-08

    We investigate a ℤ{sub 3} symmetric model with two-loop radiative neutrino masses. Dark matter in the model is either a Dirac fermion or a complex scalar as a result of an unbroken ℤ{sub 3} symmetry. In addition to standard annihilation processes, semi-annihilation of the dark matter contributes to the relic density. We study the effect of the semi-annihilation in the model and find that those contributions are important to obtain the observed relic density. The experimental signatures in dark matter searches are also discussed, where some of them are expected to be different from the signatures of dark matter in ℤ{sub 2} symmetric models.

  12. Connecting the dots: a correlation between ionizing radiation and cloud mass-loss rate traced by optical integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. F.; Gritschneder, M.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Mottram, J. C.; Preibisch, T.; Ramsay, S.; Reiter, M.; Testi, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of feedback from O- and B-type stars with data from the integral field spectrograph Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) mounted on the Very Large Telescope of pillar-like structures in the Carina Nebular Complex, one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Galaxy. For the observed pillars, we compute gas electron densities and temperatures maps, produce integrated line and velocity maps of the ionized gas, study the ionization fronts at the pillar tips, analyse the properties of the single regions, and detect two ionized jets originating from two distinct pillar tips. For each pillar tip, we determine the incident ionizing photon flux Q0, pil originating from the nearby massive O- and B-type stars and compute the mass-loss rate dot{M} of the pillar tips due to photoevaporation caused by the incident ionizing radiation. We combine the results of the Carina data set with archival MUSE data of a pillar in NGC 3603 and with previously published MUSE data of the Pillars of Creation in M16, and with a total of 10 analysed pillars, find tight correlations between the ionizing photon flux and the electron density, the electron density and the distance from the ionizing sources, and the ionizing photon flux and the mass-loss rate. The combined MUSE data sets of pillars in regions with different physical conditions and stellar content therefore yield an empirical quantification of the feedback effects of ionizing radiation. In agreement with models, we find that dot{M}∝ Q_0,pil^{1/2}.

  13. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  14. Should physicians prepare for war? 1. The obligation to care for the casualties.

    PubMed

    Bisgard, J C

    1982-04-01

    This is an introduction to a set of four commentaries on the controversy that has arisen over whether physicians should cooperate in Defense Department planning for the care of military casualties, airlifted to U.S. civilian hospitals, in the event of a large-scale war. The commentaries are by Jay C. Bisgard, H. Jack Geiger, James T. Johnson, and Thomas H. Murray.

  15. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting a...

  16. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of a deepwater port must be reported according to 46 CFR 197.484 and 197.486, rather than to §§ 150.815 and 150... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a...

  17. Development of damage and casualty functions for basement shelters. Final report on phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Zsutty, T.C.; Willoughby, A.B.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes progress during the second year's work on a Civil Defense program to provide FEMA with a range of damage functions and casualty functions to determine the survivability fo people in various basement shelters. The characteristics of flat and two-way slab systems and the effects of code specified design procedures, engineering practice, and construction procedures were discussed. Non-upgraded two-way slabs are approximately twice as strong as the flat plate slabs. For upgraded (shored) systems, however, specific building characteristics are not important factors: any shored slab, with standard reinforcing and dimensions, has about the same capacity as any other slab. A mathematical model for the fragility curve of slab systems was developed. Fatality curves have been developed for ceiling collapse and a variety of other casualty mechanism(nuclear weapons effects) with emphasis to date on non-upgraded shelters areas. This review of casualty producing mechanisms is continuing and all casualty curves should be considered as provisional.

  18. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  19. The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, John C.; Beck, Elaine

    At the First Battle of Manassas (Virginia) in 1861 many Union doctors fled the battlefield in fear. Those who remained found themselves without adequate medical supplies or ambulances for their patients. As the U.S. Civil War progressed and casualties mounted, military surgeons became more adept at caring for the wounded. By the Battle of…

  20. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  2. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2054-1 - Deduction for losses from casualties or theft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Deduction for losses from casualties or theft. 20.2054-1 Section 20.2054-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Taxable...

  5. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  6. The battle for Hue: casualty and disease rates during urban warfare.

    PubMed

    Blood, C G; Anderson, M E

    1994-09-01

    Renewed nationalism with the ending of the Cold War has precipitated numerous conflicts between regions or countries that were formerly united. Hostilities between some ethnic and nationalistic factions have reached the point where regional security is threatened and United Nations-sanctioned military operations may be required. Because some U.N. operations could require the forcible removal of an entrenched faction from an urban setting, the present investigation seeks to determine the levels of medical casualties that might be sustained during urban warfare. Casualty rates and illness incidence were examined for U.S. Marine forces participating in the retaking of the city of Hue during the Tet offensive in 1968. The casualty rates were analyzed for different phases of the urban assault and contrasted with a different period of the Vietnam Conflict, and with the high intensity battle for Okinawa during World War II. Rates of casualties during the retaking of Hue were highest during the two phases of the operation that required close-quarter fighting. The house-to-house fighting south of the river yielded a wounded rate of 37.9 per 1,000 strength per day, while the fighting in the inner city yielded a rate of 44.4. Rate of wounded during the "mopping-up" phase was 5.8. The rate of illness incidence was stable over the month-long operation and showed no concomitant increase with battle intensity."

  7. 17 CFR 210.12-18 - Supplemental information (for property-casualty insurance underwriters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... claim adjustment expenses Discount, if any, deducted in column C 4 Unearned premiums Earned premiums Net investment income Claims and claim adjustment expenses incurred related to (1) Current year (2) Prior years...) Proportionate share of registrant and its subsidiaries' 50%-or-less-owned property-casualty equity investees...

  8. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... recreational vessel and propeller strike-related casualties. See 60 FR 25191 (May 11, 1995) (Request for... propeller guards. See 72 FR 59064 (Oct. 18, 2007) (Notice of Withdrawal). In the Notice of Withdrawal, the... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D....

  9. Dark matter and strong electroweak phase transition in a radiative neutrino mass model

    SciTech Connect

    Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah E-mail: snasri@uaeu.ac.ae

    2013-07-01

    We consider an extension of the standard model (SM) with charged singlet scalars and right handed (RH) neutrinos all at the electroweak scale. In this model, the neutrino masses are generated at three loops, which provide an explanation for their smallness, and the lightest RH neutrino, N{sub 1}, is a dark matter candidate. We find that for three generations of RH neutrinos, the model can be consistent with the neutrino oscillation data, lepton flavor violating processes, N{sub 1} can have a relic density in agreement with the recent Planck data, and the electroweak phase transition can be strongly first order. We also show that the charged scalars may enhance the branching ratio h→γγ, where as h→γZ get can get few percent suppression. We also discuss the phenomenological implications of the RH neutrinos at the collider.

  10. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175-275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135-175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  11. Radiative feedback by low-mass stars in the first generation

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel James; Hueckstaedt, Robert; Mcconkie, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The survival of cosmological minihalos in both ionizing and Lyman-Werner (LW) UV fields from nearby and distant sources has attracted recent attention for its role in regulating the rise of stellar populations at high red-shifts. Numerical models suggest that the first stars form in isolation in small dark matter halos of {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z {approx} 20-30 and that they are very massive, 25-500 M{sub {circle_dot}}. These stars form large H II regions 2.5-5 kpc in radius capable of engulfing nearby halos. With the rise of Population III stars throughout the cosmos also comes a global LW background that sterilizes mini-halos of H{sub 2}, delaying or preventing new star formation in them. At high redshifts, ionizaing radiation is therefore relatively local while LW photons can originate from many megaparsects away because their energies lie below the ionization limit of H.

  12. Outer radiation belt dropout dynamics following the arrival of two interplanetary coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; Lago, A. Dal; Mendes, O.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Koga, D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, using satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks/sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (MC) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 daylong quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown ˜ 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L≥5.5 can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shown to be viable mechanisms.

  13. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; Belloche, A.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Güsten, R.; van Kempen, T. A.; Leurini, S.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Risacher, C.; van der Marel, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.

    2015-04-01

    Context. During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Both processes reflect the accretion onto the forming star and affect subsequent collapse or fragmentation of the cloud. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources in a consistent manner. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Methods: Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (12CO and 13CO 6-5; Eup ~ 100 K), and the HARP-B instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (12CO and 13CO 3-2; Eup ~ 30 K). The maps have high spatial resolution, particularly the CO 6-5 maps taken with a 9″ beam, resolving the morphology of the outflows. The maps are used to determine outflow parameters and the results are compared with higher-J CO lines obtained with Herschel. Envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. Results: All sources in our sample show outflow activity, with the spatial extent decreasing from the Class 0 to the Class I stage. Consistent with previous studies, the outflow force, FCO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater distances than the power-law envelope and therefore influences the surrounding cloud material directly. Comparison of the CO 6-5 results with HIFI H2O and PACS high-J CO lines, both tracing currently shocked gas, shows that the two components are linked, even though the transitions do not probe the same gas. The link does not extend down to CO 3-2. The conclusion is that CO 6-5 depends on the shock

  14. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M ⊙—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  15. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. I. Stars with a radiative core

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2013-12-20

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M {sub ☉}—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  16. The psychological impact of mass casualty incidents on first responders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    First responders are exposed to various types of disasters throughout their career. Because of their roles, they are often regarded as stronger people than individuals from other occupations. A systematic review of literature was conducted to determine if distinct characteristics exist that make first responders more susceptible to psychological trauma. Five categories of traits were found to put first responders at risk for psychological problems: personal, predisposing, peridisposing, postdisposing, and protective. To counteract the impact of psychological trauma, first responders need additional preincident psychological and resiliency training. Preparedness and awareness will help combat psychological impact from disasters and compassion fatigue. PMID:27438963

  17. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Yang, Zhuorui; Yi, Jun; Lord, Graydon; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order.

  18. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents. PMID:19224092

  19. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhuorui; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order. PMID:27433161

  20. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    PubMed

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  1. The psychological impact of mass casualty incidents on first responders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    First responders are exposed to various types of disasters throughout their career. Because of their roles, they are often regarded as stronger people than individuals from other occupations. A systematic review of literature was conducted to determine if distinct characteristics exist that make first responders more susceptible to psychological trauma. Five categories of traits were found to put first responders at risk for psychological problems: personal, predisposing, peridisposing, postdisposing, and protective. To counteract the impact of psychological trauma, first responders need additional preincident psychological and resiliency training. Preparedness and awareness will help combat psychological impact from disasters and compassion fatigue.

  2. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Yang, Zhuorui; Yi, Jun; Lord, Graydon; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order. PMID:27433161

  3. Redefining the outcomes to resources ratio for burn patient triage in a mass casualty.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra; Jeng, James; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters highlight the need for predisaster planning, including the need for accurate triage. Data-driven triage tables, such as that generated from the 2002 National Burn Repository, are vital to optimize resource use during a disaster. The study purpose was to generate a burn resource disaster triage table based on current burn-treatment outcomes. Data from the NBR after the year 2000 were audited. Records that missed age, burn size, or survival status were excluded from analysis. Duplicate records, readmissions, transfers, and nonburn injuries were eliminated. Resource use was divided into expectant (predicted mortality >90%), low (mortality 50-90%), medium (mortality 10-50%), high (mortality <10%, admission 14-21 days), very high (mortality <10%, admission <14 days), and outpatient. Tables were created for all patient admissions and with/without inhalation injury. Of the 286,293 records, 210,683 were from the year 2000 or later. Expectant status for those aged >70 years began at 50% burn; a 20- to 29-year-old never reached expectant status. Inhalation injury lowered the expectant category to a burn size of 40% in >70-year-olds, and at >90% in 20- to 29-year-olds. The 0- to 1.9-year old group without inhalation injury never reached expectant status; with inhalation injury, expectant status was reached at >80% burn. Changes in the triage tables suggest that burn care has changed in the past 10 years. Inhalation injury significantly alters triage in a burn disaster. Use of these updated tables for triage in a disaster may improve our ability to allocate resources.

  4. Joint civilian/national guard mass casualty exercise provides model for preparedness training.

    PubMed

    Grant, William D; Secreti, LaLainia

    2007-08-01

    After-action reports on the 2005 hurricane relief efforts pointed to the need for effective and efficient civilian/military operational cooperation. Cited for particular attention was the interface with National Guard units. This article describes an exercise conducted with National Guard units and members of the Central New York Medical Reserve Corps to educate all participants in effective interaction during disaster responses. Using a unique health care facility located at the New York State Fairgrounds, this 2-day operation demonstrated that jointly trained civilian and military units become well prepared for the conduct of joint relief and rescue operations.

  5. Redefining the outcomes to resources ratio for burn patient triage in a mass casualty.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra; Jeng, James; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Recent disasters highlight the need for predisaster planning, including the need for accurate triage. Data-driven triage tables, such as that generated from the 2002 National Burn Repository, are vital to optimize resource use during a disaster. The study purpose was to generate a burn resource disaster triage table based on current burn-treatment outcomes. Data from the NBR after the year 2000 were audited. Records that missed age, burn size, or survival status were excluded from analysis. Duplicate records, readmissions, transfers, and nonburn injuries were eliminated. Resource use was divided into expectant (predicted mortality >90%), low (mortality 50-90%), medium (mortality 10-50%), high (mortality <10%, admission 14-21 days), very high (mortality <10%, admission <14 days), and outpatient. Tables were created for all patient admissions and with/without inhalation injury. Of the 286,293 records, 210,683 were from the year 2000 or later. Expectant status for those aged >70 years began at 50% burn; a 20- to 29-year-old never reached expectant status. Inhalation injury lowered the expectant category to a burn size of 40% in >70-year-olds, and at >90% in 20- to 29-year-olds. The 0- to 1.9-year old group without inhalation injury never reached expectant status; with inhalation injury, expectant status was reached at >80% burn. Changes in the triage tables suggest that burn care has changed in the past 10 years. Inhalation injury significantly alters triage in a burn disaster. Use of these updated tables for triage in a disaster may improve our ability to allocate resources. PMID:24270085

  6. On the uncertainties of photon mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro; Burns, David T; Salvat, Francesc

    2012-04-21

    A systematic analysis of the available data has been carried out for mass energy-absorption coefficients and their ratios for air, graphite and water for photon energies between 1 keV and 2 MeV, using representative kilovoltage x-ray spectra for mammography and diagnostic radiology below 100 kV, and for ¹⁹²Ir and ⁶⁰Co gamma-ray spectra. The aim of this work was to establish 'an envelope of uncertainty' based on the spread of the available data. Type A uncertainties were determined from the results of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations with the PENELOPE and EGSnrc systems, yielding mean values for µ(en)/ρ with a given statistical standard uncertainty. Type B estimates were based on two groupings. The first grouping consisted of MC calculations based on a similar implementation but using different data and/or approximations. The second grouping was formed by various datasets, obtained by different authors or methods using the same or different basic data, and with different implementations (analytical, MC-based, or a combination of the two); these datasets were the compilations of NIST, Hubbell, Johns-Cunningham, Attix and Higgins, plus MC calculations with PENELOPE and EGSnrc. The combined standard uncertainty, u(c), for the µ(en)/ρ values for the mammography x-ray spectra is 2.5%, decreasing gradually to 1.6% for kilovoltage x-ray spectra up to 100 kV. For ⁶⁰Co and ¹⁹²Ir, u(c) is approximately 0.1%. The Type B uncertainty analysis for the ratios of µ(en)/ρ values includes four methods of analysis and concludes that for the present data the assumption that the data interval represents 95% confidence limits is a good compromise. For the mammography x-ray spectra, the combined standard uncertainties of (µ(en)/ρ)(graphite,air) and (µ(en)/ρ)(graphite,water) are 1.5%, and 0.5% for (µ(en)/ρ)(water,air), decreasing gradually down to u(c) = 0.1% for the three µ(en)/ρ ratios for the gamma-ray spectra. The present estimates are shown to coincide well

  7. What do we need for airway management of adult casualties on the Primary Casualty Receiving Facility? A review of airway management on Role 3 Afloat.

    PubMed

    Mercer, S; Read, J; Sudheer, S; Risdall, J E; Connor, D

    2015-01-01

    The Primary Casualty Receiving Facility (PCRF) of the Royal Navy (RN) is currently based on Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) ARGUS and provides a functioning hospital with surgical teams and a CT scanner (Role 3) within the maritime environment. The case mix could include complex trauma, critically ill patients returning to theatre several times, as well as non-battle injury procedures. This paper describes how we have used national guidelines, evidence from recent military experience, and the Clinical Guidelines for Operations (CGOs) to review and rationalise the airway equipment that is available and that would be required for the PCRF in its current configuration, whilst maintaining capability in a deployed setting. PMID:26867417

  8. [The modern approaches to the principles of medical and surgical casualty estimation. The US and British experience].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, V K; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Mironov, V G; Parfenov, V D

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to the principles of medical and surgical casualty estimation elaborated by the medical services of the US and Great Britain Armed Forces on the basis of their experience obtained during Afghanistan and Iraq operations.

  9. Determination of the ionization potentials of security-relevant substances with single photon ionization mass spectrometry using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schramm, E; Mühlberger, F; Mitschke, S; Reichardt, G; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R

    2008-02-01

    Several ionization potentials (IPs) of security relevant substances were determined with single photon ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) using monochromatized synchrotron radiation from the "Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung" (BESSY). In detail, the IPs of nine explosives and related compounds, seven narcotics and narcotics precursors, and one chemical warfare agent (CWA) precursor were determined, whereas six IPs already known from the literature were verified correctly. From seven other substances, including one CWA precursor, the IP could not be determined as the molecule ion peak could not be detected. For these substances the appearance energy (AE) of a main fragment was determined. The analyzed security-relevant substances showed IPs significantly below the IPs of common matrix compounds such as nitrogen and oxygen. Therefore, it is possible to find photon energies in between, whereby the molecules of interest can be detected with SPI in very low concentrations due to the shielding of the matrix. All determined IPs except the one of the explosive EGDN were below 10.5 eV. Hence, laser-generated 118 nm photons can be applied for detecting almost all security-relevant substances by, e.g., SPI-TOFMS. PMID:18284801

  10. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L.; Pannkuk, Evan L.; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hall, Adam B.; Fornace, Albert J.; Vouros, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure.

  11. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L.; Pannkuk, Evan L.; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hall, Adam B.; Fornace, Albert J.; Vouros, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure.

  12. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L; Pannkuk, Evan L; Laiakis, Evagelia C; Hall, Adam B; Fornace, Albert J; Vouros, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27392730

  13. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L; Pannkuk, Evan L; Laiakis, Evagelia C; Hall, Adam B; Fornace, Albert J; Vouros, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  15. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. The mathematical models made are as follows: This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reductionin the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.

  16. Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Adam T; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-08-01

    Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and a critical shooting error-response inhibition and firing on civilians, respectively. Individual-difference measures demonstrated, perhaps counterintuitively, that simulated civilian casualties were not related to motor impulsivity (i.e., an itchy trigger finger) but rather to an individual's cognitive ability to withhold an already initiated response (i.e., an itchy brain). Furthermore, active-response-inhibition training reduced simulated civilian casualties, which revealed a causal relationship. This study therefore illustrates the potential of using cognitive training to possibly improve shooting performance, which might ultimately provide insight for military and law-enforcement personnel.

  17. Clinical management of casualties exposed to lung damaging agents: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Russell, D; Blaine, P G; Rice, P

    2006-01-01

    There is no specific antidote for the treatment of casualties exposed to chlorine, phosgene, or mustards; therefore, management is largely supportive. Corticosteroid treatment has been given to casualties accidentally exposed to chlorine. Clinical data on efficacy are inconclusive as the numbers given steroids have been small and the indications for administration unclear. There have been no clinical controlled studies. There is a stronger evidence base from animal studies, particularly from porcine and rodent models. Lung injury induced by phosgene and mustard appears to be mediated by glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, free radical generation, and subsequent cellular toxicity. There is limited evidence to suggest that repletion of glutathione reduces and/or prevents lung damage by these agents. This may provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. PMID:16714497

  18. Tactical Combat Casualty Care in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Erin; Forestier, Colleen; Withers, Nicholas; Tien, Homer; Pannell, Dylan

    2011-01-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is intended to treat potentially preventable causes of death on the battlefield, but acknowledges that application of these treatments may place the provider and even the mission in jeopardy if performed at the wrong time. Therefore, TCCC classifies the tactical situation with respect to health care provision into 3 phases (care under fire, tactical field care and tactical evacuation) and only permits certain interventions to be performed in specific phases based on the danger to the provider and casualty. In the 6 years that the Canadian Forces (CF) have been involved in sustained combat operations in Kandahar, Afghanistan, more than 1000 CF members have been injured and more than 150 have been killed. As a result, the CF gained substantial experience delivering TCCC to wounded soldiers on the battlefield. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles of TCCC and some of the lessons learned about battlefield trauma care during this conflict. PMID:22099324

  19. Evaluating the Joint Theater Trauma Registry as a data source to benchmark casualty care.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Karen M; Littleton-Kearney, Marguerite T; Bridges, Elizabeth; Bibb, Sandra C

    2012-05-01

    Just as data from civilian trauma registries have been used to benchmark and evaluate civilian trauma care, data contained within the Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR) present a unique opportunity to benchmark combat care. Using the iterative steps of the benchmarking process, we evaluated data in the JTTR for suitability and established benchmarks for 24-hour mortality in casualties with polytrauma and a moderate or severe blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI). Mortality at 24 hours was greatest in those with polytrauma and a severe blunt TBI. No mortality was seen in casualties with polytrauma and a moderate blunt TBI. Secondary insults after TBI, especially hypothermia and hypoxemia, increased the odds of 24-hour mortality. Data contained in the JTTR were found to be suitable for establishing benchmarks. JTTR data may be useful in establishing benchmarks for other outcomes and types of combat injuries.

  20. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta: a gap analysis of severely injured UK combat casualties.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jonathan J; Ross, James D; Rasmussen, Todd E; Midwinter, Mark J; Jansen, Jan O

    2014-05-01

    The control of torso and junctional zone bleeding in combat casualties is particularly challenging because of its noncompressible nature. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has demonstrated promise in translational large animal and early clinical series as an effective resuscitation and hemorrhage control adjunct. However, it is unknown what proportion of combat casualties has an injury pattern and clinical course that is amenable to REBOA deployment. The prospective UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was used to retrospectively identify all UK military personnel who has sustained a severe combat injury, defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale of three or greater, in the course of 10 years. Patients were then divided into three groups based on Abbreviated Injury Scale injury pattern: no indications for REBOA, contraindications (mediastinal, cervical, and axillary hemorrhage), and indications (torso and pelvic hemorrhage). From a total of 1,317 patients, 925 (70.2%) had no indication, 148 (11.2%) had a contraindication, and 244 (18.5%) had an indication for REBOA. Within the group with indications for REBOA, there were 174 deaths: 79 at the point of wounding, 66 en route to hospital, and 29 in-hospital deaths. The median (interquartile range) time to death in patients dying en route was 75 (42-109) min, and the median prehospital time for casualties admitted to hospital was 61 (34-89) min. One-in-five severely injured UK combat casualties have a focus of hemorrhage in the abdomen or pelvic junctional region potentially amenable to REBOA deployment. The UK military should explore REBOA as a potential en route hemorrhage control and resuscitation adjunct. PMID:25133599