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Sample records for radiation mass casualties

  1. Some considerations for mass casualty management in radiation emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hopmeier, Michael; Abrahams, Jonathan; Carr, Zhanat

    2010-06-01

    Radiation emergencies are rather new to humankind, as compared to other types of emergencies such as earthquakes, floods, or hurricanes. Fortunately, they are rare, but because of that, planning for response to large-scale radiation emergencies is least understood. Along with the specific technical aspects of response to radiation emergencies, there are some general guiding principles of responding to mass casualty events of any nature, as identified by the World Health Organization in its 2007 manual for mass casualty management systems. The paper brings forward such general considerations as applicable to radiation mass casualty events, including (1) clear lines of communication; (2) scalability of approach; (3) whole-of-health approach; (4) knowledge based approach; and (5) multisectoral approach. Additionally, some key considerations of planning for mass casualty management systems are discussed, namely, health systems surge capacity and networking, risk and resources mapping, and others.

  2. Interlaboratory comparison of the dicentric chromosome assay for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Ruth C; Romm, Horst; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Awa, Akio A; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Livingston, Gordon K; Jenkins, Mark S; Oestreicher, Ursula; Pellmar, Terry C; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2008-05-01

    This interlaboratory comparison validates the dicentric chromosome assay for assessing radiation dose in mass casualty accidents and identifies the advantages and limitations of an international biodosimetry network. The assay's validity and accuracy were determined among five laboratories following the International Organization for Standardization guidelines. Blood samples irradiated at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute were shipped to all laboratories, which constructed individual radiation calibration curves and assessed the dose to dose-blinded samples. Each laboratory constructed a dose-effect calibration curve for the yield of dicentrics for (60)Co gamma rays in the 0 to 5-Gy range, using the maximum likelihood linear-quadratic model, Y = c + alphaD + betaD(2). For all laboratories, the estimated coefficients of the fitted curves were within the 99.7% confidence intervals (CIs), but the observed dicentric yields differed. When each laboratory assessed radiation doses to four dose-blinded blood samples by comparing the observed dicentric yield with the laboratory's own calibration curve, the estimates were accurate in all laboratories at all doses. For all laboratories, actual doses were within the 99.75% CI for the assessed dose. Across the dose range, the error in the estimated doses, compared to the physical doses, ranged from 15% underestimation to 15% overestimation.

  3. Sample Tracking in an Automated Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory for Radiation Mass Casualties.

    PubMed

    Martin, P R; Berdychevski, R E; Subramanian, U; Blakely, W F; Prasanna, P G S

    2007-07-01

    Chromosome aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput.This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples' positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample tracking system represents a "beta" version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and medical

  4. [Mass casualty events].

    PubMed

    Guła, Przemysław; Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek

    2006-01-01

    Authors present problems concerning mass--casualty accidents, specificity of action rescue-system on different levels of co-operation, kind of segregation of victims and efficiency of the medical rescue system in Poland. Attention has been paid to the continuous instructions and education of life-saving services, preferably by simulation of events without earlier information of the interested. It is necessary to establish and abide official dependence by the rules of co-operation of components of life-saving system. A separate problem is the implementation of rescue--activities in special situations: nuclear, biological and chemical contamination, and with very important safety measures for people taking part in rescue action.

  5. State-of-the-Art Advances in Radiation Biodosimetry for Mass Casualty Events Involving Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Sproull, Mary; Camphausen, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary. The field of biodosimetry has advanced significantly beyond this original initiative, with expansion into the fields of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics. Studies are ongoing to evaluate the use of lymphocyte kinetics for dose assessment, as well as the development of field-deployable EPR technology. In addition, expansion of traditional cytogenetic assessment methods through the use of automated platforms and the development of laboratory surge capacity networks have helped to advance our biodefense preparedness. In this review of the latest advances in the field of biodosimetry we evaluate our progress and identify areas that still need to be addressed to achieve true field-deployment readiness.

  6. Biological dosimetry by the triage dicentric chromosome assay: potential implications for treatment of acute radiation syndrome in radiological mass casualties.

    PubMed

    Romm, Horst; Wilkins, Ruth C; Coleman, C Norman; Lillis-Hearne, Patricia K; Pellmar, Terry C; Livingston, Gordon K; Awa, Akio A; Jenkins, Mark S; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Oestreicher, Ursula; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2011-03-01

    Biological dosimetry is an essential tool for estimating radiation dose. The dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is currently the tool of choice. Because the assay is labor-intensive and time-consuming, strategies are needed to increase throughput for use in radiation mass casualty incidents. One such strategy is to truncate metaphase spread analysis for triage dose estimates by scoring 50 or fewer metaphases, compared to a routine analysis of 500 to 1000 metaphases, and to increase throughput using a large group of scorers in a biodosimetry network. Previously, the National Institutes for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) sponsored a double-blinded interlaboratory comparison among five established international cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories to determine the variability in calibration curves and in dose measurements in unknown, irradiated samples. In the present study, we further analyzed the published data from this previous study to investigate how the number of metaphase spreads influences dose prediction accuracy and how this information could be of value in the triage and management of people at risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Although, as expected, accuracy decreased with lower numbers of metaphase spreads analyzed, predicted doses by the laboratories were in good agreement and were judged to be adequate to guide diagnosis and treatment of ARS. These results demonstrate that for rapid triage, a network of cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratories can accurately assess doses even with a lower number of scored metaphases.

  7. The hematologist and radiation casualties.

    PubMed

    Dainiak, Nicholas; Waselenko, Jamie K; Armitage, James O; MacVittie, Thomas J; Farese, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, preparation by the health care system for an act of terrorism has been mandated by leaders of governments. Scenarios for terrorist acts involving radioactive material have been identified, and approaches to management (based on past experience from atomic weapons detonations and radiation accidents) have been developed. Because of their experience in managing patients with profound cytopenia and/or marrow aplasia, hematologists will be asked to play a significant role in evaluating and treating victims of mass accidental or deliberate exposure to radiation. This review provides a framework for understanding how radiation levels are quantified, how radiation alters the function of hematopoietic (and nonhematopoietic) cells and tissues, and how victims receiving a significant radiation dose can be identified and managed. In Section I, Dr. Nicholas Dainiak reviews four components of the Acute Radiation Syndrome: the hematopoietic, neurovascular, gastrointestinal and cutaneous subsyndromes. Clinical signs and symptoms are discussed for exposed individuals at the time of initial presentation (the prodromal phase) and during their course of disease (the manifest illness). In Section II, he presents clinical and laboratory methods to assess radiation doses, including time to onset and severity of vomiting, rate of decline in absolute blood lymphocyte count and the appearance of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics and ring forms. Potential scenarios of a radiation terrorist event are reviewed, and methods for initial clinical assessment, triage, and early management of the acute radiation syndrome and its component subsyndromes are summarized. In Section III, Dr. Jamie Waselenko reviews the hematopoietic syndrome, and presents guidelines for the use of cytokine therapy, antibiotics, and supportive care that have been developed by the Strategic National Pharmaceutical Stockpile Working Group. Results of preclinical and

  8. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  9. Game-based mass casualty burn training.

    PubMed

    Kurenov, Sergei N; Cance, William W; Noel, Ben; Mozingo, David W

    2009-01-01

    An interactive, video game-based training module, Burn Center, was developed to simulate the real-life emergency events of a mass casualty disaster scenario, involving in 40 victims.The game contains two components - triage and resuscitation. The goal of the triage game is to correctly stabilize, sort, tag and transport burn victims during a mass casualty event at a busy theme park. After complete the triage component, the player will then take on the role of a burn care provider, balancing the clinical needs of multiple burn patients through a 36-hour resuscitation period, using familiar computer-simulated hospital devices. Once complete, players of Burn Center will come away with applicable skills and knowledge of burn care, for both field triage and initial resuscitation of the burn patients.

  10. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  11. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  12. Model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage.

    PubMed

    2011-06-01

    There is a need for model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage because disasters frequently cross jurisdictional lines and involve responders from multiple agencies who may be using different triage tools. These criteria (Tables 1-4) reflect the available science, but it is acknowledged that there are significant research gaps. When no science was available, decisions were formed by expert consensus derived from the available triage systems. The intent is to ensure that providers at a mass-casualty incident use triage methodologies that incorporate these core principles in an effort to promote interoperability and standardization. At a minimum, each triage system must incorporate the criteria that are listed below. Mass casualty triage systems in use can be modified using these criteria to ensure interoperability. The criteria include general considerations, global sorting, lifesaving interventions, and assignment of triage categories. The criteria apply only to providers who are organizing multiple victims in a discrete geographic location or locations, regardless of the size of the incident. They are classified by whether they were derived through available direct scientific evidence, indirect scientific evidence, expert consensus, and/or are used in multiple existing triage systems. These criteria address only primary triage and do not consider secondary triage. For the purposes of this document the term triage refers to mass-casualty triage and provider refers to any person who assigns primary triage categories to victims of a mass-casualty incident.

  13. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    jet fuel, to complex and hard-to-deploy weapons such as biologic and chemical agents’ (3). The purpose of this article is to review recent experience ...1994 Pope Air Force Base (AFB) aircraft crash from an anaesthesiology perspective (14). Those authors noted critical shortages of laryngoscopes...responses of nearby hospitals have been described (18–20). In addition, Yurt and colleagues reviewed their experi - ence with casualties from that disaster who

  14. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  15. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-16

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  16. Hepatitis B outbreak following a mass-casualty incident, Australia.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Claire M; Speers, David J; Chidlow, Glenys R; Dowse, Gary K; Robertson, Andrew G; Flexman, James P

    2011-08-01

    On 16 April 2009, a boat carrying 47 Afghan asylum seekers and 2 Indonesian crew exploded in Australian waters, resulting in mass casualties. Of these casualties, 23 persons who suffered significant burns were transferred to Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia. One patient was subsequently shown to be a hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier at the time of the explosion. Over the following months, 3 other patients received a diagnosis of acute hepatitis B, and an additional 4 patients showed serological evidence of recent HBV infection, including 1 patient who was transferred to another Australian city. Molecular typing determined that the strains from the HBV carrier and the acute and recent case patients formed a closely related cluster, and the investigation suggested that transmission occurred at or around the time of the boat explosion. This is the first report of confirmed transmission of HBV following a disaster, and it reinforces the importance of postexposure prophylaxis for HBV in mass casualty situations.

  17. Planning for a Mass Casualty Incident in Arkansas Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Harry; Liggin, Rebecca; Shirm, Steve; Nation, Brian; Dick, Rhonda

    2005-01-01

    School preparedness includes the possibility of a natural disaster, but recent events also confirm a need for preparedness and prevention efforts for intentional mass casualty incidents (MCIs). This survey examined the preparedness for the prevention and response for MCIs at public schools in Arkansas. This survey demonstrated that most school…

  18. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R. J.; Hibbard, W. J.

    2016-05-04

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  19. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, R.; Hibbard, W.

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  20. Evacuation Priorities in Mass Casualty Terror-Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Sharon; Feigenberg, Zvi; Weissman, Charles; Zaichik, Daniel; Caspi, Guy; Kotler, Doron; Freund, Herbert R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess evacuation priorities during terror-related mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and their implications for hospital organization/contingency planning. Summary Background Data: Trauma guidelines recommend evacuation of critically injured patients to Level I trauma centers. The recent MCIs in Israel offered an opportunity to study the impositions placed on a prehospital emergency medical service (EMS) regarding evacuation priorities in these circumstances. Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical evacuations from MCIs (29.9.2000–31.9.2002) performed by the Israeli National EMS rescue teams. Results: Thirty-three MCIs yielded data on 1156 casualties. Only 57% (506) of the 1123 available and mobilized ambulances were needed to provide 612 evacuations. Rescue teams arrived on scene within <5 minutes and evacuated the last urgent casualty within 15–20 minutes. The majority of non-urgent and urgent patients were transported to medical centers close to the event. Less than half of the urgent casualties were evacuated to more distant trauma centers. Independent variables predicting evacuation to a trauma center were its being the hospital closest to the event (OR 249.2, P < 0.001), evacuation within <10 minutes of the event (OR 9.3, P = 0.003), and having an urgent patient on the ambulance (OR 5.6, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Hospitals nearby terror-induced MCIs play a major role in trauma patient care. Thus, all hospitals should be included in contingency plans for MCIs. Further research into the implications of evacuation of the most severely injured casualties to the nearest hospital while evacuating all other casualties to various hospitals in the area is needed. The challenges posed by terror-induced MCIs require consideration of a paradigm shift in trauma care. PMID:15075645

  1. Scalable patients tracking framework for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a system that tracks patients in a Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) using active RFID triage tags and mobile anchor points (DM-tracks) carried by the paramedics. The system does not involve any fixed deployment of the localization devices while maintaining a low cost triage tag. The localization accuracy is comparable to GPS systems without incurring the cost of providing a GPS based device to every patient in the disaster scene.

  2. Implementing RFID technology in a novel triage system during a simulated mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Jokela, Jorma; Simons, Tomi; Kuronen, Pentti; Tammela, Juha; Jalasvirta, Pertti; Nurmi, Jouni; Harkke, Ville; Castrén, Maaret

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applicability of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and commercial cellular networks to provide an online triage system for handling mass casualty situations. This was tested by a using a pilot system for a simulated mass casualty situation during a military field exercise. The system proved to be usable. Compared to the currently used system, it also dramatically improves the general view of mass casualty situations and enhances medical emergency readiness in a military medical setting. The system can also be adapted without any difficulties by the civilian sector for the management of mass casualty disasters.

  3. Assessment of Hospital Pharmacy Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Nadia I.; Cocchio, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the preparedness of hospital pharmacies in New Jersey to provide pharmaceutical services in mass casualty scenarios. Methods: An electronic cross-sectional survey was developed to assess the general knowledge of available resources and attitudes toward the preparedness of the pharmacy department. Results: Out of 60 invitations to participate, 18 surveys (30%) were completed. Respondents practiced at community hospitals (12, 66.6%) with no trauma center designation (11, 67.4%) that served more than 500 licensed beds (five, 29.4%). Six respondents (35.3%) indicated that 75,000 to 100,000 patients visited their emergency departments annually. Seventeen sites (94.4%) reported the existence of an institutional disaster preparedness protocol; 10 (55.5%) indicated that there is a specific plan for the pharmacy department. Most respondents (10, 55.5%) were unsure whether their hospitals had an adequate supply of analgesics, rapid sequence intubation agents, vasopressors, antiemetics, respiratory medications, ophthalmics, oral antimicrobials, and chemical-weapon-specific antidotes. Five (27.7%) agreed that the pharmacy disaster plan included processes to ensure care for patients already hospitalized, and four (22.2%) agreed that the quantity of medication was adequate to treat patients and hospital employees if necessary. Medication stock and quantities were determined based on national or international guidelines at three (16.6%) institutions surveyed. Conclusion: This survey demonstrates a lack of general consensus regarding hospital pharmacy preparedness for mass casualty scenarios despite individualized institutional protocols for disaster preparedness. Standardized recommendations from government and/or professional pharmacy organizations should be developed to guide the preparation of hospital pharmacy departments for mass casualty scenarios. PMID:25859121

  4. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    PubMed

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p <0.05). Current mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  5. [Simplified schema of action of the ambulance rescue services during mass casualty].

    PubMed

    Guła, Przemysław; Hładki, Waldemar; Górski, Krzysztof; Popławska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Authors represented problems relating mass - casualty accidents and manner of segregation of victims. Lifesaving activities in mass - casualty usually leads to increased emotional stress. It is the result of event specificity, and also of external threats in the zone of activity. Authors presented schema prepared for needs of Cracow's - Ambulance Rescue Services, being the adaptation of universally accepted in western countries algorithm (SAD CHALETS).

  6. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0114 TITLE: Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties... Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by

  7. Education and training of medical students for mass casualties situations.

    PubMed

    Adler, J

    1979-06-01

    During the academic years I 9 75 and I 9 76 an interdisciplinary course in mass casualty management was given to sixth year medical students at the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem. The course included introductory lectures in definition of types of disasters, objectives in disaster intervention, description of local and national rescue organizations. Special importance was paid to mage of casualties and to a centralized system of evacuation from the disaster site. Further, hospital planning and deployment, stressing the role of the Emergency Room physician. The specific approach to multiple injuries including neurosurgical, orthopedic, abdominal, chest and soft tissue wounds was discussed in a panel meeting. Stress intervention and a comprehensive lecture on public health problems concluded this part of the course. The last half-day was devoted to a practical exercise, simulating a town severely damaged by an earthquake. Although the course was an elective one, it was extremely well attended by the students, and its implementation was enthusiastically performed by both teachers and students.

  8. Improving hospital mass casualty preparedness through ongoing readiness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Laor, Daniel; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipora; Schwartz, Dagan; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of ongoing use of an evaluation tool on hospitals' emergency preparedness for mass casualty events (MCEs). Two cycles of evaluation of emergency preparedness were conducted based on measurable parameters. A significant increase was found in mean total scores between the 2 cycles (from 77.1 to 88.5). An increase was found in scores for standard operating procedures, training, and equipment, but the change was significant only in the training category. Relative increase was highest for hospitals that did not experience real MCEs. This study offers a structured and practical approach for ongoing improvement of emergency preparedness, based on validated, measurable benchmarks. Ongoing assessment of emergency preparedness motivates hospitals to improve capabilities and results in a more effective emergency response mechanism. Use of predetermined and measurable benchmarks allows the institutions being assessed to improve their level of performance in the areas evaluated.

  9. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  10. A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings

  11. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Christopher N.; Mills, Gregory H.

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI) responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. PMID:21691470

  12. Decision-support information system to manage mass casualty incidents at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Bar-El, Yaron; Tzafrir, Sara; Tzipori, Idan; Utitz, Liora; Halberthal, Michael; Beyar, Rafael; Reisner, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    Mass casualty incidents are probably the greatest challenge to a hospital. When such an event occurs, hospitals are required to instantly switch from their routine activity to conditions of great uncertainty and confront needs that exceed resources. We describe an information system that was uniquely designed for managing mass casualty events. The web-based system is activated when a mass casualty event is declared; it displays relevant operating procedures, checklists, and a log book. The system automatically or semiautomatically initiates phone calls and public address announcements. It collects real-time data from computerized clinical and administrative systems in the hospital, and presents them to the managing team in a clear graphic display. It also generates periodic reports and summaries of available or scarce resources that are sent to predefined recipients. When the system was tested in a nationwide exercise, it proved to be an invaluable tool for informed decision making in demanding and overwhelming situations such as mass casualty events.

  13. Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael E; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2008-02-01

    Disaster preparedness typically includes plans that address the need for surge capacity to manage mass-casualty events. A major concern of disaster preparedness in respiratory therapy focuses on responding to a sudden increase in the volume of patients who require mechanical ventilation. Plans for such disasters must include contingencies to address surge capacity in ventilator inventories and the respiratory therapy staff who will manage the ventilators. Tactics to address these situations include efforts to lower demand by transferring patients to other institutions as well as efforts to augment staffing levels. Staff can be augmented by mobilization of deployable teams of volunteers from outside the region and through exploitation of local resources. The latter includes strategies to recruit local respiratory therapists who are currently in either non-clinical or non-hospital-based positions and policies that optimize existing respiratory therapy resources within an institution by canceling elective surgeries, altering shift structure, and postponing vacations. An alternative approach would employ non-respiratory-therapy staff to assist in the management of patients with respiratory failure. Project XTREME (Cross-Training Respiratory Extenders for Medical Emergencies) is a cross-training program developed to facilitate training of non-respiratory-therapy health professionals to assist in the management of patients who require mechanical ventilation. It includes an interactive digital video disc as well as a competency validation laboratory and is designed to be performed at the time of an emergency. Pilot testing of the program suggests it is effective.

  14. Telemedical support of prehospital emergency care in mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Plischke, M; Wolf, K H; Lison, T; Pretschner, D P

    1999-09-09

    In the German emergency medical service system (EMSS) medical treatment can be improved in most of mass casualty incidents (MCI). Currently, the incident commander who is responsible for classification of the victims (depending on their urgency and condition, the so called triage) and ordered transportation uses paper-based documentation. Triage tags are used to identify and classify patients and gather treatment information. This can cause problems in medical treatment and in transportation of injured victims. Object-oriented modelling, simulation, and visualisation of processes can show deficits in treatment and data processing and thereby help to optimise medical workflow and logistics. If documentation by paramedics and emergency physicians is done electronically, all patient records could be send to a telemedical centre for central data administration. A telemedical supported triage tag helps identifying victims and managing detailed identification protocols. The paper-based documentation in emergency would become obsolete, if hospitals can query all protocols, diagnoses, and findings from the telemedical centre. Safety and security aspects can be guaranteed. The complete medical treatment workflow can be supported by telemedicine. Therefore, in case of MCI, telemedicine can optimise medical treatment and exonerate the paramedics from unnecessary documentation.

  15. Triage, monitoring, and treatment of mass casualty events involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna C.; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) event, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly. While applying the triage system, the available medical resources and maximal utilization of medical assets should be taken into consideration by experienced triage officers who are most familiar with the natural course of the injury presented and have detailed information on medical assets. There are several triage systems that can be applied to CBRN casualties. With no one standardized system globally or nationally available, it is important for deploying a triage and decontamination system which is easy to follow and flexible to the available medical resources, casualty number, and severity of injury. PMID:21829319

  16. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  17. Wireless Vital Sign Sensor Network Simulations for Mass Casualty Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-27

    Casualty, Network Simulation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: Unclassified 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19 19a. NAME OF... security takes priority over medical treatment of the wounded, so it assumed that only two responders are available to provide medical care during...in ZigBee products. Since ZigBee software stacks are widely available and since a standard exists for ZigBee use in healthcare, it is a very

  18. Assessment of Biodosimetry Methods for a Mass-Casualty Radiological Incident: Medical Response and Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Julie M.; Prasanna, Pataje G. S.; Grace, Marcy B.; Wathen, Lynne; Wallace, Rodney L.; Koerner, John F.; Coleman, C. Norman

    2013-01-01

    Following a mass-casualty nuclear disaster, effective medical triage has the potential to save tens of thousands of lives. In order to best use the available scarce resources, there is an urgent need for biodosimetry tools to determine an individual’s radiation dose. Initial triage for radiation exposure will include location during the incident, symptoms, and physical examination. Stepwise triage will include point of care assessment of less than or greater than 2 Gy, followed by secondary assessment, possibly with high throughput screening, to further define an individual’s dose. Given the multisystem nature of radiation injury, it is unlikely that any single biodosimetry assay can be used as a stand-alone tool to meet the surge in capacity with the timeliness and accuracy needed. As part of the national preparedness and planning for a nuclear or radiological incident, we reviewed the primary literature to determine the capabilities and limitations of a number of biodosimetry assays currently available or under development for use in the initial and secondary triage of patients. Understanding the requirements from a response standpoint and the capability and logistics for the various assays will help inform future biodosimetry technology development and acquisition. Factors considered include: type of sample required, dose detection limit, time interval when the assay is feasible biologically, time for sample preparation and analysis, ease of use, logistical requirements, potential throughput, point-of-care capability, and the ability to support patient diagnosis and treatment within a therapeutically relevant time point. PMID:24162058

  19. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    held high- throughput ultrasonic monodisperse aerosol inhalers for detoxification of massive CN poisoning. IV. CONCLUSIONS Significant effect of...Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerry R...Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Research issues in preparedness for mass casualty events, disaster, war, and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Hinton Walker, Patricia; Garmon Bibb, Sandra C; Elberson, Karen L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a perspective on the types of research questions that might be explored and strategies used in relation to disaster,terrorism, and mass casualty events. Research is addressed in the context of three areas of focus: issues related to the health care provider; issues affecting the patient, individual, family, and community; and issues related to the health care system.

  1. Portable ultrasonography in mass casualty incidents: The CAVEAT examination

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Stanislaw Peter; Howard, James M; Pryor, John P; Bahner, David P; Whitmill, Melissa L; Dean, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonography used by practicing clinicians has been shown to be of utility in the evaluation of time-sensitive and critical illnesses in a range of environments, including pre-hospital triage, emergency department, and critical care settings. The increasing availability of light-weight, robust, user-friendly, and low-cost portable ultrasound equipment is particularly suited for use in the physically and temporally challenging environment of a multiple casualty incident (MCI). Currently established ultrasound applications used to identify potentially lethal thoracic or abdominal conditions offer a base upon which rapid, focused protocols using hand-carried emergency ultrasonography could be developed. Following a detailed review of the current use of portable ultrasonography in military and civilian MCI settings, we propose a protocol for sonographic evaluation of the chest, abdomen, vena cava, and extremities for acute triage. The protocol is two-tiered, based on the urgency and technical difficulty of the sonographic examination. In addition to utilization of well-established bedside abdominal and thoracic sonography applications, this protocol incorporates extremity assessment for long-bone fractures. Studies of the proposed protocol will need to be conducted to determine its utility in simulated and actual MCI settings. PMID:22474622

  2. Mobile DIORAMA-II: infrastructure less information collection system for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Yang, Zhuorui; Yi, Jun; Lord, Graydon; Ciottone, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce DIORAMA-II system that provides real time information collection in mass casualty incidents. Using a mobile platform that includes active RFID tags and readers as well as Smartphones, the system can determine the location of victims and responders. The system provides user friendly multi dimensional user interfaces as well as collaboration tools between the responders and the incident commander. We conducted two simulated mass casualty incidents with 50 victims each and professional responders. DIORAMA-II significantly reduces the evacuation time by up to 43% when compared to paper based triage systems. All responders that participated in all trials were very satisfied. They felt in control of the incident and mentioned that the system significantly reduced their stress level during the incident. They all mentioned that they would use the system in an actual incident.

  3. Adolescent epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic exposure incident

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, B.S.

    1989-08-01

    Discussed is a case of explosive epidemic hysteria presenting as a mass casualty, toxic inhalation incident. Fifteen adolescent female students were triaged from a school of 700 persons exposed to sewer gas and arrived simultaneously at the emergency department complaining of a variety of nonspecific symptoms without physical findings. These symptoms quickly remitted with reassurance and dispersion of the group. Factors important in the recognition and treatment of epidemic hysteria are presented.

  4. Resource planning for ambulance services in mass casualty incidents: a DES-based policy model.

    PubMed

    Rauner, Marion S; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela M; Niessner, Helmut

    2012-09-01

    Due to an increasing number of mass casualty incidents, which are generally complex and unique in nature, we suggest that decision makers consider operations research-based policy models to help prepare emergency staff for improved planning and scheduling at the emergency site. We thus develop a discrete-event simulation policy model, which is currently being applied by disaster-responsive ambulance services in Austria. By evaluating realistic scenarios, our policy model is shown to enhance the scheduling and outcomes at operative and online levels. The proposed scenarios range from small, simple, and urban to rather large, complex, remote mass casualty emergencies. Furthermore, the organization of an advanced medical post can be improved on a strategic level to increase rescue quality, including enhanced survival of injured victims. In particular, we consider a realistic mass casualty incident at a brewery relative to other exemplary disasters. Based on a variety of such situations, we derive general policy implications at both the macro (e.g., strategic rescue policy) and micro (e.g., operative and online scheduling strategies at the emergency site) levels.

  5. Clinical Framework and Medical Countermeasure Use During an Anthrax Mass-Casualty Incident.

    PubMed

    Bower, William A; Hendricks, Katherine; Pillai, Satish; Guarnizo, Julie; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2015-12-04

    In 2014, CDC published updated guidelines for the prevention and treatment of anthrax (Hendricks KA, Wright ME, Shadomy SV, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert panel meetings on prevention and treatment of anthrax in adults. Emerg Infect Dis 2014;20[2]. Available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/20/2/13-0687_article.htm). These guidelines provided recommended best practices for the diagnosis and treatment of persons with naturally occurring or bioterrorism-related anthrax in conventional medical settings. An aerosolized release of Bacillus anthracis spores over densely populated areas could become a mass-casualty incident. To prepare for this possibility, the U.S. government has stockpiled equipment and therapeutics (known as medical countermeasures [MCMs]) for anthrax prevention and treatment. However, previously developed, publicly available clinical recommendations have not addressed the use of MCMs or clinical management during an anthrax mass-casualty incident, when the number of patients is likely to exceed the ability of the health care infrastructure to provide conventional standards of care and supplies of MCMs might be inadequate to meet the demand required. To address this gap, in 2013, CDC conducted a series of systematic reviews of the scientific literature on anthrax to identify evidence that could help clinicians and public health authorities set guidelines for intravenous antimicrobial and antitoxin use, diagnosis of anthrax meningitis, and management of common anthrax-specific complications in the setting of a mass-casualty incident. Evidence from these reviews was presented to professionals with expertise in anthrax, critical care, and disaster medicine during a series of workgroup meetings that were held from August 2013 through March 2014. In March 2014, a meeting was held at which 102 subject matter experts discussed the evidence and adapted the existing best practices guidance to a clinical use framework for the

  6. BET 2: Is prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound useful during triage at mass casualty incidents?

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to determined whether the addition of prehospital focused abdominal ultrasound to triage protocols might reduce time to necessary surgery and reduce overall mortality. Thirty-five papers were found using the reported searches, of which three presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of those best papers are shown in table 2. It is concluded that although the feasibility of prehospital ultrasound in mass casualty incidents has been demonstrated, there is, as yet, no clear evidence of benefit as part of a triage protocol.

  7. Autonomous mobile platform for enhanced situational awareness in Mass Casualty Incidents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongyi; Schafer, James; Wang, Sili; Ganz, Aura

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the efficiency of the search and rescue process of a Mass Casualty Incident, we introduce a low cost autonomous mobile platform. The mobile platform motion is controlled by an Android Smartphone mounted on a robot. The pictures and video captured by the Smartphone camera can significantly enhance the situational awareness of the incident commander leading to a more efficient search and rescue process. Moreover, the active RFID readers mounted on the mobile platform can improve the localization accuracy of victims in the disaster site in areas where the paramedics are not present, reducing the triage and evacuation time.

  8. Greetings: 50 years of Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation studies.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, I

    1998-05-12

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission was established in Hiroshima in 1947 and in Nagasaki in 1948 under the auspices of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to initiate a long-term and comprehensive epidemiological and genetic study of the atomic bomb survivors. It was replaced in 1975 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation which is a nonprofit Japanese foundation binationally managed and supported with equal funding by the governments of Japan and the United States. Thanks to the cooperation of the survivors and the contributions of a multitude of scientists, these studies flourish to this day in what must be the most successful long-term research collaboration between the two countries. Although these studies are necessarily limited to the effects of acute, whole-body, mixed gamma-neutron radiation from the atom bombs, their comprehensiveness and duration make them the most definitive descriptions of the late effects of radiation in humans. For this reason, the entire world relies heavily on these data to set radiation standards. As vital as the study results are, they still represent primarily the effects of radiation on older survivors. Another decade or two should correct this deficiency and allow us to measure definitively the human risk of heritable mutation from radiation. We look to the worldwide radiation and risk community as well as to the survivors who have contributed so much to what has been done already to accomplish this goal.

  9. On constant alert: lessons to be learned from Israel's emergency response to mass-casualty terrorism incidents.

    PubMed

    Adini, Bruria; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-12-01

    In its short modern history, Israel has had to contend with numerous mass-casualty incidents caused by terrorism. As a result, it has developed practical national preparedness policies for responding to such events. Israel's Supreme Health Authority, a committee of the Ministry of Health, coordinates emergency management nationwide. All emergency personnel, health care providers, and medical facilities operate under national policies designed to ensure a swift and coordinated response to any incident, based on an "all hazards" approach that emphasizes core elements commonly encountered in mass-casualty incidents. Israel's emergency management system includes contingency planning, command and control, centrally coordinated response, cooperation, and capacity building. Although every nation is unique, many of the lessons that Israel has learned may be broadly applicable to preparation for mass-casualty incidents in the United States and other countries.

  10. Mass Casualty Incident Management Preparedness: A Survey of the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Aaron M; Sordo, Salvador; Weireter, Leonard J; Price, Michelle A; Cancio, Leopoldo; Jonas, Rachelle B; Dent, Daniel L; Muir, Mark T; Aydelotte, Jayson D

    2016-12-01

    Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) are events resulting in more injured patients than hospital systems can handle with standard protocols. Several studies have assessed hospital preparedness during MCIs. However, physicians and trauma surgeons need to be familiar with their hospital's MCI Plan. The purpose of this survey was to assess hospitals' and trauma surgeon's preparedness for MCIs. Online surveys were e-mailed to members of the American College of Surgeons committee on Trauma Ad Hoc Committee on Disaster and Mass Casualty Management before the March 2012 meeting. Eighty surveys were analyzed (of 258). About 76 per cent were American College of Surgeons Level I trauma centers, 18 per cent were Level II trauma centers. Fifty-seven per cent of Level I and 21 per cent of Level II trauma centers had experienced an MCI. A total of 98 per cent of respondents thought it was likely their hospital would see a future MCI. Severe weather storm was the most likely event (95%), followed by public transportation incident (86%), then explosion (85%). About 83 per cent of hospitals had mechanisms to request additional physician/surgeons, and 80 per cent reported plans for operative triage. The majority of trauma surgeons felt prepared for an MCI and believed an event was likely to occur in the future. The survey was limited by the highly select group of respondents and future surveys will be necessary.

  11. Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration with dialysis (CAVH-D): an alternative to hemodialysis in the mass casualty situation.

    PubMed

    Omert, L; Reynolds, H N; Wiles, C E

    1991-01-01

    Renal failure is a common sequela of mass casualty, particularly when crush injury is involved. Traditional management of renal failure with hemodialysis equipment may be difficult or inaccessible due to lack of electricity and water supply or damage to existing equipment. Furthermore, a sudden new population of renal failure patients may overwhelm an existing dialysis program. The rapid mobilization of traditional hemodialysis equipment may be delayed due to limited supply, manufacturing delays, or inventory shortages. For these reasons, we propose the use of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration with dialysis (CAVH-D) as an alternative renal support modality for the mass casualty situation.

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents. The review focuses on five psychosocial aspects of incident management: likely public behaviour; responder management style; communication strategy; privacy/ modesty concerns; and vulnerable groups. Methods: Two structured literature reviews were carried out; one to identify decontamination guidance documents for first responders, and another to identify evidence which is relevant to the understanding of the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination.  The guidance documents and relevant research were reviewed to identify whether the guidance documents contain information relating to psychosocial issues and where it exists, that the guidance is consistent with the existing evidence-base. Results: Psychosocial aspects of incident management receive limited attention in current decontamination guidance.  In addition, our review has identified a number of gaps and inconsistencies between guidance and research evidence.  For each of the five areas we identify: what is currently presented in guidance documents, to what extent this is consistent with the existing research evidence and where it diverges.  We present a series of evidence-based recommendations for updating decontamination guidance to address the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination. Conclusions: Effective communication and respect for casualties’ needs are critical in ensuring

  13. Oral and Enteral Resuscitation of Burn Shock The Historical Record and Implications for Mass Casualty Care

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, George C.; Michell, Michael W.; Oliveira, Hermes; Brown, Tim La H.; Herndon, David; Baker, R. David; Muller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of a mass disaster, standard care methods for treatment of burn injury will often not be available for all victims. A method of fluid resuscitation for burns that has largely been forgotten by contemporary burn experts is enteral resuscitation. We identified 12 studies with over 700 patients treated with enteral resuscitation, defined as drinking or gastric infusion of salt solutions, from the literature. These studies suggest that enteral resuscitation can be an effective treatment for burn shock under conditions in which the standard IV therapy is unavailable or delayed, such as in mass disasters and combat casualties. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock was effective in patients with moderate (10–40% TBSA) and in some patients with more severe injuries. The data suggests that some hypovolemic burn and trauma patients can be treated exclusively with enteral resuscitation, and others might benefit from enteral resuscitation as an initial alternative and a supplement to IV therapy. A complication of enteral resuscitation was vomiting, which occurred less in children and much less when therapy was initiated within the first postburn hour. Enteral resuscitation is contra-indicated when the patient is in “peripheral circulatory collapse”. The optimal enteral solution and regimen has not yet been defined, nor has its efficacy been tested against modern IV resuscitation. The oldest studies used glucose-free solutions of buffered isotonic and hypotonic saline. Studies that are more recent show benefit of adding glucose to electrolyte solutions similar to those used in the treatment of cholera. If IV therapy for mass casualty care is delayed due to logistical constraints, enteral resuscitation should be considered. PMID:20827301

  14. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  15. Mass casualty incident surveillance and monitoring using identity aware video analytics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an identity aware video analytic system that can assist securing the perimeter of a mass casualty incident scene and generate identity annotated video records for forensics and training purposes. Establishing a secure incident scene perimeter and enforcing access control to different zones is a demanding task for current video surveillance systems which lack the ability to provide the identity of the target and its security clearance. Our system which combines active RFID sensors with video analytic tools recovers the identity of the target enabling the activation of suitable alert policies. The system also enables annotation of incident scene video with identity metadata, facilitating the incident response process reconstruction for forensics analysis and emergency response training.

  16. MASCAL: RFID Tracking of Patients, Staff and Equipment to Enhance Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Emory A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Most medical facilities practice managing the large numbers of seriously injured patients expected during catastrophic events. As the demands on the healthcare team increase, however, the challenges faced by managers escalate, workflow bottlenecks develop and system capacity decreases. This paper describes MASCAL, an integrated software–hardware system designed to enhance management of resources at a hospital during a mass casualty situation. MASCAL uses active 802.11b asset tags to track patients, equipment and staff during the response to a disaster. The system integrates tag position information with data from personnel databases, medical information systems, registration applications and the US Navy’s TACMEDCS triage application in a custom visual disaster management environment. MASCAL includes interfaces for a hospital command center, local area managers (emergency room, operating suites, radiology, etc.) and registration personnel. MASCAL is an operational system undergoing functional evaluation at the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA. PMID:16779042

  17. Mass casualty modelling: a spatial tool to support triage decision making

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During a mass casualty incident, evacuation of patients to the appropriate health care facility is critical to survival. Despite this, no existing system provides the evidence required to make informed evacuation decisions from the scene of the incident. To mitigate this absence and enable more informed decision making, a web based spatial decision support system (SDSS) was developed. This system supports decision making by providing data regarding hospital proximity, capacity, and treatment specializations to decision makers at the scene of the incident. Methods This web-based SDSS utilizes pre-calculated driving times to estimate the actual driving time to each hospital within the inclusive trauma system of the large metropolitan region within which it is situated. In calculating and displaying its results, the model incorporates both road network and hospital data (e.g. capacity, treatment specialties, etc.), and produces results in a matter of seconds, as is required in a MCI situation. In addition, its application interface allows the user to map the incident location and assists in the execution of triage decisions. Results Upon running the model, driving time from the MCI location to the surrounding hospitals is quickly displayed alongside information regarding hospital capacity and capability, thereby assisting the user in the decision-making process. Conclusions The use of SDSS in the prioritization of MCI evacuation decision making is potentially valuable in cases of mass casualty. The key to this model is the utilization of pre-calculated driving times from each hospital in the region to each point on the road network. The incorporation of real-time traffic and hospital capacity data would further improve this model. PMID:21663636

  18. Terrorism, trauma, and mass casualty triage: how might we solve the latest mind-body problem?

    PubMed

    Engel, Charles C; Locke, Steven; Reissman, Dori B; DeMartino, Robert; Kutz, Ilan; McDonald, Michael; Barsky, Arthur J

    2007-06-01

    The global war on terrorism has led to increased concern about the ability of the U.S. healthcare system to respond to casualties from a chemical, biological, or radiological agent attack. Relatively little attention, however, has focused on the potential, in the immediate aftermath of such an attack, for large numbers of casualties presenting to triage points with acute health anxiety and idiopathic physical symptoms. This sort of "mass idiopathic illness" is not a certain outcome of chemical, biological, or radiological attack. However, in the event that this phenomenon occurs, it could result in surges in demand for medical evaluations that may disrupt triage systems and endanger lives. Conversely, if continuous primary care is not available for such patients after initial triage, many may suffer with unrecognized physical and emotional injuries and illness. This report is the result of an expert planning initiative seeking to facilitate triage protocols that will address the possibility of mass idiopathic illness and bolster healthcare system surge capacity. The report reviews key triage assumptions and gaps in knowledge and offers a four-stage triage model for further discussion and research. Optimal triage approaches offer flexibility and should be based on empirical studies, critical incident modeling, lessons from simulation exercises, and case studies. In addition to staging, the proposed triage and longitudinal care model relies on early recognition of symptoms, development of a registry, and use of non-physician care management to facilitate later longitudinal followup and collaboration between primary care and psychiatry for the significant minority of patients who develop persistent idiopathic symptoms associated with reduced functional status.

  19. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dal Ponte, Silvana T; Dornelles, Carlos F D; Arquilla, Bonnie; Bloem, Christina; Roblin, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses.

  20. A burn mass casualty event due to boiler room explosion on a cruise ship: preparedness and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Akin; Namias, Nicholas; O'Keeffe, Terence; Pizano, Louis; Lynn, Mauricio; Prater-Varas, Robin; Quintana, Olga Delia; Borges, Leda; Ishii, Mary; Lee, Seong; Lopez, Peter; Lessner-Eisenberg, Sharon; Alvarez, Angel; Ellison, Tom; Sapnas, Katherine; Lefton, Jennifer; Ward, Charles Gillon

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a mass casualty incident resulting from a boiler room steam explosion aboard a cruise ship. Experience with major, moderate, and minor burns, steam inhalation, mass casualty response systems, and psychological sequelae will be discussed. Fifteen cruise ship employees were brought to the burn center after a boiler room explosion on a cruise ship. Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support

  1. Use of Clinical Decision Guidance as a New Public Health Tool for the Medical Management of Internal Contamination in Radiological Mass Casualty Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Albert L

    2016-09-01

    This review is a discussion of special issues associated with the medical and public health management of persons at risk of internal contamination from radionuclides, following various radiological mass-casualty scenarios, as well as definition, discussion and use of the Clinical Decision Guidance (CDG) in such scenarios. Specific medical countermeasures are available for reducing the internal radiation dose and the subsequent stochastic and deterministic risks to persons internally contaminated with radionuclides from nuclear power plant, fuel processing and nuclear weapon accidents/incidents. There is a public health need for rapidly identifying and quantifying the 'source term' of such radiation exposures and assessment of the associated committed doses, so that appropriate medical countermeasure(s) can be given as soon as possible. The CDG, which was initially defined in NCRP-161, was specifically developed to be a new public health tool for facilitating the integration of local community healthcare professionals into the general medical, mass casualty, triage and treatment response of internally contaminated populations.

  2. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS) regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI) April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR) of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%). These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%). A total of 18 patients (11.7%) had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04), abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P < 0.01), head & neck injury (adjusted OR = 13.8; 95% CI, 2.4-80.4; P < 0.01) and chest injury (adjusted OR = 9.9; 95% CI, 2.1-47.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future. PMID:22214518

  3. Evaluation of a CT triage protocol for mass casualty incidents: results from two large-scale exercises.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Krötz, Michael M; Wirth, Stefan; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Boehm, Holger F; Reiser, Maximilian; Linsenmaier, Ulrich

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, stability, and reproducibility of a dedicated CT protocol for the triage of patients in two separate large-scale exercises that simulated a mass casualty incident (MCI). In both exercises, a bomb explosion at the local soccer stadium that had caused about 100 casualties was simulated. Seven casualties who were rated "critical" by on-site field triage were admitted to the emergency department and underwent whole-body CT. The CT workflow was simulated with phantoms. The history of the casualties was matched to existing CT examinations that were used for evaluation of image reading under MCI conditions. The times needed for transfer and preparation of patients, examination, image reconstruction, total time in the CT examination room, image transfer to PACS, and image reading were recorded, and mean capacities were calculated and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. We found no significant time differences in transfer and preparation of patients, duration of CT data acquisition, image reconstruction, total time in the CT room, and reading of the images. The calculated capacities per hour were 9.4 vs. 9.8 for examinations completed, and 8.2 vs. 7.2 for reports completed. In conclusion, CT triage is feasible and produced constant results with this dedicated and fast protocol.

  4. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience.

  5. [National preparedness for biological mass casualty event: between the devil and the deep blue sea].

    PubMed

    Eldad, Arieh

    2002-05-01

    Species of plants and animals, as well as nations of human beings were extinguished throughout the prehistory and history of this planet. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is a large scale epidemic of viral, bacterial or fungal infections. One well-documented example was the smallpox epidemic among native Indians of South America following the European invasion. Deliberate dissemination of disease was used as a weapon during the Middle Ages when corpses of plague casualties were thrown over the walls and into the besieged towns. The Book of Kings II, of the Bible, in chapter 19 recalls the story of 185,000 soldiers of Sennacherib that died in one night, near the walls of Jerusalem. The possibility of causing mass casualty by dissemination of infectious disease has driven countries and terrorist organizations to produce and store large quantities of bacteria or viruses. The death of thousands in the USA on September 11, 2001, demonstrated that terror has no moral prohibitions, only technical limitations. Terror organizations will not hesitate to use weapons for mass destruction to kill many, and if only few will die, it will still serve the purpose of these evil organizations: to strew panic, to destroy normal life and to increase fear and instability. Any government that faces decisions about how to be better prepared against biological warfare is pushed between the devil and the deep blue sea. On the one hand: the better we will be prepared, equipped with antibiotics and vaccines--the more lives of casualties we will be able to save. Better public education will help to reduce the damage, but, on the other hand--in order to cause more people to make the effort to equip themselves or to refresh their protective kit--we will have to increase their level of concern. In order to improve the medical education of all members of the medical teams we will have to start a broad and intense campaign, thereby taking the risk of increasing stress in the

  6. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  7. Gaming to Predict Human Responses to Mass Casualty Events: An Approach for Quick Look Tools for Pandemic Influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.; Papatyi, Anthony F.

    2009-10-09

    There is a need to better understand and describe social intelligence in the realm of handling mass casualty events such as pandemic influenza, earthquakes, and other natural or manmade disasters. A comprehension of social intelligence is needed in order to accurately feed and drive models and simulations that attempt to describe and quantify human responses to such mass casualty events, which can allow decision makers to identify potential mitigation strategies that might be used to minimize the impacts of these events by reducing numbers of deaths, injuries, and other societal (e.g., economic) consequences. We propose to develop a better understanding of social intelligence and socially driven human responses through the use of games and game-like interfaces with a direct application focused on infectious diseases.

  8. Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Gunn, S William A; Dibo, S

    2013-03-31

    A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

  9. Family support and victim identification in mass casualty terrorist attacks: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Roni; Cohen, Miri; Peled-Avram, Maya

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist bombing attacks in Israel between 2000 and 2004 caused mass casualties. After each attack in the north of Israel, Rambam Medical Center, the largest hospital in the region, absorbs the majority of injured, especially the more severely injured and unidentified victims. Immediately with the media reports of a terrorist attack, tens of relatives come to the hospital, looking for missing family members. This paper describes an assistance unit for families of unidentified victims. It is staffed by the hospital's social work department, and its tasks are to identify the unidentified victims, help relatives find and be united with them, and assist other relatives in the identification of bodies of deceased family members. The process involves gathering information from relatives and cross-checking it with data and pictures from the hospitals' emergency and operating rooms; and providing crisis intervention and psychological first aid to victims' relatives. The family assistance unit works with several other professional units in the hospital and in the community, and always adjusts its operations to the features of each event. Clearer guidelines for dynamic training of social workers and research-based interventions to prevent compassion fatigue among the workers must be further developed.

  10. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services-Assessed Mass Casualty Incidents according to Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To effectively mitigate and reduce the burden of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), preparedness measures should be based on MCIs’ epidemiological characteristics. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and outcomes of emergency medical services (EMS)-assessed MCIs from multiple areas according to cause. Therefore, we extracted the records of all MCIs that involved ≥ 6 patients from an EMS database. All patients involved in EMS-assessed MCIs from six areas were eligible for this study, and their prehospital and hospital records were reviewed for a 1-year period. The EMS-assessed MCIs were categorized as being caused by fire accidents (FAs), road traffic accidents (RTAs), chemical and biological agents (CBs), and other mechanical causes (MECHs). A total of 362 EMS-assessed MCIs were identified, with a crude incidence rate of 0.6–5.0/100,000 population. Among these MCIs, 322 were caused by RTAs. The MCIs involved 2,578 patients, and 54.3% of these patients were women. We observed that the most common mechanism of injury varied according to MCI cause, and that a higher number of patients per incident was associated with a longer prehospital time. The highest hospital admission rate was observed for CBs (16 patients, 55.2%), and most patients in RTAs and MECHs experienced non-severe injuries. The total number of deaths was 32 (1.2%). An EMS-assessed MCI database was established using the EMS database and medical records review. Our findings indicate that RTA MCIs create a burden on EMS and emergency department resources, although CB MCIs create a burden on hospitals’ resources. PMID:26955248

  11. [Ethical Debates Related to the Allocation of Medical Resources During the Response to the Mass Casualty Incident at Formosa Fun Coast Water Park].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chia-Jung; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2017-02-01

    Disasters are unpredictable and often result in mass casualties. Limited medical resources often affect the response to mass casualty incidents, undermining the ability of responders to adequately protect all of the casualties. Thus, the injuries of casualties are classified in hopes of fully utilizing medical resources efficiently in order to save the maximum possible number of people. However, as opinions on casualty prioritization are subjective, disagreements and disputes often arise regarding allocating medical resources. The present article focused on the 2015 explosion at Formosa Fun Coast, a recreational water park in Bali, New Taipei City, Taiwan as a way to explore the dilemma over the triage and resource allocation for casualties with burns over 90% and 50-60% of their bodies. The principles of utilitarianism and deontology in Western medicine were used to discuss the reasons and rationale behind the allocation of medical resources during this incident. Confucianism, a philosophical mindset that significantly influences Taiwanese society today, was then discussed to describe the "miracles" that happened during the incident, including the acquisition of assistance from the public and medical professionals. External supplies and professional help (social resources) were provided voluntarily after this incident, which had a profound impact on both the immediate response and the longer-term recovery efforts.

  12. Prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases during the London 7/7 mass casualty terrorist bombing: a review and the role of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Barnett-Vanes, A; Narayan, N; Patel, H D L

    2016-10-01

    The suicide bombings in London on 7 July 2005 resulted in a mass casualty situation. Over 50% of casualties were treated at the Royal London Hospital where clinicians witnessed large numbers of severely injured patients. In some casualties human biological foreign material was found embedded in the soft tissue originating from the suicide bombers or other casualties. This had the potential of placing individuals at risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases. Advances in the fields of medicine and biology have led to increased survivorship in the context of trauma and mass casualty incidents. This has resulted in the emergence of ethical scenarios surrounding patient management. A systematic review of the literature of the 7/7 bombings, and suicide bombings reported globally, where biological implantation is noted, was performed to examine the medicolegal issues arising during such attack. Twelve casualties with human tissue implanted were recorded in the 7/7 bombings. While all patients at risk were given prophylaxis based on recommendations by the Health Protection Agency, several ethical considerations surfaced as a result. In this paper, we compare the sequence of events and the management process of the victims of the 7/7 bombings and the evidence-based research regarding blood-borne infection transmission. Furthermore, it explores the ethical dilemmas, experienced by the senior author on 7/7, surrounding prophylaxis for blood-borne diseases and protocols to avoid confusion over best practice in future bombing incidents.

  13. Clinical review: The role of the intensive care physician in mass casualty incidents: planning, organisation, and leadership

    PubMed Central

    Shirley, Peter J; Mandersloot, Gerlinde

    2008-01-01

    There is a long-standing, broad assumption that hospitals will ably receive and efficiently provide comprehensive care to victims following a mass casualty event. Unfortunately, the majority of medical major incident plans are insufficiently focused on strategies and procedures that extend beyond the pre-hospital and early-hospital phases of care. Recent events underscore two important lessons: (a) the role of intensive care specialists extends well beyond the intensive care unit during such events, and (b) non-intensive care hospital personnel must have the ability to provide basic critical care. The bombing of the London transport network, while highlighting some good practices in our major incident planning, also exposed weaknesses already described by others. Whilst this paper uses the events of the 7 July 2005 as its point of reference, the lessons learned and the changes incorporated in our planning have generic applications to mass casualty events. In the UK, the Department of Health convened an expert symposium in June 2007 to identify lessons learned from 7 July 2005 and disseminate them for the benefit of the wider medical community. The experiences of clinicians from critical care units in London made a large contribution to this process and are discussed in this paper. PMID:18492221

  14. Mass-casualty victim "surge" management. Preparing for bombings and blast-related injuries with possibility of hazardous materials exposure.

    PubMed

    Severance, Harry W

    2002-01-01

    Bombings and other blast-related events place severe demands on pre-hospital and in-hospital systems. The resulting surge of victims can overwhelm the resources of any facility not prepared for such an event. The September 11 terrorist attacks underscore the urgency of our need for preparedness. The challenges become even more daunting when there is possible hazmat exposure as well; this means that adequate and rapid disposition of victims is even more critical in order to avoid contamination of hospitals systems or whole communities. Federal agencies have been designated and federal mandates have been issued to address mass casualty events, but federal or even regional systems cannot respond in time to address the massive and immediate needs generated by an explosion. Local communities must take the lead in developing incident command systems for initial management of such events. Hospital and pre-hospital providers play a key role in such planning. Ultimate management and disposition of large numbers of casualties, especially if contaminated, cannot follow standard patient management protocols; new protocols are needed. To avoid a total, overwhelming break down of in-hospital resources, hospitals need to assume a lead role in addressing such issues in their local communities.

  15. [Current state of medical care of polytrauma and mass casualty incidents in Germany. Are we well-prepared?].

    PubMed

    Brodauf, L; Heßing, K; Hoffmann, R; Friemert, B

    2015-10-01

    The white paper on the medical care of the severely injured published in 2006 is a collection of proposals and recommendations concerning structure, organization and equipment for the medical care of severely injured patients. Since its publication 50 networks ( http://www.dgu-traumanetzwerk.de/index ) have been established as part of the trauma network. This and the trauma register have helped to continuously improve the medical care of severely injured patients since 1993 [26]. Numerous studies have documented the progress made in measures required by the trauma network [4, 6]. For example, the mortality rate of severely injured patients has dropped from 25 % to approximately 10 % in the past 15 years. From the register and network data it is difficult to tell how each of these measures is implemented in the participating hospitals, who provides medical treatment to patients when, and how medical care is organized in detail. This is why a survey on medical care for polytrauma and in mass casualty situations was conducted among medical directors in German surgical hospitals who are members of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU). Thanks to the 211 participants (most of whom specialize in orthopedic and trauma surgery) a detailed description of how medical treatment is currently organized and performed could be acquired. The survey showed that care of patients with polytrauma (i.e. medical treatment and management) is important irrespective of the level of training of physicians and of the level of patient treatment in hospitals. The central role of traumatologists was emphasized not only in terms of actual treatment but also as an administrator for organizational and management matters. Almost all hospitals have plans for a mass casualty situation; however, the levels of preparedness show considerable variation. A highly critical view is taken of the new surgical specialists with respect to interdisciplinary and comprehensive emergency medical treatment

  16. Mutation, radiation, and species survival: The genetics studies of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lindee, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    This is an analysis of the work of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, an American agency which studied the effects of radiation on survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1947-1975. Funded by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and directed by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, the ABCC was the largest and longest medical study of the estimated 300,000 survivors. The morphological genetics study dominated the ABCCs first decade. James Neel and his principal collaborator William J. Schull tracked more than 76,000 pregnancies. Their results (1956) suggested the bombs radiation had no detectable impact on the offspring of survivors. Though geneticists knew that radiation caused heritable mutations in experimental organisms such as Drosophila, and believed it caused mutations in humans, the Neel-Schull findings were not a surprise. The practical difficulties of the study, and the relatively small increase in abnormal births to be expected, made a finding of significant effects unlikely. The Neel-Schull approach reflected the scientific debate over genetic load, and the Muller-Dobzhansky classical-balance controversy. Yet the findings also reflected the post-war debate over atomic energy and weapons testing. Many extra-scientific forces militated against a finding of positive effects at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Negative findings were consistent with the needs of the Atomic Energy Commission, the State Department and the U.S. military. This dissertation explores how both the scientific debate about genetic load, and the political debate about atmospheric weapons testing, shaped this complex epidemiological study.

  17. Consensus on items and quantities of clinical equipment required to deal with a mass casualties big bang incident: a national Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major short-notice or sudden impact incidents, which result in a large number of casualties, are rare events. However health services must be prepared to respond to such events appropriately. In the United Kingdom (UK), a mass casualties incident is when the normal response of several National Health Service organizations to a major incident, has to be supported with extraordinary measures. Having the right type and quantity of clinical equipment is essential, but planning for such emergencies is challenging. To date, the equipment stored for such events has been selected on the basis of local clinical judgment and has evolved without an explicit evidence-base. This has resulted in considerable variations in the types and quantities of clinical equipment being stored in different locations. This study aimed to develop an expert consensus opinion of the essential items and minimum quantities of clinical equipment that is required to treat 100 people at the scene of a big bang mass casualties event. Methods A three round modified Delphi study was conducted with 32 experts using a specifically developed web-based platform. Individuals were invited to participate if they had personal clinical experience of providing a pre-hospital emergency medical response to a mass casualties incident, or had responsibility in health emergency planning for mass casualties incidents and were in a position of authority within the sphere of emergency health planning. Each item’s importance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantity of items required was measured numerically. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Results Experts achieved consensus on a total of 134 items (54%) on completion of the study. Experts did not reach consensus on 114 (46%) items. Median quantities and interquartile ranges of the items, and their recommended quantities were identified and are presented. Conclusions This study is the first to produce an expert consensus on the

  18. SIMEDIS: a Discrete-Event Simulation Model for Testing Responses to Mass Casualty Incidents.

    PubMed

    Debacker, Michel; Van Utterbeeck, Filip; Ullrich, Christophe; Dhondt, Erwin; Hubloue, Ives

    2016-12-01

    It is recognized that the study of the disaster medical response (DMR) is a relatively new field. To date, there is no evidence-based literature that clearly defines the best medical response principles, concepts, structures and processes in a disaster setting. Much of what is known about the DMR results from descriptive studies and expert opinion. No experimental studies regarding the effects of DMR interventions on the health outcomes of disaster survivors have been carried out. Traditional analytic methods cannot fully capture the flow of disaster victims through a complex disaster medical response system (DMRS). Computer modelling and simulation enable to study and test operational assumptions in a virtual but controlled experimental environment. The SIMEDIS (Simulation for the assessment and optimization of medical disaster management) simulation model consists of 3 interacting components: the victim creation model, the victim monitoring model where the health state of each victim is monitored and adapted to the evolving clinical conditions of the victims, and the medical response model, where the victims interact with the environment and the resources at the disposal of the healthcare responders. Since the main aim of the DMR is to minimize as much as possible the mortality and morbidity of the survivors, we designed a victim-centred model in which the casualties pass through the different components and processes of a DMRS. The specificity of the SIMEDIS simulation model is the fact that the victim entities evolve in parallel through both the victim monitoring model and the medical response model. The interaction between both models is ensured through a time or medical intervention trigger. At each service point, a triage is performed together with a decision on the disposition of the victims regarding treatment and/or evacuation based on a priority code assigned to the victim and on the availability of resources at the service point. The aim of the case

  19. [Organizational problems of disaster victim identification in mass casualties as exemplified by Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Kolkutin, V V; Klevno, V A; Shkol'nikov, B V; Kornienko, I V

    2008-01-01

    Managerial experience is described that was gained during the large-scale work on victim identification following mass casualties in the Tu 154-M and Airbus A310 passenger plane crashes. The authors emphasize the necessity to set up a specialized agency of constant readiness meeting modern requirements for the implementation of a system of measures for personality identification. This agency must incorporate relevant departments of the Ministries of Health, Defense, and Emergency Situations as well as investigative authorities and other organizations.

  20. Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support, since commercial incentives are lacking. PMID:22408587

  1. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    PubMed

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface.

  2. Using Clinical Signs and Symptoms for Medical Management of Radiation Casualties - 2015 NATO Exercise.

    PubMed

    Dörr, H; Abend, M; Blakely, W F; Bolduc, D L; Boozer, D; Costeira, T; Dant, T; De Amicis, A; De Sanctis, S; Dondey, M; Drouet, M; Entine, F; Francois, S; Gagna, G; Guitard, N; Hérodin, F; Hoefer, M; Lamkowski, A; Sala, G La; Lista, F; Loiacono, P; Majewski, M; Martigne, P; Métivier, D; Michel, X; Pateux, J; Pejchal, J; Reeves, G; Riccobono, D; Sinkorova, Z; Soyez, L; Stricklin, D; Tichy, A; Valente, M; Woodruff, C R; Zarybnicka, L; Port, M

    2017-02-20

    The utility of early-phase (≤5 days) radiation-induced clinical signs and symptoms (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea, erythema and changes in blood cell counts) was examined for the prediction of later occurring acute radiation syndrome (ARS) severity and the development of medical management strategies. Medical treatment protocols for radiation accident victims (METREPOL) was used to grade ARS severities, which were assigned response categories (RCs). Data on individuals (n = 191) with mild (RC1, n = 45), moderate (RC2, n = 19), severe (RC3, n = 20) and fatal (RC4, n = 18) ARS, as well as nonexposed individuals (RC0, n = 89) were generated using either METREPOL (n = 167) or the system for evaluation and archiving of radiation accidents based on case histories (SEARCH) database (n = 24), the latter comprised of real-case descriptions. These data were converted into tables reflecting clinical signs and symptoms, and submitted to eight teams representing five participating countries. The teams were comprised of medical doctors, biologists and pharmacists with subject matter expertise. The tables comprised cumulated clinical data from day 1-3 and day 1-5 postirradiation. While it would have reflected a more realistic scenario to provide the data to the teams over the course of a 3- or 5-day period, the logistics of doing so proved too challenging. In addition, the team members participating in this exercise chose to receive the cumulated reports of day 1-3 and 1-5. The teams were tasked with predicting ARS incidence, ARS severity and the requirement for hospitalization for multiple cases, as well as providing the certainty of their diagnosis. Five of the teams also performed dose estimates. The teams did not employ harmonized methodologies, and the expertise among the members varied, as did the tools used and the means of analyzing the clinical data. The earliest report time was 3 h after the tables were sent to the team members. The majority of cases developing ARS (89

  3. Mass casualty following unprecedented tornadic events in the Southeast: natural disaster outcomes at a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elizabeth H; Creel, Nathan; Lepard, Jacob; Maxwell, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    On April 27, 2011, an EF4 (enhanced Fujita scale) tornado struck a 48-mile path across northwest Georgia and southeast Tennessee. Traumatic injuries sustained during this tornado and others in one of the largest tornado outbreaks in history presented to the regional Level I trauma center, Erlanger Health System, in Chattanooga, TN. Patients were triaged per mass casualty protocols through an incident command center and triage officer. Medical staffing was increased to anticipate a large patient load. Records of patients admitted as a result of tornado-related injury were retrospectively reviewed and characterized by the injury patterns, demographics, procedures performed, length of stay, and complications. One hundred four adult patients were treated in the emergency department; of these, 28 (27%) patients required admission to the trauma service. Of those admitted, 16 (57%) were male with an age range of 21 to 87 years old and an average length of stay of 10.9 ± 11.8 days. Eleven (39%) patients required intensive care unit admissions. The most common injuries seen were those of soft tissue, bony fractures, and the chest. Interventions included tube thoracostomies, exploratory laparotomies, orthopedic fixations, soft tissue reconstructions, and craniotomy. All 28 patients admitted survived to discharge. Nineteen (68%) patients were discharged home, six (21%) went to a rehabilitation hospital, and three (11%) were transferred to skilled nursing facilities. Emergency preparedness and organization are key elements in effectively treating victims of natural disasters. Those victims who survive the initial tornadic event and present to a Level I trauma center have low mortality. Like in our experience, triage protocols need to be implemented to quickly and effectively manage mass injuries.

  4. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty Management: Some Useful Observations from the Israeli Trauma Model

    PubMed Central

    Borgohain, B; Khonglah, T

    2013-01-01

    A trauma system is a chain of arrangements and preparedness to provide quality response to injured from the site of injury to the appropriate hospital for the full range of care. Israel has a unique trauma system developed from the experience gained in peace and in war. The system is designed to fit the state's current health system, which is different from the European and American systems. An effective trauma system may potentially manage mass casualty incidence better. The aim of this paper is to discuss learning points to develop a trauma system based on the Israeli trauma model. After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing and managing an emergency event, characterized by a central national organization responsible for management, coordination and ongoing quality control. Because of its unique geopolitical situation, the armed forces has a significant role in the system. Investing adequate resources on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team-work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for capacity building to develop a trauma system. Wisdom, motivation and pragmatism of the Israeli model may be useful to streamline work in skeletal trauma services of developing countries having fewer resources to bring consistency and acceptable standards in trauma care. PMID:23634336

  5. Dynamic 3D visual analytic tools: a method for maintaining situational awareness during high tempo warfare or mass casualty operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2010-04-01

    Maintaining Situational Awareness (SA) is crucial to the success of high tempo operations, such as war fighting and mass casualty events (bioterrorism, natural disasters). Modern computer and software applications attempt to provide command and control manager's situational awareness via the collection, integration, interrogation and display of vast amounts of analytic data in real-time from a multitude of data sources and formats [1]. At what point does the data volume and displays begin to erode the hierarchical distributive intelligence, command and control structure of the operation taking place? In many cases, people tasked with making decisions, have insufficient experience in SA of high tempo operations and become overwhelmed easily as vast amounts of data begin to be displayed in real-time as an operation unfolds. In these situations, where data is plentiful and the relevance of the data changes rapidly, there is a chance for individuals to target fixate on those data sources they are most familiar. If these individuals fall into this type of pitfall, they will exclude other data that might be just as important to the success of the operation. To counter these issues, it is important that the computer and software applications provide a means for prompting its users to take notice of adverse conditions or trends that are critical to the operation. This paper will discuss a new method of displaying data called a Crisis ViewTM, that monitors critical variables that are dynamically changing and allows preset thresholds to be created to prompt the user when decisions need to be made and when adverse or positive trends are detected. The new method will be explained in basic terms, with examples of its attributes and how it can be implemented.

  6. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  7. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow.

  8. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI), yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Trauma-Society was retrospectively analyzed to calculate the duration of life-saving operations as well as their predictors. Inclusion criteria were an ISS ≥ 16 and the performance of relevant ICPM-coded procedures within 6 h of admission. Results From 1,228 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria 1,793 operations could be identified as life-saving operations. Acute injuries to the abdomen accounted for 54.1% followed by head injuries (26.3%), pelvic injuries (11.5%), thoracic injuries (5.0%) and major amputations (3.1%). The mean cut to suture time was 130 min (IQR 65-165 min). Logistic regression revealed 8 variables associated with an emergency operation: AIS of abdomen ≥ 3 (OR 4,00), ISS ≥ 35 (OR 2,94), hemoglobin level ≤ 8 mg/dL (OR 1,40), pulse rate on hospital admission < 40 or > 120/min (OR 1,39), blood pressure on hospital admission < 90 mmHg (OR 1,35), prehospital infusion volume ≥ 2000 ml (OR 1,34), GCS ≤ 8 (OR 1,32) and anisocoria (OR 1,28) on-scene. Conclusions The mean operation time of 130 min calculated for emergency life-saving surgical operations provides a realistic guideline for the prospective treatment capacity which can be estimated and projected into an actual incident admission capacity. Knowledge of predictive factors for life-saving emergency operations helps to identify those patients that need most urgent operative treatment in case of blunt MCI. PMID:20149987

  9. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Pieces of the Puzzle: An Overview of Mass Decontamination The key to successful mass decontamination is to use the fastest approach that will...cause the least harm and do the most good for the majority of the people. Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. ARMY EDGEWOOD...Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 April 2009 20090429193 Disclaimer The findings in this report

  10. Triage performance of Swedish physicians using the ATLS algorithm in a simulated mass casualty incident: a prospective cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a mass casualty situation, medical personnel must rapidly assess and prioritize patients for treatment and transport. Triage is an important tool for medical management in disaster situations. Lack of common international and Swedish triage guidelines could lead to confusion. Attending the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) provider course is becoming compulsory in the northern part of Europe. The aim of the ATLS guidelines is provision of effective management of single critically injured patients, not mass casualties incidents. However, the use of the ABCDE algorithms from ATLS, has been proposed to be valuable, even in a disaster environment. The objective for this study was to determine whether the mnemonic ABCDE as instructed in the ATLS provider course, affects the ability of Swedish physician’s to correctly triage patients in a simulated mass casualty incident. Methods The study group included 169 ATLS provider students from 10 courses and course sites in Sweden; 153 students filled in an anonymous test just before the course and just after the course. The tests contained 3 questions based on overall priority. The assignment was to triage 15 hypothetical patients who had been involved in a bus crash. Triage was performed according to the ABCDE algorithm. In the triage, the ATLS students used a colour-coded algorithm with red for priority 1, yellow for priority 2, green for priority 3 and black for dead. The students were instructed to identify and prioritize 3 of the most critically injured patients, who should be the first to leave the scene. The same test was used before and after the course. Results The triage section of the test was completed by 142 of the 169 participants both before and after the course. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in triage knowledge among Swedish physicians who attended the ATLS provider course. The results also showed that Swedish physicians have little experience of real mass

  11. Shifting the Paradigm of Trauma Medicine to Positively Influence Critical Mortality Rates Following a Mass Casualty Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    ground zero, while another 300 sought care at the next hospital which was within one mile ( Pesola , Dujar, & Wilson, 2002, pp. 220-2). On March 11, 2004...another 300 sought care at the next hospital over which was within one mile ( Pesola , 2002, p. 220). It is prudent that the lessons of military...logistics, injuries, sustained and clinical management of casualties treated at the closets hospitals. Critical Care, 9, 104-111. Pesola , G.R

  12. MACRAD: A mass analysis code for radiators

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A computer code to estimate and optimize the mass of heat pipe radiators (MACRAD) is currently under development. A parametric approach is used in MACRAD, which allows the user to optimize radiator mass based on heat pipe length, length to diameter ratio, vapor to wick radius, radiator redundancy, etc. Full consideration of the heat pipe operating parameters, material properties, and shielding requirements is included in the code. Preliminary results obtained with MACRAD are discussed.

  13. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    PubMed Central

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  14. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR).

    PubMed

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method ("rinse-wipe-rinse") for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants.

  15. Mass Casualty Decontamination in a Chemical or Radiological/Nuclear Incident with External Contamination: Guiding Principles and Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Cibulsky, Susan M; Sokolowski, Danny; Lafontaine, Marc; Gagnon, Christine; Blain, Peter G.; Russell, David; Kreppel, Helmut; Biederbick, Walter; Shimazu, Takeshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Saito, Tomoya; Jourdain, Jean- René; Paquet, Francois; Li, Chunsheng; Akashi, Makoto; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Prosser, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, radiological, and nuclear materials threaten public health in scenarios of accidental or intentional release which can lead to external contamination of people.  Without intervention, the contamination could cause severe adverse health effects, through systemic absorption by the contaminated casualties as well as spread of contamination to other people, medical equipment, and facilities.  Timely decontamination can prevent or interrupt absorption into the body and minimize opportunities for spread of the contamination, thereby mitigating the health impact of the incident.  Although the specific physicochemical characteristics of the hazardous material(s) will determine the nature of an incident and its risks, some decontamination and medical challenges and recommended response strategies are common among chemical and radioactive material incidents.  Furthermore, the identity of the hazardous material released may not be known early in an incident.  Therefore, it may be beneficial to compare the evidence and harmonize approaches between chemical and radioactive contamination incidents.  Experts from the Global Health Security Initiative’s Chemical and Radiological/Nuclear Working Groups present here a succinct summary of guiding principles for planning and response based on current best practices, as well as research needs, to address the challenges of managing contaminated casualties in a chemical or radiological/nuclear incident. PMID:26635995

  16. Radiation Monitoring for the Masses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric; Sorom, Rich; Wiles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, many commercial vendors have produced applications and equipment targeted at the average member of the public in order to enable them to make radiation measurements themselves at little to no cost. The authors have evaluated a small selection of these items in order to validate their performance when exposed to a calibrated 137Cs dose rate irradiator. The products fall into two primary categories: the first using the CMOS from the camera on ubiquitous smartphones and the second using an accessory that performs the radiation measurement. Presented here are the performance data of a selection and recommendations on how to interpret the produced values.

  17. Predicting Resource Needs for Multiple and Mass Casualty Events in Combat: Lessons Learned From Combat Support Hospital Experience in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    explosions and gunshot wound ) firefights. The primary mechanism of injury for the majority of casualties (73%) was explosion, with the remaining 27% of...casualties injured by gunshot wound . The mean ISS for casualties who were in- jured in explosive incidents (improvised explosives, rocket, or mortar...slightly lower base deficit (5 vs. 3.5, p 0.05), and lower ISS (8.1 vs. 9.8, p 0.05) in patients who suffered gunshot wound mechanism compared

  18. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  19. Radiative neutrino mass, dark matter, and leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2008-05-15

    We propose an extension of the standard model, in which neutrinos are Dirac particles and their tiny masses originate from a one-loop radiative diagram. The new fields required by the neutrino mass generation also accommodate the explanation for the matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter in the Universe.

  20. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOEpatents

    Macko, Joseph E.; Estriplet, Isnard

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  1. Orthopaedic management in a mega mass casualty situation. The Israel Defence Forces Field Hospital in Haiti following the January 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Lebel, Ehud; Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Benedict, Shaike; Gill, Amit; Lee, Evgeny; Pirotsky, Anatoly; Shirov, Taras; Blumberg, Nehemia

    2011-10-01

    Following the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) established a field hospital in Port au Prince. The hospital started operating 89 h after the earthquake. We describe the experience of the orthopaedic department in a field hospital operating in an extreme mass casualty situation. The hospital contained 4 operating table and 72 hospitalization beds. The orthopaedic department included 8 orthopaedic surgeons and 3 residents. 1111 patients were treated in the hospital, 1041 of them had adequate records for inclusion. 684 patients were admitted due to trauma with a total of 841 injuries. 320 patients sustained 360 fractures, 18 had joint dislocations and 22 patients were admitted after amputations. 207 patients suffered 315 soft tissue injuries. 221 patients were operated on under general or regional anaesthesia. External fixation was used for stabilization of 48 adult femoral shaft fractures, 24 open tibial fractures and 1 open humeral fracture. All none femoral closed fractures were treated non-operatively. 18 joint reductions and 23 amputations were performed. Appropriate planning, training, operational versatility, and adjustment of therapeutic guidelines according to a constantly changing situation, enabled us to deliver optimal care to the maximal number of patients, in an overwhelming mass trauma situation.

  2. Medical response of a physician and two nurses to the mass-casualty event resulting in the Phi Phi Islands from the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Ammartyothin, Surasak; Ashkenasi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Leiba, Adi; Nakash, Guy; Pelts, Rami; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2006-01-01

    The Phi Phi Islands are isolated islands located about one hour by ship from the mainland in Krabi province of Thailand. There is a small medical facility where the director is the one physician that provides care to residents and tourists. This small medical facility faced an enormous mass casualty incident due to the 2004 Tsunami. The hospital was damaged by the Tsunami wave and was not functional, one crew member died and another was injured. Medical care and evacuation posed a unique problem in the Phi Phi Islands due to remoteness, limited medical resources, lack of effective communication with the main land and the large number of victims. An alternative medical facility was located in a nearby hotel. The crew included the medical director, two nurses, two additional staff members, 10 local volunteers, and hotel staff members. The medical crew had to treat 600-700 casualties in 24 hours. Most of the victims were mildly injured, but approximately 100 (15%) of the victims could not walk due to their injuries. The medical director, made a conscious decision to initially treat only circulation ("C") problems, by controlling external hemorrhages. This decision was driven by the lack of equipment and personnel to deal with airway ("A") and breathing ("B") problems. In the post-disaster debriefing, the Phi Phi Island hospital physician noted five major lessons concerning disaster management in such extreme situation in a small facility located in a remote area: (1) effective resistant communication facilities must be ensured; (2) clear, simple "evacuation plans" should be made in advance; (3) plans should be made to ensure automatic reinforcement of remote areas with evacuation vehicles, medical equipment and medical personnel; (4) efficient cooperation with medical volunteers must be planned and drilled; and (5) every team member of such a hospital must participate in an educational program and periodic drills should be done to improve the disaster and emergency

  3. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  4. Qualitative Analysis of Surveyed Emergency Responders and the Identified Factors That Affect First Stage of Primary Triage Decision-Making of Mass Casualty Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kelly R.; Burkle Jr., Frederick M.; Swienton, Raymond; King, Richard V.; Lehman, Thomas; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. Methods: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage. Results: 403 unique completed surveys were analyzed. 92% practiced a structural triage approach with the rest reporting they used “gestalt”.(gut feeling) Twelve per cent were identified as having placed patients in an expectant category during triage. Respiratory status, ability to speak, perfusion/pulse were all ranked in the top three. Gut feeling regardless of statistical analysis was fourth. Supplies were ranked in the top four when analyzed for those who had placed patients in the expectant category. Conclusion: Primary triage decisions in a mass casualty scenario are multifactorial and encompass patient mobility, life saving interventions, situational instincts, and logistics. PMID:27651979

  5. Mass casualty management of a large-scale bioterrorist event: an epidemiological approach that shapes triage decisions.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2002-05-01

    The threat of a BT event has catalyzed serious reflection on the troublesome issues that come with event management and triage. Such reflection has had the effect of multiplying the efforts to find solutions to what could become a catastrophic public health disaster. Management options are becoming more robust, as are reliable detection devices and rapid access to stockpiled antibiotics and vaccines. There is much to be done, however, especially in the organizing, warehousing, and granting/exercising authority for resource allocations. The introduction of these new options should encourage one to believe that, in time, evolving standards of care will make it possible to rethink the currently unthinkable consequences. Unfortunately the cost of such preparedness is high and out of reach of most governments. Most of the developing world has neither the will nor the means to plan for BT events and remains overwhelmed with basic public health concerns (i.e., water, food, sanitation, shelter) that must take priority. Therefore, developed countries will be expected to respond using international exogenous resources to mitigate the effects of such a disaster. As a result, the state capacity of the effected government will be severely compromised. If triage and management of casualties is further compromised, terrorists will have met their goals. One could argue that health sciences will continue for decades to play catch up with the advanced technology driving potential bioagent weaponry. If one lesson was learned from the review of the former Soviet Union's biological weapons program, it is that the unthinkable remains an option to terrorists who have comparable expertise. It is crucial to develop realistic strategies for a BT event. Triage planning (the process of establishing criteria for health care prioritization) permits society to see cases in the context of diverse moral perspectives, limited resources, and compelling health care demands. This includes a competent

  6. Resonant-mass detectors of gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelson, Peter F.; Price, John C.; Taber, Robert C.

    1987-07-01

    A network of second-generation low-temperature gravitational radiation detectors is nearing completion. These detectors, sensitive to mechanical strains of order 10 to the -18th, are possible because of a variety of technical innovations that have been made in cryogenics, low-noise superconducting instrumentation, and vibration isolation techniques. Another five orders of magnitude improvement in energy sensitivity of resonant-mass detectors is possible before the linear amplifier quantum limit is encountered.

  7. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock using World Health Organization oral rehydration solution: a potential solution for mass casualty care.

    PubMed

    Michell, Michael W; Oliveira, Hermes M; Kinsky, Michael P; Vaid, Sumreen U; Herndon, David N; Kramer, George C

    2006-01-01

    Enteral resuscitation could provide a means to resuscitate burn shock when intravenous (IV) therapy is unavailable, such as in mass disasters. We evaluated the extent of intestinal absorption and resuscitative effects of World Health Organization Oral Rehydration Solution after a 40% TBSA burn in anesthetized swine compared with the IV infusion of lactated Ringer's infused by Parkland formula. Plasma volume (PV) was measured using indocyanine green dye dilution. Intestinal absorption was assessed using phenol red as a nonabsorbable marker. Changes in hematocrit, hemodynamics, and measured PV showed equivalent resuscitative effects of enteral and IV resuscitation. The duodenal fluid absorption rate started at 77 +/- 32 ml/hr per meter of intestine during the first hour and increased to 296 +/- 40 ml/hr during the fourth hour of resuscitation, with a total of 93 +/- 2% of World Health Organization Oral Rehydration Solution infused into the intestine being absorbed. Intestinal absorption rates after burn injury are sufficient to resuscitate a 40% TBSA burn.

  8. Radiation Design of Ion Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom; Sturner, Steve; Paschalidis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    In the harsh radiation environment of Jupiter and with the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission including two Europa flybys where local intensities are approx. 150 krad/month behind 100 mils of Al shielding, so background from penetrating radiation can be a serious issue for detectors inside an Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS). This can especially be important for minor ion detection designs. Detectors of choice for time-of-flight (TOF) designs are microchannel plates (MCP) and some designs may include solid state detectors (SSD). The standard approach is to use shielding designs so background event rates are low enough that the detector max rates and lifetimes are first not exceeded and then the more stringent requirement that the desired measurement can successfully be made (i.e., desired signal is sufficiently greater than background noise after background subtraction is made). GEANT codes are typically used along with various electronic techniques, but such designs need to know how the detectors will respond to the simulated primary and secondary radiations produced within the instrument. We will be presenting some preliminary measurements made on the response of MCPs to energetic electrons (20 ke V to 1400 ke V) using a Miniature TOF (MTOF) device and the High Energy Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center which has a Van de Graaff accelerator.

  9. The Haiti earthquake: the provision of wound care for mass casualties utilizing negative-pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Allen; Gialich, Shelby; Kirk, Julie; Edwards, Sheriden; Beck, Brooke; Sorocéanu, Alexandra; Nelson, Scott; Gabriel, Cassie; Gupta, Subhas

    2011-10-01

    Many months after the devastating earthquake in January 2010, wounds remain a major disease burden in Haiti. Since January 2010, through the efforts of corporations, nonprofit charitable organizations, and medical professionals, advanced wound care techniques, including negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), have been introduced into the wound care regimens of various hospitals in Haiti. In June 2010, the authors completed their second volunteer trip at a Haitian hospital specializing in orthopedic wounds. The medical team was composed of a plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, anesthesiologist, medical assistant, scrub technician, and registered nurse (specializing in plastic surgery and orthopedics). The authors' team supplied NPWT devices, reticulated open-cell foam dressings, and canisters donated by Kinetic Concepts, Inc, San Antonio, Texas, for use at the hospital. This report describes the medical challenges in postearthquake Haiti (including limb salvage and infection), benefits of adjunctive use of NPWT/reticulated open-cell foam, and current wound care status in a Haitian orthopedic hospital. The future role of NPWT in Haiti and during mass catastrophe in a least-developed country is also discussed.

  10. Tsunami Casualty Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  11. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J Z

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

  12. Prairie North: a joint civilian/military mass casualty exercise highlights the role of the National Guard in community disaster response.

    PubMed

    Vukotich, George; Bayram, Jamil D; Miller, Miriam I

    2012-01-01

    In a joint military/civilian exercise conducted in June 2010, military National Guard medical and decontamination response efforts proved to be paramount in supporting hospital resources to sustain an adequate response during a simulated terrorist event. Traditionally, hospitals include local responders in their disaster preparedness but overlook other available state and federal resources such as the National Guard. Lessons learned from the exercise included the value of regular joint disaster planning and training between the military and civilian medical sectors. Additionally, military communication and medical equipment compatibility with the civilian infrastructure was identified as one of the top areas for the improvement of this joint exercise. Involving the National Guard in community disaster planning provides a valuable medical support asset that can be critical in responding to multiple casualty events. National Guard response is inherently faster than its federal counterpart. Based on the findings from our joint exercise, states are encouraged to incorporate their corresponding National Guard in civilian critical medical infrastructure disaster preparedness activities, as the National Guard can be an integral part of the disaster response efforts in real multiple casualty events.

  13. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients.

  14. Masses of radiation pressure supported stars in extreme relativistic realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2007-04-01

    It is known that there could be stars supported by radiation pressure alone. In Newtonian gravity, it turns out that such stars must be excessively massive and are called ``Supermassive Stars''. We show that this requirement for excessive mass arises because of weak gravity associated with Newtonian stars . The weakness of gravity here is expressed by the fact that for Newtonian stars, z << 1, where z is the surface gravitational redshift of the star. However, it is also known that sufficiently massive stars undergo continued gravitational collapse to become Black Holes (BH) marked by z=Infinity. Hence as the massive stars would tend to form BHs, they would pass through stages z>> 1. Recently, it has been shown that, such z>>1 stages would be be completely dominated by radiation energy rather than rest mass energy (Mitra, MNRAS Lett., 367, L66, 2006, gr-qc/0601025). By using this result, we show here that, in the realm of extremely strong gravity, there could be radiation pressure supported stars at arbitrary mass scale. Therefore, as we break free from the Newtonian restriction of z <<1, (1) Radiation Pressure Supported Stars need not be supermassive , (2) Radiation Pressure supported stars may have arbitrary low mass (say a few solar mass) or (3) They could be as massive as billion solar masses. The latter would be examples of Relativistic Supermassive Stars. All radiation pressure supported stars are shining at their respective maximal Eddington values and they are never in strict hydrodynamical equilibrium. On the other hand, they are in dynamical quasistatic state and their luminosity could be simply due to secular gravitational contraction known as Helmholtz -Kelvin process. The observed BH candidates could be in this intermediate state of radiation pressure supported relativistic stars (z >>1) rather than in the limiting BH stage (z = Infinity). Ref: A. Mitra, ``Radiation Pressure Supported Stars in Einstein Gravity: Eternally Collapsing Objects'', MNRAS (in

  15. Medical Management of Radiological Casualties. Online Third Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    toxicities will occur and significantly complicate management . Consequent to the radiation exposure, lymphopenia, bone marrow atrophy, pancytopenia...Skeletal and renal deposition of uranium occurs from implanted DU fragments. The toxic level for long-term chronic exposure to internal uranium metal is...MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RADIOLOGICAL CASUALTIES Online Third Edition June 2010 Military Medical Operations

  16. Radiation Biomarker Research Using Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    The data was of insufficient quality to obtain definitive biomarkers. Trips were also made to AFRL/HEDR at Brooks City Base to assist with their...sample analysis using the Finnigan LTQ located there. Mr. Mullens and Ms. Nagore assisted with training personnel at AFRL/HEDR and when necessary...techniques with saliva samples and matrix- assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we have been able to

  17. Radiatively generated hierarchy of lepton and quark masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, A. E. Cárcamo; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    We propose a model for radiatively generating the hierarchy of the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses: tree-level top quark mass; 1-loop bottom, charm, tau and muon masses; 2-loop masses for the light up, down and strange quarks as well as for the electron; and 4-loop masses for the light active neutrinos. Our model is based on a softlybroken S 3 × Z 2 discrete symmetry. Its scalar sector consists only of one SM Higgs doublet and three electrically neutral SM-singlet scalars. We do not need to invoke either electrically charged scalar fields, or an extra SU2 L scalar doublet, or the spontaneous breaking of the discrete group, which are typical for other radiative models in the literature. The model features a viable scalar dark matter candidate.

  18. Casualty management: scud missile attack, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J C

    1999-05-01

    On the evening of February 25, 1991, an Iraqi scud missile plunged into a "barracks/warehouse" used to house U.S. Army soldiers assigned to the 475th Quartermaster Group in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. As a consequence of this scud attack, 28 soldiers died, 110 were hospitalized, and 150 experienced minor physical injuries and/or subsequent mental health problems. This one scud's impact accounted for more than one-third of all U.S. soldiers killed during the war. Fortunately, there were very few "models" of mass casualty experiences during the Persian Gulf War to evaluate the critical clinical outcomes to the soldiers. An analysis of this event has important implications for future military operations that feature a multinational medical force structure. This article summarizes the medical preparations before the war, the key, chronological events, and the medical outcomes of the mass casualty event. Lessons learned in casualty management for future Army contingency medical planners are identified.

  19. Radiative neutrino mass model with degenerate right-handed neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2016-03-01

    The radiative neutrino mass model can relate neutrino masses and dark matter at a TeV scale. If we apply this model to thermal leptogenesis, we need to consider resonant leptogenesis at that scale. It requires both finely degenerate masses for the right-handed neutrinos and a tiny neutrino Yukawa coupling. We propose an extension of the model with a U(1) gauge symmetry, in which these conditions are shown to be simultaneously realized through a TeV scale symmetry breaking. Moreover, this extension can bring about a small quartic scalar coupling between the Higgs doublet scalar and an inert doublet scalar which characterizes the radiative neutrino mass generation. It also is the origin of the Z_2 symmetry which guarantees the stability of dark matter. Several assumptions which are independently supposed in the original model are closely connected through this extension.

  20. Searching for radiative neutrino mass generation at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkas, Raymond R.

    2015-04-01

    In this talk (talk given at the International Conference on Massive Neutrinos, Singapore, 9-13 February 2015), I describe the general characteristics of radiative neutrino mass models that can be probed at the LHC. I then cover the specific constraints on a new, explicit model of this type.

  1. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  2. Friendly Combat Casualties and Operational Narratives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-21

    ABSTRACT A complex relationship exists between friendly combat casualties and public support, in the context of 21st century limited wars. A myth persists...conceptualizing the way that tactical actions must link to strategy to support a war narrative. Using operational narrative and a modified form of risk management...TERMS Combat casualties; casualty sensitivity; casualty aversion; limited wars; war narratives; operational narratives; risk management; strategic

  3. Unification of gauge couplings in radiative neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella; Schmidt, Michael A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the possibility of gauge coupling unification in various radiative neutrino mass models, which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level. Renormalization group running of gauge couplings is performed analytically and numerically at one- and two-loop order, respectively. We study three representative classes of radiative neutrino mass models: (I) minimal ultraviolet completions of the dimension-7 Δ L = 2 operators which generate neutrino masses at one- and/or two-loop level without and with dark matter candidates, (II) models with dark matter which lead to neutrino masses at one-loop level and (III) models with particles in the adjoint representation of SU(3). In class (I), gauge couplings unify in a few models and adding dark matter amplifies the chances for unification. In class (II), about a quarter of the models admits gauge coupling unification. In class (III), none of the models leads to gauge coupling unification. Regarding the scale of unification, we find values between 1014 GeV and 1016 GeV for models belonging to class (I) without dark matter, whereas models in class (I) with dark matter as well as models of class (II) prefer values in the range 5·1010 - 5·1014 GeV.

  4. Radiation therapy of lymphoblastic renal masses - benefit or hazard

    SciTech Connect

    Saarinen, U.M.

    1985-05-01

    A child with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and massively enlarged kidneys received a single dose of 300 rad (3 Gy) to the right kidney before initiation of chemotherapy. Measurement of the split renal function with 99m-Tc-DTPA four days postirradiation revealed that the function of the right kidney had substantially deteriorated, suggesting that hazards may be involved with the use of radiation therapy for lymphoblastic renal masses.

  5. Preparedness for the Evaluation and Management of Mass Casualty Incidents Involving Anticholinesterase Compounds: A Survey of Emergency Department Directors in the 12 Largest Cities in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    J Public Health . 2001; 91(5): 710-716. 30. Treat KN, Williams JM, Furbee PM, et a1. : Hospital prepared- ness for weapons of mass destruction...pediatric disaster victims: A comparison of different teaching methods. Am J Disaster Med. 2008; 3(4): 189-199. 63. Williams J, Nocera M. Casteel C...2007; 22(6): 339-346. 71. Branson RD, Rubinson L: Mechanical ventilation in mass casu· alty scenarios. Respir Care. 2008; 53(1): 38·39. 72

  6. An assessment of telemedicine possibilities in massive casualties situations.

    PubMed

    Paunksnis, A; Barzdziukas, V; Kurapkiene, S; Vaicaitiene, R; Sereika, V

    2005-01-01

    The use of existing possibilities of Telemedicine Center of Kaunas University of Medicine allows the live distant consultations from high-level medical specialised centers to rural areas. On July 2004 the Telemedicine Center took part in the RESCUER/MEDCEUR project exercise. A special objective was the use of telemedicine facilities for distant consultations and sorting of victims directly at the event place. Telemedicine Center used appropriate telecommunication devices for joint activities of civil and multinational military services in critical situations such as mass casualty events. There were used ISDN lines and IP radio-connection. On the final and most intensive day of the anti-terrorism drills, the multinational force of medics at the Kairiu Training Range in Lithuania reacted to a large mass casualty event--treating hundreds of victims from a simulated train crash. Using on-line telemedicine facilities from Kaunas Medical University Hospital there were corrected the tactics of giving the first help and sorting of casualties. The most complicated initiated cases of eye trauma, neurosurgical trauma, maxilloface trauma and traumatic amputation of limbs evaluated and selected for emergent evacuation to the third level hospitals. All those cases transported to Kaunas and Vilnius Universities Hospitals by helicopters (200 and 300 km from the event place). The common use of existing military and civil telemedicine infrastructure showed the possibilities of interaction in management, giving the first help and sorting of casualties between military and civil medical services during the rescue operations.

  7. A radiative model of quark masses with binary tetrahedral symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natale, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A radiative model of quark and lepton masses utilizing the binary tetrahedral (T‧) flavor symmetry, or horizontal symmetry, is proposed which produces the first two generation of quark masses through their interactions with vector-like quarks that carry charges under an additional U (1). By softly-breaking the T‧ to a residual Z4 through the vector-like quark masses, a CKM mixing angle close to the Cabibbo angle is produced. In order to generate the cobimaximal neutrino oscillation pattern (θ13 ≠ 0 ,θ23 = π / 4 ,δCP = ± π / 2) and protect the horizontal symmetry from arbitrary corrections in the lepton sector, there are automatically two stabilizing symmetries in the dark sector. Several benchmark cases where the correct relic density is achieved in a multi-component DM scenario, as well as the potential collider signatures of the vector-like quarks are discussed.

  8. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  9. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  10. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  11. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  12. 33 CFR 173.55 - Report of casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Report of casualty or accident... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Casualty and Accident Reporting § 173.55 Report of casualty or accident. (a) The operator of a vessel shall submit the casualty...

  13. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Tom

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  14. Optimization of NTP System Truss to Reduce Radiation Shield Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharber, Luke L.; Kharofa, Adam; Caffrey, Jarvis A.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of nuclear thermal propulsion are numerous and relevant to the current NASA mission goals involving but not limited to the crewed missions to mars and the moon. They do however also present new and unique challenges to the design and logistics of launching/operating spacecraft. One of these challenges, relevant to this discussion, is the significant mass of the shielding which is required to ensure an acceptable radiation environment for the spacecraft and crew. Efforts to reduce shielding mass are difficult to accomplish from material and geometric design points of the shield itself, however by increasing the distance between the nuclear engines and the main body of the spacecraft the required mass of the shielding is lessened considerably. The mass can be reduced significantly per unit length, though any additional mass added by the structure to create this distance serves to offset those savings, thus the design of a lightweight structure is ideal. The challenges of designing the truss are bounded by several limiting factors including; the loading conditions, the capabilities of the launch vehicle, and achieving the ideal truss length when factoring for the overall mass reduced. Determining the overall set of mass values for a truss of varying length is difficult since to maintain an optimally designed truss the geometry of the truss or its members must change. Thus the relation between truss mass and length for these loading scenarios is not linear, and instead has relation determined by the truss design. In order to establish a mass versus length trend for various truss designs to compare with the mass saved from the shield versus length, optimization software was used to find optimal geometric properties that still met the design requirements at established lengths. By solving for optimal designs at various lengths, mass trends could be determined. The initial design findings show a clear benefit to extending the engines as far from the main

  15. Human Casualties in Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, C.

    1997-10-01

    It is widespread error to believe that people were never killed by meteorites. It was concluded that there no human casualties due to meteorite falls because there were no reports about such incidents, but there are reports of these rare events. The statement of no one ever being killed by a meteorite may intend that the danger even of asteroid and comet impacts onto the Earth is only fiction, but the danger is real. It is a low-probability-high-consequence event for large impactors (more than 1 km). Even from meteorites, however, people were reported struck to death. This article gives a survey over reports of human casualties from 616 A.D. well to our century.

  16. Contribution of forensic autopsy to scene reconstruction in mass fire casualties: a case of alleged arson on a floor consisting of small compartments in a building.

    PubMed

    Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (<20% of body surface) in most victims, except for three victims found between the entrance and the estimated fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures.

  17. An Alternative Health Care Facility: Concept of Operations for the Off-site Triage, Treatment, and Transportation Center (OST3C). Mass Casualty Care Strategy for a Chemical Terrorism Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    develop non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema within 6 hours after exposure to a “choking” agent such as phosgene. These patients should be transported to a...admitted for observation, as they may develop pulmonary edema . E. Psychological Casualties Disasters have a tremendous emotional and psychological

  18. 19 CFR 158.27 - Accidental fire or other casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be, at the time of the casualty; and (3) That it was totally destroyed and there is no probability of... the time of casualty, stating: (1) The time, place, and nature of such casualty; (2) That...

  19. How to Explain the Non-Zero Mass of Electromagnetic Radiation Consisting of Zero-Mass Photons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Gabovich, Nadezhda A.

    2007-01-01

    The mass of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity is considered using the correct relativistic approach based on the concept of a scalar mass not dependent on the particle (system) velocity. It is shown that due to the non-additivity of mass in the special theory of relativity the ensemble of chaotically propagating mass-less photons in the cavity…

  20. Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2003-08-01

    The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 μm, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

  1. Diagnostic and Treatment Innovations for Mass Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    cal) (thermochemical) 4.184 joule (J) Pressure atmosphere (atm) 1.013 250 × 10 5 pascal (Pa) pound force per square inch (psi) 6.984 757 × 10...3 pascal (Pa) Temperature degree Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) − 32]/1.8 degree Celsius ( o C) degree Fahrenheit ( o F) [T( o F) + 459.67]/1.8

  2. Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    substantive information about a trainee’s performance. Unit personnel reviewed the tool for accuracy and functionality . A prototype of medical...government functions ” (Center for Army Lessons Learned, 2006, p.38). During these events, local and state medical personnel are often overwhelmed by...movement. Assessor Feedback: No respiration detected Position the air way using Head-Tilt /Chin-Lift • Kneel at the level of the victims shoulders

  3. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  4. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40 Section 146.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related...

  5. Human casualties in earthquakes: modelling and mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  6. Fast migration of low-mass planets in radiative discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierens, A.

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass planets are known to undergo Type I migration and this process must have played a key role during the evolution of planetary systems. Analytical formulae for the disc torque have been derived assuming that the planet evolves on a fixed circular orbit. However, recent work has shown that in isothermal discs, a migrating protoplanet may also experience dynamical corotation torques that scale with the planet drift rate. The aim of this study is to examine whether dynamical corotation torques can also affect the migration of low-mass planets in non-isothermal discs. We performed 2D radiative hydrodynamical simulations to examine the orbital evolution outcome of migrating protoplanets as a function of disc mass. We find that a protoplanet can enter a fast migration regime when it migrates in the direction set by the entropy-related horseshoe drag and when the Toomre stability parameter is less than a threshold value below which the horseshoe region contracts into a tadpole-like region. In that case, an underdense trapped region appears near the planet, with an entropy excess compared to the ambient disc. If the viscosity and thermal diffusivity are small enough so that the entropy excess is conserved during migration, the planet then experiences strong corotation torques arising from the material flowing across the planet orbit. During fast migration, we observe that a protoplanet can pass through the zero-torque line predicted by static torques. We also find that fast migration may help in disrupting the mean-motion resonances that are formed by convergent migration of embryos.

  7. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  8. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  9. 48 CFR 552.270-7 - Fire and Casualty Damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire and Casualty Damage... Fire and Casualty Damage. As prescribed in 570.703, insert the following clause: Fire and Casualty Damage (JUN 2011) If the entire premises are destroyed by fire or other casualty, this lease...

  10. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  11. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  13. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  14. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  16. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  17. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  18. 46 CFR 4.03-1 - Marine casualty or accident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty or accident. 4.03-1 Section 4.03-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-1 Marine casualty or accident. Marine casualty or accident...

  19. 46 CFR 4.05-1 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 4.05-1 Section 4.05-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-1 Notice of marine casualty....

  20. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  1. Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  2. United States military casualty comparison during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Helmkamp, J C

    1994-06-01

    The United States undertook an extensive mobilization of military forces in Southwest Asia after the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in August 1990. With this massive buildup and the short duration of the Persian Gulf War, an epidemiological comparison of military casualties was of interest. Information extracted from the Worldwide Casualty System maintained by the Department of Defense was used to describe the casualties. Of the 219 (212 men and 7 women) US casualties, 154 were killed in battle and 65 died from nonbattle causes. Thirty-five of the battle deaths were a result of friendly fire. Eighty-three percent of all casualties were white and the mean age at death for all casualties was 26.9 years. The Army had the highest proportion of both battle (58%) and nonbattle (71%) casualties and the Marine Corps had the highest battle casualty rate (0.52 per 1000 personnel) and nonbattle casualty rate (0.31).

  3. The Role of Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics in Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrew D.; Lanz, Christian; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation metabolomics can be defined as the global profiling of biological fluids to uncover latent, endogenous small molecules whose concentrations change in a dose-response manner following exposure to ionizing radiation. In response to the potential threat of nuclear or radiological terrorism, the Center for High-Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry (CMCR) was established to develop field-deployable biodosimeters based, in principle, on rapid analysis by mass spectrometry of readily and easily obtainable biofluids. In this review, we briefly summarize radiation biology and key events related to actual and potential nuclear disasters, discuss the important contributions the field of mass spectrometry has made to the field of radiation metabolomics, and summarize current discovery efforts to use mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to identify dose-responsive urinary constituents, and ultimately to build and deploy a noninvasive high-throughput biodosimeter. PMID:19890938

  4. 46 CFR 308.410 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.410 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.410 Reporting casualties and filing claims. Casualties... Subsidy and Insurance, Washington, DC 20590....

  5. Medical management of radiation victims in the United States.

    PubMed

    Davids, Matthew S; Case, Cullen; Confer, Dennis L; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Weinstock, David M

    2010-06-01

    Many governmental and non-governmental agencies are involved in the planning for radiation events in the U.S. We will focus on medical management after mass casualty events, specifically the involvement of the Radiation Injury Treatment Network (RITN), a voluntary consortium of medical centers across the continental U.S. RITN and its partners have established standardized approaches for the evaluation and treatment of radiation victims, which are now available online. Efforts are underway to streamline these processes, provide training to healthcare practitioners around the country, and harmonize with similar efforts around the world.

  6. Aerosol properties and radiative forcing for three air masses transported in Summer 2011 to Sopot, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozwadowska, Anna; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Makuch, P.; Markowicz, K. M.; Petelski, T.; Strzałkowska, A.; Zieliński, T.

    2013-05-01

    Properties of atmospheric aerosols and solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface were measured during Summer 2011 in Sopot, Poland. Three cloudless days, characterized by different directions of incoming air-flows, which are typical transport pathways to Sopot, were used to estimate a radiative forcing due to aerosols present in each air mass.

  7. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  8. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  9. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  10. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  11. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  12. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  13. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  14. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  15. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  16. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  17. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  18. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  19. 46 CFR 185.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 185.206 Section 185... 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.206 Written report of marine... of any marine casualty. This written report is in addition to the immediate notice required by...

  20. 46 CFR 122.206 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 122.206 Section 122... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.206 Written report of marine casualty. (a) The owner, master, agent,...

  1. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of marine casualty. 122.202 Section 122.202... THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.202 Notice of marine casualty. (a) Immediately after addressing...

  2. Bushfire disaster burn casualty management: the Australian "Black Saturday" bushfire experience.

    PubMed

    Seifman, Marc; Ek, Edmund W; Menezes, Hana; Rozen, Warren M; Whitaker, Iain S; Cleland, Heather J

    2011-11-01

    Mass burn disasters are among the most difficult disasters to manage, with major burns requiring complex management in a multidisciplinary setting and specialist burns services having limited capacity to deal with large numbers of complex patients. There is a paucity of literature addressing health system responses to mass burn disasters resulting from wildfires, with the events of the "Black Saturday" disaster in the state of Victoria, Australia, able to provide a unique opportunity to draw lessons and increase awareness of key management issues arising in mass burn casualty disasters. The event comprised the worst natural disaster in the state's history and one of the worst wildfire disasters in world history, claiming 173 lives and costing more than AUD 4 billion. This article draws on the national burns disaster plan instituted, Australian Mass Casualty Burn Disaster Plan (AUSBURNPLAN), and details the management of mass burn cases through a systems-based perspective.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE TRANSFER CALCULATIONS OF RADIATION FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: OUTFLOW OF MASS FROM THE DUSTY 'TORUS'

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Nathaniel; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2012-11-01

    Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that the momentum carried in mass outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can reach several times L/c, corresponding to outflow rates of hundreds of solar masses per year. Radiation pressure on resonant absorption lines alone may not be sufficient to provide this momentum deposition, and the transfer of reprocessed IR radiation in dusty nuclear gas has been postulated to provide the extra enhancement. The efficacy of this mechanism, however, will be sensitive to multi-dimensional effects such as the tendency for the reprocessed radiation to preferentially escape along sightlines of lower column density. We use Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to determine the radiation force on dusty gas residing within approximately 30 parsecs from an accreting supermassive black hole. We calculate the net rate of momentum deposition in the surrounding gas and estimate the mass-loss rate in the resulting outflow as a function of solid angle for different black hole luminosities, sightline-averaged column densities, clumping parameters, and opening angles of the dusty gas. We find that these dust-driven winds carry momentum fluxes of 1-5 times L/c and correspond to mass-loss rates of 10-100 M {sub Sun} per year for a 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} black hole radiating at or near its Eddington limit. These results help to explain the origin of high velocity molecular and atomic outflows in local ultraluminous infrared galaxies and can inform numerical simulations of galaxy evolution including AGN feedback.

  4. Triage of casualties after nuclear attack.

    PubMed

    Pledger, H G

    1986-09-20

    Casualties from a nuclear attack on the United Kingdom would overwhelm the health services, and health workers would be faced with many more people seeking help than could be offered treatment. Discussion is needed to determine which methods of medical and non-medical triage would be acceptable and feasible.

  5. Military Medical Revolution: Prehospital Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Military medical revolution: Prehospital combat casualty care Lorne H. Blackbourne, MD, David G. Baer, PhD, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, Bijan Kheirabadi...sur- vival for patients with combat-related traumatic injuries. J Trauma. 2009;66(suppl 4):S69 S76. 33. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, Oetjen

  6. Effects of anisotropic conduction and heat pipe interaction on minimum mass space radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Lund, Kurt O.

    1991-01-01

    Equations are formulated for the two dimensional, anisotropic conduction of heat in space radiator fins. The transverse temperature field was obtained by the integral method, and the axial field by numerical integration. A shape factor, defined for the axial boundary condition, simplifies the analysis and renders the results applicable to general heat pipe/conduction fin interface designs. The thermal results are summarized in terms of the fin efficiency, a radiation/axial conductance number, and a transverse conductance surface Biot number. These relations, together with those for mass distribution between fins and heat pipes, were used in predicting the minimum radiator mass for fixed thermal properties and fin efficiency. This mass is found to decrease monotonically with increasing fin conductivity. Sensitivities of the minimum mass designs to the problem parameters are determined.

  7. Predictive model for radiatively induced neutrino masses and mixings with dark matter.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Michael; No, Jose M; Rivera, Maximiliano A

    2013-05-24

    A minimal extension of the standard model to naturally generate small neutrino masses and provide a dark matter candidate is proposed. The dark matter particle is part of a new scalar doublet field that plays a crucial role in radiatively generating neutrino masses. The symmetry that stabilizes the dark matter also suppresses neutrino masses to appear first at three-loop level. Without the need of right-handed neutrinos or other very heavy new fields, this offers an attractive explanation of the hierarchy between the electroweak and neutrino mass scales. The model has distinct verifiable predictions for the neutrino masses, flavor mixing angles, colliders, and dark matter signals.

  8. Coupled Fluids-Radiation Analysis of a High-Mass Mars Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Allen, Gary; Tang, Chun; Brown, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code has been incorporated into the DPLR Navier-Stokes flow solver such that the NEQAIR subroutines are now callable functions of DPLR. The coupled DPLR-NEQAIR code was applied to compute the convective and radiative heating rates over high-mass Mars entry vehicles. Two vehicle geometries were considered - a 15 m diameter 70-degree sphere cone configuration and a slender, mid-L/D vehicle with a diameter of 5 m called an Ellipsled. The entry masses ranged from 100 to 165 metric tons. Solutions were generated for entry velocities ranging from 6.5 to 9.1 km/s. The coupled fluids-radiation solutions were performed at the peak heating location along trajectories generated by the Traj trajectory analysis code. The impact of fluids-radiation coupling is a function of the level of radiative heating and the freestream density and velocity. For the high-mass Mars vehicles examined in this study, coupling effects were greatest for entry velocities above 8.5 km/s where the surface radiative heating was reduced by up 17%. Generally speaking, the Ellipsled geometry experiences a lower peak radiative heating rate but a higher peak turbulent convective heating rate than the MSL-based vehicle.

  9. A NEW MECHANISM FOR MASS ACCRETION UNDER RADIATION PRESSURE IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2010-05-01

    During the formation of a massive star, strong radiation pressure from the central star acts on the dust sublimation front and tends to halt the accretion flow. To overcome this strong radiation pressure, it has been considered that a strong ram pressure produced by a high-mass accretion rate of 10{sup -3} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} or more is needed. We reinvestigated the necessary condition to overcome the radiation pressure and found a new mechanism for overcoming it. Accumulated mass in a stagnant flow near the dust sublimation front helps the mass accretion by its weight. This mechanism relaxes the condition for the massive star formation. We call this mechanism the 'OMOSHI effect', where OMOSHI is an acronym for 'One Mechanism for Overcoming Stellar High radiation pressure by weIght'. Additionally, in Japanese, OMOSHI is a noun meaning a weight that is put on something to prevent it from moving. We investigate the generation of the OMOSHI effect using local one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The radiation pressure and the gravitational force are connected through the gas pressure, and to sum up, the radiation pressure is balanced or overcome by the gravitational force. We also discuss the global structure and temporal variation of the accretion flow.

  10. Mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) with VUV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-05-01

    Mass analyzed threshold ionization is a combination of threshold ionization spectroscopy with mass spectrometry. Similar to zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE), MATI spectroscopy takes advantage of the field ionization of long lived high Rydberg states to obtain an ionization threshold and perform spectroscopy on the resulting cation. MATI at the synchrotron utilizing tunable VUV light opens up a novel way to perform spectroscopy on ions and improve the resolution in ionization energy determination in comparison with conventional photoionization efficiency curve measurements. This method is implemented at the Advanced Light Source and vibrationally-resolved MATI spectra for simple di- and polyatomic molecules (O2, N2, H2O, N2O, C2H2, and C6H6) are measured. This preliminary work allows us to test the applicability of MATI at a synchrotron and prepare for investigation of more complex systems such as mixtures of molecules, isomers and clusters.

  11. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Diagnostic Biodosimetry Response for Radiation Disasters: Current Research and Service Activities at AFRRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    several radiation accidents involving mass casualties, such as those referred to as Chernobyl, Goiania , and Tokaimura. Table 2 summarizes the...from the Goiania , Brazil, accident cohort immediately after the radiological emergency. Dose estimates exceeded 1 Gy for 21 subjects from this...PCC*# Reference Chernobyl, Russia 1986 ~ 116,000 158 NA Sevan’kaev [2000] Goiania , Brazil 1987 ~ 250 129 NA Ramalho [1991] Tokaimura, Japan 1999

  13. Observation of mass analyzed threshold ionization using synchrotron radiation on a new-style time of flight mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Yanmei; Cao, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Sisheng; Kong, Ruihong; Zhao, Yujie; Shan, Xiaobing; Sheng, Liusi

    2007-04-01

    We have developed an efficient and applicable apparatus that combines mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) with continuous molecular-beam mass spectrometry using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The new design, in which the spoiling field and the pulsed ionization field are perpendicular to each other, can obtain efficiently the ionic spectra of molecule. The MATI spectra of Ar and N2 have been recorded in the energy region between 15.5 and 17.5eV to illustrate the feasibility of this scheme. With its unique features, the important experiment considerations are potentially a powerful tool for study of information of ionization energies and ionic states of complex organic compounds.

  14. Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-06-01

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ˜ 5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.

  15. Radiative Corrections for Lepton-Proton Scattering: When the Mass Matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasev, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    Radiative corrections procedures for electron-proton and muon-proton scattering are well established under the assumption that the leptons are considered in an ultra-relativistic approximation. MUSE experiment at PSI and COMPASS experiment at CERN entered the regions of kinematics where explicit dependence of radiative corrections on the lepton mass becomes important. MUSE will consider the scattering of muons with momenta of the order 100 MeV/c, therefore lepton mass corrections become important for the entire kinematic domain. COMPASS experiment uses scattering of 100 GeV/c muons, and the muon mass effects are especially relevant in the quasi-real photo production limit, Q2 --> 0. A dedicated Monte Carlo generator of radiative events is being developed for MUSE, which also includes effects of interference between the lepton and proton bremsstrahlung. Parts of the radiative corrections are expected to be suppressed for muons due to the larger muon mass. Two-photon exchange corrections are generally expected to be small, and should be similar for electrons and muons. We classify the radiative corrections into two categories, C-even and C-odd under the lepton charge reversal, and discuss their role separately for the above experiments.

  16. Radiative Feedback from Primordial Protostars and Final Mass of the First Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our efforts toward understanding the typical mass-scale of primordial stars. Our direct numerical simulations show that, in both of Population III.1 and III.2 cases, strong UV stellar radiative feedback terminatesmass accretion onto a protostar.AnHII region formed around the protostar very dynamically expands throughout the gas accreting envelope, which cuts off the gas supply to a circumstellar disk. The disk is exposed to the stellar UV radiation and loses its mass by photoevaporation. The derived final masses are 43 Stellar Mass and 17 Stellar Mass in our fiducial Population III.1 and III.2 cases. Much more massive stars should form in other exceptional conditions. In atomic-cooling halos where H2 molecules are dissociated, for instance, a protostar grows via very rapid mass accretion with the rates M* approx. 0.1 - 1 Stellar Mass/yr. Our newstellar evolution calculations show that the protostar significantly inflates and never contracts to reach the ZAMS stage in this case. Such the "supergiant protostars" have very low UV luminosity, which results in weak radiative feedback against the accretion flow. In the early universe, supermassive stars formed through this process might provide massive seeds of supermassive black holes.

  17. The effect of stellar radiation on exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Our project aims to investigate the influence of stellar activity and high-energy radiation on short-period transiting exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss. Mass loss in closely orbiting gaseous exoplanets could be significant enough to evaporate a significant portion of the atmosphere over the total system lifetime. A current question of interest is how Neptune-class gas giants might change over time from being exposed to intense X-ray and UV flux radiated from the star. Our research aims to estimate current and total mass loss for four Neptune-class exoplanets that have both measured radii and masses. We use computer software to reduce and analyze Chandra X-ray observations of Neptune-class exoplanets, including HAT-P-11b and archival data of GJ 436b, to calculate the high-energy incident flux for each planet. We then estimate the current-epoch mass-loss rate and construct integrated mass-loss histories. We test whether planets receiving the greatest dose of high-energy radiation also tend to be the lowest mass and the most dense, suggestive of evaporation. These observations provide essential empirical input for understanding and modeling the potential evolutionary transformation of hot gas giants into less massive and more dense remnants.

  18. Radiative corrections to the lightest neutral Higgs mass in warped supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

    2008-10-01

    We compute radiative correction to the lightest neutral Higgs mass (m{sub h}) induced by the Kaluza-Klein (KK) towers of fermions and sfermions in a minimal supersymmetric scenario embeded in a 5-dimensional warped space. The Higgs is confined to the TeV brane. The KK spectra of matter supermultiplets is tied to the explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy problem. We demonstrate that for a reasonable choice of extra-dimensional parameters, the KK-induced radiative correction can enhance the upper limit on m{sub h} by as much as 100 GeV beyond the 4d limit of 135 GeV.

  19. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty... under the Act of any major marine casualty or any casualty involving public and non-public vessels... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board....

  20. Leptogenesis, radiative neutrino masses and inert Higgs triplet dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wen-Bin; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2016-05-18

    We extend the standard model by three types of inert fields including Majorana fermion singlets/triplets, real Higgs singlets/triplets and leptonic Higgs doublets. In the presence of a softly broken lepton number and an exactly conserved Z{sub 2} discrete symmetry, these inert fields together can mediate a one-loop diagram for a Majorana neutrino mass generation. The heavier inert fields can decay to realize a successful leptogenesis while the lightest inert field can provide a stable dark matter candidate. As an example, we demonstrate the leptogenesis by the inert Higgs doublet decays. We also perform a systematic study on the inert Higgs triplet dark matter scenario where the interference between the gauge and Higgs portal interactions can significantly affect the dark matter properties.

  1. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility.

  2. PBH mass growth through radial accretion during the radiation dominated era

    SciTech Connect

    Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; Guzmán, F.S.; Cruz-Osorio, A. E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx

    2013-12-01

    We model the radial accretion of radiation on Primordial Black Holes (PBH) by numerically solving Einstein's equations coupled to an ultrarelativistic ideal gas with equation of state p = ρ/3. We calculate the final mass of a black hole by the integration of the accreted radiation energy density during the leptonic era between t ∼ 10{sup −4}s to t ∼ 10{sup 2}s after the Big Bang. Our results indicate that small PBHs with initial masses between 10{sup −4} to 1M{sub ⊙} may grow up to hundreds of solar masses, and thus can be SMBH seeds. On the other hand, PBHs formed at t ∼ 1s with initial mass between 900 and ∼ 980M{sub ⊙}, by the time t ∼ 100s show masses of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6}M{sub ⊙} which are masses of seeds or already formed SMBHs. The fact that we consider only radial flow implies that our results work well as limiting cases, and it is expected that under more general scenarios the accretion rates may change significantly. Nevertheless we show that it is possible that SMBHs can be PBHs that grew due to the accretion of radiation.

  3. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  4. Connecting radiative neutrino mass, neutron-antineutron oscillation, proton decay, and leptogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Pei-Hong; Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-12-01

    The scotogenic mechanism for radiative neutrino mass is generalized to include neutron-antineutron oscillation as well as proton decay. Dark matter is stabilized by extending the notion of lepton parity to matter parity. Leptogenesis is also a possible byproduct. This framework unifies the description of all these important topics in physics beyond the standard model of particle interactions.

  5. Casualty modeling for real-time medical training.

    PubMed

    Chi, D M; Clarke, J R; Webber, B L; Badler, N I

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for simulating casualties in virtual environments for real-time medical training. It allows a user to choose diagnostic and therapeutic actions to carry out on a simulated casualty who will manifest appropriate physiological, behavioral, and physical responses. Currently, the user or a "stealth instructor" can specify one or more injuries that the casualty has sustained. The model responds by continuously determining the state of the casualty, responding appropriately to medical assessment and treatment procedures. So far, we have modeled four medical conditions and over 20 procedures. The model has been designed to handle the addition of other injuries and medical procedures.

  6. Mesozoic mass extinctions and angiosperm radiation: does the molecular clock tell something new?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2012-03-01

    Angiosperms evolved rapidly in the late Mesozoic. Data from the genetic-based approach called ‘molecular clock’ permit an evaluation of the radiation of flowering plants through geological time and of the possible influences of Mesozoic mass extinctions. A total of 261 divergence ages of angiosperm families are considered. The radiation of flowering plants peaked in the Albian, early Campanian, and Maastrichtian. From the three late Mesozoic mass extinctions (Jurassic/Cretaceous, Cenomanian/Turonian, and Cretaceous/Palaeogene), only the Cretaceous/Palaeogene event coincided with a significant, abrupt, and long-term decline in angiosperm radiation. If their link will be further proven, this means that global-scale environmental perturbation precluded from many innovations in the development of plants. This decline was, however, not unprecedented in the history of the angiosperms. The implication of data from the molecular clock for evolutionary reconstructions is limited, primarily because this approach deals with only extant lineages.

  7. Radiative transitions in charm-strange meson from Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie

    2016-07-01

    We present an exploratory study on the radiative transition for the charm-strange meson: Ds∗→ D sγ using Nf = 2 twisted mass lattice quantum chromodynamics gauge configurations. The form factor for Ds meson is also determined. The simulation is performed on lattices with lattice spacings a = 0.067 fm and lattice size 323 × 64, and a = 0.085 fm and lattice size 243 × 48, respectively. Our numerical results for radiative decay width and the experimental data overlap within the margin of error.

  8. Effect of thermal radiation on unsteady stagnation-point flow with mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Ali, Fadzilah; Nazar, Roslinda; Md Arifin, Norihan

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady stagnation-point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with mass transfer is studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation and is then solved numerically by the shooting method. It is found that the surface heat transfer rate reduces when the thermal radiation is applied and dual solutions exist only for negative unsteadiness parameter while positive unsteadiness parameter produces a unique solution.

  9. 33 CFR 146.30 - Notice of casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as soon as possible after a casualty occurs, and by the most rapid means available, of each casualty involving the facility which results in: (1) Death; or (2) Injury to 5 or more persons in a single incident... primary lifesaving or firefighting equipment; (2) Injury causing any person to be incapacitated for...

  10. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Officer-in-Charge, Marine Inspection, as soon as possible after a diving casualty occurs, if the casualty involves any of the following: (1) Loss of life. (2) Diving-related injury to any person causing incapacitation for more than 72 hours. (3) Diving-related injury to any person requiring hospitalization for...

  11. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involved in a marine casualty shall give notice as soon as possible to the nearest Coast Guard Marine... generating equipment, Coast Guard approved equipment or bilge pumping systems; (4) Loss of life; (5) Injury... of the casualty, nature and extent of injury to persons, and the damage to property. (c) In...

  12. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  13. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  14. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  15. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Casualty losses. 1.165-7 Section 1.165-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... loss sustained results from a single casualty. Similarly, if a hurricane causes high waves, all...

  16. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  17. 46 CFR 308.105 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.105 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.105 Reporting casualties and filing claims. All casualties occurring after insurance under a binder has attached shall be reported promptly to...

  18. 46 CFR 308.205 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 308.205 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.205 Reporting casualties and filing claims. All casualties occurring after insurance under a binder has attached shall be reported promptly to, and all...

  19. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... where damage by casualty has occurred to a building and ornamental or fruit trees used in a trade or business, the decrease in value shall be measured by taking the building and trees into account separately... building and trees. (ii) In determining a casualty loss involving real property and improvements...

  20. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  1. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  2. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  3. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The... occurs, as follows: (a) On Form CG-2692, when the diving installation is on a vessel. (b) Using a...

  4. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  5. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  6. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.35 Written report of casualty... written report which: (1) Identifies the facility involved, its owner, operator, and person in charge;...

  7. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  8. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  9. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  10. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  11. 46 CFR 308.304 - Reporting casualties and filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting casualties and filing claims. 308.304 Section 308.304 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.304 Reporting casualties and filing claims....

  12. 46 CFR 169.807 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Safety or Marine Inspection Office, whenever the casualty involves any of the following: (1) Each... creates a hazard to navigation, the environment or the safety of the vessel; (2) Loss of main propulsion..., agent, master, or other person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty shall retain...

  13. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-15

    This paper reports on the investigation of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The investigation is part of the Strategic Defence Initiative. This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. Composite materials evaluations were performed on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Fabrication experiments were performed to demonstrate weldability. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700C. Testing and analysis for composite tubes are described in the report. The study has verified the feasibility of using layered composites for forming thin-walled, light weight heat pipe tubes for use in hardened space radiators.

  14. The mass transfer rate in X1916-053 - It is driven by gravitational radiation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.; Taam, R. E.; White, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    A 50-minute period for a binary system harboring an X-ray burster would allow several alternatives for the mass-giving secondary, including an H-shell burning-plus-He degenerate core composite model. The burst properties of X1916-053 are presently used to argue against the He degenerate as well as the He main sequence solutions and to estimate whether, for any of the other solutions, the mass transfer rate could be consistent with that expected from gravitational radiation (GR). Within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, the transfer rate for the composite model solution is consistent with gravitational radiation, but enhancement by other mechanisms should be investigated.

  15. Operation Castle Cascade: managing multiple casualties from a simulated chemical weapons attack.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David; Younggren, Bradley N; Ness, Brian; Kvool, Valerie

    2003-05-01

    In the wake of the recent terrorist attack on the United States, there is an ever-increasing need for the defense against weapons of mass destruction. The use of explosive devices in combination with chemical agents could result in a community disaster with multiple traumatic and medical injuries. Military medical personnel may be the first called upon due to their unique training and equipment. Operation Castle Cascade was a large-scale exercise on a military instillation involving the apprehension of hostages and detonation of an explosive device containing dimethyl sulfate. We will provide details on the medical management of 50 patients with simulated chemical and traumatic injuries. Issues relating to on-site chemical identification, triage, decontamination, treatment, casualty collection, and transportation of casualties are addressed in this article.

  16. Radiative model of neutrino mass with neutrino interacting MeV dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Arhrib, Abdesslam; Boehm, Céline; Ma, Ernest; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-04-26

    We consider the radiative generation of neutrino mass through the interactions of neutrinos with MeV dark matter. We construct a realistic renormalizable model with one scalar doublet (in additional to the standard model doublet) and one complex singlet together with three light singlet Majorana fermions, all transforming under a dark U(1){sub D} symmetry which breaks softly to Z{sub 2}. We study in detail the scalar sector which supports this specific scenario and its rich phenomenology.

  17. Radiative corrections to Higgs boson masses for the MSSM Higgs potential with dimension-six operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, M. N.; Petrova, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of the effective field theory approach to heavy supersymmetry radiative corrections in the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for the effective potential decomposition up to the dimension-six operators are calculated. Symbolic expressions for the threshold corrections induced by F - and D -soft supersymmetry breaking terms are derived, and the Higgs boson mass spectrum respecting the condition mh=125 GeV for the lightest C P -even scalar is evaluated.

  18. Soft see-saw: Radiative origin of neutrino masses in SUSY theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrelidze, Luka; Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2017-01-01

    Radiative neutrino mass generation within supersymmetric (SUSY) construction is studied. The mechanism is considered where the lepton number violation is originating from the soft SUSY breaking terms. This requires MSSM extensions with states around the TeV scale. We present several explicit realizations based on extensions either by MSSM singlet or SU(2)w triplet states. Besides some novelties of the proposed scenarios, various phenomenological implications are also discussed.

  19. Radiatively induced Lorentz-violating operator of mass dimension five in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Mariz, T.

    2011-02-15

    The first higher derivative term of the photon sector of Lorentz-violating QED, with an operator of mass dimension d=5, is radiatively induced from the fermion sector, which contains a derivative term with the dimensionless coefficient g{sup {lambda}{mu}{nu}}. The calculation is performed perturbatively in the coefficient for Lorentz violation, and, due to the fact that the contributions are quadratically divergent, we adopt dimensional regularization.

  20. The study of radiation induced DNA-protein crosslinks by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lipton, M.S.; Fuciarelli, A.F.; Springer, D.L.; Edmonds, C.G.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have used peptide-thymine and histone-thymine solutions to model protein-DNA cross-linking chemistry induced in intact chromatin by low dosage of g-irradiation. Induced thymine crosslinking to model peptide systems has been evaluated by on-line liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with sensitivity comparable or superior to conventional GC-MS determinations. Radiation damage at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can be detected by this method. Additionally, thymine modified H2B can also be examined by ESI-MS and tandem-MS of the intact protein and proteinase digests. Limited information on the sites of thymine crosslinking can be obtained by tandem mass spectrometry on the intact multiply charged molecular species. More detailed information on the sites of thymine-protein crosslinking is obtained by on-line LC-ESI-MS of selective proteolysis products of the modified histones. Further MS-MS experiments on the selective proteolysis products will reveal specific modified amino acids and their sequence location. These methods reveal the nature, extent and site of radiation induced modification of the oligopeptides. Studies are being extended to the examination of the radiation induced covalent interactions between histones and oligonucleotides in higher states of organization. The eventual object is to study DNA-protein crosslinking interactions in model and native genomic nucleosome systems.

  1. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  2. Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry of antibiotic-treated bacterial biofilms using tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-09-01

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0-12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics and extracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both from neat and intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  3. Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

  4. Analysis of Mass Loss of a Polymeric Composite under Space Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric materials find ever-widening application in space technique. This is tied with the simplicity of producing the polymeric-based composites with the predetermined set of properties. However, these materials in space become the sources of volatile products that increase density of spacecraft outer atmosphere that undermines on serviceability of the on-board equipment. Therefore, study of mass loss of spacecraft materials in service conditions is a vital task. Polymeric composites are often used as thermal control coatings (TCC), which are subjected to maximum radiation exposure in service. It is known that irradiation of a PC is accompanied by intense gas formation but evolution of volatile products (VP) through the material-vacuum surface is limited by diffusion. Well-developed surface together with little thickness of a TCC film facilitate migration of radiolysis products to free coating surface. In this case outgassing and destruction of material augment permeability of the film, accelerate migration processes and make them easier. This work is devoted to studying action of separate (electron, proton, and electromagnetic), paired, and the whole set of radiations on mass loss of a pattern material in vacuum. The primary focus was on studying and interpretation of synergistic effects appearing in the course of mass loss of the pattern materials EKOM-1 and EKOM-2 polymeric composites, the widely used spacecraft TCC. Irradiation was made by 20-50-keV electrons and 20-keV protons and electromagnetic radiation in vacuum chamber of the UV-1/2 test facility. It was found that parameters characterizing the synergistic effects of mass loss of the material for fixed conditions of electron-proton and combined radiations are the functions of irradiation time. To interpret the experimental data, a physical-mathematical model of mass loss of polymeric materials in vacuum was proposed. The obtained data can be explained by diffusion fluxes associated with the gradient of

  5. Dynamic Universe Model predicts frequency shifting in electromagnetic radiation near gravitating masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Parameswara Gupta, Satyavarapu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, Dynamic Universe Model studies the light rays and other electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass. This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. Change in frequency depends on relative direction between ray and the Gravitating mass. Here in this paper we will mathematically derive the results and show these predictions. Dynamic Universe Model uses a new type of Tensor. There are no differential or integral equations here. No singularities and body to body collisions in this model. Many papers were published in USA and CANADA. See Dynamic Universe Model Blog for further details and papers Dynamic Universe Model never reduces to General relativity on any condition. It uses a different type of mathematics based on Newtonian physics. This mathematics used here is simple and straightforward. As there are no differential equations present in Dynamic Universe Model, the set of equations give single solution in x y z Cartesian coordinates for every point mass for every time step Keywords: Dynamic Universe Model, Hubble Space telescope (HST), SITA simulations , singularity-free cosmology,

  6. 46 CFR 4.40-15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 4.40-15... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an...

  7. 46 CFR 122.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 122... OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.220 Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty for which...

  8. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1.

    PubMed

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W

    2012-01-01

    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue.

  9. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for natural and radiation-induced modifications in histone proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, C.G.; Fuciarelli, A.F.; Thrall, B.D.; Springer, D.L.

    1992-05-01

    Chick erythrocyle histone H2B was irradiated in the presence of thymine, the principle cross-linking base recognized in earlier studies, and the products were examined directly by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Following exposure to 5 Gy of ionizing radiation the relative abundance of two unique species were increased by nearly 50% in irradiated samples over background response at the same m/z. The first corresponds to a mass increment increase similar to the expected value for thymine-H2B adduct formation (126.1 Da measured, 125.1 Da calculated). The mass increment increase for the second component (140.7 Da) was less easily explained. Additional dose-yield data are needed to confirm the significance of these changes.

  10. Prompt Radiation and Mass Outflows from the Stream-Stream Collisions of Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Guillochon, James; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    Stream-stream collisions play an important role in the circularization of highly eccentric streams that result from tidal disruption events (TDEs). We perform three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to show that stream collisions can contribute significant optical and ultraviolet light to the flares produced by TDEs, and can explain the majority of the observed emission. Our simulations focus on the region near the radiation-pressure-dominated shock produced by a collision and track how the kinetic energy of the stream is dissipated by the associated shock. When the mass flow rate of the stream \\dot{M} is a significant fraction of the Eddington accretion rate, ≳2% of the initial kinetic energy is converted to radiation as a result of the collision. In this regime, the collision redistributes the specific kinetic energy into the downstream gas and more than 16% of the mass can become unbound. The fraction of unbound gas decreases rapidly as \\dot{M} drops significantly below the Eddington limit, with no unbound gas being produced when \\dot{M} drops to 1% of Eddington; we find, however, that the radiative efficiency increases slightly to ≲8% in these cases of low \\dot{M}. The effective radiation temperature and size of the photosphere are determined by the stream velocity and \\dot{M}, and we find them to be a few times 104 K and 1014 cm in our calculations, comparable to the values inferred for some TDE candidates. The size of the photosphere is directly proportional to \\dot{M}, which can explain its rapidly changing size as seen in TDE candidates such as PS1-10jh.

  11. The Tactical Combat Casualty Care Casualty Card TCCC Guidelines - Proposed Change 13-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    2007. These new interventions include TXA, the CRoC , ketamine, and others. Although the previous TCCC casualty card was designated as an approved Army...an eye shield - Provides a space for documentation of combat pill pack usage - Provides a space for documentation of hypothermia prevention equipment...improve that care. “You can’t improve what you can’t measure , and you can’t measure without data.” (Eastridge 2011) Since 87% of combat fatalities occur

  12. Low-mass gas envelopes around accreting cores embedded in radiative 3D discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lega, Elena; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2016-10-01

    Planets with a core mass larger than few Earth masses and a gaseous envelope not exceeding about 10% of the total mass budget are common. Such planets are present in the Solar System (Uranus, Neptune) and are frequently observed around other stars.Our knowledge about the evolution of gas envelopes is mainly based on 1D models. However, such models cannot investigate the complex interaction between the forming envelope and the surrounding gas disc.In this work we perform 3D hydrodynamics simulations accounting for energy transfer and radiative cooling using the FARGOCA code (Lega et al., MNRAS 440, 2014). In addition to the usually considered heatingsources, namely viscous and compressional heating, we have modeled the energy deposited by the accretion of solids.We show that the thermal evolution of the envelope of a 5 Earth mass core is mainly dominated by compressional heating for accretion rates lower than 5 Earth masses per 105 years.Additionally, we demonstrate efficient gas circulation through the envelope. Under certain conditions, the competition between gas circulation and cooling of the envelope can efficiently delay the onset of runaway accretion. This could help in explaining the population of planets with low-mass gas envelope.

  13. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI) Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules Using VUV Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-05-01

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) has been performed for Ar, N2, O2, N2O, H2O, C2H2, and C6H6. MATI allows for a better determination of ionization energies compared to those derived from photoionization efficiency curves traditionally used in synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The separation of the long-lived Rydberg state from the directly formed prompt ion, essential for a meaningful MATI spectrum, has been accomplished by employing an arrangement of ion optics coupled to unique electric field pulsing schemes. For Ar, a number of resolved bands below the ionization energy are observed, and these are ascribed to high-n,l Rydberg states prepared in the MATI scheme. The first vibrational state resolved MATI spectra of N2 and O2 are reported, and spectral characteristics are discussed in comparison with previously reported threshold photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Although MATI performed with synchrotron radiation is intrinsically less sensitive compared to laser-based sources, this work demonstrates that MATI spectroscopy performed with widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is a complementary technique for studying the ionization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules.

  14. Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy of atoms and molecules using VUV synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Leone, Stephen R; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-12-31

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) has been performed for Ar, N(2), O(2), N(2)O, H(2)O, C(2)H(2), and C(6)H(6). MATI allows for a better determination of ionization energies compared to those derived from photoionization efficiency curves traditionally used in synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The separation of the long-lived Rydberg state from the directly formed prompt ion, essential for a meaningful MATI spectrum, has been accomplished by employing an arrangement of ion optics coupled to unique electric field pulsing schemes. For Ar, a number of resolved bands below the ionization energy are observed, and these are ascribed to high-n,l Rydberg states prepared in the MATI scheme. The first vibrational state resolved MATI spectra of N(2) and O(2) are reported, and spectral characteristics are discussed in comparison with previously reported threshold photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Although MATI performed with synchrotron radiation is intrinsically less sensitive compared to laser-based sources, this work demonstrates that MATI spectroscopy performed with widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is a complementary technique for studying the ionization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules.

  15. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI) Spectroscopy of Atoms and Molecules using VUV Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Kim, Sang Kyu; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-01-28

    Mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) has been performed for Ar, N2, O2, N2O, H2O, C2H2, and C6H6. MATI allows for a better determination of ionization energies compared to those derived from photoionization efficiency curves traditionally used in synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. The separation of the long-lived Rydberg state from the directly-formed prompt ion, essential for a meaningful MATI spectrum, has been accomplished by employing an arrangement of ion optics coupled to unique electric-field pulsing schemes. For Ar, a number of resolved bands below the ionization energy are observed, and these are ascribed to high-n,l Rydberg states prepared in the MATI scheme. The first vibrational stateresolved MATI spectra of N2 and O2 are reported and spectral characteristics are discussed in comparison with previously-reported threshold photoelectron spectroscopic studies. While MATI performed with synchrotron radiation is intrinsically less sensitive compared to laser based sources, this work demonstrates that MATI spectroscopy performed with widely tunable VUV radiation is a complementary technique for studying the ionization spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules.

  16. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  17. Plasma miRNA as biomarkers for assessment of total-body radiation exposure dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wanchang; Ma, Jinfang; Wang, Yulei; Biswal, Shyam

    2011-01-01

    The risk of radiation exposure, due to accidental or malicious release of ionizing radiation, is a major public health concern. Biomarkers that can rapidly identify severely-irradiated individuals requiring prompt medical treatment in mass-casualty incidents are urgently needed. Stable blood or plasma-based biomarkers are attractive because of the ease for sample collection. We tested the hypothesis that plasma miRNA expression profiles can accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrated using a murine model that plasma miRNA expression signatures could distinguish mice that received total body irradiation doses of 0.5 Gy, 2 Gy, and 10 Gy (at 6 h or 24 h post radiation) with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of above 90%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that plasma miRNA profiles can be highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure. Thus, plasma-based biomarkers can be used to assess radiation exposure after mass-casualty incidents, and it may provide a valuable tool in developing and implementing effective countermeasures.

  18. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling in the mouse liver following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Min; Shon, Jong Cheol; Lee, Mee Youn; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Jeong Kee; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have been performed on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, only a limited number of reports have investigated these effects on non-skin tissue. This study aimed to describe the metabolite changes in the liver of hairless mice following chronic exposure to UVB radiation. We did not observe significant macroscopic changes or alterations in hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver of UVB-irradiated mice, compared with those for normal mice. In this study, we detected hepatic metabolite changes by UVB exposure and identified several amino acids, fatty acids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and taurine-conjugated cholic acids as candidate biomarkers in response to UVB radiation in the mouse liver by using various mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling including ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF)-MS, gas chromatography-TOF-MS and nanomate LTQ-MS. Glutamine exhibited the most dramatic change with a 5-fold increase in quantity. The results from altering several types of metabolites suggest that chronic UVB irradiation may impact significantly on major hepatic metabolism processes, despite the fact that the liver is not directly exposed to UVB radiation. MS-based metabolomic approach for determining regulatory hepatic metabolites following UV irradiation will provide a better understanding of the relationship between internal organs and UV light.

  19. Bright betatronlike x rays from radiation pressure acceleration of a mass-limited foil target.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong-Pu; Pukhov, Alexander; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Liu, Feng; Shvets, Gennady

    2013-01-25

    By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the electromagnetic emission from radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin mass-limited foils. When a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiates the foil, the laser radiation pressure pushes the foil forward as a whole. The outer wings of the pulse continue to propagate and act as a natural undulator. Electrons move together with ions longitudinally but oscillate around the latter transversely, forming a self-organized helical electron bunch. When the electron oscillation frequency coincides with the laser frequency as witnessed by the electron, betatronlike resonance occurs. The emitted x rays by the resonant electrons have high brightness, short durations, and broad band ranges which may have diverse applications.

  20. Low-mass, intrinsically-hard high-temperature radiator. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-15

    Thermacore, Inc. of Lancaster, Pennsylvania has completed a Phase I SBIR program to investigate the use of layered ceramic/metal composites in the design of low-mass hardened radiators for space heat rejection systems. The program is being monitored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO). This effort evaluated the use of layered composites as a material to form thin-walled, vacuum leaktight heat pipes. The heat pipes would be incorporated into a large heat pipe radiator for waste heat rejection from a space nuclear power source. This approach forms an attractive alternative to metal or silicon-carbon fiber reinforced metal heat pipes by offering a combination of low mass and improved fabricability. Titanium has been shown to have a yield strength too low at 875{degrees}K to be a useful radiator material. A silicon carbide fiber reinforced titanium material appears to have sufficient strength at 875{degrees}K. but cannot be welded due to the continuous fibers, and the preferred heat pipe working fluid (potassium) has been demonstrated to be incompatible with silicon carbide at 875{degrees}K. Moreover, titanium does not appear to be acceptable for radiators subjected to anticipated laser threats. As part of this effort, Thermacore performed composite material evaluations on combinations of refractory metals and ceramic powders. Layered composite tube samples with wall thicknesses as thin as 0.012 inches were developed. Fabrication experiments were performed that demonstrated the weldability of layered composites. Two titanium/titanium diboride composite tubes were successfully fabricated into potassium heat pipes and operated at temperatures in excess of 700{degrees}C. A hybrid composite tube was also fabricated into a potassium heat pipe. The tube was composed of alternating layers of niobium-1% zirconium foil and layers of a mixture of titanium powder and titanium diboride powder.

  1. Spectral and Structure Modeling of Low and High Mass Young Stars Using a Radiative Trasnfer Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    The spectroscopy data from space telescopes (ISO, Spitzer, Herchel) shows that in addition to dust grains (e.g. silicates), there is also the presence of the frozen molecular species (astrophysical ices, such as H _{2}O, CO, CO _{2}, CH _{3}OH) in the circumstellar environments. In this work we present a study of the modeling of low and high mass young stellar objects (YSOs), where we highlight the importance in the use of the astrophysical ices processed by the radiation (UV, cosmic rays) comes from stars in formation process. This is important to characterize the physicochemical evolution of the ices distributed by the protostellar disk and its envelope in some situations. To perform this analysis, we gathered (i) observational data from Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) related with low mass protostar Elias29 and high mass protostar W33A, (ii) absorbance experimental data in the infrared spectral range used to determinate the optical constants of the materials observed around this objects and (iii) a powerful radiative transfer code to simulate the astrophysical environment (RADMC-3D, Dullemond et al, 2012). Briefly, the radiative transfer calculation of the YSOs was done employing the RADMC-3D code. The model outputs were the spectral energy distribution and theoretical images in different wavelengths of the studied objects. The functionality of this code is based on the Monte Carlo methodology in addition to Mie theory for interaction among radiation and matter. The observational data from different space telescopes was used as reference for comparison with the modeled data. The optical constants in the infrared, used as input in the models, were calculated directly from absorbance data obtained in the laboratory of both unprocessed and processed simulated interstellar samples by using NKABS code (Rocha & Pilling 2014). We show from this study that some absorption bands in the infrared, observed in the spectrum of Elias29 and W33A can arises after the ices

  2. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode

  3. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Describes the casualty, including the date and time; (3) Describes the nature and extent of injury to.... (7) Includes information relating to alcohol or drug involvement as specified in the vessel...

  4. Innovations in the En Route Care of Combat Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    constant innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous...innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous...pain in the ERC system from various disciplines and begin to understand the AE patient’s pain experience , innovative nonpharmacological means to

  5. Preliminary Design of a Combat Casualty Medical Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-20

    encoded tag worn by the individual could supply basic V2 demographic data as well as blood type and allerny information. Partable terminals could he used...to identify the casualty and establish a casualty care record. This included the marine’s name, social security number, unit, allergies, blood type , and...casting and immobilization are relevant. More extensive diagnostic pro- dedures such as complete blood counts, urinalyses, blood type and crossmatch

  6. Challenges to Improving Combat Casualty Survivability on the Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    divi- sion of responsibility may at first glance seem reasonable, the net negative effect of line commanders lacking expertise and medical leaders...DOW nor the case fatality rate quantifies the effect of medical care on survival, nor do they provide insight into where specific improvements in...combat casualty care can be made. Another statistic that distorts the overall effectiveness of combat casualty care is the hospital survival rate

  7. Resuscitation of combat casualties: unique challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Marshall, William B

    2010-01-01

    Resuscitation and trauma anesthesia of combat casualties is very similar to trauma care in any US hospital--except for the setting. Using case examples, this article describes the principles of trauma anesthesia and resuscitation and the lessons learned regarding the modifications required when caring for a combat casualty. Examples of a massive trauma resuscitation (>10 units of packed red blood cells in 24 hours) and burn resuscitation are presented.

  8. Casualties, Public Opinion, and Presidential Policy during the Vietnam War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    of his charts, reproduced here as Fig. 6, plotted the rising casualty levels in Korea against the declin- ing public support for the Korean war. Ball...relationship between U.S. casualties and public support for U.S. military int-rvention in Korea and Vietnam, and concludeb that a strong inverse...Contingencies," investigated possible configurations for a firepower projection force to be employed in the defense of Third World allies. One of the

  9. Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction as trigger for the Mesozoic radiation of crocodylomorphs.

    PubMed

    Toljagic, Olja; Butler, Richard J

    2013-06-23

    Pseudosuchia, one of the two main clades of Archosauria (Reptilia: Diapsida), suffered a major decline in lineage diversity during the Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (approx. 201 Ma). Crocodylomorpha, including living crocodilians and their extinct relatives, is the only group of pseudosuchians that survived into the Jurassic. We reassess changes in pseudosuchian morphological diversity (disparity) across this time interval, using considerably larger sample sizes than in previous analyses. Our results show that metrics of pseudosuchian disparity did not change significantly across the TJ boundary, contrasting with previous work suggesting low pseudosuchian disparity in the Early Jurassic following the TJ mass extinction. However, a significant shift in morphospace occupation between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa is recognized, suggesting that the TJ extinction of many pseudosuchian lineages was followed by a major and geologically rapid adaptive radiation of crocodylomorphs. This marks the onset of the spectacularly successful evolutionary history of crocodylomorphs in Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems.

  10. Cosmology Favoring Extra Radiation and Sub-eV Mass Sterile Neutrinos as an Option

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{sub s} and effective number N{sub s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{sub s} is in the sub-eV range.

  11. Cosmology favoring extra radiation and sub-eV mass sterile neutrinos as an option.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G; Tamborra, Irene; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-10-29

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favor extra radiation in the Universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We use the WMAP 7-year data, small-scale cosmic microwave background observations from ACBAR, BICEP, and QuAD, the SDSS 7th data release, and measurement of the Hubble parameter from HST observations to derive credible regions for the assumed common mass scale m{s} and effective number N{s} of thermally excited sterile neutrino states. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if m{s} is in the sub-eV range.

  12. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

    2014-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  13. Negative-mass mitigation of Coulomb repulsion for terahertz undulator radiation of electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Balal, N.; Magory, E.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.

    2015-10-19

    It is proposed to utilize the effect of negative mass for stabilization of the effective axial size of very dense and short electron bunches produced by photo-injector guns by using combined undulator and strong uniform magnetic fields. It has been shown that in the “abnormal” regime, an increase in the electron energy leads to a decrease in the axial velocity of the electron; due to the negative-mass effect, the Coulomb repulsion of electrons leads to their attraction and formation of a fairly stable and compact bunch “nucleus.” An undulator with a strong uniform magnetic field providing the negative-mass effect is designed for an experimental source of terahertz radiation. The use of the negative-mass regime in this experiment should result in a long-pulse coherent spontaneous undulator emission from a short dense moderately relativistic (5.5 MeV) photo-injector electron bunch with a high (up to 20%) efficiency and a narrow frequency spectrum.

  14. Ground Forces Battle Casualty Rate Patterns: Uses in Casualty Estimation and Simulation Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    disintegrated front is marked by both the collapse of the defender force with a heavy-to-near-total force battle casualty rate and a low-to- negligible battle...totality of collapsing Defender cohesion — which long term air-inflicted attrition may certainly help prepare, but which is neither necessarily (much less...H ■ H u. O IU > tt 3 <J Of O > 5 tt 3 vt CD 6 u«mJ^«*JOVJ^i«d Warn MS 󈧧 •23 2« ^ Median WTC (Unrfscottnted) 687 -L

  15. An Integrated Civilian Medical Response to Mass Casualty Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    34Decontamination of bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas", Journal of Environmental Health 66: 16-20 6. Jeng, D. K., and...impaction, because it minimizes desiccation stress and allows for the direct deposition of the microorganism into growth media. The AGI-30 liquid impinger...combines this data with the chemical kinetics of non-thermal plasma to predict the rate of destruction of microorganisms under varying conditions. The

  16. Triage and Treatment of Combined Injury in Mass Casualty Situations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus used (108 microbes per 1 ml growth media, s.c.). Increase of 30-day survival accordingly composed 42% and 53...Rad.Biol. Radioecol. (in press). Boudagov R.S., Oulianova L.P., Pospelova V.V et al. Biopreparation based in Lactobacillus acidophilus - new remedy for...particularly valuable [35]. Results of our previous investigation revealed that single subcutaneous injection of heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus

  17. Data quality for situational awareness during mass-casualty events.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Barry; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2007-10-11

    Incident Command systems often achieve situational awareness through manual paper-tracking systems. Such systems often produce high latencies and in-complete data, resulting in inefficient and ineffective resource deployment. WIISARD (Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters) collects much more data than a paper-based system, dramatically reducing latency while increasing the kinds and quality of information available to incident commanders. Yet, the introduction of IT into a disaster setting is not problem-free. Notably, system component failures can delay the delivery of data. The type and extent of a failure can have varying effects on the usefulness of information displays. We describe a small, coherent set of customizble information overlays to address this problem, and we discuss reactions to these displays by medical commanders.

  18. Situational awareness during mass-casualty events: command and control.

    PubMed

    Demchak, Barry; Chan, Theodore C; Griswold, William G; Lenert, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    In existing Incident Command systems, situational awareness is achieved manually through paper tracking systems. Such systems often produce high latencies and incomplete data, resulting in inefficient and ineffective resource deployment. The WIISARD system collects much more data than a paper-based system, dramatically reducing latency while increasing the kinds and quality of information available to Incident Commanders. The WIISARD Command Center solves the problem of data over-load and uncertainty through the careful use of limited screen area and novel visualization techniques.

  19. Development of a Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Assessment, Triage, Performance measurement, BCT performance, Feedback , Tasks, Task analysis, Military police 16. SECURITY...assessment and provided feedback for further refinement. Findings: The assessment tool comprises six cases. Each case includes a scenario...Tool Feedback ..................................................................................................... 11 Procedure

  20. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. II. THE RADIATIVE COOLING CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Michael, Scott; McConnell, Caitlin R.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: carmccon@indiana.edu

    2013-05-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protoplanetary disk subject to gravitational instabilities (GIs) at a time of approximate balance between heating produced by the GIs and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine cooling times, characterize GI-driven spiral waves and their resultant gravitational torques, and evaluate how accurately mass transport can be represented by an {alpha}-disk formulation. Four simulations, identical except for azimuthal resolution, are conducted with a grid-based three-dimensional hydrodynamics code. There are two regions in which behaviors differ as resolution increases. The inner region, which contains 75% of the disk mass and is optically thick, has long cooling times and is well converged in terms of various measures of structure and mass transport for the three highest resolutions. The longest cooling times coincide with radii where the Toomre Q has its minimum value. Torques are dominated in this region by two- and three-armed spirals. The effective {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses is typically a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and is only roughly consistent with local balance of heating and cooling when time-averaged over many dynamic times and a wide range of radii. On the other hand, the outer disk region, which is mostly optically thin, has relatively short cooling times and does not show convergence as resolution increases. Treatment of unstable disks with optical depths near unity with realistic radiative transport is a difficult numerical problem requiring further study. We discuss possible implications of our results for numerical convergence of fragmentation criteria in disk simulations.

  1. [Model and enlightenment from rescue of August 2nd Kunshan explosion casualty].

    PubMed

    Tan, Q; Qiu, H B; Sun, B W; Shen, Y M; Nie, L J; Zhang, H W

    2016-01-01

    On August 2nd, 2014, a massive dust explosion occurred in a factory of Kunshan, resulting in a mass casualty involving 185 burn patients. They were transported to 20 medical institutions in Jiangsu province and Shanghai. More than one thousand of medical personnel of our country participated in this emergency rescue, and satisfactory results were achieved. In this paper, the characteristics of this accident were analyzed, the positive effects of interdisciplinary cooperation were affirmed, and the contingency plan, rescue process and pattern, and reserve, organization and management of talents during this rescue process were reviewed retrospectively.

  2. Mass spectrometry data from proteomic analysis of human skin keratins after exposure to UV radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon Hwa; Matsushima, Keita; Miyamoto, Kohei; Oe, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic methodology was employed to monitor oxidative modifications in keratins, the main constituents of human skin (“Non-invasive proteomic analysis of human skin keratins: screening of methionine oxidation in keratins by mass spectrometry” [1], “UV irradiation-induced methionine oxidation in human skin keratins: mass spectrometry-based non-invasive proteomic analysis” [2]). Human skin proteins were obtained non-invasively by tape stripping and solubilized in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) buffer, followed by purification and digestion using the filter-aided sample preparation method. The tryptic peptides were then analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC/ESI-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)/MS. The MS/MS data were generated to confirm amino acid sequences and oxidation sites of tryptic peptides D290VDGAYMTK298 (P1) and N258MQDMVEDYR267 (P2), which contain the most susceptible oxidation sites (Met259, Met262, and Met296 in K1 keratin) upon UVA irradiation [2]. Subsequently, quantitative determination of the relative oxidation levels of P1 and P1 [2] was achieved by LC/ESI-SRM/MS analyses of P1 and P2 together with their oxidized forms after exposure to UVA radiation or treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PMID:26958637

  3. Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-03-01

    We perform radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of binary neutron-star mergers in numerical relativity on the Japanese "K" supercomputer, taking into account neutrino cooling and heating by an updated leakage-plus-transfer scheme for the first time. Neutron stars are modeled by three modern finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) developed by Hempel and his collaborators. We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta of the merger such as total mass, average electron fraction, and thermal energy depend strongly on the EOS. Only for a soft EOS (the so-called SFHo), the ejecta mass exceeds 0.01 M⊙ . In this case, the distribution of the electron fraction of the ejecta becomes broad due to the shock heating during the merger. These properties are well-suited for the production of the solar-like r -process abundance. For the other stiff EOS (DD2 and TM1), for which a long-lived massive neutron star is formed after the merger, the ejecta mass is smaller than 0.01 M⊙, although broad electron-fraction distributions are achieved by the positron capture and the neutrino heating.

  4. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity.

  5. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-11-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  6. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles from Dyonic Reissner-Nordström Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyse the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed in reading the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  7. RADIATION PRESSURE AND MASS EJECTION IN {rho}-LIKE STATES OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a unifying scenario to address the physical origin of the diversity of X-ray light curves within the {rho} variability class of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This 'heartbeat' state is characterized by a bright flare that recurs every {approx}50-100 s, but the profile and duration of the flares vary significantly from observation to observation. Based on a comprehensive, phase-resolved study of heartbeats in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive, we demonstrate that very different X-ray light curves do not require origins in different accretion processes. Indeed, our detailed comparison of the phase-resolved spectra of a double-peaked oscillation and a single-peaked oscillation shows that different cycles can have basically similar X-ray spectral evolution. We argue that all heartbeat oscillations can be understood as the result of a combination of a thermal-viscous radiation pressure instability, a local Eddington limit in the disk, and a sudden, radiation-pressure-driven evaporation or ejection event in the inner accretion disk. This ejection appears to be a universal, fundamental part of the {rho} state, and is largely responsible for a hard X-ray pulse seen in the light curve of all cycles. We suggest that the detailed shape of oscillations in the mass accretion rate through the disk is responsible for the phenomenological differences between different {rho}-type light curves, and we discuss how future time-dependent simulations of disk instabilities may provide new insights into the role of radiation pressure in the accretion flow.

  8. Changing mass liner system for generation of soft X-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, V.N.; Buyko, A.M.; Burenkov, O.M.; Garanin, S.F.; Startsev, A.I.; Yakubov, V.B.

    1994-12-31

    This report is issued in compliance with Clause F.4.2 of Contract 4769M0014-9Y ``Design study for X-ray generation``. In the first report (Clause F.4.1 of Contract) three systems were considered to solve the formulated problem. All of them were designed on the basis of employment of {O}400 mm disk explosive-magnetic generators (DEMG) as an energy source using a high-speed (25--30 cm/{micro}s) liner converging to the axis. The considered systems differs in modes of current pulse formation. For further effort the customer has chosen System 3 with the changing mass liner. In accordance with this fact this report discusses basic theoretical and computational results obtained to date for System 3. Further development of the theory of the considered system is suggested in the context of the series of experiments the ultimate goal of which is to generate soft X-radiation. Basic stages of the effort to generate soft X-radiation are discussed on the basis of the schedule given with consideration of some corrections which occurred when the system type had been selected.

  9. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-- Allegheny Casualty Company... INFORMATION: The underwriting limitation for Allegheny Casualty Company (NAIC 13285), which was listed in...

  10. a Measurement of the Mass, Full Width, and Radiative Width of the Positive B(1237) Meson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collick, Bruce David

    An experiment was performed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to investigate the coherent production of mesons on nuclear targets (lead and copper). The experiment used and 200 GeV/c incident meson beam and a high resolution forward spectrometer consisting of proportional and drift chambers plus a liquid argon photon calorimeter. This thesis reports the results of the process (pi)('+) + A (--->) (pi)('+) (omega) + A. The (pi)('+)(omega) spectrum was found to be dominated by the B('+)(1237) meson. A fit was performed on the line shape of the (pi)('+)(omega) mass spectrum and values of 1.271 (+OR-) 0.011 GeV and 0.232 (+OR-) 0.029 GeV were found for the mass and total width. The helicity zero decay probability of the (omega), (VBAR)F(,0)(VBAR)('2), was measured to be (VBAR)F(,0)(VBAR)('2) = 0.15 (+OR-) 0.035. The t distributions were analyzed allowing the electromagnetic and hadronic production processes to interfer. From these distributions a radiative width of 230 (+OR-) 61 was extracted.

  11. Black-hole bremsstrahlung and the efficiency of mass-energy radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, H. P. de; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2008-08-15

    We present results from numerical evolution of a boosted black hole, perturbed nonlinearly by an axisymmetric distribution of matter in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system were constructed and the Robinson-Trautmann equation was integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The emission of gravitational waves by the system is typical of bremsstrahlung at early times, a consequence of the deceleration of the black hole as it interacts with the perturbation; part of the perturbation is radiated away and another part is absorbed into the hole. The angular pattern evolves to the quadrupole form for later times. The final configuration is a black hole in motion with larger (Bondi) rest mass and smaller boost parameter. The efficiency {delta} of mass-energy extraction by gravitational wave emission was also computed. The relation of {delta} to the mass of the remnant black hole satisfies a nonextensive thermostatistics distribution with entropic index q{approx_equal}1/2. The result extends analytical evaluations based on the linearized theory of gravitational wave emission. For each initial boost parameter, there always exists a (large) value of the perturbation parameter A{sub 0} for which the momentum of the remnant black hole has opposite sign to that of the unperturbed black hole, due to the strong deceleration during the process of gravitational wave emission. The temporal wave form is that of an initial burst and we evaluate that for a large range of A{sub 0} the process corresponds to a high power output in the initial dominant pulse.

  12. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  14. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  16. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  17. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  18. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  19. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  20. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  1. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  2. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  3. 46 CFR 4.05-5 - Substance of marine casualty notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance of marine casualty notice. 4.05-5 Section 4.05-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-5 Substance of...

  4. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  5. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marine casualty reporting and... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in...

  6. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  7. 46 CFR 4.05-10 - Written report of marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Written report of marine casualty. 4.05-10 Section 4.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Notice of Marine Casualty and Voyage Records § 4.05-10 Written report of...

  8. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  9. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  10. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  11. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  12. 33 CFR 174.107 - Contents of casualty or accident report form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of casualty or accident... System Requirements § 174.107 Contents of casualty or accident report form. Each form for reporting a vessel casualty or accident must contain the information required in § 173.57 of this chapter....

  13. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  14. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  15. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  16. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  17. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer...

  18. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  19. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  20. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  1. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  2. 49 CFR 850.25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the...) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.25 Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. (a) If the Board does...

  3. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  4. 49 CFR 850.15 - Marine casualty investigation by the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine casualty investigation by the Board. 850.15... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD COAST GUARD-NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD MARINE CASUALTY INVESTIGATIONS § 850.15 Marine casualty investigation by the Board. (a) The Board may conduct an investigation under...

  5. Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ted to the Army’s burn center between March 2003 and February 2007. Data in- cluded total body surface area (TBSA) burn, ventilatory status... total body surface area (range, ə%–95%) with a mean Injury Severity Score of 12.2 13.7. One hundred eight-one (33.5%) casualties required venti...Long Range Transport of War-Related Burn Casualties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  6. Physical principles of the amplification of electromagnetic radiation due to negative electron masses in a semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorokhov, A. V.; Pyataev, M. A.; Khvastunov, N. N.; Hyart, T.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Alekseev, K. N.

    2015-02-01

    In a superlattice placed in crossed static electric and magnetic fields, under certain conditions, the inversion of electron population can appear at which the average energy of electrons is above the middle of the mini-band and the effective mass of the electron is negative. This is the implementation of the negative effective mass amplifier and generator (NEMAG) in the superlattice. It can result in the amplification and generation of terahertz radiation even in the absence of negative differential conductivity.

  7. Acceleration of Advanced CN Antidote Agents for Mass Exposure Treatments: DMTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    useful for intramuscular (IM) delivery in mass casualty cyanide poisoning settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyanide Poisoning; Intramuscular Injection...or with sulfanegen and/or cobinamide, which will be useful for intramuscular (IM) delivery in mass casualty cyanide poisoning settings. Lethal...completed in control cyanide poisoned animals, as well as in animals treated using intramuscular injection of dimethyl trisulfate (DMTS) as the CN

  8. Consideration of Initial Nuclear Radiation in an Attack on a Civilian Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    4 2.Initial Nuclear Radiation. .. ................ 5 D. Thermal and Residual ?Fuclear Radiation ....... 9 E. Blast Casualties...Comparison of Distance and Explosive Yield for Blast, Thermal Radiation, and Components of the Initial Nuclear Radiation Field ..... ........... 15 II...several of the phenomena. Phenomena that occur promptly are air blast and ground shock, thermal radiation and heat, initial nuclear radiation, and

  9. Impact of Saturn Main Ring Mass on interpretation of Pioneer 11 and Cassini SOI Radiation Measurements Across the Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, Steven J.; Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Kollmann, Peter; Roussos, Elias; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    The Pioneer 11 (1979) and Cassini Orbiter (2004) missions measured the energetic particle and gamma ray flux environments across the A, B, and outer C rings of Saturn. This radiation originates as secondary proton, neutron, electron, and gamma ray emissions from the interaction of high-energy (> 20 GeV) galactic cosmic ray protons and other ions with bulk ice material in the rings and is sensitive to the surface mass density of the rings. The Pioneer 11 analysis from the University of Chicago High Energy Telescope, published in 1985, was consistent with a average surface density of about 50 g/cm2, assuming pure water ice, and a total ring mass of 2.7x10-8 Saturn masses (MS). This independently-derived value confirmed the post-Voyager result of 3x10-8 MS from radio and stellar occultations, and from observed damping of density waves in the rings. Although some later ring models in the Cassini mission era (2004 - present) allow for a greater mass by an order of magnitude, the latest density wave analysis from Cassini indicates that the Pioneer-Voyager value may be correct. GEANT radiation transport simulations have been performed to update the ring radiation model and enable ongoing assessments of the Pioneer 11 HET and Cassini MIMI/LEMMS responses to this radiation. The O2 gas production by radiation chemistry within the ring material is also estimated as a function of ring mass for comparison to Cassini and earlier measurements of the ring atmosphere and ionosphere. More massive rings would produce more O2.

  10. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 2007: Evolving Concepts and Battlefield Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    or thoracic) hemorrhage: no IV fluid resuscitation Head wound patient: Hespan at minimal flow to maintain infusion unless there is concurrent...airway obstruction: chin lift or jaw thrust, nasopharyngeal airway, place casualty in recovery position Surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine ...laryngeal mask airway /ILMA or Combitube or endotracheal intubation or surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine if conscious) Spinal immobilization is

  11. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  12. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  13. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  14. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  15. 46 CFR 185.202 - Notice of casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 185.202 Section 185.202 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... excluded from the requirements of paragraphs (a)(5) and (a)(6) of this section with respect to the death...

  16. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-26

    16 Table 14. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through...Freedom: Military Deaths , March 19, 2003, Through February 6, 2010 Casualty Type Totals Army Navya Marines Air Force Hostile 3,469 2,524 65 851 29...2 Table 2. Worldwide U.S. Active Duty Military Deaths

  17. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: Current Perspective on Combat Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    trauma patients, with obvious implications for improved combat casualty care. CONCLUSION To quote Hippocrates , “He who would become a surgeon should...join the Army and follow it.” Now I’m not saying Hippocrates was an Army recruiter; however, there are two in the back of the room and I would like for

  18. Deciding Who Lives: Considered Risk Casualty Decisions in Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    philosophy, theology, bioethics , and the military, etc. have examined principles that are involved in the concept of accepting loss of life and have...205 14. SUBJECT TERMS Considered Risk Casualty; Acceptable Losses; Bioethics ; Philosophy; Theology; Military; Homeland Security; Decision-making...under circumstances that bring this condition to the civilian population. Other disciplines such as philosophy, theology, bioethics , and the military

  19. Dynamical mass ejection from the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    We perform neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for the merger of asymmetric binary neutron stars in numerical relativity. Neutron stars are modeled by soft and moderately stiff finite-temperature equations of state (EOS). We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta such as the total mass, neutron richness profile, and specific entropy profile depend on the mass ratio of the binary systems for a given EOS in a unique manner. For a soft EOS (SFHo), the total ejecta mass depends weakly on the mass ratio, but the average of electron number per baryon (Ye ) and specific entropy (s ) of the ejecta decreases significantly with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry. For a stiff EOS (DD2), with the increase of the mass asymmetry degree, the total ejecta mass significantly increases while the average of Ye and s moderately decreases. We find again that only for the SFHo, the total ejecta mass exceeds 0.01 M⊙ irrespective of the mass ratio chosen in this paper. The ejecta have a variety of electron number per baryon with an average approximately between Ye˜0.2 and ˜0.3 irrespective of the EOS employed, which is well suited for the production of the rapid neutron capture process heavy elements (second and third peaks), although its averaged value decreases with the increase of the degree of mass asymmetry.

  20. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  1. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  2. Management of Irradiated and Contaminated Casualty Victims

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    of radiation in any material and is defined as the deposition of 100 ergs of energy per gram of material. For most general working purposes, a...charcoal and antacids , which reduce absorption of acid-soluble materials, Administration of magnesium sulfate or other precipitating agents can also...be available for all person- nel within the facility. Surgical scrub suits work perfectly well for this purpose. In addition to scrub suits, surgical

  3. Molecular beam mass spectrometry with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Amir; Ahmed, Musahid

    2012-01-01

    Tunable soft ionization coupled to mass spectroscopy is a powerful method to investigate isolated molecules, complexes and clusters and their spectroscopy and dynamics.[1-4] Fundamental studies of photoionization processes of biomolecules provide information about electronic structure of these systems. Furthermore determinations of ionization energies and other properties of biomolecules in the gas phase are not trivial, and these experiments provide a platform to generate these data. We have developed a thermal vaporization technique coupled with supersonic molecular beams that provides a gentle way to transport these species into the gas phase. Judicious combination of source gas and temperature allows for formation of dimers and higher clusters of the DNA bases. The focus of this particular work is on the effects of non-covalent interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, stacking, and electrostatic interactions, on the ionization energies and proton transfer of individual biomolecules, their complexes and upon micro-hydration by water.[1, 5-9] We have performed experimental and theoretical characterization of the photoionization dynamics of gas-phase uracil and 1,3-methyluracil dimers using molecular beams coupled with synchrotron radiation at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline[10] located at the Advanced Light Source and the experimental details are visualized here. This allowed us to observe the proton transfer in 1,3-dimethyluracil dimers, a system with pi stacking geometry and with no hydrogen bonds[1]. Molecular beams provide a very convenient and efficient way to isolate the sample of interest from environmental perturbations which in return allows accurate comparison with electronic structure calculations[11, 12]. By tuning the photon energy from the synchrotron, a photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve can be plotted which informs us about the cationic electronic states. These values can then be compared to theoretical models and calculations and in turn, explain

  4. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  5. Mass transfer effects on the unsteady mhd radiative- convective flow of a micropolar fluid past a vertical porous plate with variable heat and mass fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Gnaneswara

    2013-03-01

    The problem of unsteady two-dimensional laminar flow of a viscous incompressible micropolar fluid past a vertical porous plate in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and thermal radiation with variable heat and mass fluxes is considered. The free stream velocity is subjected to exponentially increasing or decreasing small perturbations. A uniform magnetic field acts perpendicularly to a porous surface where a micropolar fluid is absorbed with a suction velocity varying with time. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe radiative heat transfer in the limit of optically thick fluids. The effects of the flow parameters and thermophysical properties on the velocity and temperature fields across the boundary layer are investigated. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, microrotation velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are given graphically, and the values of the skin friction and couple stress coefficients are presented.

  6. Development of Radiation-Tolerant, Low Mass, High Bandwidth Flexible Printed Circuit Cables for Particle Detection Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Neil

    2016-03-01

    Design options for meter long flexible printed circuit cables required for low mass ultra-high speed signal transmission in the high radiation environment at the High Luminosity run of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described. Two dielectric materials were considered in this study, Kapton and a Kapton/Teflon mixture. The design geometry is a differential embedded microstrip with nominal 100 Ω impedance. Minimal mass and maximal radiation hardness are pre-eminent considerations. The long flexible printed circuit cables are characterized in bit error rate tests (BERT), attenuation versus frequency, mechanical response to stress and temperature change, and RLC decomposition. These tests are performed before and after irradiation with 1 MeV neutrons to 2x1016/cm 2 and 800 MeV protons to 2x1016 1 MeV-neq/cm2. A 1.0 m Kapton cable, with bandwidth of 6.22 gigabits per second, 0.03% of a radiation length, and no radiation induced mechanical or electrical degradation is obtained.

  7. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  8. LISA-PF radiation monitor performance during the evolution of SEP events for the monitoring of test-mass charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Ao, X.; Fabi, M.; Laurenza, M.; Li, G.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at energies >100 MeV/n charge and induce spurious forces on free-floating test masses on board interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space. LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF), the technology testing mission for eLISA/NGO, will carry radiation monitors for on board test-mass charging monitoring. We present here the results of a simulation of radiation monitor performance during the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events of different intensity. This simulation was carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo package by taking into account for the first time both energy and spatial distributions of solar protons for the SEP events of 23 February 1956, 15 November 1960 and 7 May 1978. Input data for the Monte Carlo simulations was inferred from neutron monitor measurements. Conversely, for the SEP event of 13 December 2006 observed by the PAMELA experiment in space, we used the proton pitch angle distribution (PAD) computed from the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (PATH) code. We plan to adopt this approach at the time of LISA-PF data analysis in order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor observations and test-mass charging. The results of this work can be extended to the future space interferometers and other space missions carrying instruments for SEP detection.

  9. Meteorite falls in China and some related human casualty events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, Kevin; Weissman, Paul; Yeomans, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Statistics of witnessed and recovered meteorite falls found in Chinese historical texts for the period from 700 B.C. to A.D. 1920 are presented. Several notable features can be seen in the binned distribution as a function of time. An apparent decrease in the number of meteorite reports in the 18th century is observed. An excess of observed meteorite falls in the period from 1840 to 1880 seems to correspond to a similar excess in European data. A chi sq probability test suggest that the association between the two data sets are real. Records of human casualities and structural damage resulting from meteorite falls are also given. A calculation based on the number of casualty events in the Chinese meteorite records suggests that the probability of a meteroite striking a human is far greater than previous estimates. However, it is difficult to verify the accuracy of the reported casualty events.

  10. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  11. Exercise London: a disaster exercise involving numerous casualties

    PubMed Central

    Theoret, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A large-scale disaster exercise was conducted to assess how one large community would handle such a situation — particularly, how it would deal with 150 casualties. The planning, undertaken by a subcommittee composed of representatives of all resource groups in the city, took more than a year. The deficiencies of the disaster plan detected during the exercise, which included a lack of trained personnel and various problems of communication, are now being corrected. PMID:1260617

  12. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  13. Management of Crush Syndrome Casualties after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Vanholder, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    After direct impact of the trauma, crush syndrome is the second most frequent cause of death after mass disasters. However, since crush syndrome is quite rare in daily practice, mistakes are frequent in the treatment of these cases. This paper summarizes the etiopathogenesis of traumatic rhabdomyolysis and of crush syndrome-based acute kidney injury. The clinical and laboratory features, prophylaxis, and treatment of crush cases are described as well. The importance of early and energetic fluid resuscitation is underlined for prophylaxis of acute kidney injury. Since there is chaos, and an overwhelming number of victims, logistic drawbacks create a specific problem in the treatment of crush victims after mass disasters. Potential solutions for logistic hurdles and disaster preparedness scenarios have also been provided in this review article. PMID:23908797

  14. Leadership and a casualty response system for eliminating preventable death.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Russ S; Montgomery, Harold R; Miles, Ethan A; Conklin, Curtis C; Hall, Michael T; McChrystal, Stanley A

    2017-03-22

    Combat casualties who die from their injuries do so primarily in the prehospital setting. Although most of these deaths result from injuries that are non-survivable, some are potentially survivable. Of injuries that are potentially survivable, most are from hemorrhage. Thus, military organizations should direct efforts toward prehospital care, particularly through early hemorrhage control and remote damage control resuscitation, in order to eliminate preventable death on the battlefield. A systems-based approach and priority of effort for institutionalizing such care was developed and maintained by medical personnel and command-directed by non-medical combatant leaders within the 75th Ranger Regiment, U.S. Army Special Operations Command. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the key components of this prehospital casualty response system; emphasize the importance of leadership; underscore the synergy achieved through collaboration between medical and non-medical leaders; and provide an example to other organizations and communities striving to achieve success in trauma as measured through improved casualty survival.

  15. An Automated Method to Quantify Radiation Damage in Human Blood Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon K. Livingston, Mark S. Jenkins and Akio A. Awa

    2006-07-10

    Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes is a well established method to assess the absorbed dose in persons exposed to ionizing radiation. Because mature lymphocytes circulate throughout the body, the dose to these cells is believed to represent the average whole body exposure. Cytogenetic methods measure the incidence of structural aberrations in chromosomes as a means to quantify DNA damage which occurs when ionizing radiation interacts with human tissue. Methods to quantify DNA damage at the chromosomal level vary in complexity and tend to be laborious and time consuming. In a mass casualty scenario involving radiological/nuclear materials, the ability to rapidly triage individuals according to radiation dose is critically important. For high-throughput screening for dicentric chromosomes, many of the data collection steps can be optimized with motorized microscopes coupled to automated slide scanning platforms.

  16. CORTIM Project: Medical Regulation Concept Designed for Forward Field Casualty Management Based on an Information System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    CORTIM, and the quality of casualty handling by the SAMU (the French Mobile Emergency Medical Service) for the RMT concept. We consider that...of crisis situations in the case of CORTIM, and the quality of casualty handling by the SAMU (the French Mobile Emergency Medical Service) for the... SAMU for the RMT concept. We consider that operational casualty management can be enhanced in at least three areas. The first concerns improvements in

  17. Determination of the b-quark Mass and Nonperturbative parameters in Semileptonic and Radiative Penguin Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Tackmann, Kerstin; collaboration, for the BABAR

    2008-01-23

    Knowing the mass of the b-quark is essential to the study of the structure and decays of B mesons as well as to future tests of the Higgs mechanism of mass generation. We present recent preliminary measurements of the b-quark mass and related nonperturbative parameters from moments of kinematic distributions in charmed and charmless semileptonic and radiative penguin B decays. Their determination from charmless semileptonic B decays is the first measurement in this mode. The data were collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center at a center-of-momentum energy of 10:58 GeV.

  18. Radiation Pressure Forces, the Anomalous Acceleration, and Center of Mass Motion for the TOPEX/POSEIDON Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.

  19. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    PubMed

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks.

  20. New mass measurement method of aerosol particle using vibrating probe particle controlled by radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyama, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2005-11-01

    Aerosol particles with sub-micro meter size inhaled into respiratory systems cause serious damage to human body. In order to evaluate the health effects of the particles, classification methods of the particles with size and mass are needed. Several measurement methods of the particle size are established. However, conventional mass measurement methods are not enough to measure the particles with sub- pico gram. We propose a new mass measurement method of the aerosol particles based on laser trapping. In this method, an optically trapped silica particle is used as a measuring probe particle. The probe particle is trapped at a beam waist of the focused laser light and is forced to vibrate by deflecting the beam waist using AOD. The vibrating probe particle has a resonance frequency because it is governed by the spring-mass-damper system. When an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shifts according to the increase of the total mass. The mass of the aerosol particle can be measured from the shift of the resonance frequency. Experimentally, it is confirmed that the probe particle is governed by the spring-mass-damper system and has a resonance frequency. When a silica fine particle of 3pg in mass used as an aerosol particle is attached to the probe particle, the resonance frequency shift occurs as expected in the dynamic system and the fine particle mass can be measured based on the proposed method.

  1. Solar Radiation Pressure Estimation and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of deep space objects is thought to be high area-to-mass ratio (AMR) debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. The typical AMR values have been observed to range anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(sup 2)/kg, and hence, higher than average solar radiation pressure effects result in long-term migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination over time. However, the nature of the debris orientation-dependent dynamics also results time-varying solar radiation forces about the average which complicate the short-term orbit determination processing. The orbit determination results are presented for several of these debris objects, and highlight their unique and varied dynamic attributes. Estimation or the solar pressure dynamics over time scales suitable for resolving the shorter term dynamics improves the orbit estimation, and hence, the orbit predictions needed to conduct follow-up observations.

  2. Radiation exposure from CT-guided ablation of renal masses: effects on life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D; Gervais, Debra A; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Sabir, Sharjeel H; Paul, Aaron B; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to project the effects of radiation exposure on life expectancy (LE) in patients who opt for CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) instead of surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS. We developed a decision-analytic Markov model to compare LE losses attributable to radiation exposure in hypothetical 65-year-old patients who undergo CT-guided RFA versus surgery for small (≤ 4 cm) RCC. We incorporated mortality risks from RCC, radiation-induced cancers (for procedural and follow-up CT scans), and all other causes; institutional data informed the RFA procedural effective dose. Radiation-induced cancer risks were generated using an organ-specific approach. Effects of varying model parameters and of dose-reduction strategies were evaluated in sensitivity analysis. RESULTS. Cumulative RFA exposures (up to 305.2 mSv for one session plus surveillance) exceeded those from surgery (up to 87.2 mSv). In 65-year-old men, excess LE loss from radiation-induced cancers, comparing RFA to surgery, was 11.7 days (14.6 days for RFA vs 2.9 days for surgery). Results varied with sex and age; this difference increased to 14.6 days in 65-year-old women and to 21.5 days in 55-year-old men. Dose-reduction strategies that addressed follow-up rather than procedural exposure had a greater impact. In 65-year-old men, this difference decreased to 3.8 days if post-RFA follow-up scans were restricted to a single phase; even elimination of RFA procedural exposure could not achieve equivalent benefits. CONCLUSION. CT-guided RFA remains a safe alternative to surgery, but with decreasing age, the higher burden of radiation exposure merits explicit consideration. Dose-reduction strategies that target follow-up rather than procedural exposure will have a greater impact.

  3. Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure: A Multiparametric Approach.

    PubMed

    Zeegers, Dimphy; Venkatesan, Shriram; Koh, Shu Wen; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Srivastava, Pallavee; Sundaram, Neisha; Sethu, Swaminathan; Banerjee, Birendranath; Jayapal, Manikandan; Belyakov, Oleg; Baskar, Rajamanickam; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Hande, M Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells. During potential scenarios of a large-scale radiological event which results in mass casualties, dose estimates are essential to assign medical attention according to individual needs. Many attempts have been made to identify biomarkers which can be used for high throughput biodosimetry screening. In this study, we compare the results of different biodosimetry methods on the same irradiated cells to assess the suitability of current biomarkers and push forward the idea of employing a multiparametric approach to achieve an accurate dose and risk estimation.

  4. Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure: A Multiparametric Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zeegers, Dimphy; Venkatesan, Shriram; Koh, Shu Wen; Low, Grace Kah Mun; Srivastava, Pallavee; Sundaram, Neisha; Sethu, Swaminathan; Banerjee, Birendranath; Jayapal, Manikandan; Belyakov, Oleg; Baskar, Rajamanickam; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Hande, M. Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation not only through background radiation but also through the ubiquitous presence of devices and sources that generate radiation. With the expanded use of radiation in day-to-day life, the chances of accidents or misuse only increase. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the dynamic effects of radiation exposure on biological entities is necessary. The biological effects of radiation exposure on human cells depend on much variability such as level of exposure, dose rate, and the physiological state of the cells. During potential scenarios of a large-scale radiological event which results in mass casualties, dose estimates are essential to assign medical attention according to individual needs. Many attempts have been made to identify biomarkers which can be used for high throughput biodosimetry screening. In this study, we compare the results of different biodosimetry methods on the same irradiated cells to assess the suitability of current biomarkers and push forward the idea of employing a multiparametric approach to achieve an accurate dose and risk estimation. PMID:28250913

  5. The ultraviolet radiation environment in the habitable zones around low-mass exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Parke Loyd, R. O.

    2014-11-01

    The EUV (200-911 Å), FUV (912-1750 Å), and NUV (1750-3200 Å) spectral energy distribution of exoplanet host stars has a profound influence on the atmospheres of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. The stellar EUV radiation drives atmospheric heating, while the FUV (in particular, Ly α) and NUV radiation fields regulate the atmospheric chemistry: the dissociation of H2O and CO2, the production of O2 and O3, and may determine the ultimate habitability of these worlds. Despite the importance of this information for atmospheric modeling of exoplanetary systems, the EUV/FUV/NUV radiation fields of cool (K and M dwarf) exoplanet host stars are almost completely unconstrained by observation or theory. We present observational results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of M dwarf exoplanet host stars, highlighting the importance of realistic UV radiation fields for the formation of potential biomarker molecules, O2 and O3. We conclude by describing preliminary results on the characterization of the UV time variability of these sources.

  6. Fermion masses and neutrino mixing in an U(1){sub H} flavor symmetry model with hierarchical radiative generation for light charged fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Galeana, Albino

    2007-11-01

    I report the analysis performed on fermion masses and mixing, including neutrino mixing, within the context of a model with hierarchical radiative mass generation mechanism for light charged fermions, mediated by exotic scalar particles at one and two loops, respectively, meanwhile the neutrinos get Majorana mass terms at tree level through the Yukawa couplings with two SU(2){sub L} Higgs triplets. All the resulting mass matrices in the model, for the u, d, and e fermion charged sectors, the neutrinos and the exotic scalar particles, are diagonalized in exact analytical form. Quantitative analysis shows that this model is successful to accommodate the hierarchical spectrum of masses and mixing in the quark sector as well as the charged lepton masses. The lepton mixing matrix, V{sub PMNS}, is written completely in terms of the neutrino masses m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, and m{sub 3}. Large lepton mixing for {theta}{sub 12} and {theta}{sub 23} is predicted in the range of values 0.7 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 12} < or approx. 0.7772 and 0.87 < or approx. sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 23} < or approx. 0.9023 by using 0.033 < or approx. s{sub 13}{sup 2} < or approx. 0.04. These values for lepton mixing are consistent with 3{sigma} allowed ranges provided by recent global analysis of neutrino data oscillation. From {delta}m{sub sol}{sup 2} bounds, neutrino masses are predicted in the range of values m{sub 1}{approx_equal}(1.706-2.494)x10{sup -3} eV, m{sub 2}{approx_equal}(6.675-12.56)x10{sup -3} eV, and m{sub 3}{approx_equal}(1.215-2.188)x10{sup -2} eV, respectively. The above allowed lepton mixing leads to the quark-lepton complementary relations {theta}{sub 12}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 12}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}41.543 deg. -44.066 deg. and {theta}{sub 23}{sup CKM}+{theta}{sub 23}{sup PMNS}{approx_equal}36.835 deg. -38.295 deg. The new exotic scalar particles induce flavor changing neutral currents and contribute to lepton flavor violating processes such as E{yields}e{sub 1}e

  7. Application of novel hyperspectral imaging technologies in combat casualty care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancio, Leopoldo C.

    2010-02-01

    Novel hyperspectral imaging (HSI) methods may play several important roles in Combat Casualty Care: (1) HSI of the skin may provide spatial data on hemoglobin saturation of oxygen, as a "window" into perfusion during shock. (2) HSI or similar technology could be incorporated into closed-loop, feedback-controlled resuscitation systems. (3) HSI may provide information about tissue viability and/or wound infection. (4) HSI in the near-infrared range may provide information on the tissue water content--greatly affected, e.g., by fluid resuscitation. Thus, further refinements in the speed and size of HSI systems are sought to make these capabilities available on the battlefield.

  8. Forensic dental identification of casualties during Operation Desert Storm.

    PubMed

    Kessler, H P; Pemble, C W

    1993-06-01

    Forensic dental identification of casualties during Operation Desert Storm was performed at the Dover Port Mortuary, Dover Air Force Base, under the auspices of the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner. A total of 251 dental identifications were attempted and 244 individuals were positively identified by dental comparison. The panoramic radiographs on file at the Central Panograph Storage Facility were the primary antemortem records utilized in establishing the dental identification. The inability to establish a positive dental identification was most often the result of a lack of available antemortem dental records.

  9. 33 CFR 150.825 - Reporting a diving-related casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting a diving-related casualty. 150.825 Section 150.825 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Reporting a diving-related casualty. Deaths and injuries related to diving within the safety zone of...

  10. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  11. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  12. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  14. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  16. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  17. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  18. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  19. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  20. Casualties from guided missile impact in warships from another point of view.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, C F

    1991-06-01

    From Kamikaze to Exocet, by learning from history a tool for casualty calculation in modern naval warfare is available, indicating absolute casualty figures per SS guided missile hit. The figures 35 wounded and 30 killed per hit ought to be used.

  1. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, the reporting authority receiving the report must forward a paper or electronic copy...

  2. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, the reporting authority receiving the report must forward a paper or electronic copy...

  3. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, each State that has an approved numbering system must forward a copy of that report to...

  4. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, each State that has an approved numbering system must forward a copy of that report to...

  5. 33 CFR 174.121 - Forwarding of casualty or accident reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accident reports. 174.121 Section 174.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... § 174.121 Forwarding of casualty or accident reports. Within 30 days of the receipt of a casualty or accident report, the reporting authority receiving the report must forward a paper or electronic copy...

  6. 46 CFR 196.07-1 - Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records. 196.07-1 Section 196.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Notice and Reporting of Casualty and Voyage Records § 196.07-1 Notice...

  7. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  8. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  9. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  10. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  11. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  12. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671 South... long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies...

  13. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in 46... if the vessel departs the navigable waters of the United States within 30 days after the...

  14. 33 CFR 164.61 - Marine casualty reporting and record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.61 Marine casualty reporting and record retention. When a vessel is involved in a marine casualty as defined in 46... if the vessel departs the navigable waters of the United States within 30 days after the...

  15. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  16. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  17. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  18. 33 CFR 173.81 - Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. 173.81 Section 173.81 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Issue of Certificate of Number § 173.81 Coast Guard forms for numbering and casualty reporting. (a) In...

  19. 46 CFR 4.40-25 - Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coast Guard marine casualty investigation for the Board. 4.40-25 Section 4.40-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Coast Guard-National Transportation Safety...

  20. Absolute parameter determination in low-mass eclipsing binaries - Radiative parameters for BH Vir, ZZ UMA and CR CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, R.; Reglero, V.; Garcia, M.; Fabregat, J.; Bravo, A.; Suso, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new uvby and H-beta monitoring program of low mass eclipsing binaries is currently being carried out in the framework of a 5-yr observational program which also involves radial velocity determinations. The scope of this work is to provide very accurate absolute astrophysical parameters: mass, radius, and effective temperatures, for main-sequence late-type stars. One of the main goals is to improve the mass-luminosity relation in the low and intermediate mass range. A second objective is to perform accurate tests of the most recent grids of evolutionary models. This program is complementary to that currently being implemented by the Copenhagen group. In this contribution we present the photometric preliminary results obtained for three of the systems included in our long-term survey: BH Vir, ZZ UMa, and CR Cas for which primary eclipses have been observed. Particular attention is paid to the determination of reddening, distances, and radiative properties. A more detailed study will be carried out when the light curves and radial velocity measurements are completed.

  1. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  2. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  3. RADIATION-HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE FORMATION OF ORION-LIKE STAR CLUSTERS. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FROM WINDS, TURBULENCE, AND RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.

    2012-07-20

    We report a series of simulations of the formation of a star cluster similar to the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), including both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows, and starting from both smooth and self-consistently turbulent initial conditions. Each simulation forms >150 stars and brown dwarfs, yielding a stellar mass distribution that ranges from <0.1 M{sub Sun} to >10 M{sub Sun }. We show that a simulation that begins with self-consistently turbulent density and velocity fields embedded in a larger turbulent volume, and that includes protostellar outflows, produces an initial mass function (IMF) that is consistent both with that of the ONC and the Galactic field, at least within the statistical power provided by the number of stars formed in our simulations. This is the first simulation published to date that reproduces the observed IMF in a cluster large enough to contain massive stars, and where the peak of the mass function is determined by a fully self-consistent calculation of gas thermodynamics rather than a hand-imposed equation of state. This simulation also produces a star formation rate that, while still somewhat too high, is much closer to observed values than if we omit either the larger turbulent volume or the outflows. Moreover, we show that the combination of outflows, self-consistently turbulent initial conditions, and turbulence continually fed by motions on scales larger than that of the protocluster yields an IMF that is in agreement with observations and invariant with time, resolving the 'overheating' problem in which simulations without these features have an IMF peak that shifts to progressively higher masses over time as more and more of the gas is heated, inconsistent with the observed invariance of the IMF. The simulation that matches the observed IMF also qualitatively reproduces the observed trend of stellar multiplicity strongly increasing with mass. We show that this simulation produces massive stars from distinct massive

  4. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Sotani, Hajime; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    The lowest neutron star masses currently measured are in the range 1.0-1.1 M⊙, but these measurement have either large uncertainties or refer to isolated neutron stars. The recent claim of a precisely measured mass M/M⊙ = 1.174 ± 0.004 (Martinez et al. 2015) in a double neutron star system suggests that low-mass neutron stars may be an interesting target for gravitational-wave detectors. Furthermore, Sotani et al. recently found empirical formulas relating the mass and surface redshift of non-rotating neutron stars to the star's central density and to the parameter η ≡ (K0L2)1/3, where K0 is the incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and L is the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation density. Motivated by these considerations, we extend the work by Sotani et al. to slowly rotating and tidally deformed neutron stars. We compute the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, quadrupole ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love number and apsidal constant of slowly rotating neutron stars by integrating the Hartle-Thorne equations at second order in rotation, and we fit all of these quantities as functions of η and of the central density. These fits may be used to constrain η, either via observations of binary pulsars in the electromagnetic spectrum, or via near-future observations of inspiralling compact binaries in the gravitational-wave spectrum.

  5. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE MODELS: AVOIDING CATASTROPHIC INFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan E-mail: mordecai@amnh.or

    2010-06-01

    Outward migration of low-mass planets has recently been shown to be a possibility in non-barotropic disks. We examine the consequences of this result in evolutionary models of protoplanetary disks. Planet migration occurs toward equilibrium radii with zero torque. These radii themselves migrate inwards because of viscous accretion and photoevaporation. We show that as the surface density and temperature fall the planet orbital migration and disk depletion timescales eventually become comparable, with the precise timing depending on the mass of the planet. When this occurs, the planet decouples from the equilibrium radius. At this time, however, the gas surface density is already too low to drive substantial further migration. A higher mass planet, of 10 M {sub +}, can open a gap during the late evolution of the disk, and stops migrating. Low-mass planets, with 1 or 0.1 M {sub +}, released beyond 1 AU in our models avoid migrating into the star. Our results provide support for the reduced migration rates adopted in recent planet population synthesis models.

  6. An Evaluation of Mass Integral Scaling as Applied to the Atmospheric Radiation Transport Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Air/GroundInterface Effects o.i Fast- Neutron Distributions ." Nucl. Sci. Enq.,19: 151-157 (1964). 15. Zerby, C. D. Radiation Flux Transformation as a...31, 37/21 coupled neutron and gamma, multigroup energy structure (Ref. 20) shown in Table II, the silicon and tissue response functions shown in...Monte Ca.blo Calculation. KN-774-69-1. Colorado Sprinas, CO: Kaman Sciences Corp., January )969. 8. Raso, D. J. " Neutron Energy Flux in an Exponential

  7. Probing radiative neutrino mass models using trilepton channel at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherigui, Dounia; Guella, Chahrazed; Ahriche, Amine; Nasri, Salah

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we probe a class of neutrino mass models through the lepton flavor violating interactions of a singlet charged scalar, S± at the LHC proton-proton collisions with 8 TeV and 14 TeV energies. This scalar couples to the leptons and induces many processes such as pp →ℓ±ℓ±ℓ∓ +E̸T. In our analysis we discuss the opposite sign same flavor leptons signal, as well as the background free channel with the tau contribution which can enhance the signal/background ratio for center of mass energies √{ s} = 8 TeV and √{ s} = 14 TeV.

  8. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF INTERACTING LOW-MASS PLANETS IN EVOLUTIONARY RADIATIVE TURBULENT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Brandon; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Lyra, Wladimir; Sandor, Zsolt E-mail: wlyra@amnh.org E-mail: zsolt.sandor@uibk.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    The torques exerted by a locally isothermal disk on an embedded planet lead to rapid inward migration. Recent work has shown that modeling the thermodynamics without the assumption of local isothermality reveals regions where the net torque on an embedded planet is positive, leading to outward migration of the planet. When a region with negative torque lies directly exterior to this, planets in the inner region migrate outward and planets in the outer region migrate inward, converging where the torque is zero. We incorporate the torques from an evolving non-isothermal disk into an N-body simulation to examine the behavior of planets or planetary embryos interacting in the convergence zone. We find that mutual interactions do not eject objects from the convergence zone. Small numbers of objects in a laminar disk settle into near resonant orbits that remain stable over the 10 Myr periods that we examine. However, either or both increasing the number of planets or including a correlated, stochastic force to represent turbulence drives orbit crossings and mergers in the convergence zone. These processes can build gas giant cores with masses of order 10 Earth masses from sub-Earth mass embryos in 2-3 Myr.

  9. Mass-energy radiative transfer and momentum extraction by gravitational wave emission in the collision of two black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    We examine numerically the head-on collision of two boosted Schwarzschild black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed and the Robinson-Trautman equation is integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The initial data already have a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger regime up to the final configuration, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. In the nonlinear regime gravitational waves are emitted, extracting mass and linear momentum from the system. The final configuration is a boosted Schwarzschild black hole with rest mass larger than the masses of the two individual initial black holes, and with a smaller final boost parameter characterizing the recoil velocity of the remnant. The efficiency Δ of the mass-energy extraction by gravitational waves is evaluated. The points (Δ,y), where y is the (normalized) rest mass of the remnant black hole, satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution with entropic index q≃1/2 for y≲12. Beyond ỹ12 the experimental points deviate from the distribution function and the efficiency presents an absolute maximum for the case of equally massive individual colliding black holes; the remnant has no recoil in this case. By using the Bondi mass formula we also evaluate the total energy EW carried out by gravitational waves as well as the radiative corrections to the efficiency. EW increases monotonically with y and the experimental points (EW,y) also satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution but with q≃2/3, up to ỹ14.2. Beyond this value the experimental points increase faster than the distribution function. For any initial infalling velocity v, the distribution of momentum of the remnant exhibits a maximum at α1=αm≃0.667, where α1 is related to the ratio of pre-merger rest masses, and has a one-to-one correspondence with y for fixed v. Two distinct regimes of

  10. Mass-energy radiative transfer and momentum extraction by gravitational wave emission in the collision of two black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2010-05-15

    We examine numerically the head-on collision of two boosted Schwarzschild black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed and the Robinson-Trautman equation is integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The initial data already have a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger regime up to the final configuration, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. In the nonlinear regime gravitational waves are emitted, extracting mass and linear momentum from the system. The final configuration is a boosted Schwarzschild black hole with rest mass larger than the masses of the two individual initial black holes, and with a smaller final boost parameter characterizing the recoil velocity of the remnant. The efficiency {Delta} of the mass-energy extraction by gravitational waves is evaluated. The points ({Delta},y), where y is the (normalized) rest mass of the remnant black hole, satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution with entropic index q{approx_equal}1/2 for y < or approx. 12. Beyond y{approx}12 the experimental points deviate from the distribution function and the efficiency presents an absolute maximum for the case of equally massive individual colliding black holes; the remnant has no recoil in this case. By using the Bondi mass formula we also evaluate the total energy E{sub W} carried out by gravitational waves as well as the radiative corrections to the efficiency. E{sub W} increases monotonically with y and the experimental points (E{sub W},y) also satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution but with q{approx_equal}2/3, up to y{approx}14.2. Beyond this value the experimental points increase faster than the distribution function. For any initial infalling velocity v, the distribution of momentum of the remnant exhibits a maximum at {alpha}{sub 1}={alpha}{sub m{approx_equal}}0.667, where {alpha}{sub 1} is related to the ratio of

  11. Triage decisions of prehospital emergency health care providers, using a multiple casualty scenario paper exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, T

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A standardised 20 casualty paper exercise requiring each casualty to be prioritised for treatment was given to 100 doctors, 59 nurses, and 74 ambulance paramedics who could potentially be involved at the scene of a multiple casualty incident. Each paper was scored using the triage sieve algorithm. The paper contained descriptions of two casualties regarded as dead, six priority 1 casualties, six priority 2 casualties, and six priority 3 casualties. Results: There was no significant difference in the scores received by both doctors and nurses, but paramedics did significantly less well than both nurses and doctors (p<0.05) However, the actual difference in mean scores is only just over 1; both doctors and nurses had a mean score of 13.03 and paramedics a mean score of 11.83. All professional groups tended to over triage patients. While there was no significant difference between doctors and nurses there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between paramedics and both doctors and nurses. Conclusions: There is little difference in the accuracy of triage decision making between the professional groups, with doctors and nurses scoring marginally better than paramedics. The rates of over triage are high posing the risk of overwhelming available resources further. Under triage rates are also high, with potentially life threatening conditions going unrecognised. However, some margin of error may be accounted for by the untested validity of the triage sieve methodology. PMID:12101157

  12. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; Del Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Koga, D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  13. Pharmacological countermeasures for the acute radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mang; Whitnall, Mark H

    2009-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is defined as the signs and symptoms that occur within several months after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This syndrome develops after total- or partial-body irradiation at a relatively high dose (above about 1 Gy in humans) and dose rate. Normal tissue injuries induced by IR differ depending on the target organ and cell type. Organs and cells with high sensitivity to radiation include the skin, the hematopoietic system, the gut, the spermatogenic cells and the vascular system. Exposure to IR causes damage to DNA, protein, and lipids in mammalian cells, as well as increased mitochondria-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with subsequent cell cycle checkpoint arrest, apoptosis, and stress-related responses. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are a primary lethal lesion induced by IR. The cellular response to damage is complex and relies on simultaneous activation of a number of signaling networks. Among these, the activation of DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), and signaling pathways containing ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), play important roles. The transcription factor NFkappaB has emerged as a pro-survival actor in response to IR in ATM and p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD) cascades. Although radiation-induced ARS has been well documented at the clinical level, and mechanistic information is accumulating, successful prophylaxis and treatment for ARS is problematic, even with the use of supportive care and growth factors. There is a pressing need to develop radiation countermeasures that can be used both in the clinic, for small-scale incidents, and outside the clinic, in mass casualty scenarios. In this review we summarize recent information on intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways relevant to radiation countermeasure research.

  14. Pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in a South African municipality.

    PubMed

    Olukoga, I A

    2003-12-01

    A study of the pedestrian casualties and fatalities in road traffic crashes in Durban, a South African municipality, for 1999 was undertaken using official road traffic accident data. The pedestrians age 25 to 44, although only 23.9% of the population, were 39.3% of the casualties and 48.2% of the fatalities. The most vulnerable pedestrians were those 30 to 34 years old who were 6.1% of the population, 11.7% of the casualties, and 14.6% of the fatalities; 35- to 39-year-olds who were 6% of the population, 8.8% of the casualties, and 13.5% of the fatalities; and the 40- to 44-year-olds who were 4.9% of the population, 7.5% of the casualties, and 10.2% of the fatalities. Cars were involved in 52% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes but had fewer crashes than minibuses and buses, and fewer casualties and fatalities than minibuses, buses, and motorcycles. Minibuses recorded the most crashes at 1,037 per 100 million km, the highest casualty rate of 268 per 100 million km, and highest fatality rate of 17 per 100 million km. Buses, which were involved in 3% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes, had 951 crashes per 100 million km, 182 casualties per 100 million km, and 11 fatalities per 100 million km. Motorcycles were involved in 1% of the vehicle-pedestrian crashes and had per 100 million km 508 crashes, 192 casualties, and 7 fatalities. There was no statistically significant difference in the monthly distribution of the road traffic crashes.

  15. Estimating shaking-induced casualties and building damage for global earthquake events: a proposed modelling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    So, Emily; Spence, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Recent earthquakes such as the Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 and the Qinghai earthquake on 14 April 2010 have highlighted the importance of rapid estimation of casualties after the event for humanitarian response. Both of these events resulted in surprisingly high death tolls, casualties and survivors made homeless. In the Mw = 7.0 Haiti earthquake, over 200,000 people perished with more than 300,000 reported injuries and 2 million made homeless. The Mw = 6.9 earthquake in Qinghai resulted in over 2,000 deaths with a further 11,000 people with serious or moderate injuries and 100,000 people have been left homeless in this mountainous region of China. In such events relief efforts can be significantly benefitted by the availability of rapid estimation and mapping of expected casualties. This paper contributes to ongoing global efforts to estimate probable earthquake casualties very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The analysis uses the assembled empirical damage and casualty data in the Cambridge Earthquake Impacts Database (CEQID) and explores data by event and across events to test the relationships of building and fatality distributions to the main explanatory variables of building type, building damage level and earthquake intensity. The prototype global casualty estimation model described here uses a semi-empirical approach that estimates damage rates for different classes of buildings present in the local building stock, and then relates fatality rates to the damage rates of each class of buildings. This approach accounts for the effect of the very different types of buildings (by climatic zone, urban or rural location, culture, income level etc), on casualties. The resulting casualty parameters were tested against the overall casualty data from several historical earthquakes in CEQID; a reasonable fit was found.

  16. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30 Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8 Gy, 10-14 Gy, and 16-30 Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). We successfully developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis.

  17. A CAD Approach to Developing Mass Distribution and Composition Models for Spaceflight Radiation Risk Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapp, E.; Shelfer, T.; Semones, E.; Johnson, A.; Weyland, M.; Golightly, M.; Smith, G.; Dardano, C.

    For roughly the past three decades, combinatorial geometries have been the predominant mode for the development of mass distribution models associated with the estimation of radiological risk for manned space flight. Examples of these are the MEVDP (Modified Elemental Volume Dose Program) vehicle representation of Liley and Hamilton, and the quadratic functional representation of the CAM/CAF (Computerized Anatomical Male/Female) human body models as modified by Billings and Yucker. These geometries, have the advantageous characteristics of being simple for a familiarized user to maintain, and because of the relative lack of any operating system or run-time library dependence, they are also easy to transfer from one computing platform to another. Unfortunately they are also limited in the amount of modeling detail possible, owing to the abstract geometric representation. In addition, combinatorial representations are also known to be error-prone in practice, since there is no convenient method for error identification (i.e. overlap, etc.), and extensive calculation and/or manual comparison may is often necessary to demonstrate that the geometry is adequately represented. We present an alternate approach linking materials -specific, CAD-based mass models directly to geometric analysis tools requiring no approximation with respect to materials , nor any meshing (i.e. tessellation) of the representative geometry. A new approach to ray tracing is presented which makes use of the fundamentals of the CAD representation to perform geometric analysis directly on the NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational BSpline) surfaces themselves. In this way we achieve a framework for- the rapid, precise development and analysis of materials-specific mass distribution models.

  18. Impact of semi-annihilation of ℤ{sub 3} symmetric dark matter with radiative neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Mayumi; Toma, Takashi

    2014-09-08

    We investigate a ℤ{sub 3} symmetric model with two-loop radiative neutrino masses. Dark matter in the model is either a Dirac fermion or a complex scalar as a result of an unbroken ℤ{sub 3} symmetry. In addition to standard annihilation processes, semi-annihilation of the dark matter contributes to the relic density. We study the effect of the semi-annihilation in the model and find that those contributions are important to obtain the observed relic density. The experimental signatures in dark matter searches are also discussed, where some of them are expected to be different from the signatures of dark matter in ℤ{sub 2} symmetric models.

  19. Testable radiative neutrino mass model without additional symmetries and explanation for the b →s ℓ+ℓ- anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We propose a one-loop radiative Majorana-type neutrino-mass matrix without any kind of additional symmetries by introducing two leptoquark-like bosons only. In this scenario, we show that the anomaly appearing in the process b →s ℓℓ ¯ can be explained without any conflicts against various constraints such as lepton-flavor violations, flavor-changing neutral currents, oblique parameters Δ S , Δ T , and the Drell-Yan process. We make the predictions for the flavor-violating lepton-pair production (e μ , e τ , and μ τ ) at the LHC, as well as the cross sections for pair production of these leptoquark-like bosons.

  20. Testable two-loop radiative neutrino mass model based on an LLQd c Qd c effective operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Paul W.; Cai, Yi; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Schmidt, Michael A.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2013-10-01

    A new two-loop radiative Majorana neutrino mass model is constructed from the gauge-invariant effective operator L i L j Q k d c Q l d c ɛ ik ɛ jl that violates lepton number conservation by two units. The ultraviolet completion features two scalar leptoquark flavors and a color-octet Majorana fermion. We show that there exists a region of parameter space where the neutrino oscillation data can be fitted while simultaneously meeting flavor-violation and collider bounds. The model is testable through lepton flavor-violating processes such as μ → eγ, μ → eee, and μN → eN conversion, as well as collider searches for the scalar leptoquarks and color-octet fermion. We computed and compiled a list of necessary Passarino-Veltman integrals up to boxes in the approximation of vanishing external momenta and made them available as a Mathematica package, denoted as ANT.

  1. Left atrial mass 16 years after radiation therapy for mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ensing, G.J.; Driscoll, D.J.; Smithson, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Tumors involving the heart during childhood are rare. However, neuroblastoma, a common pediatric malignancy, has been described to involve the cardiovascular system in 3%-12% of patients dying with this tumor. Rarely is such involvement diagnosed ante mortem and never, to our knowledge, has a benign cardiac tumor been reported to present in childhood after successful eradication of neuroblastoma. We describe the identification and surgical resection of a nodular, hypertrophied, calcified, pedunculated left atrial mass in a 16-year-old boy who was complaining of exercise-associated presyncope and headaches 16 years after irradiation and chemotherapy for mediastinal neuroblastoma.

  2. Connecting the dots: a correlation between ionizing radiation and cloud mass-loss rate traced by optical integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. F.; Gritschneder, M.; Dale, J. E.; Ginsburg, A.; Klaassen, P. D.; Mottram, J. C.; Preibisch, T.; Ramsay, S.; Reiter, M.; Testi, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of the effect of feedback from O- and B-type stars with data from the integral field spectrograph Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) mounted on the Very Large Telescope of pillar-like structures in the Carina Nebular Complex, one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Galaxy. For the observed pillars, we compute gas electron densities and temperatures maps, produce integrated line and velocity maps of the ionized gas, study the ionization fronts at the pillar tips, analyse the properties of the single regions, and detect two ionized jets originating from two distinct pillar tips. For each pillar tip, we determine the incident ionizing photon flux Q0, pil originating from the nearby massive O- and B-type stars and compute the mass-loss rate dot{M} of the pillar tips due to photoevaporation caused by the incident ionizing radiation. We combine the results of the Carina data set with archival MUSE data of a pillar in NGC 3603 and with previously published MUSE data of the Pillars of Creation in M16, and with a total of 10 analysed pillars, find tight correlations between the ionizing photon flux and the electron density, the electron density and the distance from the ionizing sources, and the ionizing photon flux and the mass-loss rate. The combined MUSE data sets of pillars in regions with different physical conditions and stellar content therefore yield an empirical quantification of the feedback effects of ionizing radiation. In agreement with models, we find that dot{M}∝ Q_0,pil^{1/2}.

  3. Care of the Burn Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.

    PubMed

    Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C

    2015-01-01

    Burns are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some burn injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for burn casualties. Stopping the burning process, total burn surface area (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill burn casualty.

  4. Treatment of acute abscesses in the casualty department.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, M H; Curran, F; Johnson, R A; Oates, J; Givel, J C; Chabloz, R; ALexander-Williams, J

    1982-01-01

    In the treatment of acute pyogenic soft-tissue abscess incision, curettage, and primary suture was compared with incision and drainage alone in a randomised prospective trial. Operations were performed under antibiotic cover by casualty officers, and patients were reviewed by an independent observer in a septic dressing clinic. Altogether 114 patients were studied, of whom 54 were treated by curettage and primary suture and 60 by simple drainage. The mean healing time was 8.9 days in those treated by primary suture and 7.8 days in those treated by simple drainage (p less than 0.05). Primary healing failed to occur in 19 (35%) of the sutured wounds, but there were no other complications in either group. It is concluded that incision and drainage alone is adequate treatment for acute soft-tissue abscess. PMID:6805714

  5. Leadership lessons learned in tactical combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Butler, Frank K

    2017-03-22

    The US Military has achieved remarkable success in improving survival for our nation's combat wounded throughout the 14 years of conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan. For the prehospital phase of care, where most combat fatalities occur, these advances have been embodied in Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC.) TCCC is a set of evidence-based, best-practice, prehospital trauma care guidelines that are customized for use on the battlefield. The TCCC Guidelines have been updated on an ongoing basis over the last 15 years through the work of the Committee on TCCC and the TCCC Working Group. The process of developing improvements in battlefield trauma care and advocating for them to be implemented throughout the US Military was lengthy, challenging, and evolutionary. This paper describes the major leadership lessons learned in the TCCC effort during the 20 years from its inception to the present.

  6. Volleyball injuries presenting in casualty: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Solgård, L; Nielsen, A B; Møller-Madsen, B; Jacobsen, B W; Yde, J; Jensen, J

    1995-01-01

    During 1986, all sports injuries (n = 5222) were prospectively recorded at the two casualty departments in Arhus, Denmark. Volleyball injuries (n = 278) accounted for 5.3% of all sports injuries. An evaluation of the rehabilitation period and the consequences of the injuries was undertaken by questionnaire three years after the injury. The injury incidence was 1.9 injuries/1000 inhabitants/year. Hand, finger, and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries. Female players had significantly more hand/finger injuries than male players, who incurred more ankle/foot injuries. Knee (6%) and ankle injuries (31%) were responsible for the longest duration of absence from sports participation. There were relatively few chronic injuries. The study suggests the need to enhance prophylactic measures with regard to blocking and overhand pass techniques, in order to reduce the number and extent of ankle and hand/finger injuries. PMID:8800857

  7. Radiative feedback by low-mass stars in the first generation

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel James; Hueckstaedt, Robert; Mcconkie, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The survival of cosmological minihalos in both ionizing and Lyman-Werner (LW) UV fields from nearby and distant sources has attracted recent attention for its role in regulating the rise of stellar populations at high red-shifts. Numerical models suggest that the first stars form in isolation in small dark matter halos of {approx} 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z {approx} 20-30 and that they are very massive, 25-500 M{sub {circle_dot}}. These stars form large H II regions 2.5-5 kpc in radius capable of engulfing nearby halos. With the rise of Population III stars throughout the cosmos also comes a global LW background that sterilizes mini-halos of H{sub 2}, delaying or preventing new star formation in them. At high redshifts, ionizaing radiation is therefore relatively local while LW photons can originate from many megaparsects away because their energies lie below the ionization limit of H.

  8. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175-275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135-175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  9. Energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic radiation in the region above the knee from the GAMMA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martirosov, Romen

    The energy spectrum of the primary cosmic radiation in the energy range 1 - 100 PeV and the extensive air shower (EAS) characteristics obtained on the basis of the expanded data bank of the GAMMA experiment (Mt. Aragats, Armenia) are presented. With increased statistics we confirm our previous results on the energy spectrum. The spectral index above the knee is about -3.1, but at energies beyond 20 PeV a flattening of the spectrum is observed. The existence of the 'bump' at about 70 PeV is confirmed with a significance of more than 4{\\sigma}. In the energy range of 10 - 100 PeV the shower age becomes energy independent and we observe a direct proportionality of the EAS size to the primary energy. This suggests an approximately constant depth of the EAS maximum in this energy range. This is evidence in favour of an increasing average mass of primary particles at energies above 20 PeV. The additional source scenario, which is a possible explanation of the 'bump' in the spectrum, also leads to the conclusion of increasing mass of the primary cosmic rays. A comparison with the data of other experiments is presented.

  10. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; Belloche, A.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Güsten, R.; van Kempen, T. A.; Leurini, S.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Risacher, C.; van der Marel, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.

    2015-04-01

    Context. During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Both processes reflect the accretion onto the forming star and affect subsequent collapse or fragmentation of the cloud. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources in a consistent manner. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Methods: Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (12CO and 13CO 6-5; Eup ~ 100 K), and the HARP-B instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (12CO and 13CO 3-2; Eup ~ 30 K). The maps have high spatial resolution, particularly the CO 6-5 maps taken with a 9″ beam, resolving the morphology of the outflows. The maps are used to determine outflow parameters and the results are compared with higher-J CO lines obtained with Herschel. Envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. Results: All sources in our sample show outflow activity, with the spatial extent decreasing from the Class 0 to the Class I stage. Consistent with previous studies, the outflow force, FCO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater distances than the power-law envelope and therefore influences the surrounding cloud material directly. Comparison of the CO 6-5 results with HIFI H2O and PACS high-J CO lines, both tracing currently shocked gas, shows that the two components are linked, even though the transitions do not probe the same gas. The link does not extend down to CO 3-2. The conclusion is that CO 6-5 depends on the shock

  11. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M ⊙—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  12. Marine casualty and pollution database (raw data only) (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Marine Casualty and Pollution Database provides details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Officer. The database is an invaluable source of information to understand particulars and circumstances of marine accidents and pollution incidents. The CD-ROM contains forty data tables derived from marine casualty and pollution investigations conducted by investigators at US Coast Guard Marine Safety Offices throughout the United States. The data collection period began in 1973 and is ongoing. Also included on the CD-ROM are vessel and facility tables with specific information on vessel and facility constitution and operating details. The Coast Guard maintains a comprehensive database on approximately 460,000 US and foreign vessels and 32,000 facilities. Entity and attribute descriptions and suggested solutions to general marine pollution, vessel casualty, and personnel injury and death questions are outlined in the documentation.

  13. 75 FR 38188 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury. ACTION:...

  14. USAMRMC TATRC Combat Casualty Care and Combat Service Support Robotics Research and Technology Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Evacuation & Treatment Vehicles (MTV) Tactical Amphibious Ground System (TAGS) TATRC Irobot Bloodhound & Valkyrie Packbots TATRC Irobot Bloodhound... Valkyrie Packbots Refocused Irobot Packbot research effort toward CBR detection, soldier monitoring, & casualty location functions. TATRC

  15. Projections of Battlefield Medical Casualties Among U. S. Marine Forces for Various Theaters of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    while climatic conditions encompass temperature, precipitation, and cloud cover. Dupuy has calculated the impact of various terrains and climates upon...to a flat, bare, hard terrain Dupuy assigns a lesser "casualty impact " factor to the rugged terrain. Similarly, because inclement weather would reduce...when compared to a dry, temperate climate. The projected terrain and climate impacts on casualty sustainment used by Dupuy are shown in Appendix E. The

  16. DoD CPB-ECMO Initiative - A Suspended Animation Front Lines Casualty Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    DOD CPB- ECMO INITIATIVE – A SUSPENDED ANIMATION FRONT LINES CASUALTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Fernando Casas*1, Andrew Reeves1, David Dudzinski1...adjacent main blood vessels. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( ECMO ) uses similar equipment, with the primary goal of temporary pulmonary support by...low cost CPB/ ECMO components to treat front lines emergency trauma casualties. By cooling the patient to a low temperature of about 10°C and

  17. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries.

  18. Evaluating the Joint Theater Trauma Registry as a Data Source to Benchmark Casualty Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    in casualties with polytrauma and a moderate blunt TBI. Secondary insults after TBI, especially hypother- mia and hypoxemia, increased the odds of 24...combat casualty care.3 Benchmark ana - lyses can be used to document the effectiveness of the combat care provided but may also reveal gaps in care...increased mortality when hypother- mia accompanies polytrauma in the civilian sector,36–38 our data indicate that combat injured individuals with hypother

  19. Incidence of Pulmonary Embolus in Combat Casualties With Extremity Amputations and Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    hospitalization. Three (20%) of the 15 casualties diagnosed with PE were also diagnosed with a DVT . There was one death from PE in the study cohort (0.38...factors influencing PE incidence in this population. Additionally, when these casualties undergo surgery, DVT prophylaxis is often held...frnding in this current study is the lack of association between deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ) and PE ; only 20% of these injured troops who had docu

  20. Modeling Dynamic Casualty Mortality Curves in the Tactical Medical Logistics (TML+) Planning Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER Modeling Dynamic Casualty Mortality Curves in the Tactical Medical Logistics (TML+) Planning Tool...WASHINGTON , DC 20372-5300 Modeling Dynamic Casualty Mortality Curves in the Tactical Medical Logistics (TML+) Planning Tool Ray Mitchell, Ph.D...Sciences Model to Describe the SME Mortality Estimates …………………………………….. 17 Conclusions and Plans

  1. Defense Health: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Combat Casualty Care Research Achieves Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Department of Health and Human Services JPC -6 Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care MRMC Army Medical Research and...and development.) Note: The JPC -6 includes representatives from each military service (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps) and is chartered...care, which is managed by the Joint Program Committee for Combat Casualty Care ( JPC -6). The JPC -6 includes representatives from the DOD biomedical

  2. Rapid and High-Throughput Detection and Quantitation of Radiation Biomarkers in Human and Nonhuman Primates by Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhidan; Coy, Stephen L.; Pannkuk, Evan L.; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hall, Adam B.; Fornace, Albert J.; Vouros, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Radiation exposure is an important public health issue due to a range of accidental and intentional threats. Prompt and effective large-scale screening and appropriate use of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate radiation injury requires rapid methods for determining the radiation dose. In a number of studies, metabolomics has identified small-molecule biomarkers responding to the radiation dose. Differential mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (DMS-MS) has been used for similar compounds for high-throughput small-molecule detection and quantitation. In this study, we show that DMS-MS can detect and quantify two radiation biomarkers, trimethyl-L-lysine (TML) and hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is a human and nonhuman primate (NHP) radiation biomarker and metabolic intermediate, whereas TML is a radiation biomarker in humans but not in NHP, which is involved in carnitine synthesis. They have been analyzed by DMS-MS from urine samples after a simple strong cation exchange-solid phase extraction (SCX-SPE). The dramatic suppression of background and chemical noise provided by DMS-MS results in an approximately 10-fold reduction in time, including sample pretreatment time, compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). DMS-MS quantitation accuracy has been verified by validation testing for each biomarker. Human samples are not yet available, but for hypoxanthine, selected NHP urine samples (pre- and 7-d-post 10 Gy exposure) were analyzed, resulting in a mean change in concentration essentially identical to that obtained by LC-MS (fold-change 2.76 versus 2.59). These results confirm the potential of DMS-MS for field or clinical first-level rapid screening for radiation exposure.

  3. Development of Empirically Based Time-to-death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Development of Empirically Based Time-to- death Curves for Combat Casualty Deaths In Iraq and Afghanistan Edwin...10.1177/1548512914531353 dms.sagepub.com Development of empirically based time-to- death curves for combat casualty deaths in Iraq and Afghanistan...casualties with life-threatening injuries. The curves developed from that research were based on a small dataset (n = 160, with 26 deaths and 134

  4. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface

  5. Ultrasonography in the evaluation of hemoperitoneum in war casualties.

    PubMed

    Miletić, D; Fuckar, Z; Mraović, B; Dimec, D; Mozetic, V

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the detection of hemoperitoneum among war casualties, and to compare the results of this method in a specific war situation and civil conditions. Ninety-four wounded individuals with suspected blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma were treated at a level I war hospital (group W), and 242 civilians with multiple injuries with suspected blunt abdominal trauma were evaluated at the emergency center of a university hospital (group C). All examinations were performed in less than 5 minutes with a portable ultrasonographic scanner, and typical points were scanned (Morison's pouch, Douglas and perisplenic spaces, paracolic gutter). In group W, hemoperitoneum was identified correctly in 19 patients, with three false-negative and no false-positive findings, whereas group C presented 98 true-positive results, 13 false-negative results, and again no false-positive results. We observed that ultrasonography in specific war conditions showed sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 100%, accuracy as high as 97%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96%, whereas in civil conditions the corresponding values were 88%, 100%, 95%, 100%, and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of emergent ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of hemoperitoneum are approximately equal in war and civil conditions.

  6. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  7. Imaging characteristics of local recurrences after stereotactic body radiation therapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: Evaluation of mass-like fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shinya; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in terms of radiation-induced changes and computed tomography (CT) features of local recurrence by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET). Methods From January 2006 to December 2012, 81 patients with NSCLC received SBRT. Follow-up consisted of non-contrast enhanced CT scans performed before and every four months after SBRT. In addition, 18F-FDG-PET/CT was conducted before SBRT for each patient, and one year later for each case suspected of recurrence. The CT findings were classified into two categories: mass-like fibrosis and others. The mass-like fibrosis category was subdivided into two patterns: mass-like consolidation (with air bronchogram) and mass-like opacity. Results Six patients had histologically confirmed local recurrence, including 83% (5/6) with mass-like opacity pattern and one case of modified conventional pattern (P = 0.02). In contrast, the non-recurrent group exhibited only 7% (5/75) with mass-like opacity and 13% (10/75) with mass-like consolidation pattern. Five patients with local recurrence presented with the mass-like opacity pattern, compared with 33% of patients (5/15) from the non-recurrent group (P = 0.01) and showed an increase in maximum diameter at ≥12 months after SBRT. The recurrent group also had a significantly higher standardized uptake value (SUVmax) than the non-recurrent group (P < 0.001), with all values >5 (range: 5.7–25.4). Conclusion The following characteristics of mass-like fibrosis should be considered indicators of local recurrence after SBRT: opacity pattern, increasing maximum diameter, and SUVmax > 5. PMID:26273357

  8. Epidemiology of child pedestrian casualty rates: can we assume spatial independence?

    PubMed

    Hewson, Paul J

    2005-07-01

    Child pedestrian injuries are often investigated by means of ecological studies, yet are clearly part of a complex spatial phenomena. Spatial dependence within such ecological analyses have rarely been assessed, yet the validity of basic statistical techniques rely on a number of independence assumptions. Recent work from Canada has highlighted the potential for modelling spatial dependence within data that was aggregated in terms of the number of road casualties who were resident in a given geographical area. Other jurisdictions aggregate data in terms of the number of casualties in the geographical area in which the collision took place. This paper contrasts child pedestrian casualty data from Devon County UK, which has been aggregated by both methods. A simple ecological model, with minimally useful covaraties relating to measures of child deprivation, provides evidence that data aggregated in terms of the casualty's home location cannot be assumed to be spatially independent and that for analysis of these data to be valid there must be some accounting for spatial auto-correlation within the model structure. Conversely, data aggregated in terms of the collision location (as is usual in the UK) was found to be spatially independent. Whilst the spatial model is clearly more complex it provided a superior fit to that seen with either collision aggregated or non-spatial models. Of more importance, the ecological level association between deprivation and casualty rate is much lower once the spatial structure is accounted for, highlighting the importance using appropriately structured models.

  9. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).

  10. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  11. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  12. Radiation Dose-Rate Effects on Gene Expression in a Mouse Biodosimetry Model

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Elliston, Carl D.; Amundson, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorist attack, there will be a pressing need for biodosimetry to triage a large, potentially exposed population and to assign individuals to appropriate treatment. Exposures from fallout are likely, resulting in protracted dose delivery that would, in turn, impact the extent of injury. Biodosimetry approaches that can distinguish such low-dose-rate (LDR) exposures from acute exposures have not yet been developed. In this study, we used the C57BL/6 mouse model in an initial investigation of the impact of low-dose-rate delivery on the transcriptomic response in blood. While a large number of the same genes responded to LDR and acute radiation exposures, for many genes the magnitude of response was lower after LDR exposures. Some genes, however, were differentially expressed (P < 0.001, false discovery rate < 5%) in mice exposed to LDR compared with mice exposed to acute radiation. We identified a set of 164 genes that correctly classified 97% of the samples in this experiment as exposed to acute or LDR radiation using a support vector machine algorithm. Gene expression is a promising approach to radiation biodosimetry, enhanced greatly by this first demonstration of its potential for distinguishing between acute and LDR exposures. Further development of this aspect of radiation biodosimetry, either as part of a complete gene expression biodosimetry test or as an adjunct to other methods, could provide vital triage information in a mass radiological casualty event. PMID:26114327

  13. Comparison of Mouse Urinary Metabolic Profiles after Exposure to the Inflammatory Stressors γ Radiation and Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolomics on easily accessible biofluids has the potential to provide rapid identification and distinction between stressors and inflammatory states. In the event of a radiological event, individuals with underlying medical conditions could present with similar symptoms to radiation poisoning, prominently nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fever. Metabolomics of radiation exposure in mice has provided valuable biomarkers, and in this study we aimed to identify biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to compare and contrast with ionizing radiation. LPS treatment leads to a severe inflammatory response and a cytokine storm, events similar to radiation exposure, and LPS exposure can recapitulate many of the responses seen in sepsis. Urine from control mice, LPS-treated mice, and mice irradiated with 3, 8 and 15 Gy of γ rays was analyzed by LCMS, and markers were extracted using SIMCA-P+ and Random Forests. Markers were validated through tandem mass spectrometry against pure chemicals. Five metabolites, cytosine, cortisol, adenine, O-propanoylcarnitine and isethionic acid, showed increased excretion at 24 h after LPS treatment (P < 0.0001, 0.0393, 0.0393, <0.0001 and 0.0004, respectively). Of these, cytosine, adenine and O-propanoylcarnitine showed specificity to LPS treatment when compared to radiation. On the other hand, increased excretion of cortisol after LPS and radiation treatments indicated a rapid systemic response to inflammatory agents. Isethionic acid excretion, however, showed elevated levels not only after LPS treatment but also after a very high dose of radiation (15 Gy), while additional metabolites showed responsiveness to radiation but not LPS. Metabolomics therefore has the potential to distinguish between different inflammatory responses based on differential ion signatures. It can also provide quick and reliable assessment of medical conditions in a mass casualty radiological scenario and aid in effective triaging. PMID:22128784

  14. Validation of QuickScan dicentric chromosome analysis for high throughput radiation biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Flegal, F N; Devantier, Y; Marro, L; Wilkins, R C

    2012-02-01

    Currently, the dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) is used to estimate radiation doses to individuals following accidental radiological and nuclear overexposures when traditional dosimetry methods are not available. While being an exceptionally sensitive method for estimating doses by radiation, conventional DCA is time-intensive and requires highly trained expertise for analysis. For this reason, in a mass casualty situation, triage-quality conventional DCA struggles to provide dose estimations in a timely manner for triage purposes. In Canada, a new scoring technique, termed DCA QuickScan, has been devised to increase the throughput of this assay. DCA QuickScan uses traditional DCA sample preparation methods while adapting a rapid scoring approach. In this study, both conventional and QuickScan methods of scoring the DCA assay were compared for accuracy and sensitivity. Dose response curves were completed on four different donors based on the analysis of 1,000 metaphases or 200 events at eight to nine dose points by eight different scorers across two laboratories. Statistical analysis was performed on the data to compare the two methods within and across the laboratories and to test their respective sensitivities for dose estimation. This study demonstrated that QuickScan is statistically similar to conventional DCA analysis and is capable of producing dose estimates as low as 0.1 Gy but up to six times faster. Therefore, DCA QuickScan analysis can be used as a sensitive and accurate method for scoring samples for radiological biodosimetry in mass casualty situations or where faster dose assessment is required.

  15. The Importance of Physical Models for Deriving Dust Masses and Grain Size Distributions in Supernova Ejecta. I. Radiatively Heated Dust in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 Solar Mass, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 micron. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  16. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle. [Glossaries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10/sup 12/ Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output.

  17. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, E.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake casualty loss estimation, which depends primarily on building-specific casualty rates, has long suffered from a lack of cross-disciplinary collaboration in post-earthquake data gathering. An increase in our understanding of what contributes to casualties in earthquakes involve coordinated data-gathering efforts amongst disciplines; these are essential for improved global casualty estimation models. It is evident from examining past casualty loss models and reviewing field data collected from recent events, that generalized casualty rates cannot be applied globally for different building types, even within individual countries. For a particular structure type, regional and topographic building design effects, combined with variable material and workmanship quality all contribute to this multi-variant outcome. In addition, social factors affect building-specific casualty rates, including social status and education levels, and human behaviors in general, in that they modify egress and survivability rates. Without considering complex physical pathways, loss models purely based on historic casualty data, or even worse, rates derived from other countries, will be of very limited value. What’s more, as the world’s population, housing stock, and living and cultural environments change, methods of loss modeling must accommodate these variables, especially when considering casualties. To truly take advantage of observed earthquake losses, not only do damage surveys need better coordination of international and national reconnaissance teams, but these teams must integrate difference areas of expertise including engineering, public health and medicine. Research is needed to find methods to achieve consistent and practical ways of collecting and modeling casualties in earthquakes. International collaboration will also be necessary to transfer such expertise and resources to the communities in the cities which most need it. Coupling the theories and findings from

  18. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters... it contain? (a) In addition to the notice of casualty under § 150.815, the owner, operator, or person..., Report of Marine Accident, Injury, or Death, or in narrative form if it contains all of the...

  19. Casualty Data Analysis of the World Merchant Fleet for Reported Fire and Explosion Incidents Resulting in Marine Pollution.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion casualty data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem... marine pollution , and (4) fires/explosions contributing to marine pollution . General categories of merchant vessel types were identified and the

  20. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters... it contain? (a) In addition to the notice of casualty under § 150.815, the owner, operator, or person..., Report of Marine Accident, Injury, or Death, or in narrative form if it contains all of the...

  1. Overview of use of G-CSF and GM-CSF in the treatment of acute radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Glen

    2014-06-01

    Depression of hematopoietic elements due to significant levels of whole-body or partial-body irradiation due to radiation-induced suppression of mitosis in the stem and progenitor cells can result in life-threatening injury. Successful administration of intensive care of patients experiencing acute radiation sickness (ARS; also called acute radiation syndrome) is dependent upon the ability to stimulate the recovery of surviving hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), assuming the non-hematopoietic injuries are also survivable with treatment. To date, there have been a number of studies involving radiation accidents where patients were treated with cytokines. Although the data overall seem to indicate that the period of neutropenia is shortened and survival prolonged, so far there is no statistically significant proof that cytokine administration actually decreases mortality in radiation-injured humans. Some studies have shown no improved survival when used in a mouse model; however, studies in canines and primates have shown improved survival. CSF therapy is considered a valuable adjunct to treatment with antibiotics and strict hygiene controls in certain irradiated patients. It appears that these drugs do shorten the periods of neutropenia in irradiated patients and must be considered part of the therapeutic armamentarium in the treatment of ARS in a mass casualty situation. Based on review of the human experience with G-CSF and GM-CSF, as well as some animal studies, current consensus opinions support the prompt administration of these materials to patients suffering significant bone marrow depression from exposure to ionizing radiation.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  3. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972. Volume 8. Casualties and Losses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-18

    Returnees Nov 6a 72 Chieu Hot: VC/NVA in 1968 Feb 69 74 Chieu Hot: Qwarterly Report Noy 69 82 Chieu HoW: A Follow-Up JUN 69 88 2. COMPARISONS - VCOIVA...South Vietn: A Correction Sep 68 96 l( 4 L Date Pa" 3. ALLIED LOSSES A. US Casualties US Combat Deaths In SEA Jun 67 43 US Casualties Oct 67 101 US KIA...In SVIt Jun 68 106 Army And Marine KIA Nov 68 113Where US Combat Deaths Occur In Vitnm Feb 69 124 US Combat Deaths In Vietnam Apr 69 133 US Combat

  4. Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Rafael Herranz; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Rodríguez, María Jesús Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Aim When investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. In the case of exposures over 1 Gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. Nevertheless, for doses below 1 Gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. Finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical measurements and the only way of quantifying dose is by biological dosimetry. Background The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionising radiations.1,2 Furthermore, the analysis of dicentric chromosomes observed in metaphases from peripheral lymphocytes is the routine technique used in case of acute exposures to assess radiation doses. Materials and methods Solid stain of chromosomes is used to determine dicentric yields for dose estimation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for translocations analysis is used when delayed sampling or suspected chronically irradiation dose assessment. Recommendations in technical considerations are based mainly in the IAEA Technical Report No. 405.2 Results Experience in biological dosimetry at Gregorio Marañón General Hospital is described, including own calibration curves used for dose estimation, background studies and real cases of overexposition. Conclusion Dose assessment by biological dosimeters requires a large previous standardization work and a continuous update. Individual dose assessment involves high qualification professionals and its long time consuming, therefore requires specific Centres. For large mass casualties cooperation among specialized Institutions is needed. PMID:24376970

  5. Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  6. Should physicians prepare for war? 1. The obligation to care for the casualties.

    PubMed

    Bisgard, J C

    1982-04-01

    This is an introduction to a set of four commentaries on the controversy that has arisen over whether physicians should cooperate in Defense Department planning for the care of military casualties, airlifted to U.S. civilian hospitals, in the event of a large-scale war. The commentaries are by Jay C. Bisgard, H. Jack Geiger, James T. Johnson, and Thomas H. Murray.

  7. Development of damage and casualty functions for basement shelters. Final report on phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, C.; Zsutty, T.C.; Willoughby, A.B.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes progress during the second year's work on a Civil Defense program to provide FEMA with a range of damage functions and casualty functions to determine the survivability fo people in various basement shelters. The characteristics of flat and two-way slab systems and the effects of code specified design procedures, engineering practice, and construction procedures were discussed. Non-upgraded two-way slabs are approximately twice as strong as the flat plate slabs. For upgraded (shored) systems, however, specific building characteristics are not important factors: any shored slab, with standard reinforcing and dimensions, has about the same capacity as any other slab. A mathematical model for the fragility curve of slab systems was developed. Fatality curves have been developed for ceiling collapse and a variety of other casualty mechanism(nuclear weapons effects) with emphasis to date on non-upgraded shelters areas. This review of casualty producing mechanisms is continuing and all casualty curves should be considered as provisional.

  8. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  9. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  10. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  11. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  12. Epidemiology of Modern Battlefield Colorectal Trauma: A Review of 977 Coalition Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology of modern battlefield colorectal trauma: A review of 977 coalition casualties Sean C. Glasgow, MD, Scott R. Steele, MD, James E. Duncan...management of colon and rectal injuries in the forward areas. Ann Surg. 1945;122:398Y407. 2. Welling DR, Hutton JE, Minken SL, Place RJ, Burris DG

  13. Extracorporeal Organ Support following Trauma: The Dawn of a New Era in Combat Casualty Critical Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Cancio LC, Barillo DJ, et al. Long range transport of war-related burn casualties. J Trauma. 2008;64(Suppl 2):S136YS144; discussion S144YS145. 33. Sherlock ...shock. J BurnCare Rehabil. 1989;10:17Y26. 96. Neff LP, Allman JM, Holmes JH. The use of theraputic plasma exchange (TPE) in the setting of refractory

  14. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving...

  15. The Battle of Bentonville: Caring for Casualties of the Civil War. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, John C.; Beck, Elaine

    At the First Battle of Manassas (Virginia) in 1861 many Union doctors fled the battlefield in fear. Those who remained found themselves without adequate medical supplies or ambulances for their patients. As the U.S. Civil War progressed and casualties mounted, military surgeons became more adept at caring for the wounded. By the Battle of…

  16. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  17. The Impact of 10 Years of War on Combat Casualty Care Research: A Citation Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    The impact of 10 years of war on combat casualty care research: A citation analysis Jean A. Orman, ScD, MPH, Brian J. Eastridge, MD, David G. Baer...J. 2011;82Y86. 28. Eastridge BJ, Hardin M, Cantrell J, et al. Died of wounds on the battle- field: causation and implications for improving combat

  18. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... method used to obtain such evidence, such as personal observation of the individual, or by chemical... in a casualty refuses to submit to, or cooperate in, the administration of a timely chemical test... officer authorized to obtain a chemical test under Federal, state, or local law, or by the owner,...

  19. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  20. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account. PMID:27435236

  1. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  2. Thermophoresis and thermal radiation with heat and mass transfer in a magnetohydrodynamic thin-film second-grade fluid of variable properties past a stretching sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Noor Saeed; Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Khan, Waris

    2017-01-01

    The influences of thermophoresis and thermal radiation of a magnetohydrodynamic two-dimensional thin-film second-grade fluid with heat and mass transfer flow in the presence of viscous dissipation past a stretching sheet are analyzed. The main focus of the study is to discuss the significant roll of the fluid variable properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity under the variation of the thin film. The thermal conductivity varies directly as a linear function of temperature showing the property that expresses the ability of a material to transfer heat, and the viscosity is assumed to vary inversely as a linear function of temperature showing that viscous forces become weak at increasing temperature. Thermophoresis occurs to discuss the mass deposition at the surface of the stretching sheet while thermal radiation occurs, especially, at high temperature. The basic governing equations for the velocity, temperature and concentration of the fluid flow have been transformed to high nonlinear coupled differential equations with physical conditions by invoking suitable similarity transformations. The solution of the problem has been obtained by using HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method). The heat and mass transfer flow behaviors are affected significantly by the thin film. The physical influences of thin film parameter and all other parameters have been studied graphically and illustrated. The residual graphs and residual error table elucidate the authentication of the present work.

  3. Protocol for the treatment of radiation injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, D.; Weiss, J. F.; Macvittie, T. J.; Pillai, M. V.

    Despite adequate precautionary measures and high-quality safeguard devices, many accidental radiation exposures continue to occur and may pose greater risks in the future, including radiation exposure in the space environment. The medical management of radiation casualties is of major concern to health care providers. Such medical management was addressed at The First Consensus Development Conference on the Treatment of Radiation Injuries, Washington, DC, 1989. The conference addressed the most appropriate treatment for the hematopoietic and infectious complications that accompany radiation injuries and for combined radiation and traumatic/burn injuries. Based on the evidence presented at the conference, a consensus statement was formulated by expert physicians and scientists. The recommended therapies, including a suggested algorithm incorporating these recommendations for the treatment of radiation injuries, will be discussed.

  4. Thermophoresis on boundary layer heat and mass transfer flow of Walters-B fluid past a radiate plate with heat sink/source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasu, B.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Murthy, P. V. S. N.

    2016-09-01

    The Walters-B liquid model is employed to simulate medical creams and other rheological liquids encountered in biotechnology and chemical engineering. This rheological model introduces supplementary terms into the momentum conservation equation. The combined effects of thermal radiation and heat sink/source on transient free convective, laminar flow and mass transfer in a viscoelastic fluid past a vertical plate are presented by taking thermophoresis effect into account. The transformed conservation equations are solved using a stable, robust finite difference method. A parametric study illustrating the influence of viscoelasticity parameter (Γ), thermophoretic parameter (τ), thermal radiation parameter (F), heat sink/source (ϕ), Prandtl number (Pr), Schmidt number (Sc), thermal Grashof number (Gr), solutal Grashof number (Gm), temperature and concentration profiles as well as local skin-friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number is conducted. The results of this parametric study are shown graphically and inform of table. The study has applications in polymer materials processing.

  5. Radiation metabolomics. 3. Biomarker discovery in the urine of gamma-irradiated rats using a simplified metabolomics protocol of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with random forests machine learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D; Slavík, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy gamma radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to gamma radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2'-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release.

  6. IN-SITU PROBING OF RADIATION-INDUCED PROCESSING OF ORGANICS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ICE ANALOGS-NOVEL LASER DESORPTION LASER IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Yang Rui E-mail: ryang73@ustc.edu

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the evolution of organic molecules in ice grains in the interstellar medium (ISM) under cosmic rays, stellar radiation, and local electrons and ions is critical to our understanding of the connection between ISM and solar systems. Our study is aimed at reaching this goal of looking directly into radiation-induced processing in these ice grains. We developed a two-color laser-desorption laser-ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopic method (2C-MALDI-TOF), similar to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Results presented here with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) probe molecules embedded in water-ice at 5 K show for the first time that hydrogenation and oxygenation are the primary chemical reactions that occur in astrophysical ice analogs when subjected to Ly{alpha} radiation. We found that hydrogenation can occur over several unsaturated bonds and the product distribution corresponds to their stabilities. Multiple hydrogenation efficiency is found to be higher at higher temperatures (100 K) compared to 5 K-close to the interstellar ice temperatures. Hydroxylation is shown to have similar efficiencies at 5 K or 100 K, indicating that addition of O atoms or OH radicals to pre-ionized PAHs is a barrierless process. These studies-the first glimpses into interstellar ice chemistry through analog studies-show that once accreted onto ice grains PAHs lose their PAH spectroscopic signatures through radiation chemistry, which could be one of the reason for the lack of PAH detection in interstellar ice grains, particularly the outer regions of cold, dense clouds or the upper molecular layers of protoplanetary disks.

  7. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the treatment of a post-chemotherapy remnant lung mass in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can significantly improve the treatment outcomes of patients with inoperable stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Similarly, a few case studies have reported the effectiveness of SBRT for stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, no study has investigated the use of SBRT for extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). Compared with conventional RT, SBRT is able to deliver a higher radiation dose precisely and safely to small targets in short-duration treatments. The present study reports the outcome of a patient with ES-SCLC who responded favorably to initial chemotherapy and received SBRT for a residual mass in the peripheral lung. A 62-year-old female presented with pathologically determined SCLC at clinical stage T4N3M0-T4 as separate tumor nodules were present in different ipsilateral lobes. The patient received 6 cycles of standard chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. The response of the patient to chemotherapy was evaluated using contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The only suspected residual viable tumor was a 1.5-cm mass in the right upper lobe. Targeting this mass, intensity-modulated SBRT was performed with 48 Gy in 4 fractions and 6 MV photons. In addition, prophylactic cranial irradiation was conducted with 25 Gy in 10 fractions. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease 4 years after treatment. SBRT toxicity was limited to radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis without pulmonary symptoms. This case report suggests the efficacy of SBRT in select ES-SCLC patients with small residual lung disease following chemotherapy. PMID:27446341

  8. Research and Development Strategies for the Current and Future Medical Treatment of Radiation Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    include the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID...Twenty Years of G-CSF: Clinical and Nonclinical Discoveries, ed. G. Molineux, M. Foote , and T. Arvedson (Basel: Springer, 2012). 39 V. K. Singh et al...1980s. For a review see K. Welte, “Discovery of G-CSF and Early Clinical studies,” in Twenty Years of G-CSF, ed. G. Molineux, M. Foote , and T

  9. Mathematical modelling of unsteady MHD natural convection flow past a vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass flux in the presence of radiation and chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, S. Suresh Kumar; Narahari, Marneni; Pendyala, Rajashekhar

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a numerical analysis is made for unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) natural convective boundary-layer flow past an impulsively started semi-infinite vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass flux in the presence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction. The Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique is implemented to solve the system of governing equations. Numerical results are obtained for different values of system parameters and analyzed through graphs. The velocity profiles of the present study have been compared with the available results for the limiting case and a good agreement is found between the results.

  10. Effects of thermophoresis on hydromagnetic mixed convection and mass transfer flow past a vertical permeable plate with variable suction and thermal radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, N. P.; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Atul Kumar; Agnihotri, Pratibha

    2011-06-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of surface mass transfer on MHD mixed convection flow past a heated vertical flat permeable surface in the presence of thermophoresis, radiative heat flux and heat source/sink. Usual similarity transformations are introduced to obtain similarity solution, using regular perturbation technique. To observe physical insight and interesting aspects of the problem in the presence of thermophoresis, the non-dimensional velocity, temperature and concentration field are numerically studied and displayed graphically for pertinent parameters. It is observed that the thermophoresis has dominant effect on mass transfer mechanism in particle deposition process. The model finds applications in studying particulate deposition on turbine blades, removing small particles from gas streams and determining chemical vapor deposition rate in chemical industries.

  11. Web based tool for resource allocation in multiple mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    Inampudi, Venkata S; Ganz, Aura

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a web based real time resource allocation tool that can assist the incident commanders and resource managers in the complex task of resource allocation and transportation for multiple simultaneous incidents that occur in close geographical proximity. The tool takes real time inputs like the location of emergency sites and damaged routes from Google Maps, generates an optimal transportation plan so that emergency sites with highest priorities for a resource are assigned the resources in the least amount of time. The optimal solution is presented graphically using Google Maps. Our solution can be used for emergency resource allocation at both the initial response stage and later stages.

  12. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ..., affiliation, address, email, and telephone number. Those without Internet access should contact Suzanne... participants will be sent technical system requirements after registration and will be sent connection access... Internet at http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/default.htm . (Select...

  13. Preparing South Carolina Emergency Departments for Mass Casualties with an Emphasis on the Planning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    generally vague in nature, and seem to be removed from the real life of hospital EDs across the nation. A recent GAO report indicated states are planning...per million population for patients with symptoms of acute botulism intoxication or other acute chemical poisoning—especially resulting from nerve ...botulism intoxication or other acute chemical poisoning— especially resulting from nerve agent exposure • 50 cases per million population for patients

  14. Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.

    PubMed

    Goh, S H

    2009-01-01

    Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents.

  15. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    page), we show the results for cobinamide (formulated with four moles of sodium nitrite) in an inhalational mouse model. As can be seen...nitrocobinamide fully rescued animals from a lethal exposure of cyanide gas. Sodium nitrite, at a dose corresponding to the amount of nitrite in the...removed from the chamber, and injected intramuscularly with either 1.5 µmol nitrocobinamide (red circles), 6.0 µmol sodium nitrite (green squares

  16. Information Sharing for Medical Triage Tasking During Mass Casualty/Humanitarian Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This thesis will focus on field testing and evaluating the capabilities of a smartphone

  17. Triage Decision Trees and Triage Protocols: Changing Strategies for Medical Rescue in Civilian Mass Casualty Situations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-06

    o . .. ° . - . . - • . . . . state of fruition by Gtnerall Basil Pruitt of Brooke Army Medical Center. A simple calculation based on the depth...A.S., Berstein R.S. and Johnson D.S., Ocular effects following the volcanic eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Arch Ophthalmol 101 Mar 83 p. 376 79

  18. Evaluation of a Scalable Information Analytics System for Enhanced Situational Awareness in Mass Casualty Events.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James M; Yang, Zhuorui; Yi, Jun; Lord, Graydon; Ciottone, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of DIORAMA-II system which provides enhanced situational awareness within a disaster scene by using real-time visual analytics tools and a collaboration platform between the incident commander and the emergency responders. Our trials were conducted in different geographical areas (feature-rich and featureless regions) and in different lighting conditions (daytime and nighttime). DIORAMA-II obtained considerable time gain in efficiency compared to conventional paper based systems. DIORAMA-II time gain was reflected in reduction of both average triage time per patient (up to 34.3% average triage time reduction per patient) and average transport time per patient (up to 76.3% average transport time reduction per red patient and up to 66.3% average transport time reduction per yellow patient). In addition, DIORAMA-II ensured that no patients were left behind or transported in the incorrect order compared to the conventional method which resulted in patients being left behind and transported in the incorrect order.

  19. A next generation electronic triage to aid mass casualty emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tia; White, D

    2006-01-01

    For years, emergency medical response communities have relied upon paper triage tags, clipboards of notes, and voice communications to share information during medical emergencies. This workflow, however, has proven labor intensive, time consuming, and prone to human error [1]. In collaboration with three EMS groups in the Washington, DC Metropolitan area, we have developed a next generation triage system to improve the effectiveness of emergency response. This system includes: 1) electronic triage tags, 2) wearable vital sign sensors, 3) base stations laptops to monitor and manage patients, 4) pervasive tracking software to locate patients at all stages of the disaster response process, and 5) PDAs to support documentation and communication. Our system has evolved through three iterations of rapid-development, field-studies, usability reviews, and focus-group interview. This paper summarizes engineering considerations for technologies that must operate under constraints of medical emergencies. It is our hope that the lessons reported in this paper will help technologists in developing future emergency response systems.

  20. Decontamination Efficacy Testing of COTS SteriFx Prodcuts for Mass Personnel and Casualty Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    of all GRAS components. Previous work has demonstrated efficacy against spores, and this study was conducted to: confirm the safety of the product ...better understand the interaction of the product with common military and first responder equipment/vehicles, and the capacity of the technology to...the product is no more corrosive than common solutions used in decontamination scenarios. The efficacy of the formulation in decontaminating anthrax