Science.gov

Sample records for radiation measurement program

  1. NCRP PROGRAM AREA COMMITTEE 6: RADIATION DOSIMETRY AND MEASUREMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Steven L.; Zeman, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry – one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council’s expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards such as effects on lens of the eye, and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges.

  3. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-10-02

    This Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter covers the following topics: The Raman lidar at the SGP central facility is receiving upgrades to its environmental controls; The instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park is receiving upgrades to prevent Turkey Vultures from roosting on the booms.

  5. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) -- Summer 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.; Ruderman, M.; Treiman, S.

    1995-10-01

    ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve the understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition the authors believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting. This report examines the issues of anomalous atmospheric absorption and makes recommendations concerning future directions for the ARM program.

  8. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  9. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. ); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. ); Ellingson, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  10. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  11. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-07-03

    ARM Intensive Operational Period Scheduled to Validate New NASA Satellite--Beginning in July, all three ARM sites (Southern Great Plains [SGP], North Slope of Alaska, and Tropical Western Pacific; Figure 1) will participate in the AIRS Validation IOP. This three-month intensive operational period (IOP) will validate data collected by the satellite-based Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) recently launched into space. On May 4, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched Aqua, the second spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. The EOS satellites monitor Earth systems including land surfaces, oceans, the atmosphere, and ice cover. The first EOS satellite, named Terra, was launched in December 1999. The second EOS satellite is named Aqua because its primary focus is understanding Earth's water cycle through observation of atmospheric moisture, clouds, temperature, ocean surface, precipitation, and soil moisture. One of the instruments aboard Aqua is the AIRS, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA agency. The AIRS Validation IOP complements the ARM mission to improve understanding of the interactions of clouds and atmospheric moisture with solar radiation and their influence on weather and climate. In support of satellite validation IOP, ARM will launch dedicated radiosondes at all three ARM sites while the Aqua satellite with the AIRS instrument is orbiting overhead. These radiosonde launches will occur 45 minutes and 5 minutes before selected satellite overpasses. In addition, visiting scientists from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will launch special radiosondes to measure ozone and humidity over the SGP site. All launches will generate ground-truth data to validate satellite data collected simultaneously. Data gathered daily by ARM meteorological and solar radiation instruments will complete the validation data sets. Data from Aqua-based instruments, including AIRS, will aid in weather forecasting, climate modeling, and

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, May 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-06-01

    This month the authors will visit an ARM CART site with a pleasant climate: the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) CART site, along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. The TWP locale lies between 10 degrees North latitude and 10 degrees South latitude and extends from Indonesia east-ward beyond the international date line. This area was selected because it is in and around the Pacific warm pool, the area of warm sea-surface temperatures that determine El Nino/La Nina episodes. The warm pool also adds heat and moisture to the atmosphere and thus fuels cloud formation. Understanding the way tropical clouds and water vapor affect the solar radiation budget is a focus of the ARM Program. The two current island-based CART sites in the TWP are in Manus Province in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru Island.

  13. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  14. Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

  15. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-11-04

    Aerosol Observing System Upgraded--The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions will help climate change researchers integrate aerosol effects more accurately into global climate computer models. Polar Bears Make Work Dangerous at ARM North Slope of Alaska Site--The late development of seasonal sea ice has increased polar bear sitings at ARM's Barrow site. The bears were recently seen next to the ARM instrument towers at Barrow, making the normal work day a bit more tricky for the technicians who are at the site year-round. Polar bears are not afraid of people and will attack and kill. The bears usually spend most of their time on off-shore ice floes hunting seals. This season, a large storm pushed the floes out to sea while the bears were ashore at Barrow, leaving them to forage for food on land until the sea ice reforms with the onset of colder weather. The hungry bears have made working at the Barrow CART site a dangerous proposition. ARM workers carry shotguns with them at all times for protection. On a recent journey to the site, ARM instrument mentor Michael Ritsche encountered the animals. ''You become much more aware of your surroundings,'' said Ritsche after returning safely to Argonne. Barrow residents protect themselves by shooting warning shells to scare the bears away from developed areas. Hearing the firing in the early mornings and late evenings at Barrow reminded Ritsche that he was in a more dangerous world.

  18. Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with

  19. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-09-03

    With the end of summer drawing near, the fall songbird migration season will soon begin. Scientists with the ARM Program will be able to observe the onset of the migration season as interference in the radar wind profiler (RWP) data. An RWP measures vertical profiles of wind and temperature directly above the radar from approximately 300 feet to 3 miles above the ground. The RWP accomplishes this by sending a pulse of electromagnetic energy skyward. Under normal conditions, the energy is scattered by targets in the atmosphere. Targets generally consist of atmospheric irregularities such as variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure over relatively short distances. During the spring and fall bird migration seasons, RWP beam signals are susceptible to overflying birds. The radar beams do not harm the birds, but the birds' presence hampers data collection by providing false targets to reflect the RWP beam, introducing errors into the data. Because of the wavelength of the molar beam, the number of individuals, and the small size of songbirds' bodies (compared to the larger geese or hawks), songbirds are quite likely to be sampled by the radar. Migrating birds usually fly with the prevailing wind, making their travel easier. As a result, winds from the south are ''enhanced'' or overestimated in the spring as the migrating birds travel northward, and winds from the north are overestimated in the fall as birds make their way south. This fact is easily confirmed by comparison of RWP wind data to wind data gathered by weather balloons, which are not affected by birds.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-03-08

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled--The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded--New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''--Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog--Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-07-23

    Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, May 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-06-03

    Eight eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement systems are now deployed throughout the ARM SGP CART site. These systems are used to determine the flux (flow) of sensible heat, the flux of latent heat, and air momentum just above cropland a few hundred feet upwind of the ECOR locations. Sensible heat is energy we feel as warmth. Latent heat is the energy that evaporated water vapor measured in the atmosphere. The ECOR systems actually measure wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, water vapor, and barometric pressure. The surface flux values for sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are calculated from these measurements.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-09-19

    This is the third water vapor IOP and it will focus on the lower portions of the atmosphere. Again, scientists will work to achieve absolute calibrations of water vapor instrumentation. For this purpose, several instruments will be deployed, and measurements will be compared. Instruments to be used include radiosondes, Raman lidar, chilled-mirror hygrometers, surface meteorological observation station (SMOS) towers, a variety of microwave radiometers, and global positioning systems (GPS). The current experiment has two goals. The first is to characterize the accuracy of the water vapor measurements, especially the daily operational observations being made around the clock in the lower levels of the atmosphere at the CART site. The second goal is to develop techniques for improving the accuracy of these observations in order to obtain the best possible water vapor measurements under a wide range of atmospheric conditions.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, March 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-18

    International H2O Project (IHOP-2002)--The International H2O Project (IHOP-2002) will take place in west-central Oklahoma over 44 days, May 13-June 25, 2002. The main focus will be water vapor and its role in storm development and rainfall production, information needed to improve rainfall forecasting. Forecasting the amount and location of rainfall is difficult, particularly in the warm months, and improvements are urgently needed. Accurate prediction of floods would be very beneficial to society, because flooding is costly in terms of loss of life and property damage. Deaths resulting from flash flooding outnumber those from hurricanes, tornadoes, windstorms, or lightning, and damage due to flooding exceeds $5 billion annually. One measure of weather forecasting success is the accuracy of the Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF), which predicts the amount of precipitation to be received at a certain location. One of the research goals of IHOP-2002 is to determine whether more accurate, detailed measurement of humidity will improve a computer model's ability to forecast rainfall amounts accurately. Current water vapor measurements are inadequate. The weather balloons (radiosondes) that gather most of the water vapor data used in today's weather and global climate models have three problems. First, the radiosonde stations are located too far apart, generating a grid of data that is too coarse to show the needed details in water vapor variability. Second, the radiosonde launches occur only every 12 hours, again providing too few data points for a highly variable parameter. Third, the radiosonde instrument has biases and inaccuracies in its measurements. Questionable data quality and data sets too coarse in both time and space make accurate forecasting difficult. The key to better, more accurate, higher-resolution water vapor measurements is dependable, ground-based sensors that operate continually and accurately. Such sensors will decrease dependence on

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-29

    Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period--The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Yankee Environmental Systems also participated in the IOP. SuomiNet Installations Completed--The installation of all SuomiNet equipment has been completed at 15 extended facility locations. Six of these stations are currently online and providing data to the SuomiNet project. SuomiNet is a university-based, real-time national global positioning system (GPS) network for atmospheric research and education. (See June 2000 issue of the ARM SGP Newsletter.) The network uses GPS to measure atmospheric moisture. To view real-time data from ARM sites, please visit this web site: http://www.gst.ucar.edu/gpsrg/realtime.html.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-29

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently announced the development of El Nino conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean near the South American coastline. Scientists detected a 4 F increase in the sea-surface temperatures during February. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, NOAA administrator and Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, indicated that this warming is a sign that the Pacific Ocean is heading toward an El Nino condition. Although it is too early to predict how strong the El Nino will become or the conditions it will bring to the United States, Lautenbacher said that the country is likely to feel the effects as soon as midsummer (Figure 1). During the last El Nino in 1997-1998, the United States experienced strong weather impacts. Even though researchers don't understand what causes the onset of El Nino, they do recognize what to expect once development has begun. Scientists can monitor the development of El Nino through NOAA's advanced global climate monitoring system of polar-orbiting satellites and 72 ocean buoys moored across the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting measurements of surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperatures are made available to scientists on a real-time basis, allowing for timely monitoring and predictions. This complex monitoring array enabled NOAA to predict the 1997-1998 El Nino six months in advance.

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.,ed.

    2001-09-04

    Summer 2001 Heat Wave--This summer has proved to be downright hot in the Southern Great Plains states. The temperatures soared to record-setting levels. The state of Oklahoma saw its fourth hottest July since 1895, while Kansas experienced its seventh warmest. The average temperature throughout most of Oklahoma for the month of July was 2.5-5.5 F above normal. The highest temperature recorded in the region during July was 107 F in Oklahoma City. Wichita, Kansas, had 17 July days with recorded temperatures of 100 F or above, while Medicine Lodge, Kansas, had 21. In addition, Oklahoma suffered its ninth driest July, with precipitation levels much below normal. Kansas fared better, receiving above-normal precipitation amounts. Nevertheless, regional July rainfall averaged 1.5-3.0 inches below normal. Not only is a summer heat wave uncomfortable, but it can also be dangerous. The National Weather Service (NWS) has increased efforts to alert the public to the hazards of heat waves. Prolonged excessive heat and humidity stress the human body and can, in some cases, cause death. The NWS has devised a heat index that is a measure of the heat we perceive as a function of air temperature and humidity. A heat index chart displays different zones from caution to extreme danger, much like a wind chill index chart used in the winter. The values represent conditions of light winds and shade. Thus, in full sunshine heat index values can increase by 15 F. Exposure to winds in hot, dry weather can be equally dangerous. The NWS sends out alerts when the heat index is expected to reach values with significant potential impact. The danger of heat-related illness increases with the number of consecutive days with high heat and humidity levels. Heat and humidity take their toll faster on the elderly, small children, and those with respiratory health problems. Heat-related illnesses come in several forms with different symptoms. From common sunburns to heat stroke, these heat disorders

  8. Solar radiation measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Xavier solar radiation measurement project and station are described. Measurements of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface from an Eppley pyranometer were collected into computer data files. Total radiation in watt hours was converted from ten minute intervals to hourly intervals. Graphs of this total radiation data are included. A computer program in Fortran was written to calculate the total extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface for each day of the month. Educational and social benefits of the project are cited.

  9. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  10. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  11. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  12. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 – March 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2009-01-15

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-01-08

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - January 1 - March 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-06-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - July 1 - September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  3. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  4. Application of Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains Site to Examine Composition and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Runjun, Li; Collins, Don R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Brackett, Vincent G.

    2006-01-01

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure submicron aerosol size distributions, hygroscopicity, and occasionally volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Central Facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site. Hygroscopic growth factor distributions for particles at eight dry diameters ranging from 0.012 micrometers to 0.600 micrometers were measured throughout the study. For a subset of particle sizes, more detailed measurements were occasionally made in which the relative humidity or temperature to which the aerosol was exposed was varied over a wide range. These measurements, in conjunction with backtrajectory clustering, were used to infer aerosol composition and to gain insight into the processes responsible for evolution. The hygroscopic growth of both the smallest and largest particles analyzed was typically less than that of particles with dry diameters of about 0.100 micrometers. It is speculated that condensation of secondary organic aerosol on nucleation mode particles is largely responsible for the minimal hygroscopic growth observed at the smallest sizes considered. Growth factor distributions of the largest particles characterized typically contained a nonhygroscopic mode believed to be composed primarily of dust. A model was developed to characterize the hygroscopic properties of particles within a size distribution mode through analysis of the fixed size hygroscopic growth measurements. The performance of this model was quantified through comparison of the measured fixed size hygroscopic growth factor distributions with those simulated through convolution of the size-resolved concentration contributed by each of the size modes and the mode-resolved hygroscopicity. This transformation from sizeresolved hygroscopicity to mode-resolved hygroscopicity facilitated examination of changes in the hygroscopic

  5. Orbital measurements of the Earth's radiation budget during the first decade of the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The instrumentation and data analysis methods applied to data from the Explorer 7, TIROS 2, 3, 4, and 7, and Nimbus 2 and 3 experimental satellites are summarized. Problems encountered in analyzing these data included: determining the value of the solar constant, inaccuracies introduced by degradation of the sensors in orbit, the need to infer the total reflected and emitted radiation from filtered measurements, the development of corrections for anisotropy in order to determine the outgoing flux densities at the moment of measurement, and the development of corrections to account for diurnal variability. The corrections for long- and shortwave anisotropy and historical determinations of the solar constant and albedo are treated in detail. These early measurements indicated that the planetary albedo was lower, the emitted radiation higher, and the equator-to-pole gradient of net radiation greater than previously supposed.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2006-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-09-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2008 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent

  10. Space radiation health program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facilities quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-07-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter); for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale it is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale it is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 1390.80 hours (0.95 x 1464). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  12. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  13. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  14. Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Goldsmith, JE M.

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This instrument, which makes high-resolution measurements of water vapor both spatially and temporally, is capable of making these measurements with no operator interaction (other than initial startup) for days at a time. Water vapor measurements collected during the 1996 and 1997 WVIOPs are discussed here, illustrating both the nighttime and daytime capabilities of this system. System characteristics, calibration issues, and techniques are presented. Finally, detailed intercomparisons of the lidar's data with those from a microwave radiometer, radiosondes, an instrumented tower, a chilled mirror flown on both a tethersonde and a kite, and measurements from aircraft are shown and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and stability of this system for both nighttime and daytime measurements.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Theoretical cloud radiation studies in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Final report, October 1990--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wiscombe, W.J.; Cahalan, R.F.; Davis, A.B.; Marshak, A.L.; Ridgway, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ARM research project has as its ultimate goal the improvement of theoretical understanding of radiation processes in real clouds. The strategy is to use remote and in situ cloud observations to inform fractal models that elegantly capture the enormous spatial heterogeneity of real clouds. The project was motivated by the great importance assigned to the cloud-radiation problem in understanding climate, and by the recognition that GCM predictions of grid-box-average liquid/ice water are insufficient to assign cloud radiative properties. The project was designed to have the following logical progression: analyze cloud observations, using statistical methods developed in turbulence theory, non-linear dynamics, and the study of multifractals; based on these analyses, develop models, mainly with a multi-fractal origin, for the spatial distribution of cloud water; and study the radiative properties of these model clouds using the Monte Carlo method.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-03-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 through December 31, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. For all fixed sites, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2007. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the current deployment in Niamey, Niger, Africa. PYE represents the AMF statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be

  19. Thermal radiation measuring arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, H.L.; Sprout, J.C.

    1983-02-08

    In a thermal radiation measuring arrangement, a thermal radiation detector is located at the focal point of a collecting mirror, upon which incident thermal radiation from a surface, such as a building wall, is directed. The thermal radiation detector may be, for example, a thermopile, and provides an output signal having a magnitude proportional to the amount of thermal radiation which it receives. The temperature detection means detects the temperature of the thermal radiation detector and, for example, may detect the cold junction of the thermopile. In a first operating condition, a signal summing means receives the output signal from the thermal radiation detector and the temperature detection means and provides a third output signal proportional to the sum of these first and second output signals. In a second operating condition, a signal biasing means is connected into the signal summing means. The signal biasing means provides a signal to the signal summing means to cause the third output signal to become zero when radiation is received from a reference surface. When the arrangement is in the second operating condition and directed to receive thermal radiation from a second surface different from the reference surface, the signal biasing means maintains the same level of bias to the signal summing means as it did when detecting the radiation from the reference surface.

  20. An Analysis of Satellite, Radiosonde, and Lidar Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, Brian J.; Turner, David D.; Lesht, B. M.; Miloshevich, Larry M.

    2004-02-25

    To improve our understanding of the distribution and radiative effects of water vapor, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has conducted a series of coordinated water vapor Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs). This study uses observations collected from four ARM IOPs to accomplish two goals: first, we compare radiosonde and Raman lidar observations of upper tropospheric water vapor with co-located geostationary satellite radiances at 6.7 micrometers. During all four IOPs, we find excellent agreement between the satellite and Raman lidar observations of upper tropospheric humidity with systematic differences of ~10%. In contrast, radiosondes equipped with Vaisala sensors are shown to be systematically drier in the upper troposphere by ~40% relative to both the lidar and satellite measurements. Second, we assess the performance of various "correction" strategies designed to rectify known deficiencies in the radiosonde measurements. It is shown that existing methods for correcting the radiosonde dry bias, while effective in the lower troposphere, offer little improvement in the upper troposphere. An alternative method based on variational assimilation of satellite radiances is presented and, when applied to the radiosonde measurements, is shown to significantly improve their agreement with coincident Raman lidar observations. It is suggested that a similar strategy could be used to improve the quality of the global historical record of radiosonde water vapor observations during the satellite era.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operation quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2010-10-26

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  3. The role of the EPA radiation quality assurance program in the measurement quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    As the nature and extent of radiological contamination becomes better documented and more public, radioanalytical laboratories are faced with a constantly expanding variety of new and difficult analytical requirements. Concurrent with those requirements is the responsibility to provide customers, regulatory officials, or the public with defensible data produced in an environment of verifiable, controlled quality. To meet that need, a quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories has been proposed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard will provide the organizational framework and functional requirements needed to assure the quality of laboratory outputs. Under the proposed program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Laboratory Intercomparison Program plays a key role as a reference laboratory. The current and proposed roles of the EPA Intercomparison Program are discussed, as are the functional relationships between EPA, the accreditating organization, and the service and monitoring laboratories.

  4. Radiation Detection Equipment (RDE) Comparative Evaluation Test Program. Volume 1. Point Source Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    D-3 D-2 Californium measurement data . . . . . . . . . . . . D-7 D-3 Am(Li) measurement data for unshielded source . . . D-8 D-4A Am(Li...Base, MD, using a Californium -252 neutron source in unmoderated and moderated configurations. The neutron detection instruments were energized without...INM RDE sets (original cost $80.000 per set). six of which are distributed between the U.S. Gateways and the Russian POEs. With the possibility of

  5. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP)

    SciTech Connect

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2011-10-21

    The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various scientific communities inside and outside of ARM and the associated working groups, 3) the coordination and selection of the relative importance of the three different focus areas (routine observations, IOPs, instrument development program), 4) the examination and quality control of the data collected by AVP, and 5) providing field support for flight series. This report documents the accomplishments in each of these focus areas for the 3 years of funding for the grant that were provided.

  6. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Specific Instruments Used in the ARM Program

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM is known for its comprehensive set of world-class, and in some cases, unique, instruments available for use by the global scientific community. In addition to the ARM instruments, the ARM Climate Research Facility identifies and acquires a wide variety of data including model, satellite, and surface data, from "external instruments," to augment the data being generated within the program. External instruments belong to organizations that are outside of the ARM Program. Field campaign instruments are another source of data used to augment routine observations. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by instrument categories into twelve "collections:" Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Ocean Observations, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, Surface Meteorology, Surface/Subsurface Properties, and Other. Clicking on one of the instrument categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Atmospheric Profiling" is broken down into ARM instruments (with 11 subsets), External Instruments (with 6 subsets), and Field Campaign Instruments (with 42 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading.

  8. Radiator design system computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, C. L.; Oren, J. A.; Dietz, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Minimum weight space radiator subsystems which can operate over heat load ranges wider than the capabilities of current subsystems are investigated according to projected trends of future long duration space vehicles. Special consideration is given to maximum heat rejection requirements of the low temperature radiators needed for environmental control systems. The set of radiator design programs that have resulted from this investigation are presented in order to provide the analyst with a capability to generate optimum weight radiator panels or sets of panels from practical design considerations, including transient performance. Modifications are also provided for existing programs to improve capability and user convenience.

  9. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-02-29

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  10. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  11. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Cumulative Quarterly Report October 1, 2003 - September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  13. Radiation effects program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-09-01

    No existing LINAC Based Beam Heating facility comes within a factor of ten of the needs of a high heating rate thermodynamic properties research facility. The facility could be built at the Naval Research Lab. for a cost in the neighborhood of 2 million dollars. The 10 MeV electron beam would not produce any serious radioactivity but would provide unprecedented beam power for such other applications as food processing, sewer treatment, materials curing, radiation hardness assurance, etc. One can always achieve lower current densities by scattering the beam and moving the device under test further away from the scatterer. In this case one must rely on the TLD readings to indicate the dose rate at the point of interest. For general utility with the beam covering about four TLD's fairly evenly one can claim that the NRL LINAC can produce a maximum dose rate of about 6 x 10 to the 10th power rads (Si) per second for a pulse length of 1.5 microseconds, and about 1.4 x 10 to the 11th power rads (Si) per second in a 50 nanosecond pulse. In both cases the beam area is about 0.4 square centimeters.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  17. Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements: examples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Várnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; O'Connor, E. J.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-11-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a liquid-water-absorbing wavelength (i.e., 1640 nm) with a non-water-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g m-2 and horizontal resolution of 201 m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 μm, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 μm and a relative deviation of 13%. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 g m-2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5-min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 μm than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5-min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 μm and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 μm. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  18. Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements: examples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Várnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; O'Connor, E. J.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-08-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a non-water-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g m-2 and horizontal resolution of 201 m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 μm, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 μm and a relative deviation of 13%. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 g m-2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 μm than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5 min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 μm and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 μm. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  19. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Nievergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2011-08-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  4. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  5. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  6. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  7. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  8. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  9. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  10. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  11. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

  12. Proceedings of a Meeting on Traceability for Ionizing Radiation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, H. T., II

    1982-02-01

    General concepts for traceability were presented from several perspectives. The national standards for radiation dosimetry, radioactivity measurements, and neutron measurements were described. Specific programs for achieving traceability to the national standards for radiation measurements in medical, occupational, and environmental applications were summarized.

  13. Advance Control Measures & Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As areas develop their path forward or action plan, they should consider a variety of voluntary and mandatory measures and programs. The resources on this page can help, and participants are also encouraged to talk with their EPA Advance contact

  14. The NASA Space Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Sulzman, F. M.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Health Program is a part of the Life Sciences Division in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA). The goal of the Space Radiation Health Program is development of scientific bases for assuring adequate radiation protection in space. A proposed research program will determine long-term health risks from exposure to cosmic rays and other radiation. Ground-based animal models will be used to predict risk of exposures at varying levels from various sources and the safe levels for manned space flight.

  15. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  16. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  17. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  18. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  19. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  20. Process measurement assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for determining, improving, and controlling the measurement process errors (or measurement uncertainty) of a measurement system used to monitor product as it is manufactured. The method is called the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP). It integrates metrology early into the product realization process and is a step beyond statistical process control (SPC), which monitors only the product. In this method, a control standard is used to continuously monitor the status of the measurement system. Analysis of the control standard data allow the determination of the measurement error inherent in the product data and allow one to separate the variability in the manufacturing process from variability in the measurement process. These errors can be then associated with either the measurement equipment, variability of the measurement process, operator bias, or local environmental effects. Another goal of PMAP is to determine appropriate re-calibration intervals for the measurement system, which may be significantly longer or shorter than the interval typically assigned by the calibration organization.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  2. Correlative Measurements Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The GSFC Correlative Measurements Program at the Wallops Flight Facility was represented on the Satellite/Satellite Intercomparisons Working Group. The Correlative Measurements Program uses the Rocket Ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A) and the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC) balloon borne ozonesonde to measure the vertical profile of ozone amount in the atmosphere. The balloon work is described in a separate report. The ROCOZ-A instrument was used for many years to provide in situ truth data for various satellite ozone measuring systems, such as SBUV on Nimbus-7, SAGE-II, SBUV-II on the NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites, SME, LIMS, etc. The particular data sets of interest to the Ozone Trends Panel Working Group were collected at Natal, Brazil. The major results produced for and used by the Ozone Trends Panel are shown. The ROCOZ-A average ozone density profile is plotted versus altitude on the left. ECC ozonesondes were used for the portion of the profile below 20 km, the lower limit for ROCOZ-A. The difference between SAGE-II and ROCOZ-A average density profiles is shown.

  3. Cooperative Radiation Effects Simulation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-16

    Continue an teers* aide if necovawy and identify by block number) Computer modeling Energy deposition Helium diffusion Deuterium diffusion Heavy ion...melting in a titanium- gettered argon atmosphere. A 3-mm thick slice was cut from the center of each arc-melt button and rolled to 0.1-mm thick foil from...International Conference on Radiation Effects and Tritium Technology for Fusion Reactors, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, 1-3 October 1975, Vol. II, pp. 250-279

  4. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  5. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  6. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  7. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  8. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-06-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  9. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  10. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  13. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  14. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  15. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  16. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  17. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

  18. Plasma Radiation Source Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    because of wobble in the nozzle . . . pos~t~on~ng mechanism...at this small distance, 0.2 cm from the nozzle. Another cause might be the wobble in the mechanism used to raise and lower the nozzle (relative to...there is some uncertainty in the measurement because of wobble in the nozzle positioning mechanism. 9.4.3.2 Densitv Distributions at the Time of

  19. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  20. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  1. Measurement and Applications of Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy; Munday Lab Team

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Measuring and utilizing radiation pressure have aroused growing interest in a wide spectrum of research fields. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are good candidates for measuring radiation pressure, but accompanying photothermal effects often obscure the measurement. In this work, we investigate the accurate measurement of the radiation force on microcantilevers in ambient conditions and ways to separate radiation pressure and photothermal effects. Further, we investigate an optically broadband switchable device based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal which has potential applications in solar sails and maneuvering spacecraft without moving parts. The authors would like to thank NASA Early Career Faculty Award and NASA Smallsat Technology Partnership Award for their funding support.

  2. Measuring Parent Involvement Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Lisa S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigates implementation of the 1990-91 New York City Parent Involvement Program. The first section summarizes the research underlying development of methodology for measuring parent involvement program implementation across diverse program sites. The second section outlines a six-step data collection and measurement methodology involving site…

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  4. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  5. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  6. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  7. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  8. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  9. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  10. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    PubMed

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  11. XUV polarimeter for undulator radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gluskin, E.; Mattson, J.E.; Bader, S.D.; Viccaro, P.J. ); Barbee, T.W. Jr. ); Brookes, N. ); Pitas, A. ); Watts, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A polarimeter for x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) radiation was built to measure the spatial spectral dependence of the polarization of the light produced by the new undulator at the U5 beamline at NSLS. The fourth-harmonic radiation was measured, and it does not agree with predictions based on ideal simulation codes in the far-field approximation. 13 ref., 7 figs.

  12. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  13. Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.

  14. Direction finding measurements of auroral kilometric radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Baumback, M. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Direction finding measurements with plasma wave experiments onboard the Hawkeye-1 and IMP-8 satellites were used to locate the source region of auroral kilometric radiation. The radiation exhibits peak intensities between about 100 kHz and 300 kHz, and emits intense sporadic bursts lasting for between one half hour to several hours. The total power emitted in this frequency range exceeds 10 to the 9th power watts at peak intensity. The occurrence of the radiation is known to be closely associated with bright auroral arcs which occur in the local evening auroral regions.

  15. Methods of in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Dennis D.; Hughes, Robert C.; Kelsey, Charles A.; Lane, Richard; Ricco, Antonio J.; Snelling, Jay B.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements relay on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity with operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  16. Radiation Transmission Measurements for a Lightweight Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H; Singh, M S; DeMeo, R F

    2003-01-17

    Radiation Shield Technologies has developed a lightweight fabric, shown in Fig. 1, with radiation shielding properties for X ray, gamma ray and beta particle emissions in the range of energies relevant to clinical and Homeland Security applications. Detailed measurements were done to measure the shielding properties of this material against the spectra of standard radionuclides and x-ray generators. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using LLNL cross section data, a 3-D photon transport code, elemental weight fractions and the measured density of the fabric.

  17. Shock Layer Radiation Measurements and Analysis for Mars Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Bogdanoff, David W.; Wright, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion program is supporting the development of shock radiation transport models for aerocapture missions to Mars. A comprehensive test series in the NASA Antes Electric Arc Shock Tube facility at a representative flight condition was recently completed. The facility optical instrumentation enabled spectral measurements of shocked gas radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared. The instrumentation captured the nonequilibrium post-shock excitation and relaxation dynamics of dispersed spectral features. A description of the shock tube facility, optical instrumentation, and examples of the test data are presented. Comparisons of measured spectra with model predictions are also made.

  18. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here.

  19. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  20. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  2. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  4. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  5. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  7. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  8. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  9. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  11. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  12. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume.

  13. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  14. Metrology: Measurement Assurance Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eicke, W. G.; Riley, J. P.; Riley, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The 5300.4 series of NASA Handbooks for Reliability and Quality Assurance Programs have provisions for the establishment and utilization of a documented metrology system to control measurement processes and to provide objective evidence of quality conformance. The intent of these provisions is to assure consistency and conformance to specifications and tolerances of equipment, systems, materials, and processes procured and/or used by NASA, its international partners, contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers. This Measurement Assurance Program (MAP) guideline has the specific objectives to: (1) ensure the quality of measurements made within NASA programs; (2) establish realistic measurement process uncertainties; (3) maintain continuous control over the measurement processes; and (4) ensure measurement compatibility among NASA facilities. The publication addresses MAP methods as applied within and among NASA installations and serves as a guide to: control measurement processes at the local level (one facility); conduct measurement assurance programs in which a number of field installations are joint participants; and conduct measurement integrity (round robin) experiments in which a number of field installations participate to assess the overall quality of particular measurement processes at a point in time.

  15. Measurement of Global Radiation using Photovoltaic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Bronders, Jan; Lefevre, Filip; Mensink, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The Vito Unit - Environmental and Spatial Aspects (RMA) - for many of its models makes use of global solar radiation. From this viewpoint and also from the notion that this variable is seldom measured or available at the local scale and at high multi-temporal frequencies, it can be stated that many models are fed with low quality estimates of global solar radiation at the local to regional scales. A project was initiated called SUNSPIDER with the following objective. To make use of photovoltaic solar panels to measure solar radiation at the highest spatio-temporal resolution, from the local to the regional scales and from minutes to years. To integrate the measured solar fields in different application fields like, plant systems and agriculture, agro-meteorology and hydrology and last but not least solar energy applications. In Belgium about 250.000 PV installations have been built leading to about 6% electric power supply from photovoltaics on a yearly basis. Last year in June, the supply reached a peak of more than 20% of the total power input on the Belgian grid. A database of Belgian residential solar panel sites will be compiled. The database will serve as an input to an inverted PV model to be able to perform radiation calculations specifically for each of the validated panel sites based on minutely logged power data. Data acquisition for these sites will start each time a site is validated and hence imported in the database. Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels; PV modelling; Global Radiation.

  16. MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Grether, Donald; Evans, David; Hunt, Arlon; Wahlig, Michael

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide measurements and analyses of the solar and circumsolar radiation for application to solar energy systems that employ lenses or mirrors to concentrate the incident sunlight. Circumsolar radiation results from the scattering of direct sunlight through small angles by atmospheric aerosols (e.g., dust, water-droplets or ice crystals in thin clouds). Concentrating solar energy systems will typically collect all of the direct solar radiation (that originating from the disk of the sun) plus some fraction of the circumsolar radiation. The exact fraction depends upon many factors, but primarily upon the angular size (field-of-view) of the receiver. A knowledge of the circumsolar radiation is then one factor in predicting or evaluating the performance of concentrating systems. The project employs unique instrument systems (called Circumsolar Telescopes) that were designed and fabricated at LBL. The basic measurements are (1) the "circumsolar scan", the brightness of the sun and circumsolar region as a function of angular distance from the center of the sun and (2) the usual "normal incidence" measurement of a pyrheliometer. Both measurements are made for the entire solar spectrum, and (via colored filters) for eight essentially contiguous wavelength bands. Thus the measurements are applicable to systems in which the receiver is essentially wavelength-insensitive (e.g., central receiver) and to wavelength-sensitive systems (e.g., concentrating photovoltaics). A secondary purpose of the project is to relate the data to the atmospheric processes that attenuate the solar radiation available to terrestrial solar energy systems.

  17. Forms for Documenting Radiation Safety Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    06/18, 18/02,06,07 18. Subject Termsf ’ IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR RADIATION, RADIATION DOSAGE , RADIATION CONTAMINATIONRADMION WASTE, RADIATION MEA...MonthlyArea Swvipes_________________ I / Boo- 3/1(0 14) Upt ake Probe Monthly Chi Square_________________ 18 Bti -<k 38 (1) 14) Chi Square Weekly Aut.o Well

  18. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G.

    1965-01-01

    Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.

  19. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Reeder, S.D.

    1962-04-17

    A chemical dosimeter for measuring the progress of a radiation-induced oxidation-reduction reaction is described. The dosimeter comprises a container filled with an aqueous chemical oxidation-reduction system which reacts quantitatively to the radiation. An anode of the group consisting of antimony and tungsten and a cathode of the group consisting of gold and platnium are inserted into the system. Means are provided to stir the system and a potential sensing device is connected across the anode and cathode to detect voltage changes. (AEC)

  20. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  1. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD`s for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND`s) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated dose inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD`s oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

  2. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  3. NIH/NIAID Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    treat or mitigate radiation injury – Drugs to remove radioactive materials from the body – Biodosimetry tools to determine levels of radiation exposure...Chief, Regulatory Affairs  Jui Shah, Ph.D., Senior Regulatory Affairs Officer  Lawrence Prograis, M.D., Special Programs and Bioethics Radiation/Nuclear

  4. The ALTAIR Meteor Measurements Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Established in late 2006, the Meteor Measurements Program is in the process of using the ALTAIR radar located on Kwajelein Atoll to obtain radar observations of sporadic and shower meteoroids. The goals are to determine meteoroid masses, orbits, ballistic coefficients and densities, which shall be provided to the Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) at Marshall Space Flight Center. These data and analyses shall then be used by the MEO to 1) Add a realistic density distribution to the new Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), which is the specified environment for vehicle design in the NASA Constellation (return to Moon) program. This program is the implementation of President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). 2) Investigate the meteoroid velocity distribution at smaller masses. 3) Strive to understand the differences (biases) in meteoroid observations produced by systems like ALTAIR and those of the meteor patrol radars, such as the University of Western Ontario's CMOR system. This paper outlines the program details and its progress.

  5. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  6. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  7. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Poje, M; Varga, M; Radolić, V; Miklavcić, I; Faj, D; Stanić, D; Planinić, J

    2010-12-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21° to 58°; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was Ḣ(n)=5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of Ḣ(f)=1.4 μSv/h.

  8. Measurement and modelling of spectral solar radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehne, K.; Czeplak, G.

    1996-03-01

    Small band measurements of spectral solar radiation by means of commercially available spectral radiometers, which are generally designed for laboratory work, require thorough aptitude tests and mostly special fitting measures. For the already available DM 150, first of all an entrance optics to correct cosine errors, a thermostatted weathercasing, as well as a special control lamp device for field use were developped. An international IEA-field intercomparison of 12 spectral radiometers in the Oberpfaffenhofen area of DLR showed deviations between the global radiation spectra of (+/-)15% and (+/-)40% for the best and the worst case, resp. The latter was caused by the operational requirements in the field and the mechanical instabilities of some radiometers (including the DM 150). Generally a remarkable portion of the deviations belongs to calibration uncertainties and imperfect cosine corrections. With regard to the summarized experience only principal recommendations on the use of spectral radiometers are given. Measured data of atmospheric heat radiation A and other meteorological data of 16 IEA stations were compiled in a data base at MOH to facilitate the fast uniform validation of 30 formulae for parametrization of A. For the case of sky clouded in 3 layers a parametrization formula was improved and successfully validated. A special reliable A-formula could be developped from the sufficiently high number of data of station Schleswig for the case of low cloudiness only.

  9. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Installation and Operation of Particle Transport Simulation Programs to Model the Detection and Measurement of Space Radiation of Space-Borne Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    realistic flight sensor computer models; (3) performance of particle transport calculations ; (4) analysis of transport simulation results, including...programs (LAHET, ACCEPT, CYLTRAN, MCNPX ) for particle transport simulation were applied to the modeling of the CEASE and HEP sensors. In addition, a...preliminary version of a post-processor program for analysis of single particle histories from MCNPX was written. Shown in this report are several listings

  11. A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

  12. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Kirby, Neil; Clayton, Chris; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon K.; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Ken; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-24

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10 kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28 GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts for a single shot CTR autocorrelator.

  13. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  14. The Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Education Program: An Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, F.; Marsh, L. K.; Springer, M.; Talus, C. E.; Haruta, A.; Kloesel, K.; Zak, B. D.; Clements, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education and Outreach program supports ARM Operations at all three CART sites (North Slope of Alaska, Tropical West Pacific, and Southern Great Plains) in ways that are relevant to the needs of the communities and regions that host the ARM program sites. The goal of the education and outreach program is to develop basic science awareness, critical thinking skills, and improve environmental science capacity building for communities, teachers and students in ARM host communities and regions. This year, the primary goal is to extend the existing program to cover all three sites and to coordinate activities among the sites. In order to achieve this goal, we: o Bring awareness of the ARM program to host communities through public education relevant to the culture of the region; o Aid capacity building and community involvement in developing and implementing ARM education at each site; o Promote a broader knowledge of regional and international climate concerns for teachers and students through integration of ARM education across sites; o Assist access to ARM data for educational programs as technical resources permit, and to provide real time research experiences for students; and o Increase the knowledge base for teachers and students in basic science and critical thinking skills using curriculum-based enrichment activities in climate, climate change, and climate change effects relevant to each region.

  15. An Algorithm to Calculate Phase-Center Offset of Aperture Antennas when Measuring 2-Dimensional Radiation Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    An Algorithm to Calculate Phase-Center Offset of Aperture Antennas when Measuring 2-Dimensional Radiation Patterns by Patrick Debroux...Offset of Aperture Antennas when Measuring 2-Dimensional Radiation Patterns Patrick Debroux and Berenice Verdin Survivability/Lethality Analysis... Antennas when Measuring 2-Dimensional Radiation Patterns 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  16. A Radiometer for Precision Coherent Radiation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Douglas B.; Zalewski, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    A radiometer has been designed for precision colierent radiation measurements and tested for long-term repeatability at wavelengths of 488 and 633 nm. The radiometer consists of a pn silicon photodiode maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere with a quartz window designed to eliminate interference problems. Ratio measurements between the radiometer and an absolute type detector were made over a period of 215 d. At 0.5 mW, the standard deviations were 0.008% and 0.009% at 488 and 633 nm, respectively. The maximum deviations from the mean were 0.016% and 0.015% at the respective wavelengths. Measurements were also made on the radiometer with respect to angular and spatial uniformity and linearity. The high precision, simplicity, and portability of the radiometer suggest it for use as a transfer standard for radiometric measurements. PMID:28053435

  17. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  18. Radiation Measurements on the Russian MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Mir orbital station was launched into an orbit with a 51.65 deg inclination in March 1986. It has operated continuously in the altitude range of 380 to 460 km. Almost immediately, cosmonauts began to carry out missions to the station. To date, there have been some 25 Russian missions. As part of the NASA Mir Program, a comprehensive set of radiation measurements were made to map the radiation in all of the Mir module. Numerous radiation measurements have been made on the Mir station throughout its lifetime. However, the comparison of these measurements have been difficult because of different sensitivities of detectors, some active and some passive, differing self shielding and in most cases unknown location shielding. In spite of these complications, very significant progress in the knowledge of the radiation environment onboard the Mir station has been made. These results are directly applicable to expected radiation environment on the International Space Station. In this paper, we describe the combined results from all seven NASA Mir missions. We show: (1) the absorbed dose rate from trapped particles is well correlated with the atmospheric density computed nearly 400 days earlier than the time of observation, (2) developed a relationship between the absorbed dose rate from galactic cosmic rays to the deceleration potential derived using the Climax neutron monitor rate, giving a tool to predict GCR dose rates to +/- 15% nearly 90 days prior to observations, (3) describe the drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) with time, (4) compare the predictions of the dose rates as a function of time from the November 6-8, 1998 solar particle event with observations, (5) compare measurements made with NASA Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) with the ESA DOSTEL device, the Hungarian Pille system, and the Russian R-16 dosimeter. Implications of these measurements for the ISS will be discussed.

  19. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  20. Installation and Operation of Particle Transport Simulation Programs to Model the Detection and Measurement of Space Radiation by Space-Borne Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    models; (3) performance of particle transport calculation ; (4) analysis of transport simulation results, including single particle tracking; (5...space-borne dosimeter simulation studies; (7)three-dimensional visualization of ITS-ACCEPT and MCNPX were applied to the modeling of the geometry files...The computer programs ITS-ACCEPT and MCNPX were applied to the modeling of the CEASE and HEP sensors. Shown in this report are listings of input files

  1. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  2. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchida, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise.

  3. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  4. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  5. RADIATIVE PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF OXY-FUEL FLAMES

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton R. Bedick; Stephen K. Beer; Kent H. Casleton; Benjamin T. Chorpening; David W. Shaw; M. Joseph Yip

    2011-03-01

    As part of the DOE Existing Plants, Emissions and Capture (EPEC) program, oxy-combustion is being investigated as a method to simplify carbon capture and reduce the parasitic energy penalties associated with separating CO2 from a dilute flue gas. Gas-phase radiation heat transfer in boilers becomes significant when shifting from air-firing to oxycombustion, and must be accurately represented in models. Currently, radiative property data are not widely available in the literature for conditions appropriate to this environment. In order to facilitate the development and validation of accurate oxy-combustion models, NETL conducted a series of studies to measure radiation properties of oxy-fuel flames at adiabatic flame temperatures of 1750 - 1950K, and product molar concentrations ranging from 95% CO2 to 100% steam, determined by equilibrium calculations. Transmission coefficients were measured as a function of wavelength using a mid-IR imaging spectrometer and a blackbody radiation source. Additionally, flame temperatures were calculated using data collected within CO2 and H2O absorption bands. Experimental results were compared to two statistical narrowband models and experimental data from literature sources. These comparisons showed good overall agreement, although differences between the models and experimental results were noted, particularly for the R branch of the 2.7 μm H2O band.

  6. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements. (a) For an intentional radiator, the spectrum shall... kHz, up to at least the frequency shown in this paragraph: (1) If the intentional radiator operates... lower. (2) If the intentional radiator operates at or above 10 GHz and below 30 GHz: to the...

  7. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements. (a) For an intentional radiator, the spectrum shall... kHz, up to at least the frequency shown in this paragraph: (1) If the intentional radiator operates... lower. (2) If the intentional radiator operates at or above 10 GHz and below 30 GHz: to the...

  8. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements. (a) For an intentional radiator, the spectrum shall... kHz, up to at least the frequency shown in this paragraph: (1) If the intentional radiator operates... lower. (2) If the intentional radiator operates at or above 10 GHz and below 30 GHz: to the...

  9. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements. (a) For an intentional radiator, the spectrum shall... kHz, up to at least the frequency shown in this paragraph: (1) If the intentional radiator operates... lower. (2) If the intentional radiator operates at or above 10 GHz and below 30 GHz: to the...

  10. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  11. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, S. D.; Kuehne, M.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.

    1992-01-01

    The experiment Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) is designed for the investigations of plasma flow characteristics, turbulence and wave motions, plasma densities and temperatures, structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity in the chromosphere, the transition zone and the corona. Specifically, SUMER will measure profiles and intensities of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lines emitted in the solar atmosphere ranging from the upper chromosphere to the lower corona; determine line broadenings, spectral positions and Doppler shifts with high accuracy, provide stigmatic images of selected areas of the Sun in the EUV with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution and obtain full images of the Sun and the inner corona in selectable EUV lines, corresponding to a temperature from 10,000 to more than 1,800,000 K.

  12. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Witebsky, C.

    1984-12-01

    We have continued our program to measure the long-wavelength spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. Our previous observations were at five wavelengths--0.33, 0.9, 3.0, 6.3, and 12.0 cm--and had a weighted average value of 2.73 {+-} 0.05 K and deviated from a Planckian spectrum by less than 6%. In August 1984, we repeated our observations at 3.0, 0.9, and 0.33 cm and made new observations with a radiometer tunable from 1.7 to 15 cm. Preliminary analysis indicate that the new data are consistent with our previous results.

  15. Millimeter wave radiative transfer studies for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Evans, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Scattering calculations using the discrete dipole approximation and vector radiative transfer calculations were performed to model multiparameter radar return and passive microwave emission for a simple model of a winter storm. The issue of dendrite riming was addressed by computing scattering properties of thin ice disks with varying bulk density. It was shown that C-band multiparameter radar contains information about particle density and the number concentration of the ice particles. The radiative transfer modeling indicated that polarized multifrequency passive microwave emission may be used to infer some properties of ice hydrometers. Detailed radar modeling and vector radiative transfer modeling is in progress to enhance the understanding of simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements, as in the case of the proposed TRMM field program. A one-dimensional cloud model will be used to simulate the storm structure in detail and study the microphysics, such as size and density. Multifrequency polarized radiometer measurements from the SSMI satellite instrument will be analyzed in relation to dual-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements.

  16. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  18. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, M. C. E.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.; Poland, A. I.

    1988-01-01

    The SUMER (solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation) experiment is described. It will study flows, turbulent motions, waves, temperatures and densities of the plasma in the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity will be observed on various spatial and temporal scales. This will contribute to the understanding of coronal heating processes and the solar wind expansion. The instrument will take images of the Sun in EUV (extreme ultra violet) light with high resolution in space, wavelength and time. The spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of the instrument are described. Spectral shifts can be determined with subpixel accuracy. The wavelength range extends from 500 to 1600 angstroms. The integration time can be as short as one second. Line profiles, shifts and broadenings are studied. Ratios of temperature and density sensitive EUV emission lines are established.

  19. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  20. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

  1. Measuring radiative capture rates at DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, U.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Greife, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2013-04-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance in inverse kinematics. The Supernanogan ion source at ISAC provides stable beams of high intensities. The DRAGON collaboration has taken advantage of this over the last years by measuring several reactions requiring high-intensity stable oxygen beams. In particular,the ^17O(p,γ) and ^16O(α,γ) reaction rates were recently measured. The former reaction is part of the hot CNO cycle, and strongly influences the abundance of ^18F in classical novae. Because of its relatively long lifetime, ^18F is a possible target for satellite-based gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ^16O(α,γ) reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the ^12C(α,γ) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In both cases, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. Results from both experiments will be presented.

  2. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

    2005-02-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2).

  3. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  4. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  6. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

  8. Space life sciences: radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The volume contains papers presented at COSPAR symposia in October 2002 about radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit. The risk assessment symposium brought together multidisciplinary expertise including physicists, biologists, and theoretical modelers. Topics included current knowledge about known and predicted radiation environments, radiation shielding, physics cross section models, improved ion beam transport codes, biological demonstrations of specific shielding materials and applications to a manned mission to Mars, advancements in biological measurement of radiation-induced protein expression profiles, and integration of physical and biological parameters to assess key elements of radiation risk. Papers from the radiation measurements in low Earth orbit symposium included data about dose, linear energy transfer spectra, and charge spectra from recent measurements on the International Space Station (ISS), comparison between calculations and measurements of dose distribution inside a human phantom and the neutron component inside the ISS; and reviews of trapped antiprotons and positrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere.

  9. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  10. Measuring Success: Evaluating Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2010-01-01

    This paper reveals a new evaluation model, which enables educational program and project managers to evaluate their programs with a simple and easy to understand approach. The "index of success model" is comprised of five parameters that enable to focus on and evaluate both the implementation and results of an educational program. The…

  11. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris surveys. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m are both employed to acquire filter photometry data as well as synchronously observe targets in selected optical filters. Obtaining data synchronously yields data for material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. Observations of GEO orbital debris using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) began in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris has been detected that reaches approx. 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the spectral data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and sourcetarget- sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a modified

  12. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  13. User's manual for University of Arizona APART program (Analysis Program - Arizona Radiation Trace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A description and operating instructions for the Analysis Program Arizona Radiation Trace (APART) are given. This is a computer program that is able to efficiently and accurately predict the off-axis rejection characteristics of unwanted stray radiation for complex rotationally symmetric optical systems. The program first determines the critical objects or areas that scatter radiation to the image plane either directly or through imaging elements: this provides the opportunity to modify, if necessary, the design so that the number of critical areas seen by the image plane is reduced or the radiation to these critical areas is minimized. Next, the power distribution reaching the image plane and a sectional power map of all internal surfaces are computed. Angular information is also provided that relates the angle by which the radiation came into a surface to the angle by which the radiation is scattered out of the surface.

  14. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    At this symposium significant new data and analyses were reported in cosmic ray research, radiation dosimetry, induced radioactivity, and radiation environment modeling. Measurements of induced radioactivity and absorbed dose are nearly complete, but much analysis and modeling remains. Measurements and analyses of passive nuclear track detectors (PNTD), used to derive the cosmic ray composition and spectra, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, are only a few percent complete, but important results have already emerged. As one might expect at this stage of the research, some of the new information has produced questions rather than answers. Low-energy heavy nuclei detected by two experiments are not compatible with known solar or cosmic components. Various data sets on absorbed dose are not consistent, and a new trapped proton environment model does not match the absorbed dose data. A search for cosmogenic nuclei other than Be-7 on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces has produced an unexpected result, and some activation data relating to neutrons is not yet understood. Most of these issues will be resolved by the analysis of further experiment data, calibrations, or the application of the large LDEF data set that offers alternate data or analysis techniques bearing on the same problem. The scope of the papers at this symposium defy a compact technical summary. I have attempted to group the new information that I noted into the following groups: induced radioactivity; absorbed dose measurements; LET spectra and heavy ion dosimetry; environment modeling and three dimensional shielding effects; cosmogenic nuclei; and cosmic rays and other heavy ions. The papers generally are expository and have excellent illustrations, and I refer to their figures rather than reproduce them here. The general program and objectives of ionizing radiation measurements and analyses on LDEF has been described previously.

  15. New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

  16. Measurement of Radiation Pressure in an Ambient Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Light has momentum and thus exerts ``radiation pressure'' when it is reflected or absorbed due to the conservation of momentum. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are suitable for measurement and utilization of radiation pressure due to their high sensitivities. However, other light-induced mechanical deformations such as photothermal effects often obscure accurate measurements of radiation pressure in these systems. In this work, we investigate the radiation pressure and photothermal force on an uncoated silicon nitride microcantilever under illumination by a 660 nm laser in an ambient environment. To magnify the mechanical effects, the cantilever is driven optically from dc across its resonance frequency, and the amplitude and phase of its oscillation are acquired by an optical beam deflection method and a lockin amplifier. We show that radiation pressure and photothermal effects can be distinguished through the cantilever's frequency response. Furthermore, in a radiation pressure dominant regime, our measurement of the radiation force agrees quantitatively with the theoretical calculation.

  17. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  18. In-flight radiation measurements on STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Golightly, M. J.; Konradi, A.; Atwell, W.; Kern, J. W.; Cash, B.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Sanner, D.; Keegan, R. P.; Frigo, L. A.; Petrov, V. M.; Tchernykh, I. V.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Arkhangelsky, V. V.; Kushin, V. V.; Klyachin, N. A.; Vana, N.; Schoner, W.

    1996-01-01

    A joint investigation between the United States and Russia to study the radiation environment inside the Space Shuttle flight STS-60 was carried out as part of the Shuttle-Mir Science Program (Phase 1). This is the first direct comparison of a number of different dosimetric measurement techniques between the two countries. STS-60 was launched on 3 February 1994 in a nearly circular 57 degrees x 353 km orbit with five U.S. astronauts and one Russian cosmonaut for 8.3 days. A variety of instruments provided crew radiation exposure, absorbed doses at fixed locations, neutron fluence and dose equivalent, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of trapped and galactic cosmic radiation, and energy spectra and angular distribution of trapped protons. In general, there is good agreement between the U.S. and Russian measurements. The AP8 Min trapped proton model predicts an average of 1.8 times the measured absorbed dose. The average quality factor determined from measured lineal energy, y, spectra using a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), is in good agreement with that derived from the high temperature peak in the 6LiF thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). The radiation exposure in the mid-deck locker from neutrons below 1 MeV was 2.53 +/- 1.33 microSv/day. The absorbed dose rates measured using a tissue equivalent proportional counter, were 171.1 +/- 0.4 and 127.4 +/- 0.4 microGy/day for trapped particles and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. The combined dose rate of 298.5 +/- 0.82 microGy/day is about a factor of 1.4 higher than that measured using TLDs. The westward longitude drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.22 +/- 0.02 degrees/y. We evaluated the effects of spacecraft attitudes on TEPC dose rates due to the highly anisotropic low-earth orbit proton environment. Changes in spacecraft attitude resulted in dose-rate variations by factors of up to 2 at the location of the TEPC.

  19. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  20. Neutron Measurements Using the Universal Radiation Spectrum Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Cummings; Byron Christiansen; Laird Bean

    2005-02-01

    The Universal Radiation Spectrum Analyzer (URSA-II), developed by Radiation Safety Associates, and manufactured by SE International (Figure 1) is an interface between a radiation detector and a personal computer. Originally, the URSA-II was developed for use with detectors that measure the energy of gamma rays. At the Idaho National Laboratory, the URSA-II is an integral part of standard measurement techniques to measure characteristics of neutron radiation fields. Those techniques are discussed briefly and spectra using the URSA-II are presented.

  1. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1994-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  2. Soot and Radiation Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of soot formation and radiation heat transfer in microgravity jet diffusion flames is important not only for the understanding of fundamental transport processes involved but also for providing findings relevant to spacecraft fire safety and soot emissions and radiant heat loads of combustors used in air-breathing propulsion systems. Our objectives are to measure and model soot volume fraction, temperature, and radiative heat fluxes in microgravity jet diffusion flames. For this four-year project, we have successfully completed three tasks, which have resulted in new research methodologies and original results. First is the implementation of a thermophoretic soot sampling technique for measuring particle size and aggregate morphology in drop-tower and other reduced gravity experiments. In those laminar flames studied, we found that microgravity soot aggregates typically consist of more primary particles and primary particles are larger in size than those under normal gravity. Comparisons based on data obtained from limited samples show that the soot aggregate's fractal dimension varies within +/- 20% of its typical value of 1.75, with no clear trends between normal and reduced gravity conditions. Second is the development and implementation of a new imaging absorption technique. By properly expanding and spatially-filtering the laser beam to image the flame absorption on a CCD camera and applying numerical smoothing procedures, this technique is capable of measuring instantaneous full-field soot volume fractions. Results from this technique have shown the significant differences in local soot volume fraction, smoking point, and flame shape between normal and reduced gravity flames. We observed that some laminar flames become open-tipped and smoking under microgravity. The third task we completed is the development of a computer program which integrates and couples flame structure, soot formation, and flame radiation analyses together. We found good

  3. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  4. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  5. Measurements of the frequency spectrum of transition radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Mueller, D.

    1977-01-01

    We report a measurement of the frequency spectrum of X-ray transition radiation. X rays were generated by electrons of 5 and 9 GeV in radiators of multiple polypropylene foils, and detected in the range 4 to 30 keV with a calibrated single-crystal Bragg spectrometer. The experimental results closely reproduce the features of the theoretically predicted spectrum. In particular, the pronounced interference pattern of multifoil radiators and the expected hardening of the radiation with increasing foil thickness are clearly observed. The overall intensity of the radiation is somewhat lower than predicted by calculations.

  6. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  7. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shih-Yew; Napier, Bruce A.

    2016-02-18

    The Program Area Committee 5 (PAC 5) of the National Council on Radiation protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The committee completed a number of reports in the subject areas, and specifically the most recent NCRP Report 175 (Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents). Historically PAC 5 addressed the emerging issues of the nation that pertain to radioactivity or radiation in the environment, or the radioactive waste issues due either to the natural origins or to the manmade activities

  8. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  9. Workshop on measurement quality assurance for ionizing radiation: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.A.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This workshop was held to review the status of secondary level calibration accreditation programs, review related measurement accreditation programs, document lessons learned, and to present changes in programs due to new national priorities involving radioactivity measurements. Contents include: fundamentals of measurement quality assurance (MQA), standards for MQA programs; perspectives and policies; complete MQA programs; future MQA programs; QA/QC programs--radioactivity; QA/QC programs--dosimetry; laboratory procedures for QA/QC; in-house control of reference dosimetry laboratories; in-house controls of radioactivity laboratories; and poster session. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xuefen; Cui, Jian; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Plant canopies structures are important biophysical parameters required in many ecological and climate models. To obtain precise canopies characteristic, the radiation distribution in forest gap should be tracing. In this paper, a radiation transmission measuring method with gyroscope correction for forest gap radiation distribution measurement is present. And a Zigbee wireless network is imbedded for communicating between portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer. Using the solar beam as a probe, the measuring nodes collect radiation distribution in forest gap. Because the constant pace of operator in forest and other outdoor occasion is hard to validate, radiation distribution curves suffer some error. We present a Forest radiation distribution meter with Gyro correction for TRAC measuring. In this meter, A Gyroscope records transect route data and provide speed correction for canopy gaps curve in tracing route. A Microchip PIC16F877 MCU is employed for radiation data collection. The collected data is sent to central station by Zigbee wireless network or CF376 in-line USB flash drives/SD card. Solar radiation spike data and other environment parameters (Temperature and Humidity) are sampled simultaneously. So the gap removal processes suffer less error. A portable node provides full-trace radiation distribution. Host computer can get potential relationship in tracing-line LAI and FPAR and compute them in long-term. A portable full-trace radiation detector and host computer is tested. The experimental results show our design could be a competitive candidate for radiation distribution measurement for forest plant canopies tracing.

  11. Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  14. Measurement records vital for effective program

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.P.; Byars, H.G. )

    1990-07-02

    Corrosion monitoring is the foundation for a corrosion control program in oil and gas fields. The information derived is necessary to determine need, extent, and performance of corrosion control measures. This report discusses the need to maintain good records on the corrosion control program and the techniques for measuring the corrosion environment. Emphasis is on corrosion caused by produced fluids.

  15. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  16. Recollections on Sixty Years of NBS Ionizing Radiation Programs for Energetic X Rays and Electrons1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, H. William

    2006-01-01

    These recollections are on ionizing radiation programs at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) that started in 1928 and ended in 1988 when NBS became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The independent Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) was formed in 1992. This article focuses on how measurements and standards for x rays, gamma rays, and electrons with energies above 1 MeV began at NBS and how they progressed. It also suggests how the radiation processors of materials and foods, the medical radiographic and radiological industries, and the radiological protection interests of the government (including homeland security) represented in CIRMS can benefit from NIST programs. PMID:27274947

  17. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  18. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, T.H.

    1981-10-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  19. Radiation Measurements in Simulated Ablation Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-06

    permitting its thermal decomposition and the release of carbon -containing gaseous species into the shocklayer within the 80 μs test time. Shocklayer...vapourised products surrounding the craft, and by radiative cooling from the carbon „char‟ which is left behind after vapourisation. Many products have...been successfully used for this purpose, including carbon phenolics (which form the basis of most sacrificial heat shields), cork and modern

  20. Earth radiation budget measurements - Pre-ERBE, ERBE, and CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews experiments dealing with the earth's radiation budget for the last two decades. Attention is focused on the major areas of concern in the satellite measurements: instrument calibration, angular dependence of the radiation leaving the atmosphere, and space and time dependence of the flux fields. It is pointed out that the current radiation-budget measurements come from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) with improved calibration, estimates of the instantaneous flux, and algorithms for time interpolation. A new set of measurements will be produced from an investigation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), a part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). CERES is expected to produce the radiation field from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface.

  1. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (3) After an appropriate warm up, turn the receiver to the frequency of the test unit, set the...) General set-up instructions. Measurements of radiated electromagnetic emissions (EME) are to be performed... internal battery with its standard antenna attached and deployed. (b) Set-up for radiated EME tests....

  2. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (3) After an appropriate warm up, turn the receiver to the frequency of the test unit, set the...) General set-up instructions. Measurements of radiated electromagnetic emissions (EME) are to be performed... internal battery with its standard antenna attached and deployed. (b) Set-up for radiated EME tests....

  3. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  4. The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

    2003-01-01

    To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation,…

  5. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  6. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOEpatents

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  7. Optimization of measurements of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Brilkov, I. A.; Vlasova, N. A.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Earth's radiation belts discovered at the end of the 1950s have great scientific and practical interest. Their main characteristics in magnetically quiet periods are well known. However, the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts during magnetic storms and substorms, particularly the dynamics of relativistic electrons of the outer belt, when Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes undergo significant time variations, is studied insufficiently. At present, principally new experiments have been performed and planned with the intention to better study the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and to operationally control the space-energy distributions of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes. In this paper, for spacecraft designed to measure the fluxes of electrons and protons of the Earth's radiation belts at altitudes of 0.5-10000 km, the optimal versions for detector orientation and orbital parameters have been considered and selected.

  8. Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Gaza, Ramona; Johnson, Steve; Zapp, Neal; Lee, Kerry; George, Tamra

    Radiation measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with different dosimeters D. Zhou1,2,*, E. Semones1, R. Gaza1,2, S. Johnson1, N. Zapp1, K. Lee1, T. George1 1Johnson Space Center - NASA, 2101 Nasa Parkway, Houston 77058, USA 2Universities Space Research Association, 3600 Bay Area Blvd, Houston 77058, USA *Corresponding author. E-mail address: dazhuang.zhou-1@nasa.gov (D. Zhou). Abstract Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). The biological impact of space radiation to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to measure the LET spectrum for the space radiation field and to investigate the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the preferred active dosimeters sensitive to all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors in various configurations; the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. The TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation exposure for the ISS mission Expedition 13 (ISS-12S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the space mission with different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operational principles for the dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs, and presents the LET spectra and the radiation quantities measured. Keywords: space radiation; cosmic rays; active and passive dosimeters; LET spectra

  9. DOE candidate site meteorological measurement program

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D. S.; Sandusky, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1976, DOE issued an RFP to acquire, on a competitive basis, a group of candidate sites, proposed by utilities interested in the field testing program. A total of 17 candidate sites were selected from the 64 proposals submitted in response to the RFP. From these sites, five have been chosen thus far to receive turbines for field testing. This paper discusses the meteorological measurement activities at these sites and provides details of the measurement program as it exists in late 1979. In addition, the paper briefly discusses the directions this program will take in the near future, and the options interested electric service organizations have for participating in the program.

  10. Estimation of Effective Doses for Radiation Cancer Risks on ISS, Lunar, and Mars Missions with Space Radiation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection practices define the effective dose as a weighted sum of equivalent dose over major sites for radiation cancer risks. Since a crew personnel dosimeter does not make direct measurement of effective dose, it has been estimated with skin-dose measurements and radiation transport codes for ISS and STS missions. The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) of NASA s Operational Radiation Protection Program has provided the actual flight measurements of active and passive dosimeters which were placed throughout the phantom on STS-91 mission for 10 days and on ISS Increment 2 mission. For the PTE, the variation in organ doses, which is resulted by the absorption and the changes in radiation quality with tissue shielding, was considered by measuring doses at many tissue sites and at several critical body organs including brain, colon, heart, stomach, thyroid, and skins. These measurements have been compared with the organ dose calculations obtained from the transport models. Active TEPC measurements of lineal energy spectra at the surface of the PTE also provided the direct comparison of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) or trapped proton dose and dose equivalent. It is shown that orienting the phantom body as actual in ISS is needed for the direct comparison of the transport models to the ISS data. One of the most important observations for organ dose equivalent of effective dose estimates on ISS is the fractional contribution from trapped protons and GCR. We show that for most organs over 80% is from GCR. The improved estimation of effective doses for radiation cancer risks will be made with the resultant tissue weighting factors and the modified codes.

  11. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  12. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation Reactor Vessel Radiation Surveillance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, T.R.; Anderson, S.L.; Yanichko, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Westinghouse recognized that the disruption of the atomic lattice of metals by collision from energetic neutrons could alter the properties of the metals to such an extent that the changes could be of engineering significance. Furthermore, it was recognized that a physical-metallurgical phenomenon such as aging, both thermal and mechanical, also could alter the properties of a metal over its service life. Because of the potential changes in properties, reactor vessel radiation surveillance programs to monitor the effect of neutron radiation and other environmental factors on the reactor vessel materials during operational conditions over the life of the plant were initiated for Westinghouse plants with the insertion of reactor vessel material radiation surveillance capsules into the Yankee Atomic Company's Yankee Rowe plant in 1961.

  13. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1987-01-01

    Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

  14. Coherent Transition Radiation to Measure the SLAC Electron Bunch Length

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Barnes, C.D.; Walz, D.; Krejcik, P.; Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2005-05-13

    Coherent transition radiation is used to measure the length of the ultra-short electron bunches available at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The results and the limitations of the method are described.

  15. The program on radiative inputs of the sun to the Earth (rise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    General concerns about changes in the Earth's climate and in the ozone layer have increased the importance of measuring and understanding variations in the sun's radiative outputs. These outputs appear, for instance, at the top of the list of global change forcing agents in the recent FY-90 document on the U.S. Global Change Program. Significant advances have been made over the past decade in radiometry of the total solar irradiance. Photometry of light variations in stars similar to the sun, but much younger, is providing new insights into the sun's variations in luminosity and UV radiation at previous epochs of interest to paleoclimate studies. Measurement of the sun's 11-year output variability in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet still possess a challenge of great importance. All of these topics are addressed by the program on Radiative Inputs of the Sun to Earth (RISE). RISE is a 5-year program of observations, data analysis, and theory, that has been defined at two workshops held in Boulder, Colorado in November 1987, and in Tucson, Arizona in October 1989. These meetings involved about 60 solar and atmospheric physicists, and stellar astronomers. A proceedings of the 1987 workshop was issued in early 1988. A substantial component of the program, consisting of ground-based observations, data analysis, and theory, is directed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the program is seeking a FY-92 funding start at the NSF. RISE also makes recommendations on measurements required from NASA and NOAA satellites.

  16. Measuring plasma turbulence using low coherence microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.

    2012-02-20

    Low coherence backscattering (LCBS) is a proposed diagnostic technique for measuring plasma turbulence and fluctuations. LCBS is an adaptation of optical coherence tomography, a biomedical imaging technique. Calculations and simulations show LCBS measurements can achieve centimeter-scale spatial resolution using low coherence microwave radiation. LCBS measurements exhibit several advantages over standard plasma turbulence measurement techniques including immunity to spurious reflections and measurement access in hollow density profiles. Also, LCBS is scalable for 1-D profile measurements and 2-D turbulence imaging.

  17. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic X rays for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Delis, Harry; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated.

  18. Vacuum ultraviolet line radiation measurements of a shock-heated nitrogen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Line radiation, in the wavelength region from 1040 to 2500 A from nitrogen plasmas, was measured at conditions typical of those produced in the shock layer in front of vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere at superorbital velocities. The radiation was also predicted with a typical radiation transport computer program to determine whether such calculations adequately model plasmas for the conditions tested. The results of the comparison show that the radiant intensities of the lines between 1040 and 1700 A are actually lower than are predicted by such computer models.

  19. Radiation measurements over a snowfield at an elevated site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, H. C.; Gailiun, J. J.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    The components of short wave radiation were measured over a snowfield in a valley of the Rocky Mountains at a height of 2700 m above sea level. Global and reflected radiation were obtained by a set of Eppley pyranometers. In addition, the direct solar radiation and the turbidity of the atmosphere were derived from pyrheliometric data on cloud-free days. Emphasis was given to the reflectance of the snowfield in relation to the position of the sun, especially at low elevation angles. These reflectance values were measured for cloudless as well as for cloudy days and compared with already published values for arctic and antarctic conditions.

  20. Balloon measurements of the far-infrared background radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, D.; Weiss, R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a balloon-borne radiometer designed to make direct measurements of the background radiation in the spectral range from 1 to 20 cm, and evaluation of the results of two balloon flights performed with the aid of this radiometer. Measurements in five different passbands in the spectral region below 20 per cm were made with a liquid-helium-cooled radiometer in two flights at approximately 40-km altitude. The results obtained are found to be consistent with a 2.7 K thermal radiation background. In addition, an atmospheric radiation of certain magnitude is found to dominate the region above 11 per cm.

  1. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2002-01-31

    of the agreement are met. The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within NNSA implements the transparency provisions of the bilateral agreement. It is constantly making progress towards meeting its objectives and gathering the information necessary to confirm that Russian weapons-usable HEU is being blended into LEU. Since the first shipment in 1995 through December 2001, a total of 141 MT of weapons-grade HEU, about 28% of the agreed total and equivalent to 5,650 nuclear weapons, was converted to LEU, further reducing the threat of this material returning back into nuclear weapons. In the year 2001, the LEU sold to electric utility customers for fuel was sufficient to supply the annual fuel needs for about 50 percent of the U.S. installed nuclear electrical power generation capacity. There are four primary uranium processing activities involved in converting HEU metal components extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons into fuel for power reactors: (1) Converting HEU metal to purified HEU oxide; (2) Converting purified HEU oxide to HEU hexafluoride; (3) Downblending HEU hexafluoride to LEU hexafluoride; and (4) Converting LEU hexafluoride into reactor fuel. The first three processes are currently being performed at four Russian nuclear processing facilities: Mayak Production Association (MPA), Electrochemical Plant (ECP), Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), and Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP). Following the blending down of HEU, the LEU hexafluoride is loaded into industry, standard 30B cylinders at the downblending facilities and transported to St. Petersburg, Russia. From there the LEU is shipped by sea to the United States where it is converted into fuel to be used in nuclear power plants. There are six U.S. facilities processing LEU subject to the HEU purchase agreement: the Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant, Global Nuclear Fuel -America, Framatome-Lynchburg, Framatome-Richland, Westinghouse-Hematite, and

  3. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-10-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities.

  4. A New Standard for Measuring Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a new standard for measuring graduate programs in the United States. The Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index, produced by Academic Analytics, a for-profit company, rates faculty members' scholarly output at nearly 7,300 doctoral programs around the country. It examines the number of book and journal articles published by…

  5. Radiation budget measurements for the eighties and nineties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Barkstrom, B. R.; Harrison, E. F.; Lee, R. B., III; Wielicki, B. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consisted of a scanning radiometer and non-scanning radiometers on each of three spacecraft. These instruments began flying in October 1984. The nonscanning radiometers continue to operate, providing broadband radiation measurements of the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation, in addition to measurements of the solar output. The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) features a scanning radiometer, which is an improved version of the ERBE scanning radiometer, and will fly on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and Earth Observation System platforms in the late nineties. The CERES project will provide not only radiant fluxes at the 'top of the atmosphere' (TOA), but also at the surface and will compute radiant flux divergence through the atmosphere.

  6. The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system from Nimbus 3 radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Pasternak, M.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system and its components was computed from global measurements of radiation reflected and emitted from the earth to space. These measurements were made from the meteorological satellite Nimbus 3 during the periods from April 16 to August 15, 1969; October 3 to 17, 1969; and January 21 to February 3, 1970. Primarily the method of evaluation, its inherent assumptions, and possible error sources were discussed. Results are presented by various methods: (1) global, hemispherical, and zonal averages obtained from measurements in all semimonthly periods and (2) global maps of the absorbed solar radiation, the albedo, the outgoing longwave radiation, and the radiation balance obtained from measurements during semimonthly periods in each season (May 1 to 15, July 16 to 31, and October 3 to 17, 1969, and January 21 to February 3, 1970). Annual global averages of the albedo and of the outgoing longwave radiation were determined. These values balance to within 1 percent the annual global energy input by solar radiation that was computed for a solar constant.

  7. High accuracy radiation efficiency measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozakoff, D. J.; Schuchardt, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The relatively large antenna subarrays (tens of meters) to be used in the Solar Power Satellite, and the desire to accurately quantify antenna performance, dictate the requirement for specialized measurement techniques. The error contributors associated with both far-field and near-field antenna measurement concepts were quantified. As a result, instrumentation configurations with measurement accuracy potential were identified. In every case, advances in the state of the art of associated electronics were found to be required. Relative cost trade-offs between a candidate far-field elevated antenna range and near-field facility were also performed.

  8. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  9. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.; Hillger, D. W.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) cloud effects in climate determination; (2) annual variation in the global heat balance of the earth; (3) the accuracy of precipitation estimates made from passive microwave measurements from satellites; (4) seasonal oceanic precipitation frequencies; (5) determination of mesoscale temperature and moisture fields over land from satellite radiance measurements; and (6) Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer data evaluation for surface wind and pressure components in tropical storms.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories

    DOE Data Explorer

    The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  11. A computer program to calculate radiation properties of reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the radiation properties of the reflector antennas is presented. It can be used for paraboloidal, spherical, or ellipsoidal reflector surfaces and is easily modified to handle any surface that can be expressed analytically. The program is general enough to allow any arbitrary location and pointing angle for the feed antenna. The effect of blockage due to the feed horn is also included in the computations. The computer program is based upon the technique of tracing the rays from the feed antenna to the reflector to an aperture plane. The far field radiation properties are then calculated by performing a double integration over the field points in the aperture plane. To facilitate the computation of double intergral, the field points are first aligned along the equispaced straight lines in the aperture plane. The computation time is relatively insensitive to the absolute size of the aperture and even though no limits on the largest reflector size have been determined, the program was used for reflector diameters of 1000 wavelenghts.

  12. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  13. Method and apparatus for measuring spatial uniformity of radiation

    DOEpatents

    Field, Halden

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and transmit electrical signals representative of the intensity of impinging radiation to a signal processor circuit connected to each of the detectors and adapted to concurrently receive the electrical signals from the detectors and process with a central processing unit (CPU) the signals to determine intensities of the radiation impinging at each detector location. The CPU displays the determined intensities and relative intensity values corresponding to each detector location to an operator of the measuring apparatus on an included data display device. Concurrent sampling of each detector is achieved by connecting to each detector a sample and hold circuit that is configured to track the signal and store it upon receipt of a "capture" signal. A switching device then selectively retrieves the signals and transmits the signals to the CPU through a single analog to digital (A/D) converter. The "capture" signal. is then removed from the sample-and-hold circuits. Alternatively, concurrent sampling is achieved by providing an A/D converter for each detector, each of which transmits a corresponding digital signal to the CPU. The sampling or reading of the detector signals can be controlled by the CPU or level-detection and timing circuit.

  14. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  15. The Human Exploration Initative: Space Radiation Measurement Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Barghouty, Nasser; Bhattacharya, Manojeet; Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Space Exploration Initiative envisions human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. To accomplish these missions safely, they must be designed and planned to limit the acute and long term health risks posed by ionizing radiation. This requires knowledge of the relevant components of the ionizing radiation environment in deep space, on the Moon and on Mars. In this talk we will identify what must be known about the ionizing radiation environment, discuss what knowledge already exists and suggest what new measurements may be needed before manned missions can be conducted safely.

  16. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  17. Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

  18. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  19. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  20. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  1. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  2. Short electron beam bunch characterization through measurement of terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; David Douglas; Michelle D. Shinn; Gwyn Williams

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the measurement of sub-picosecond relativistic electron beam bunch length by analyzing the spectra of the coherent terahertz pulses through Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with autocorrelation from a scanning polarization autocorrelator that measures the coherent optical transition radiation. The limitations of the different methods to such a characterization are discussed.

  3. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Ushkova, I N; Nal'kova, N Yu; Chernushevich, N I; Popov, A V; Kochetova, O A

    2013-01-01

    Results of preventive measures introduction in 524 PC users, 98 jewelry polishers and 64 metallic ship hull assemblers are given. The use of preventive measures, based on low-intensity laser radiation, was shown to prevent development of visual overfatigue and occupational musculoskeletal system diseases.

  4. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady; Antipov, Sergey; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina; Xiang, Dao

    2017-02-01

    A method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 μm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power-compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.

  5. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    DOE PAGES

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady; Antipov, Sergey; ...

    2016-11-23

    Here, a method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 µm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam comparedmore » to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power—compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.« less

  6. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady; Antipov, Sergey; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina; Xiang, Dao

    2016-11-23

    Here, a method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 µm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power—compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.

  7. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  8. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing: Calculations and Measurements from the Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Stowe, L. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Radiative forcing is defined as the change in the net (downwelling minus upwelling) radiative flux at a given level in the atmosphere. This net flux is the radiative power density available to drive climatic processes in the earth-atmosphere system below that level. Recent research shows that radiative forcing by aerosol particles is a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. To reduce those uncertainties, TARFOX was designed to determine direct (cloud-free) radiative forcing by the aerosols in one of the world's major industrial pollution plumes--that flowing from the east coast of the US over the Atlantic Ocean. TARFOX measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including direct forcing) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the aerosol particles causing those effects. The resulting data sets permit a wide variety of tests of the consistency, or closure, among the measurements and the models that link them. Because climate predictions use the same or similar model components, closure tests help to assess and reduce prediction uncertainties. In this work we use the TARFOX-determined aerosol, gas, and surface properties to compute radiative forcing for a variety of aerosol episodes, with inadvisable optical depths ranging from 0.07 to 0.6. We calculate forcing by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to test the range of applicability of simplified techniques--which are often the only ones feasible in climate predictions by general circulation models (GCMs). We then compare computed forcing to that determined from: (1) Upwelling and downwelling fluxes (0.3-0.7 mm and 0.7-3.0 mm) measured by radiometers on the UK MRF C-130. and (2) Daily average cloud-free absorbed solar and emitted thermal radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from the AVHRR radiometer on the NOAA- 14 satellite. The calculations and measurements all yield aerosol direct radiative forcing in the

  9. CERES: The Next Generation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Gary G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is part of an international program for studying the Earth from space using a multiple-instrument, multiple-satellite approach. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment is designed to monitor changes in the Earth s radiant energy system and cloud systems and to provide these data with sufficient simultaneity and accuracy to examine critical cloud/climate feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. The first EOS satellite (Terra), scheduled for launch this year, and the EOS-PM satellite, to be launched in late 2000, will each carry two CERES instruments. The first CERES instrument was launched in 1997 on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The CERES TRMM data show excellent instrument stability and a factor of 2 to 3 less error than previous Earth radiation budget missions. The first CERES data products have been validated and archived. The data consist of instantaneous longwave and shortwave broadband radiances, top-of-atmosphere fluxes, scene types, and time and space averaged fluxes and albedo. A later data product will combine CERES radiances and high- resolution imager data to produce cloud properties and fluxes throughout the atmosphere and at the surface.

  10. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Beisser, K.; Fox, N.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program serves as a pipeline of activities to inspire and educate a broad audience about Heliophysics and the Sun-Earth system, specifically the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The program is comprised of a variety of formal, informal and public outreach activities that all align with the NASA Education Portfolio Strategic Framework outcomes. These include lesson plans and curriculum for use in the classroom, teacher workshops, internship opportunities, activities that target underserved populations, collaboration with science centers and NASA visitors' centers and partnerships with experts in the Heliophysics and education disciplines. This paper will detail the activities that make up the RBSP E/PO program, their intended audiences, and an explanation as to how they align with the NASA education outcomes. Additionally, discussions on why these activities are necessary as part of a NASA mission are included. Finally, examples of how the RBSP E/PO team has carried out some of these activities will be discussed throughout.

  11. Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehos, M. S.; Pacheco, K. A.; Link, H. F.

    1991-12-01

    The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global horizontal ultraviolet (280 to 385 nm) and full spectrum (280 to 4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global horizontal ultraviolet to full spectrum radiation of 4 to 6 pct. that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much larger dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approx. 5 pct. at low air mass to 1 pct. at higher masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full spectrum global horizontal radiation. For the direct normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear sky model to underpredict the measured data. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct normal component throughout the year.

  12. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  13. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  14. Evaporation and radiation measurements at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, Alex M.

    1978-01-01

    Evaporation from Salton Sea, Calif. was computed for a 539-day period between duly 14, 1967, and January 2, 1969, by use of energy-budget, mass-transfer, and water-budget methods. The total evaporation computed by the three methods agreed within 5 percent. For computing evaporation by the mass-transfer method, vapor pressure measured at raft stations on the sea was considered to be more representative of the conditions over the sea than vapor pressure measured at land stations. The values of heat transfer to and from the bed were used in energy-budget computations. The inclusion of these heat transfer values improved the correlation of evaporation computed by the energy-budget and water-budget methods. Monthly evaporation computed by the energy budget method for 1968 showed that the Salton Sea exhibited a double-wave evaporation similar to that of oceans in the same latitude. Weekly and monthly comparisons were made to determine if radiation measured by the flat-plate radiometer is seasonally biased. Weekly totals of radiation from three flat-plate radiometers were compared to values of a Cummings Radiation Integrator. Monthly totals of radiation for each of the two types of instruments were compared to an empirical method for determining radiation. These comparisons indicate that the measurements of radiation by the flat-plate radiometer are not seasonally biased, and that the Cummings Radiation Integrator gives reliable measurements of radiation for periods as short as 1 week. The net incoming radiation was measured at three stations around the Salton Sea. The areal variation was less than 1 percent on an annual basis and the largest weekly variation was less than 6 percent. An empirical mass-transfer coefficient, N, was determined from energy-budget measurements. The value of this coefficient to give evaporation in inches per day is 0.00245 when the windspeed is expressed in miles per hour and vapor pressure is expressed in millibars. The coefficient is valid

  15. Ultrasonic Power Output Measurement by Pulsed Radiation Pressure.

    PubMed

    Fick, Steven E; Breckenridge, Franklin R

    1996-01-01

    Direct measurements of time-averaged spatially integrated output power radiated into reflectionless water loads can be made with high accuracy using techniques which exploit the radiation pressure exerted by sound on all objects in its path. With an absorptive target arranged to intercept the entirety of an ultrasound beam, total beam power can be determined as accurately as the radiation force induced on the target can be measured in isolation from confounding forces due to buoyancy, streaming, surface tension, and vibration. Pulse modulation of the incident ultrasound at a frequency well above those characteristics of confounding phenomena provides the desired isolation and other significant advantages in the operation of the radiation force balance (RFB) constructed in 1974. Equipped with purpose-built transducers and electronics, the RFB is adjusted to equate the radiation force and a counterforce generated by an actuator calibrated against reference masses using direct current as the transfer variable. Improvements made during its one overhaul in 1988 have nearly halved its overall measurement uncertainty and extended the capabilities of the RFB to include measuring the output of ultrasonic systems with arbitrary pulse waveforms.

  16. Ultrasonic Power Output Measurement by Pulsed Radiation Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Fick, Steven E.; Breckenridge, Franklin R.

    1996-01-01

    Direct measurements of time-averaged spatially integrated output power radiated into reflectionless water loads can be made with high accuracy using techniques which exploit the radiation pressure exerted by sound on all objects in its path. With an absorptive target arranged to intercept the entirety of an ultrasound beam, total beam power can be determined as accurately as the radiation force induced on the target can be measured in isolation from confounding forces due to buoyancy, streaming, surface tension, and vibration. Pulse modulation of the incident ultrasound at a frequency well above those characteristics of confounding phenomena provides the desired isolation and other significant advantages in the operation of the radiation force balance (RFB) constructed in 1974. Equipped with purpose-built transducers and electronics, the RFB is adjusted to equate the radiation force and a counterforce generated by an actuator calibrated against reference masses using direct current as the transfer variable. Improvements made during its one overhaul in 1988 have nearly halved its overall measurement uncertainty and extended the capabilities of the RFB to include measuring the output of ultrasonic systems with arbitrary pulse waveforms. PMID:27805084

  17. A molecular fraction method for measuring personnel radiation doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, M. A.; Khalil, W. A.; Krodja, R. P.; Sheta, N.; Abd El-Baset, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    This work represents a development in fast and albedo neutron and gamma ray dosimetry, using cellulose nitrate, as a tissue equivalent material, in which radiation damage was registered. The changes in molecular fractions of the polymer were measured after irradiation with neutron fluences from a 252Cf source in the range 10 5-10 10 n/cm 2 and gamma doses in the range 10 -4-10 -1 Gy through the use of gel filtration chromatography. Effects of irradiation on phantom, phantom to dosimeter distance, phantom thickness and storage at extreme environmental conditions were studied on the detector response and readout. The results showed that main chain scission followed by formation of new molecular configurations is the predominant effect of radiation on the polymer. The method enables measurements of neutron fluences and gamma doses in mixed radiation fields. Empirical formulae for calculating the absorbed dose from the measured changes in molecular fraction intensities are given.

  18. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  19. Measurement of double-radiative pion capture on hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Sugata

    The first measurement of double radiative pion capture on hydrogen is presented. The experiment was conducted at the TRIUMF cyclotron using the RMC spectrometer, and detected gamma-ray coincidences following pi - stops in liquid hydrogen. The branching ratio for the double radiative capture reaction was found to be (3.05 +/- 0.27 (stat.) +/- 0.31 (syst.)) x 10-5. The measured branching ratio and angle-energy distributions support the theoretical prediction of a dominant contribution from the pi-pi + → gammagamma annihilation mechanism.

  20. Applications of radiation measurements in arms control and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, D.; Reinitz, K.; Barnette, S.; O'Connell, M.; Sheely, K.

    1994-12-01

    Radiation measurements play a vital role in the development and implementation of U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy. The President's Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy reflects the changing realities of a post-Cold-War world and makes nonproliferation one of our nation's highest priorities. Key elements of the Policy concern international controls on plutonium and highly-enriched uranium. Current DOE work contributing to arms control and nonproliferation policy implementation is described with an emphasis on the role of radiation measurements.

  1. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  2. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  3. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  4. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  5. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  6. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  7. Radiation dose measurement for various parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Lae; Kim, Hee-Joung; Jeon, Seong Su; Cho, Hyo-Min; Nam, So Ra; Jung, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    The MDCT parameters affecting radiation dose include tube voltage, tube current, change of beam collimation, and size of the human body. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate radiation dose for MDCT parameters. A comparative analysis of the radiation dose according to before and after the calibration of the ionization chamber was performed. The ionization chamber was used for measuring radiation dose in the MDCT, as well as of CTDI W according to temperature and pressure correction factors in the CT room. As a result, the patient dose of CTDI W values linearly increased as tube voltage and current were increased, and nonlinearly decreased as beam collimation was increased. And the CTDI W value which was reflected calibration factors, as well as correction factors of temperature and pressure, was found to be greater by the range of 0.479 ~ 3.162 mGy in effective radiation dose than the uncorrected value. Also, Under the abdomen routine CT conditions used in hospitals, patient exposure dose showed a difference of a maximum of 0.7 mSv between before and after the application of such factors. These results imply that the calibration of the ion chamber, and the application of temperature and pressure of the CT room are crucial in measuring and calculating patient exposure dose.

  8. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  10. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  13. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  14. Measuring Longwave Radiative Flux Divergence in an Urban Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soux, A.; Oke, T. R.; Nunez, M.; Wilson, M.

    2003-12-01

    There has been very little measurement of longwave radiation divergence since the urban studies of Fuggle, Oke and Nunez in the mid 1970's or the rural work of Funk in the early 1960's. Although radiative divergence has been widely ignored for sometime there is the belief that it may play an important role in balancing nocturnal energy budgets in a range of environments. For example, in urban environments surface temperature relates well to the energy balance whereas air temperature does not, even in non-turbulent conditions. This is probably due at least in part to the effects of longwave divergence. To help answer issues related to longwave divergence a new dual-channel infrared radiometer (DCIR) has been developed. The DCIR, as the name implies, measures the directional infrared radiation in two wavebands and can, through differencing of the signals and further signal processing, give a direct measurement of longwave radiative flux divergence. The DCIR was deployed for the first time as part of a larger study (BUBBLE) of the urban boundary layer of Basel, Switzerland. The objective is to further study the thermal regime of a city at the canyon scale. To this end, a street canyon was carefully selected, in the city of Basel. The canyon surface and air volume were instrumented, including turbulent and conductive fluxes, and standard meteorological variables in addition to radiation. A unique data set was obtained to allow the complete energy balance of the canyon system to be evaluated without the need to resort to using residuals to quantify the magnitude of the longwave radiative flux divergence. Measured values of longwave flux-divergence are converted to cooling rates to compare with measured air temperature cooling. Preliminary results show that at the onset of canyon air-volume cooling, measured cooling rates are slightly lower than radiative cooling rates. The differences are less than 0.5° C. This contrasts sharply with previously measured above roof

  15. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  16. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  17. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  18. Measuring Student Engagement in an Online Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigatel, Paula; Williams, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to measure the effectiveness of faculty development courses promoting student engagement, the faculty development unit of Penn State's Online Campus conducted a pilot study within a large online Bachelor of Science in Business (BSB) program. In all, 2,296 students were surveyed in the spring and summer semesters of 2014 in order to…

  19. Measurement of Solar and Cosmic Radiation during Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, Donat-P.; Dachev, Tsvetan

    2003-05-01

    The external platform of the International Space Station (ISS) will provide a unique opportunity for exobiological studies under space conditions, e.g., space vacuum, solar UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature extremes. In order to facilitate this research, ESA is developing the EXPOSE facility to be attached to the External Pallet of the truss structure of the ISS. The experiment is planned for a duration of 18 months during the ISS early utilization period. Experiments on the ``Responses of Organisms to the Space Environment (ROSE)'' will study the survival of spores from bacteria, fungi, ferns, etc., under space conditions and thus investigate whether life could potentially survive extended travel through space. In parallel to the exposure of the biological material, the charged particle and solar extraterrestrial radiation will be measured with a multichannel dosimeter. This instrument is based on two separate developments. The dosimeter which determines solar radiation in four channels is based on the ground-based ELDONET (European light dosimeter network) instrument which has been developed to measure solar UV and visible radiation in three channels. The other part of the instrument is based on a 256 channel dosimeter of cosmic radiation which was developed and used on the Russian space station Mir. A final miniature prototype has been developed to fit the space available. The instrument incorporates the latest technologies such as Surface Mounted Devices (SMDs), switchable amplifiers, as well as on-board microprocessor control. Several software packages have been developed to record the solar visible and UV, and charged particle, radiations, to display them in graphical form and to store them for future analysis. All recorded data will be made available to the public via the Internet.

  20. Evaporation and radiation measurements at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, Alex M.

    1977-01-01

    Evaporation from the Salton Sea, Calif., was computed for a 539-day period between July 14, 1967, and January 2, 1969, by use of energy-budget, mass-transfer, and water budget methods. The total evaporation computed by the three methods agreed within 5 percent. The values of heat transfer to and from the bed were used in the energy-budget computations. Monthly evaporation computed by the energy-budget method for 1968 showed that the Salton Sea exhibited a double wave evaporation similar to that of oceans in the same latitude. Weekly and montly comparisons were made to determine if radiation measured by the flat-plate radiometer is seasonally biased. These comparisons indicate that the measurements of radiation by the flat-plate radiometer are not seasonally biased, and that the Cummings Radiation Integrator gives reliable measurements of radiation for periods as short as 1 week. An empirical mass-transfer coefficient, N, as determined from energy-budget measurements. The value of this coefficient to give evaporation in inches per day is 0.00245 when the windspeed is expressed in miles per hour and the vapor pressure expressed in millibars. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Listing of solar radiation measuring equipment and glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Greenbaum, S. A.; Patel, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to list and provide all available information about solar radiation measuring equipment which are being manufactured and are available on the market. The list is in tabular form and includes sensor type, response time, cost data and comments for each model. A cost code is included which shows ranges only.

  2. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  3. Interpretation of TEPC Measurements in Space Flights for Radiation Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    For the proper interpretation of radiation data measured in space, the results of integrated radiation transport models were compared with the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measurements. TEPC is a simple, time-dependent approach to radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Qave(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Qave(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. The deviation of y from LET is caused by energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. The response distribution functions of the wall-less and walled TEPCs were calculated from Monte-Carlo track simulations. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with the walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. Good agreement was found for Qave(y) between the model and measured spectra from past NASA missions. The Qave(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Qave(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Qave(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis

  4. Absolute bunch length measurement using coherent diffraction radiation.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Marco; Appio, Roberto; Craievich, Paolo; Penco, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    The longitudinal electron beam properties are of crucial importance for many types of frontier accelerators, from storage rings to free electron lasers and energy recovery linacs. For the online control of the machine and its stable operation, nondestructive shot by shot bunch length measurements are needed. Among the various instrumentations proposed and installed in accelerators worldwide, the ones based on the measurement of the coherent radiation power represent the simplest and the more robust tools for operational control. The major limitation of these systems is that they usually can provide only relative bunch length estimation. In this Letter we present a novel experimental methodology to self-calibrate a simple equipment based on diffraction radiation from a gap providing a measurement of the second order moment of the longitudinal distribution. We present the theoretical basis of the proposed approach and validate it through a detailed campaign of measurements.

  5. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  6. The resistive bolometer for radiated power measurement on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Y. M.; Hu, L. Q.; Mao, S. T.; Chen, K. Y.; Lin, S. Y.; Collaboration: EAST Diagnostics Team

    2012-09-15

    The resistive bolometer system has been successfully employed on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak for the first time to measure the radiated power of plasma. The bolometer detectors are based on 4 {mu}m thick Pt absorbers deposited on 1.5 {mu}m thick SiN membranes. The system consists of 3 cameras with a total of 48 channels. The detector and the system setup are described in detail. The detector calibration and typical measurement results are presented as well.

  7. Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.

    PubMed

    Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated.

  8. Measuring electron-positron annihilation radiation from laser plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui; Tommasini, R.; Seely, J.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Pereira, N.; Gregori, G.; Falk, K.; Mithen, J.; Murphy, C. D.

    2012-10-15

    We investigated various diagnostic techniques to measure the 511 keV annihilation radiations. These include step-wedge filters, transmission crystal spectroscopy, single-hit CCD detectors, and streaked scintillating detection. While none of the diagnostics recorded conclusive results, the step-wedge filter that is sensitive to the energy range between 100 keV and 700 keV shows a signal around 500 keV that is clearly departing from a pure Bremsstrahlung spectrum and that we ascribe to annihilation radiation.

  9. Measurement of the radiative transport properties of reticulated alumina foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.J.; Bohn, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents a method for determining radiative transport properties of reticulated materials. The method has both experimental and analytical components. A polar nephelometer is used to measure the scattering profile of a sample of the reticulated material. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment are then combined with the experimental results to give the scatter albedo and extinction coefficient. This paper presents the results of using this method to determine the radiative transport properties of four different porosities (10, 20, 30, 65 pores per inch) of cylindrical reticulated alumina samples ranging in thickness form 0.5 inches to 2. 5 inches.

  10. Measuring Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation from Varying Signal Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bette; Gaul, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the process of measuring radiofrequency and microwave radiation from various signal strengths. The topics include: 1) Limits and Guidelines; 2) Typical Variable Standard (IEEE) Frequency Dependent; 3) FCC Standard 47 CFR 1.1310; 4) Compliance Follows Unity Rule; 5) Multiple Sources Contribute; 6) Types of RF Signals; 7) Interfering Radiations; 8) Different Frequencies Different Powers; 9) Power Summing - Peak Power; 10) Contribution from Various Single Sources; 11) Total Power from Multiple Sources; 12) Are You Out of Compliance?; and 13) In Compliance.

  11. Method of simultaneous measurement of radiative and lattice thermal conductivity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, J. F.; Simmons, G.

    1972-01-01

    A new technique of high-temperature thermal-conductivity measurement is described. A CO2 gas laser is used to generate a low-frequency temperature wave at one face of a small disk-shaped sample, and an infrared detector views the opposite face to detect the phase of the emerging radiation. A mathematical expression is derived which enables phase data at several frequencies to be used for the simultaneous determination of thermal diffusivity and mean extinction coefficient. Lattice and radiative thermal conductivities are then calculated. Test results for sintered aluminum oxide at temperatures from 530 to 1924 K are within the range of error of previously existing data.

  12. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  13. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodke, A. D.; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  14. Ground-Based Measurement of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a research program between 1996 and 2004 to measure UV at 21 unique locations through out the U.S. The program conducted long-term monitoring of UV to detect trends due to ch...

  15. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-04-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  16. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, was developed and tested using recent data from Thessaloniki, Greece. The effective AOD calculated using this method was found to agree well with co-located AERONET measurements, exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.9 with 2/3 of the data found within ±20% or ±0.05 of the AERONET AOD. This is similar to the performance of current satellite aerosol methods. Differences in the AOD as compared to AERONET can be explained by variations in the aerosol properties of the atmosphere that are not accounted for in the idealized settings used in the radiative transfer simulations, such as variations in the single scattering albedo and Ångström exponent. Furthermore, the method is sensitive to calibration offsets between the radiative transfer simulations and the pyranometer SSR. The method provides an opportunity of extending our knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol load to locations and times not covered by dedicated aerosol measurements.

  17. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  18. Cloud microphysical and radiative properties measured by combined lidar, radar, and infrared radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Intrieri, J.M.; Chan, K.P.; Feingold, G.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of our research in the Instrument Development Program (IDP) is to provide experimental descriptions of the bulk, microphysical, and radiative parameters of clouds (especially cirrus) and the relationships between these properties, for use in developing and validating climate models. The strategy of the Atmospheric Lidar Division of our laboratory is to develop remote sensing techniques to simultaneously measure important cloud parameters and to apply these new methods and older ones in case studies and statistical investigations. Our division participated with the University of Utah on technique development during the first three years of IDP including field tests locally and at FIRE II. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program also helped fund demonstration of new technology at the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition EXperiment (ASTEX). Our current research under a new, independent grant comprises four tasks, which are summarized.

  19. A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these

  20. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  1. Polarimeter measures sea state characteristics using emitted infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared polarimeter, capable of operating between 1 and 12 micrometers wavelength has been used to measure the polarization of emitted radiation from the sea. The observed polarization at 10.6 micrometers from a smooth sea was found to be positive, indicating the dominance of reflected infrared sky radiation over the emitted. With the appearance of waves, the percent polarization increased, as expected, for a zenith angle well above the Brewster angle for water. This is qualitatively in accordance with a model presented to explain the behavior. Initial analyses indicate that the polarized components of the sea's emitted and reflected radiation are affected by type and direction of waves, angle of viewing, and foam. The effects of variations in these parameters require further delineation. The infrared polarimetric technique appears to be a novel new passive method for remote monitoring of waves.

  2. Absolute measurement of undulator radiation in the extreme ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maezawa, H.; Mitani, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Kanamori, H.; Tamamushi, S.; Mikuni, A.; Kitamura, H.; Sasaki, T.

    1983-04-01

    The spectral brightness of undulator radiation emitted by the model PMU-1 incorporated in the SOR-RING, the dedicated synchrotron radiation source in Tokyo, has been studied in the extreme ultraviolet region from 21.6 to 72.9 eV as a function of the electron energy γ, the field parameter K, and the angle of observation ϴ in the absolute scale. A series of measurements covering the first and the second harmonic component of undulator radiation was compared with the fundamental formula λ n= {λ 0}/{2nγ 2}( {1+K 2}/{2}+γϴ 2 and the effects of finite emittance were studied. The brightness at the first peak was smaller than the theoretical value, while an enhanced second harmonic component was observed.

  3. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  4. Measurement of Radiation Belt Partcles by MDS-1 Onboard SEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.; Goka, T.

    The Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) is on board the Mission Demonstration Test Satellite-1 (MDS-1) to measure the radiation environment, which was launched into geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO) on February 4, 2002 with an apogee of about 35,700km, a perigee of about 500 km and an inclination of about 28.5 degrees. SEDA consists of the four instruments. Standard Dose Monitor monitors the electron and proton flux. Dosimeter measures the integrated radiation dose at fifty-six points of the satellite. Heavy Ion Telescope monitors the flux of heavy ions from He to Fe. Magnetometer measures the magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In this paper are described first results and comparison with the ISO standard model for the space environment

  5. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented.

  6. Computer program for pulsed thermocouples with corrections for radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed thermocouple was used for measuring gas temperatures above the melting point of common thermocouples. This was done by allowing the thermocouple to heat until it approaches its melting point and then turning on the protective cooling gas. This method required a computer to extrapolate the thermocouple data to the higher gas temperatures. A method that includes the effect of radiation in the extrapolation is described. Computations of gas temperature are provided, along with the estimate of the final thermocouple wire temperature. Results from tests on high temperature combustor research rigs are presented.

  7. Half-brightness measurements of candidate radiation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Stephen Alexander

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant challenge for human and robotic space missions. Practical luminescent sensors will depend heavily upon research investigating the resistance of these materials to ionizing radiation and the ability to anneal or self-heal the damage caused by such radiation. In 1951, Birks and Black experimentally showed that the luminescent efficiency of anthracene bombarded by alpha particles varies with total fluence. From 1990 to the present, we found that the Birks and Black relation describes the reduction in light emission yield for every tested luminescent material except lead phosphate glass due to proton irradiation. These results indicate that radiation produced quenching centers compete with emission for absorbed energy. The purpose of this thesis is to present new results from related luminescent materials by exposing them to a 1-3 MeV proton beam. Particular emphasis will be placed on recent measurements made with bright luminescent materials, such as zinc sulfide doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn), europium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (EuD4TEA), an magnesium tetrakis dibenzoylmethide triethylammonium (MgD4TEA). This research can be used to help determine if luminescent materials can be used as a real-time sensor to detect ionizing radiation.

  8. Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project. Program overview of fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The mission of the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project is to provide essential information about the solar radiation resource to users and planners of solar technologies so that they can make informed and timely decisions concerning applications of those technologies. The project team accomplishes this by producing and disseminating relevant and reliable information about solar radiation. Topics include: Variability of solar radiation, measurements of solar radiation, spectral distribution of solar radiation, and assessment of the solar resource. FY 1993 accomplishments are detailed.

  9. Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Junga; Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Ho-Sung

    2010-03-01

    This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is "Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route". In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747). Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

  10. Measurement of LINAC 90 degrees head leakage radiation TVL values.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Mutic, Sasa; Low, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    One of the key components in modern LINAC room shielding design is the amount of 90 degrees head leakage radiation levels. With the general clinical acceptance of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique, accurate knowledge of this quantity has become even more important. Measurement of 90 degrees head leakage radiation of medical linear accelerators can be technically challenging due to the low dose rate causing poor signal-to-noise ratios in most detectors. 90 degrees leakage tenth-value layer (TVL) values in concrete have not been reported for the Elekta linear accelerators. This report describes our measurements of 90 degrees leakage TVL values for 6, 10, and 18 MV x-ray beams for an Elekta Precise Treatment System. A large-volume (1000 cm3) unpressurized ionization chamber and a high sensitivity electrometer, together with a separate chamber bias power supply, were used in these measurements in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A lead enclosure, of minimum thickness 10 cm, was constructed inside the treatment room to house the ion chamber to reduce the influence of room-scattered radiation. A square aperture of 10 X 10 cm2 area was left in the shield and aimed towards the accelerator head. Measurements were performed with the chamber placed at approximately 2 m from the accelerator isocenter. Concrete slabs with individual dimensions of approximately 40 X 40 cm2 cross-sectional area and 5 cm thickness were placed between the accelerator head and the ion chamber for these measurements. The measurements were performed with total concrete thickness of up to 80 cm, so that values up to the third TVL were measured. These measurements showed thatthe first concrete TVL values are 22, 23, and 28 cm (8.6, 9.1, and 10.5 in.) for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, while the average of the first 3 TVL's were 25, 26, and 29 cm (9.9, 10.2, and 11.5 in.). Measured values agreed to within 10% of previously reported values for Varian linear accelerators for

  11. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  12. High spectral resolution measurements for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, H.E.

    1992-05-22

    This report focuses on the design and fabrication of high spectral resolution FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) instrumentation for the CART sites of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ultimate objective of this grant is to develop three different types of instruments, named the AERI, AERI-X, and SORT. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is the simplest. It will be available for early deployment at the first ARM site and will be deployable at several locations in the extended network to give horizontal coverage. The AERI will be an 0.5 cm{sup {minus}1} resolution instrument, which measures accurately calibrated radiance spectra for radiation studies and for remote sensing of atmospheric state variables. The AERI-X and the SORTI are higher spectral resolution instruments for obtaining the highest practical resolution for spectroscopy at the ARM central sites. The AERI-X, like the AERI will measure atmospheric emitted radiance, but with resolutions as high as 0.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. The Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer will measure the total transmission of the atmosphere by tracking the sun through changes in atmospheric air mass. The large solar signal makes it practical for this instrument to offer the ultimate in spectral resolution, about 0.002 cm{sup {minus}1}.

  13. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  14. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  15. Measurement of Radiation - Light Field Congruence using a Photodiode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderson, Michael J.

    Improved treatment techniques in radiation therapy provide incentive to reduce treatment margins, thereby increasing the necessity for more accurate geometrical setup of the linear accelerator and accompanying components. In this thesis, we describe the development of a novel device that enables precise and automated measurement of radiation-light field congruence of medical linear accelerators for the purpose of improving setup accuracy, and standardizing repeated quality control activities. The device consists of a silicon photodiode array, an evaluation board, a data acquisition card, and a laptop. Using the device, we show that the radiation-light field congruence for both 6 and 15 MV beams is within 2 mm on a Varian Clinac 21 EX medical linear accelerator. Because measurements are automated, ambiguities resulting from observer variability are removed, greatly improving the reproducibility of measurements over time and across observers. We expect the device to be useful in providing consistent measurements on linear accelerators used for stereotactic radiosurgery, during the commissioning of new linear accelerators, and as an alternative to film or other commercially available devices for performing monthly or annual quality control checks.

  16. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  17. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  18. Investigation of bias radiation effect on PV cell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuebo; Quan, Chenggen; Chan, Joanne; Ng, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells are photo-electrical devices that convert light energy directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. PV cell assemblies are used to make solar modules employed in a variety of ways ranging from space applications to domestic energy consumption. Characterisation and performance testing of PV cells are critical to the development of PV technologies and growth of the solar industry. As new solar products are being developed, its energy conversion efficiency and other critical parameters must be accurately measured and tested against globally recognised metrological standards. The differential spectral responsivity (DSR) measurement is one of the primary methods for calibrating reference PV cells. This is done by calculating its spectral responsivities through measuring the AC short-circuit current produced by a PV cell under a modulated monochromatic radiation and different levels of steady-state broadband bias light radiation. It is observed that different types of bias light source will produce different signal-to-noise levels and significantly influence measurement accuracy. This paper aims to investigate the noise sources caused by different types of bias light sources (e.g. xenon arc and tungsten-halogen lamps) and the relevant measurement uncertainties so as to propose a guideline for selection of bias light source which can improve the signal-to-noise level and measurement uncertainty. The DSRs of the PV cells are measured using a commercial DSR measurement system under different levels of bias radiation from 0 to 1 kWm-2. The data analysis and uncertainty evaluation are presented in this paper using experimental data and mathematical tools.

  19. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Michael J; Kucharik, Christopher J; Norman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) drives carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal) of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the potential to support

  20. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  1. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  2. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  3. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000.

  4. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  5. Radiation dependence of inverter propagation delay from timing sampler measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Lin, Y.-S.

    1989-01-01

    A timing sampler consisting of 14 four-stage inverter-pair chains with different load capacitances was fabricated in 1.6-micron n-well CMOS and irradiated with cobalt-60 at 10 rad(Si)/s. For this CMOS process the measured results indicate that the rising delay increases by about 2.2 ns/Mrad(Si) and the falling delay increase is very small, i.e., less than 300 ps/Mrad(Si). The amount of radiation-induced delay depends on the size of the load capacitance. The maximum value observed for this effect was 5.65 ns/pF-Mrad(Si). Using a sensitivity analysis, the sensitivity of the rising delay to radiation can be explained by a simple timing model and the radiation sensitivity of dc MOSFET parameters. This same approach could not explain the insensitivity of the falling delay to radiation. This may be due to a failure of the timing model and/or trapping effects.

  6. Theory and measurement of emittance properties for radiation thermometry applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some basic concepts of radiation physics are briefly reviewed to provide an introduction to the radiative properties - including emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance - their definitions, interrelations, theory and methods of measurement. Analyzed data showing typical characteristics of temperature and wavelength dependence, surface effects and environmental influences on the radiation properties of selected classes of materials are presented. Emphasis is placed on those emittance properties of particular interest to conventional radiation thermometry applications, but sufficient generality on all properties is presented to be useful for new or unusual techniques where a more detailed understanding of the behavior of materials is desirable. Data sources are identified to assist the reader in locating property information. It is the intention of the paper to give the reader a background to become more fully aware of the pitfalls, limitations, but of course, advantages in the use of data from the literature. The paper is written in the form of an abbreviated review fully documenting the more important topics and concepts which can only be treated briefly.

  7. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  8. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  9. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-07-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN.

  10. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  11. Spectral aerosol direct radiative forcing from airborne radiative measurements during CalNex and ARCTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Samuel E.; Schmidt, K. S.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Hostetler, C.; Ferrare, R.; Hair, J.; Langridge, J. M.; Lack, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the aerosol radiative forcing derived from airborne measurements of shortwave spectral irradiance during the 2010 Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex). Relative forcing efficiency, the radiative forcing normalized by aerosol optical thickness and incident irradiance, is a means of comparing the aerosol radiative forcing for different conditions. In this study, it is used to put the aerosol radiative effects of an air mass in the Los Angeles basin in context with case studies from three field missions that targeted other regions and aerosol types, including a case study from the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS). For CalNex, we relied on irradiance measurements onboard the NOAA P-3 aircraft during a flight on 19 May 2010 over a ground station. CalNex presented a difficulty for determining forcing efficiency since one of the input parameters, optical thickness, was not available from the same aircraft. However, extinction profiles were available from a nearby aircraft. An existing retrieval algorithm was modified to use those measurements as initial estimate for the missing optical thickness. In addition, single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter (secondary products of the method), were compared with CalNex in situ measurements. The CalNex relative forcing efficiency spectra agreed with earlier studies that found this parameter to be constrained at each wavelength within 20% per unit of aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm regardless of aerosol type and experiment, except for highly absorbing aerosols sampled near Mexico City. The diurnally averaged below-layer forcing efficiency integrated over the wavelength range of 350-700 nm for CalNex is estimated to be -58.6 ± 13.8 W/m2, whereas for the ARCTAS case it is -48.7 ± 11.5 W/m2.

  12. Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

    1999-01-01

    The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

  13. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  14. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  16. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  17. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  18. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. Steve; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.; Konradi, Andrei; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  19. 50th Anniversary of Radiation Budget Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ehrhard, ,, Dr.; Kinne, Stefan, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The "space race" between the USA and the Soviet Union supported rapid developments of instruments to measure properties of the atmosphere from satellite platforms. The satellite Explorer 7 (launch on 13 October 1959) was the first to carry sensors which were sensitive to the fluxes of solar (shortwave) and terrestrial (longwave) radiation leaving the Earth to space. Improved versions of those sensors and more complicated radiometers were flown on various operational and experimental satellites of the Nimbus, ESSA, TIROS, COSMOS, and NOAA series. There results, although often inherent to strong sampling insufficiencies, provided already a general picture on the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of radiation budget components at the Top of the Atmosphere, which finally could be refined with the more recent and more accurate and complete data sets of the experiments ERBE, CERES and ScRaB. Numerical analyses of climate data complemented such measurements to obtain a complete picture on the radiation budget at various levels within the atmosphere and at ground. These data is now used to validate the performance of climate models.

  20. Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

    2011-01-08

    Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

  1. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  2. The measurement of radiation levels in Australian zircon milling plants.

    PubMed

    Hartley, B M

    2001-01-01

    The processing of zircon often involves grinding it to a fine powder known as zircon flour. As the resulting particles are small they may be inhaled if they become airborne and, since they contain some uranium and thorium, deliver radiation doses to workers. Theoretical estimates and measured radiation exposure in Australian zircon milling plants are reported in this paper. Theoretical doses, calculated in this work, indicate a potential maximum dose to workers of 5.5 mSv y(-1). Measured doses, based on normal work practices, vary in different plants from 0.66 mSv to 1.03 mSv y(-1) and suggest that in the dustiest Australian zircon milling plants the maximum dose would be of the order of 1 mSv y(-1). Measurements, which focused on the dustiest operations, indicate an upper limit of dose of about 3 mSv y(-1). Based on the theoretical and measured doses not exceeding 6 mSv y(-1), workers would not be designated as Category A workers, and probably would not be designated Category B workers, exceeding 1 mSv y(-1), under the guidelines of a EURATOM Directive.

  3. Subjects of discussion in radiated emission measurements above 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battermann, S.; Garbe, H.

    2008-05-01

    Some emission and susceptibility EMC standards already require measurements above 1 GHz or test site validations (IEC 2006, CISPR 2006). A simple assignment of the established measurement methods below 1 GHz to the frequency range above 1 GHz bears some risks. The ratio between the physical size of the equipment under test (EUT) and the wave-length rises with frequency. This increases the electrical size of the EUT. The directivity may become larger and the radiation pattern of the EUT is getting more complex which reduces the probability to detect the maximum emission with a simple planar cut scan. To analyse these effects in more detail this paper shows radiation characteristics of an exemplary EUT. The influence of a receiving antenna height scan and the angle increment of the turntable scan on the detection of the maximum of the electrical field strength will be discussed. As a result some ideas will be given to reduce the measurement time but keeping the reliability of the measurement results constant.

  4. Skin Elasticity as a Measure of Radiation Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nhu-Tram A.; Roberge, David; Freeman, Carolyn R.; Wong, Cindy; Hines, Jerod; Turcotte, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Current means of measuring RT-induced fibrosis are subjective. We evaluated the DermaLab suction cup system to measure objectively skin deflection as a surrogate for fibrosis. Sixty-nine patients with E-STS were treated with limb-sparing surgery and 50-66 Grays (Gy) of RT. Using a “scleroderma” DermaLab Suction Cup, the skin stiffness was measured by two clinicians. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE) scale, the Musculoskeletal Tumor Rating Scale (MSTS) and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) questionnaires were completed for each patient. Levels of agreement between measurers were estimated using the Kappa (κ) coefficient and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). All sixty-nine patients were included. The level of agreement between measurers for NCI-CTCAE grading was moderate (range κ = 0.41-0.59). The CCC for the elasticity measurements were higher, with CCC = 0.82 for fibrotic skin and CCC = 0.84 for normal skin. The elasticity measurements were significantly higher when MSTS scores were <30 and or TESS scores were <90. Suction Cup measurement of skin elasticity is more reproducible than CTCAE grading and shows promise in generating reproducible measurements for radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Furthermore, it correlates well with the MSTS and TESS. PMID:24000984

  5. A computer program for calculation of spectral radiative properties of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code is described whereby calculations of radiative properties of gas mixtures may be made. The program is arranged so that distinct radiative processes for each species are computed in individual subroutines. Provision is made for calculating radiative properties in nonequilibrium situations - separate rotational, vibrational, and electronic temperatures may be used. These features should provide a flexibility not currently available in such programs. The basic equations and the program listing in FORTRAN 4 language are presented. Sample calculations are given for high temperature air and carbon dioxide and are compared to calculations made with previously developed programs.

  6. ISS Radiation Measurements using the Dosimetric Mapping Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Dachev, T.; Deme, S.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Heinrich, W.; Olko, P.; Scherkenbach, M.

    The experiment SDosimetric MappingT was flown as part of the Human Research Facility (HRF), NASASs first science payload on the ISS. The experiment consists of five nuclear track detector packages (NTDPs) (thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and plastic nuclear track detectors), two DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTEL) using two passive implanted planar silicon detectors per instrument, four Mobile Dosimetry Units (MDUs) using one passive implanted planar silicon detector per unit with an Control and Interface Unit (CIU) and an onboard TLD system consisting of a small weight TLD Reader and twelve TLD-bulbs, which have been reused after each mea- surement. Detectors are spread over the whole US-Lab. Data were transferred during the mission via the HRF Laptop to the ground. Dose rates of the ionizing part of the radiation field measured with TLD-bulbs at different locations vary between 123μGy/d and 226 μG/d. The dose rate received by the active devices fits excellent to the TLD measurements and is significantly lower compared to measurements on the STS missions to MIR. The measurements on the ISS yielded a mean dose equivalent of 504 μSv/day applying a radiation quality factor of 2.6 based on the recommendations of ICRP Report No. 60 and determined from the measured LET spectra of the DOSTEL instrument. The mean dose rate was with 194 μGy/d significantly lower compared to DOSTEL measurements on the STS missions. DOSTEL measurements were also obtained during the Solar Particle Event (SPE) on April 15, 2001. The presentation includes beside first results, some data on calibration work and an intercomparison between the different detector systems.

  7. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  8. Improved detector for the measurement of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, F. B.

    1985-07-01

    The present invention lies in the field of gamma ray spectrometry of geologic deposits and other materials, such as building materials (cement, asphalt, etc.) More specifically, the invention is an improved device for the gamma ray spetcrometery of gelogical deposits as a tool for petroleum exploration, geologic research and monitoring of radio-active materials such as in uranium mill tailings and the like. Improvement consists in enlarging the area of the receptor face and without any necessarily substantial increase in the volume of the receptor crystal over the current cylindrical shapes. The invention also provides, as a corollary of the increase in area receptor crystal face, a reduction in the weight of the amount of material necessary to provide effective shielding of the crystal from atmospheric radiation and radiation from deposits not under examination. The area of the receptor crystal face is increased by forming the crystal as a truncated cone with the shielding shaped as a hollow frustrum of a cone. A photomultiplier device is secured to the smaller face of the crystal. The improved detector shape can also be used in scintillometers which measure total gamma radiation.

  9. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  10. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  11. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  12. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  13. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  14. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y.-R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. The general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  15. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondı, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  16. Characterisation of spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, J

    2001-01-01

    Spectrophotometers used for spectral measurements of the solar ultraviolet radiation need to be well characterised to provide accurate and reliable data. Since the characterisation and calibration are usually performed in the laboratory under conditions very different from those encountered during solar measurements, it is essential to address all issues concerned with the representativity of the laboratory characterisation with respect to the solar measurements. These include among others the instrument stability, the instrument linearity, the instrument responsivity, the wavelength accuracy, the spectral resolution, stray light rejection and the instrument dependence on ambient temperature fluctuations. These instrument parameters need to be determined often enough so that the instrument changes only marginally in the period between successive characterisations and therefore provides reliable data for the intervening period.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Temperature measurements during the CAMP program. [Cold Arctic Mesopause Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philbrick, C. R.; Barnett, J.; Gerndt, R.; Offermann, D.; Pendleton, W. R., Jr.; Schlyter, P.; Witt, G.; Schmidlin, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The Cold Arctic Mesopause Program (CAMP) was conducted at ESRANGE, Sweden, in July/August 1982. During the time period of several weeks, the temperature was monitored by ground-based OH emission spectrometers and by satellite radiance measurements. Rocket launchings occurred on the nights of 3/4 and 11/12 August. On 3/4 August, seven rocket payloads were launched during a period of noctilucent cloud sighting over ESRANGE. The presence of the NLC was confirmed by several rocket-borne photometer profiles. The temperature measurements showed that the temperature profiles in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere were near the expected values of high latitude summer models. A large amplitude wave structure with three temperature minima of 139K, 114K and 111K were observed at altitudes between 83 and 94 km. The temperature minimum at 83 km was the location of the observed NLC. The temperature minima caused by the growth of the gravity wave amplitude in the highly stable mesosphere provide the regions for the growth of particles by nucleation to optical scattering size, as well as regions where the nuclei for condensation can be formed through ion chemistry paths.

  19. 3-D Measurement of Recycling and Radiation in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norval, Ryan; Goetz, John; Schmitz, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    The MST reversed-field pinch (RFP) can undergo spontaneous transition to a helical core state, associated with the growth of the innermost resonant magnetic mode. Currently multiple 2-D imaging cameras are in place allowing for nearly full vessel viewing and measurement of recycling and impurities fluxes. The transition from the standard to helical RFP causes an observable change in edge plasma. While in the helical state the plasma wall interaction (PWI) on MSTs poloidal limiter strongly correlates with the helicity of the core mode. PWI on the toroidal limiter overall is reduced, with the remaining PWI sites corresponding the helicity of the core mode, or the locations of diagnostic limiters and the error fields they create. EIRENE, a neutral particle code use for modeling edge plasmas, is used to compute the neutral profiles based on measured recycling fluxes. EIRENE computes the radiative and charge exchange power losses. Comparison is made between the standard and helical RFP plasmas. Bolometer measurements of total radiation are currently in progress to supplement the modeling. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  1. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  2. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-06-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  3. Measurement of soil moisture using remote sensing multisensor radiation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, W. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical modeling as well as laboratory and field measurement were coupled with analysis of aircraft data obtained from controlled sites in an effort to enhance understanding of the microwave response due to soil moisture so as to specify sensor parameters and develop inversion algorithms. Models to predict the complex dielectric constant were produced which led to the interpretation of the results in terms of a matrix potential rather than simply moisture content. Similar advances were made in the development of coherent and incoherent radiative transfer models and rough surface scattering models.

  4. 3D measurement of absolute radiation dose in grid therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, J. V.; Warrington, A. P.; Partridge, M.; Philps, A.; Leach, M. O.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially fractionated radiotherapy through a grid is a concept which has a long history and was routinely used in orthovoltage radiation therapy in the middle of last century to minimize damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. With the advent of megavoltage radiotherapy and its skin sparing effects the use of grids in radiotherapy declined in the 1970s. However there has recently been a revival of the technique for use in palliative treatments with a single fraction of 10 to 20 Gy. In this work the absolute 3D dose distribution in a grid irradiation is measured for photons using a combination of film and gel dosimetry.

  5. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  6. Diagnosing ocean energy transports from earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The maximum energy production (MEP) principle suggested by Paltridge (1975) is applied to separate the satellite-inferred required total transports into the atmospheric and the oceanic components within a two-dimensional (2D) framework. For this purpose, the required 2D energy transports (Sohn and Smith, 1991) are imposed on Paltridge's energy balance model which is then solved as a variational problem. The results provide separated atmospheric and oceanic transports on a 2D basis such that the total divergence is equal to the net radiation measured from a satellite.

  7. Comparison of Nimbus 7 and ERBE radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Hartmann, D. L.; Kandel, R.; Hunt, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations were sought between data sets on exitance radiance and albedos sensed by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and the Nimbus-7 spacecraft instruments. The emitted exitance (W/sq m) and the albedos measured over the ocean and the land and diurnal global averages are compared. The 5 W/sq m average difference between noon-midnight recorded by the ERBE spacecraft showed that noon-midnight averages can not be used with ERBE data as they have been with Nimbus-7 data.

  8. Measurements for the JASPER Program Flux Monitor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Hunter, H.T.; Hull, J.L.; Shono, A.

    1993-02-01

    The Flux Monitor Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) during the months of May and June 1992, as part of the continuing series of eight experiments planned for the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER) program that was started in 1986. This series of experiments was designed to examine shielding concerns and radiation transport effects pertaining to in-vessel flux monitoring systems (FMS) in current reactor shield designs proposed for both the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design and the Japanese loop-type design. The program is a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) and the Japanese Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). The Tower Shielding Reactor H (TSR-II) neutron source was altered by the spectrum modifier (SM) used previously in the Axial Shield Experiment, and part of the Japanese Removable Radial Shield (RRS) before reaching the axial shield. In the axial shield were placed six homogeneous boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) hexagons around a center hexagon of aluminum used to represent sodium. Shield designs to be studied were placed beyond the axial shield, each design forming a void directly behind the axial shield. Measurements were made in the void and behind each slab as successive slabs were added.

  9. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  10. 48 CFR 819.7114 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 819.7114 Section 819.7114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7114 Measurement of...

  11. 48 CFR 819.7114 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 819.7114 Section 819.7114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7114 Measurement of...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Strategy for Improving Measurement Uncertainty and Data Quality Information for Observations at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, J. M.; Sisterson, D.; Kehoe, K.

    2015-12-01

    Quantified uncertainty estimates on measured quantities are required for providing prior information for cloud property retrieval algorithms and constraining model parameterizations and simulations. Methodologies for determining uncertainty can be complex and can include instrument accuracy and precision estimates, and random and systematic errors. Measurement uncertainty is also impacted by environmental and field factors that can be introduced when operating instruments outside the laboratory setting, which impacts both uncertainty and data quality. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program operates over 100 unique instruments at fixed, mobile, and aerial facilities in diverse climatic regimes around the world. The ARM program is in the process of standardizing how it currently reports measurement uncertainty and developing a new strategy for improving the determination of measurement uncertainty and communicating both the uncertainty and data quality information to users. We will present ARMs plan to standardize the method of reporting measurement uncertainty, as well as share ARMs overall strategies to standardize uncertainty assessment across instrument classes, improving calibration approaches, and providing more consistent data quality assessments to specifically address measurement bias corrections. Our goal is to provide an open forum for discussing the necessary and sufficient elements needed to meet the requirements for retrieval algorithm and model simulation development activities.

  14. A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of

  15. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  16. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  17. BOREAS HYD-3 Subcanopy Incoming Solar Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains solar radiation measurements from several pyranometers (solar radiometers) placed on the snow surface in jack pine (1994) and black spruce and aspen forests (1996) in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). An array of radiometers was used to collect data for three to four consecutive days in each forest type to study the hypothesis that energy transfer and snow water equivalent would vary spatially as a function of canopy closure. The quality of the data is good, because the days were generally clear and the radiometers were checked daily to remove anything that landed on the radiometers. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy incoming solar radiation measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Cloud cover models derived from satellite radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using daily measurement of day and night infrared and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a TIROS satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four three-month periods, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained for each grid location. The (a,b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a,b) estimates were in the same region in the (a,b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world was thus divided into separate cloud cover types. Using estimates of mean cloud cover for each season, the world was again divided into separate cloud cover types. The process was repeated for standard deviations. Thus for each season, three separate cloud cover models were obtained using the criteria of shape of frequency distribution, mean cloud cover, and variability of cloud cover. The cloud cover statistics were derived from once-a-day, near-local-noon satellite radiation measurements.

  19. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  20. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  1. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  2. CRRES combined radiation and release effects satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, B. L. (Compiler); Mccook, M. A. (Compiler); Mccook, M. W. (Compiler); Miller, G. P. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.

  3. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  4. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  5. Detailed Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has been gaining recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to characterize the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the MODIS bow-tie effects and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of the MODIS FRP data analysis, including comparisons with airborne measurements.

  6. Space radiation measurements on-board ISS--the DOSMAP experiment.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Benton, E; Burmeister, S; Dachev, Ts; Deme, S; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Olko, P

    2005-01-01

    The experiment 'Dosimetric Mapping' conducted as part of the science program of NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) between March and August 2001 was designed to measure integrated total absorbed doses (ionising radiation and neutrons), heavy ion fluxes and its energy, mass and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, time-dependent count rates of charged particles and their corresponding dose rates at different locations inside the US Lab at the International Space Station. Owing to the variety of particles and energies, a dosimetry package consisting of thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) chips and nuclear track detectors with and without converters (NTDPs), a silicon dosimetry telescope (DOSTEL), four mobile silicon detector units (MDUs) and a TLD reader unit (PILLE) with 12 TLD bulbs as dosemeters was used. Dose rates of the ionising part of the radiation field measured with TLD bulbs applying the PILLE readout system at different locations varied between 153 and 231 microGy d(-1). The dose rate received by the active devices fits excellent to the TLD measurements and is significantly lower compared with measurements for the Shuttle (STS) to MIR missions. The comparison of the absorbed doses from passive and active devices showed an agreement within +/- 10%. The DOSTEL measurements in the HRF location yielded a mean dose equivalent rate of 535 microSv d(-1). DOSTEL measurements were also obtained during the Solar Particle Event on 15 April 2001.

  7. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014 H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System)0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are ~3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  8. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  9. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  10. Background radiation measurements at 2200 ft depth in limestone mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling Back, Henning; Vogelaar, R. Bruce; Johnson, D. Nathan

    2003-10-01

    An active limestone mine in southwestern Virginia is being investigated as a possible site for detectors requiring a low muon flux. The current depth of the mine is 2200 feet. However, the mining operations continue to follow a vain of pure limestone at a 30-degree downward plane under a rising escarpment, and so greater depths can be achieved relatively quickly. With over 50 miles of drifts, many 100 ft high and 40 ft wide, and drive in access, this is a potential venue for future low background detectors. We will be reporting initial measurements of the muon flux as a function of zenith angle, as well as the ambient gamma radiation from the surrounding rock.

  11. Develop and fabricate a radiation dose measurement system for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Paul R.; Hanser, Frederick; Belue, Jeff; Cohen, Ram

    1994-11-01

    A second generation Dosimeter has been designed to fulfill the need for accurate radiation dose measurements. Two identical Dosimeters, a flight unit and a backup unit, have been fabricated, tested and calibrated. The backup Dosimeter was integrated into the payload of the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronic Expedients (APEX) satellite, as part of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment. APEX was launched shortly after 1430 UT on 8/3/94, with the initial orbit having apogee/perigee in the equatorial plane. The Dosimeter was turned on in Rev. 20, at about 0410 UT on 8/5/94. The initial turn on showed no anomalies with the Dosimeter operating properly. The Dosimeter was then monitored for several days and proper operation has been verified.

  12. Radiative temperature measurements at Kupaianaha lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative temperature of the surface of Kupaianaha lava lake is computed using field spectroradiometer data. Observations were made during periods of active overturning. The lake surface exhibits three stages of activity. Magma fountaining and overturning events characterize stage 1, which exhibits the hottest crustal temperatures and the largest fractional hot areas. Rifting events between plates of crust mark stage 2; crustal temperatures in this stage are between 100 C and 340 C, and fractional hot areas are at least an order of magnitude smaller than those in stage 1. Stage 3 is characterized by quiescent periods when the lake is covered by a thick crust. This stage dominates the activity of the lake more than 90 percent of the time. The results of this study are relevant for satellite and airborne measurement of the thermal characteristics of active volcanoes, and indicate that the thermal output of a lava lake varies on a time scale of seconds to minutes.

  13. Measurement of synchrotron-radiation-excited Kossel patterns.

    PubMed

    Bortel, G; Faigel, G; Tegze, M; Chumakov, A

    2016-01-01

    Kossel line patterns contain information on the crystalline structure, such as the magnitude and the phase of Bragg reflections. For technical reasons, most of these patterns are obtained using electron beam excitation, which leads to surface sensitivity that limits the spatial extent of the structural information. To obtain the atomic structure in bulk volumes, X-rays should be used as the excitation radiation. However, there are technical problems, such as the need for high resolution, low noise, large dynamic range, photon counting, two-dimensional pixel detectors and the small spot size of the exciting beam, which have prevented the widespread use of Kossel pattern analysis. Here, an experimental setup is described, which can be used for the measurement of Kossel patterns in a reasonable time and with high resolution to recover structural information.

  14. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 17 crew of 1.3 R was calculated from the specific activities of Na-24 in their postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of K-42, Cr-51, Co60, and Sb-124, introduced by injection into the astronauts, are extremely high in these specimens. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 levels are also reported and appear to be normal. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Fe, Co, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, As, Sb, Se, Br, Sc, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, and Th were measured in urine specimens from the Apollo 17 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. Strontium, barium, gold, cadmium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, terbium, thorium, and tin are reported for the first time. The concentrations or excretion rates of bromine and the alkali metals exhibit singificantly reduced postflight levels and are generally lower than values observed for previous missions. Chromium concentrations reflect radiochromium injections.

  15. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-02

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Q{sub pr}) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Q{sub pr} parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO{sub 2} core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Q{sub pr} parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO{sub 2} particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  16. Resolution of Transverse Electron Beam Measurements using Optical Transition Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Lincoln, Melissa; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Clayton, Chris E.; Huang, Chengkun; Lu, Wei; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-22

    In the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment E-167, optical transition radiation is used to measure the transverse profile of the electron bunches before and after the plasma acceleration. The distribution of the electric field from a single electron does not give a point-like distribution on the detector, but has a certain extension. Additionally, the resolution of the imaging system is affected by aberrations. The transverse profile of the bunch is thus convolved with a point spread function (PSF). Algorithms that deconvolve the image can help to improve the resolution. Imaged test patterns are used to determine the modulation transfer function of the lens. From this, the PSF can be reconstructed. The Lucy-Richardson algorithm is used to deconvolute this PSF from test images.

  17. Measurements for the JASPER Program radial shield attenuation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mukenthaler, F.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Radial Shield Attenuation Experiment was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tower Shielding Facility during FY 1986 to: provide data for calculating the shielding effectiveness of combinations of stainless steel, graphite, and boron carbide shield designs; verify the accuracy of related radiation transport methods and nuclear data; and substantiate the effectiveness of shield designs currently proposed by advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) designers in Japan and the United States. The Tower Shielding Reactor source was modified to represent neutron spectra at a specified location near the core and in the sodium pool of a typical liquid-metal-cooled reactor. The experimental configurations resulted from successive additions of the various layers of material as specified in the program plan. Integral neutron fluxes were measured behind each of the configurations at specified locations, and neutron spectra were obtained for selected mockups. The experimental data are presented in both tabular and graphical form. This experiment is the first in a series of six experiments to be performed as part of a cooperative effort between the United States Department of Energy and the Japan Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The research program is intended to provide support for the development of advanced sodium-cooled reactors.

  18. An Ionizing Radiation Sensor Using a Pre-Programmed MAHAOS Device

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Ching.; Lee, Hao-Tien Daniel.; Jong, Fuh-Cheng.

    2014-01-01

    Metal-aluminum oxide–hafnium aluminum oxide–silicon oxide–silicon (hereafter MAHAOS) devices can be candidates for ionizing radiation sensor applications. In this work, MAHAOS devices (SONOS-like structures with high k stack gate dielectric) were studied regarding the first known characterization of the ionization radiation sensing response. The change of threshold voltage VT for a MAHAOS device after gamma ray exposure had a strong correlation to the total ionization dose (TID) of gamma radiation up to at least 5 Mrad TID. In this paper, the gamma radiation response performances of the pre-programmed and virgin (non-pre-programmed) MAHAOS devices are presented. The experimental data show that the change of VT for the pre-programmed MAHAOS device with gamma irradiation is very significant. The data of pre-programmed MAHAOS devices written by 5 Mrad TID of gamma radiation was also stable for a long time with data storage. The sensing of gamma radiation by pre-programmed MAHAOS devices with high k stack gate dielectric reported in this study has demonstrated their potential application for non-volatile ionizing radiation sensing technology in the future. PMID:25116901

  19. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  20. A framework for selecting performance measures for opioid treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Luc R; Hoffman, Jeffrey A

    2002-01-01

    As a result of new federal regulations released in early 2001 that move the monitoring and evaluation of opioid treatment programs from a government regulation to an accreditation model, program staff members are now being challenged to develop performance measurement systems that improve care and service. Using measurement selection criteria is the first step in developing a performance measurement system as a component of an overall quality management (QM) strategy. Opioid treatment programs can "leapfrog" the development of such systems by using lessons learned from the healthcare quality industry. This article reviews performance measurement definitions, proposes performance measurement selection criteria, and makes a business case for Internet automation and accessibility. Performance measurement sets that are appropriate for opioid treatment programs are proposed, followed by a discussion on how performance measurement can be used within a comprehensive QM program. It is hoped that through development, adoption, and implementation of such a performance measurement program, treatment for clients and their families will continuously improve.

  1. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214...

  2. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214...

  3. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214...

  4. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  5. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  6. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  7. Cloud Classes and Radiative Heating profiles at the Manus and Nauru Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, James H.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-10-07

    The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) is a convective regime; however, the frequency and depth of convection is dependant on dynamical forcing which exhibits variability on a range of temporal scales and also on location within the region. Manus Island, Papua New Guinea lies in the heart of the western Pacific warm pool region and exhibits frequent deep convection much of the time while Nauru, which lies approximately 20 degrees to the East of Manus, lies in a transition zone where the frequency of convection is dependent on the phase of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Because of this difference in dynamical regime, the distribution of clouds and the associated radiative heating is quite different at the two sites. Individual cloud types: boundary layer cumulus, thin cirrus, stratiform convective outflow, do occur at both sites – but with different frequencies. In this study we compare cloud profiles and heating profiles for specific cloud types at these two sites using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). Results of this comparison indicate that, while the frequency of specific cloud types differ between the two sites as one would expect, the characteristics of individual cloud classes are remarkably similar. This information could prove to be very useful for applying tropical ARM data to the broader region.

  8. Measurement of surface physical properties and radiation balance for KUREX-91 study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Mesarch, Mark A.; Hays, Cynthia J.

    1992-01-01

    Biophysical properties and radiation balance components were measured at the Streletskaya Steppe Reserve of the Russian Republic in July 1991. Steppe vegetation parameters characterized include leaf area index (LAI), leaf angle distribution, mean tilt angle, canopy height, leaf spectral properties, leaf water potential, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and incoming and outgoing shortwave and longwave radiation. Research results, biophysical parameters, radiation balance estimates, and sun-view geometry effects on estimating APAR are discussed. Incoming and outgoing radiation streams are estimated using bidirectional spectral reflectances and bidirectional thermal emittances. Good agreement between measured and modeled estimates of the radiation balance were obtained.

  9. PARduino: A Simple Device Measuring and Logging Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Findley, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400 to 700 nm) is one of the primary controls of forest carbon and water relations. In complex terrain, PAR has high spatial-variability. Given the high cost of commercial datalogging equipment, spatially-distributed measurements of PAR have been typically modeled using geographic coordinates and terrain indices. Here, we present a design for a low cost, field-deployable device for measuring and logging PAR built around an Arduino microcontroller (we named it PARduino). PARduino provides for widely distributed sensor arrays and tests the feasibility of using hobbyist-grade electronics for collecting scientific data. PARduino components include a LiCor quantum sensor, EME Systems signal converter/amplifier, and Sparkfun's Arduino Pro Mini microcontroller. Additional components include a real time clock, a microSD flash memory card, and a custom printed circuit board (PCB). We selected the components with an eye towards ease of assembly. Everything can be connected to the PCB using through-hole soldering techniques. Since the device will be deployed in remote research plots that lack easy access to line power, battery life was also a consideration in the design. Extended deployment is possible because PARduino's software keeps it in a low-power sleep mode until ready to make a measurement. PARduino will be open-source hardware for use and improvement by others.

  10. Experimentally Measured Radiative Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths in Neutral Vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.; Nilsson, H.; Engström, L.; Hartman, H.; Lundberg, H.; Belmonte, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    We report a new study of the V i atom using a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence and Fourier transform spectroscopy that contains newly measured radiative lifetimes for 25 levels between 24,648 cm-1 and 37,518 cm-1 and oscillator strengths for 208 lines between 3040 and 20000 Å from 39 upper energy levels. Thirteen of these oscillator strengths have not been reported previously. This work was conducted independently of the recent studies of neutral vanadium lifetimes and oscillator strengths carried out by Den Hartog et al. and Lawler et al., and thus serves as a means to verify those measurements. Where our data overlap with their data, we generally find extremely good agreement in both level lifetimes and oscillator strengths. However, we also find evidence that Lawler et al. have systematically underestimated oscillator strengths for lines in the region of 9000 ± 100 Å. We suggest a correction of 0.18 ± 0.03 dex for these values to bring them into agreement with our results and those of Whaling et al. We also report new measurements of hyperfine structure splitting factors for three odd levels of V i lying between 24,700 and 28,400 cm-1.

  11. Radioactive effluent measurements at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Staff from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) performed measurements of the radioactive effluents emitted by the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF). These measurements were performed by collecting the cooling air that passed by the APRF reactor as it operated, passing the air through filters to collect the particulates and iodines, and collecting samples of the air to be analyzed for noble gases. The reactor operated for four test runs, including two pulses and two steady state runs. After each reactor run, the filters were counted using gamma spectrometry to identify the nuclides and to determine the activity of nuclides deposited on the filters. The study provided radionuclide release fraction data that can be used to estimate the airborne emissions resulting from APRF operations. The release fraction for particulate fission products and radioiodines, as derived from these measurements, was found to be 8.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for reactor pulses and 4.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} for steady state operation. These values compare to a theoretical value of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}.

  12. Time-domain measurement of broadband coherent Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miocinovic, P.; Gorham, P. W.; Guillian, E.; Milincic, R.; Field, R. C.; Walz, D.; Saltzberg, D.; Williams, D.

    2006-08-15

    We report on further analysis of coherent microwave Cherenkov impulses emitted via the Askaryan mechanism from high-energy electromagnetic showers produced at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In this report, the time-domain based analysis of the measurements made with a broadband (nominally 1-18 GHz) log periodic dipole array antenna is described. The theory of a transmit-receive antenna system based on time-dependent effective height operator is summarized and applied to fully characterize the measurement antenna system and to reconstruct the electric field induced via the Askaryan process. The observed radiation intensity and phase as functions of frequency were found to agree with expectations from 0.75-11.5 GHz within experimental errors on the normalized electric field magnitude and the relative phase; {sigma}{sub RvertcalbarEverticalbar}=0.039 {mu}V/MHz/TeV and {sigma}{sub {phi}}=17 deg. This is the first time this agreement has been observed over such a broad bandwidth, and the first measurement of the relative phase variation of an Askaryan pulse. The importance of validation of the Askaryan mechanism is significant since it is viewed as the most promising way to detect cosmogenic neutrino fluxes at E{sub {nu}}(greater-or-similar sign)10{sup 15} eV.

  13. Time-Domain Measurement of Broadband Coherent Cherenkov Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miocinovic, P.; Field, R.C.; Gorham, P.W.; Guillian, E.; Milincic, R.; Saltzberg, D.; Walz, D.; Williams, D.; /UCLA

    2006-03-13

    We report on further analysis of coherent microwave Cherenkov impulses emitted via the Askaryan mechanism from high-energy electromagnetic showers produced at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In this report, the time-domain based analysis of the measurements made with a broadband (nominally 1-18 GHz) log periodic dipole antenna (LPDA) is described. The theory of a transmit-receive antenna system based on time-dependent effective height operator is summarized and applied to fully characterize the measurement antenna system and to reconstruct the electric field induced via the Askaryan process. The observed radiation intensity and phase as functions of frequency were found to agree with expectations from 0.75-11.5 GHz within experimental errors on the normalized electric field magnitude and the relative phase; {sigma}{sub R|E|} = 0.039 {micro}V/MHz/TeV and {sigma}{sub {phi}} = 17{sup o}. This is the first time this agreement has been observed over such a broad bandwidth, and the first measurement of the relative phase variation of an Askaryan pulse. The importance of validation of the Askaryan mechanism is significant since it is viewed as the most promising way to detect cosmogenic neutrino fluxes at E{sub v} {ge} 10{sup 15} eV.

  14. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... of program success. (a) NASA will measure the overall success of the Program by the extent to...

  15. Measurement assurance program for FTIR analyses of deuterium oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.R.; Clark, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical chemistry measurements require an installed criterion based assessment program to identify and control sources of error. This program should also gauge the uncertainty about the data. A self- assessment was performed of long established quality control practices against the characteristics of a comprehensive measurement assurance program. Opportunities for improvement were identified. This paper discusses the efforts to transform quality control practices into a complete measurement assurance program. The resulting program heightened the laboratory`s confidence in the data it generated, by providing real-time statistical information to control and determine measurement quality.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2005-11-30

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: • Collaborating with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to lead the Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment, a major international field campaign held in Darwin, Australia • Successfully deploying the ARM Mobile Facility in Niger, Africa • Developing the new ARM Aerial Vehicles Program (AVP) to provide airborne measurements • Publishing a new finding on the impacts of aerosols on surface energy budget in polar latitudes • Mitigating a long-standing double-Intertropical Convergence Zone problem in climate models using ARM data and a new cumulus parameterization scheme.

  17. Modular Architecture for the Measurement of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaune, Paul; Turner, Kathryn; Holland, S. Douglas; Carson, William R.; Riman, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    A modular architecture has been conceived for the design of radiation-monitoring instruments used aboard spacecraft and in planetary-exploration settings. This architecture reflects lessons learned from experience with prior radiation-monitoring instruments. A prototype instrument that embodies the architecture has been developed as part of the Mars Advanced Radiation Acquisition (MARA) project. The architecture is also applicable on Earth for radiation-monitoring instruments in research of energetic electrically charged particles and instruments monitoring radiation for purposes of safety, military defense, and detection of hidden nuclear devices and materials.

  18. Measurement of the intensity of the cosmic background radiation at 3. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    The intensity of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) has been measured at a wavelength of 3.0 cm as part of a program to measure th Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum of the CBR at five wavelengths between 0.33 cm and 12 cm. The instrument used is a dual-antenna Dicke-switched radiometer with a double-sideband noise temperature of 490 K and a sensitivity of 46 mK/Hz/sup 1/2/. The entire radiometer is mounted on bearings. The atmospheric emission was measured by rotating the radiometer, and thus directing one antenna to zenith angles of +- 30/sup 0/ and +- 40/sup 0/. 61 references, 24 figures, 18 tables.

  19. Orbital Debris and NASA's Measurement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Africano, J. L.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2002-05-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik in 1957, the number of manmade objects in orbit around the Earth has dramatically increased. The United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) tracks and maintains orbits on over nine thousand objects down to a limiting diameter of about ten centimeters. Unfortunately, active spacecraft are only a small percentage ( ~ 7%) of this population. The rest of the population is orbital debris or ``space junk" consisting of expended rocket bodies, dead payloads, bits and pieces from satellite launches, and fragments from satellite breakups. The number of these smaller orbital debris objects increases rapidly with decreasing size. It is estimated that there are at least 130,000 orbital debris objects between one and ten centimeters in diameter. Most objects smaller than 10 centimeters go untracked! As the orbital debris population grows, the risk to other orbiting objects, most importantly manned space vehicles, of a collision with a piece of debris also grows. The kinetic energy of a solid 1 cm aluminum sphere traveling at an orbital velocity of 10 km/sec is equivalent to a 400 lb. safe traveling at 60 mph. Fortunately, the volume of space in which the orbiting population resides is large, collisions are infrequent, but they do occur. The Space Shuttle often returns to earth with its windshield pocked with small pits or craters caused by collisions with very small, sub-millimeter-size pieces of debris (paint flakes, particles from solid rocket exhaust, etc.), and micrometeoroids. To get a more complete picture of the orbital-debris environment, NASA has been using both radar and optical techniques to monitor the orbital debris environment. This paper gives an overview of the orbital debris environment and NASA's measurement program.

  20. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Integrating an academic radiation safety program into an environmental management system.

    PubMed

    Zurosky, Daniel M

    2003-08-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Program at the University of South Carolina recently developed an environmental management system (EMS) based on the ISO 14001 International Standard. Since our radiation safety program must already meet strict state licensing requirements, the process of conforming to this standard was relatively easy to accomplish. The EH&S program achieved certification to the ISO 14001 standard in August of 2002. The benefits of the EMS include: better interaction between radiation safety and other EH&S program entities, holds all employees accountable by closely tracking program activities, presents a clear picture of program accomplishments to the university administration, allows for better use of limited resources and provides for continuous program improvement.

  2. Absolute Measurements of Radiation Damage in Nanometer Thick Films

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of absolute measurements of radiation damage in films of nanometer thicknesses. Thin films of DNA (~ 2–160nm) are deposited onto glass substrates and irradiated with varying doses of 1.5 keV X-rays under dry N2 at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For each different thickness, the damage is assessed by measuring the loss of the supercoiled configuration as a function of incident photon fluence. From the exposure curves, the G-values are deduced, assuming that X-ray photons interacting with DNA, deposit all of their energy in the film. The results show that the G-value (i.e., damage per unit of deposited energy) increases with film thickness and reaches a plateau at 30±5 nm. This thickness dependence provides a correction factor to estimate the actual G-value for films with thicknesses below 30nm thickness. Thus, the absolute values of damage can be compared with that of films of any thickness under different experimental conditions. PMID:22562941

  3. BACKGROUND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS AND CANCER RISK ESTIMATES FOR SEBINKARAHISAR, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, Asli

    2013-07-19

    This paper presents the measurement results of environmental radioactivity levels for Şebinkarahisar district (uranium-thorium area), Giresun, Turkey. The radioactivity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and the fission product (137)Cs in soil samples collected from 73 regions from the surroundings of the study area were determined. In situ measurements of the gamma dose rate in air were performed in the same 73 locations where the soil samples were collected using a portable NaI detector. Also the mean radioactivity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in rock samples collected from 50 regions were determined. The mean estimated cancer risk value was found. The seasonal variations of the indoor radon activity concentrations were determined in the 30 dwellings in the study area. In addition, the mean gross alpha, gross beta and radon activities in tap water samples were determined in the same 30 dwellings. The excess lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the risk factors of International Commission on Radiological Protection and Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Radiological maps of the Şebinkarahisar region were composed using the results obtained from this study.

  4. Organ radiation exposure with EOS: GATE simulations versus TLD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, A. H.; Thevenard-Berger, P.; Verdun, F. R.; Létang, J. M.; Darbon, A.

    2016-03-01

    EOS® is an innovative X-ray imaging system allowing the acquisition of two simultaneous images of a patient in the standing position, during the vertical scan of two orthogonal fan beams. This study aimed to compute organs radiation exposure to a patient, in the particular geometry of this system. Two different positions of the patient in the machine were studied, corresponding to postero-anterior plus left lateral projections (PA-LLAT) and antero-posterior plus right lateral projections (AP-RLAT). To achieve this goal, a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed based on a GATE environment. To model the physical properties of the patient, a computational phantom was produced based on computed tomography scan data of an anthropomorphic phantom. The simulations provided several organs doses, which were compared to previously published dose results measured with Thermo Luminescent Detectors (TLD) in the same conditions and with the same phantom. The simulation results showed a good agreement with measured doses at the TLD locations, for both AP-RLAT and PA-LLAT projections. This study also showed that the organ dose assessed only from a sample of locations, rather than considering the whole organ, introduced significant bias, depending on organs and projections.

  5. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-03-18

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional

  6. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Measurement of radiation dose at the north interaction point of BEPC II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Achasov, Mikhail; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Muchnoi, Nikolay; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua-Min; Wang, Yi-Fang; Wu, Jing-Min; Xu, Jin-Qiang; Yu, Bo-Xiang

    2009-10-01

    The technique details for measuring radiation dose are expounded. The results of gamma and neutron radiation levels are presented and the corresponding radiation shielding is discussed based on the simplified estimation. In addition, the photon radiation level move as background for future experiments is measured by a NaI(Tl) detector.

  7. NASA's high efficiency and radiation damage solar cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion efficiency and the life expectancy of solar cells and arrays were evaluated for space applications. Efforts were made to improve the understanding of the conversion of electromagnetic radiation to useful forms of energy. A broad range of advanced concepts were evaluated.

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  9. 6th international conference on biophysics and synchrotron radiation. Program/Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pittroff, Connie; Strasser, Susan Barr

    1999-08-03

    This STI product consists of the Program/Abstracts book that was prepared for the participants in the Sixth International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation that was held August 4-8, 1998, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. This book contains the full conference program and abstracts of the scientific presentations.

  10. Status of radiation damage measurements in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, L.A.; James, R.B.

    1998-04-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) is reviewed for the purpose of determining their applicability to space applications. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10{sup 10} p/cm{sup 2} and significant bulk leakage after 10{sup 12} p/cm{sup 2}. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5 {times} 10{sup 9} p/cm{sup 2} in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from moderated fission spectrum neutrons after fluences up to 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}, although activation was evident. CT detectors show resolution losses after fluences of 3 {times} 10{sup 9} p/cm{sup 2} at 33 MeV for chlorine-doped detectors. Indium doped material may be more resistant. Neutron exposures (8 MeV) caused resolution losses after fluences of 2 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2}. Mercuric iodide has been studied with intermediate energy protons (10 to 33 MeV) at fluences up to 10{sup 12} p/cm{sup 2} and with 1.5 GeV protons at fluences up to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 8} p/cm{sup 2}. Neutron exposures at 8 MeV have been reported at fluences up to 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}. No radiation damage was found under these irradiation conditions.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Radiation Error of Surface Air Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qing-Quan; Ding, Ren-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Due to solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a naturally ventilated radiation shield may produce a measurement error that is 0.8 K or higher. To improve air temperature observation accuracy and correct historical temperature of weather stations, a radiation error correction method is proposed. The correction method is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) method. The CFD method is implemented to obtain the radiation error of the naturally ventilated radiation shield under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using the GA method. To verify the performance of the correction equation, the naturally ventilated radiation shield and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated temperature measurement platform serves as an air temperature reference. The mean radiation error given by the intercomparison experiments is 0.23 K, and the mean radiation error given by the correction equation is 0.2 K. This radiation error correction method allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 87 %. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the radiation errors given by the correction equation and the radiation errors given by the experiments are 0.036 K and 0.045 K, respectively.

  12. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  13. An Automated System for Measuring Microphysical and Radiative Cloud Characteristics from a Tethered Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Paul Lawson

    2004-03-15

    sensor package slowly descends to the ground and a radio tracking beacon is activated to locate the balloon and sensor package. The tethered balloon system was deployed in upslope clouds at the Smokey Hills Bombing Range in western Kansas and at Ft. Carson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs, Colorado. Both of these areas are FAA Restricted Airspace up to FL180 (18,000 ft MSL) so that the tethered balloon could be flown to its maximum height without violating FAA regulations. Because the feasibility field programs took place at the very end of the research period covered by this DOE grant, a detailed analysis of the results are beyond the scope of this report. However, examples of water drops and ice crystals recorded by the CPI demonstrated the feasibility of the balloon and sensor package. Based on our initial analysis of results from the feasibility field deployments, we have determined that the tethered balloon system is capable of making long -term measurements of meteorological, microphysical and radiation properties of polar stratus clouds up to a height of about 2 km. However, further field trials should be conducted before deploying the system in a full-up field campaign.

  14. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  15. 47 CFR 15.33 - Frequency range of radiated measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lowest frequency for which a radiated emission limit is specified, up to the frequency shown in the... level of radiated emissions within the frequency range 9 kHz to 30 MHz, such as a CB receiver or a device designed to conduct its radio frequency emissions via connecting wires or cables, e.g., a...

  16. Measuring Radiation Patterns of Reconfigurable Patch Antennas on Wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus and technique have been devised for measuring the radiation pattern of a microwave patch antenna that is one of a number of identical units that have been fabricated in a planar array on a high-resistivity silicon wafer. The apparatus and technique are intended, more specifically, for application to such an antenna that includes a DC-controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) actuator for switching the antenna between two polarization states or between two resonance frequencies. Prior to the development of the present apparatus and technique, patch antennas on wafers were tested by techniques and equipment that are more suited to testing of conventional printed-circuit antennas. The techniques included sawing of the wafers to isolate individual antennas for testing. The equipment included custom-built test fixtures that included special signal launchers and transmission-line transitions. The present apparatus and technique eliminate the need for sawing wafers and for custom-built test fixtures, thereby making it possible to test antennas in less time and at less cost. Moreover, in a production setting, elimination of the premature sawing of wafers for testing reduces loss from breakage, thereby enhancing yield.

  17. Radiation belt measurements strategy for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Maget, Vincent; Lazaro, Didier; Daglis, Yannis; Sandberg, Ingmar

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MAARBLE project, the Salammbô code and an ensemble Kalman filter is being used to reproduce the electron radiation belt dynamics during storms. One of the most widely used and reliable methods of assessing a data assimilation scheme is that of the twin experiments. The identical-twin experiments consist in a numerical procedure where synthetic data can be generated by the model to which data assimilation is applied, subject to a specified stochastic forcing term. The data with assigned errors are then evaluated for their effectiveness in obtaining optimal state estimates. The convergence of the unassimilated model fields from the second run towards those of the first run ("true" state) can then be measured. This set up is used here to define what is the minimum data required and along which orbits to still ensure a good estimate of the true state. The number of data being assimilated (cadence as well as distinct orbits) will be considered as a parameter such as to check data assimilation tool performance in each case. This analysis will be very useful in the case of optimizing a space surveillance system for ionizing particles. MAARBLE has received fundings from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-.2010-1, SP1 Cooperation, Collaborative project) under grant agreement n284520. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  18. Automated systems for measuring dose and radiation quality as a function of time

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J.; Elegy, D.C.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Badhwar, G.D.

    1992-09-01

    A compact, modular, tissue equivalent proportional counter system has been developed for use in space. The data acquisition system consists of a microcomputer, multi channel analyzer, memory, and power converter on individual circuit cards which can be used in various combinations for specific measurement requirements. The system uses separate, interchangeable detectors, each with its preamplifier and shaping amplifier connected directly to the detector. The microprocessor provides the computing power of a personal computer, and utilizes an operating system which is compatible with a subset of MSDOS. Experiment procedures can be programmed in high level languages and down loaded to the microprocessor. A typical application, used to characterize the dose rates due to trapped radiations in space, monitors the dose rate and records energy deposition spectra frequently when the dose rate is high. The microprocessor also measures and records system operation characteristics such as MCA linearity, proportional counter gain, and power supply voltages on a periodic basis.

  19. LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

  20. PABLM: a computer program to calculate accumulated radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program, PABLM, was written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. This report contains details of mathematical models used and calculational procedures required to run the computer program. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in the environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. The radiation dose models consider several exposure pathways. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years. The equations for calculating internal radiation doses are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and MPC's of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated water and soil are calculated using the basic assumption that the contaminated medium is large enough to be considered an infinite volume or plane relative to the range of the emitted radiations. The equations for calculations of the radiation dose from external exposure to shoreline sediments include a correction for the finite width of the contaminated beach.

  1. Quantitative measurement of radiation pressure on a microcantilever in ambient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph L.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2015-03-01

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Micro/nano-mechanical transducers have become sensitive enough that radiation pressure can influence these systems. However, photothermal effects often accompany and overwhelm the radiation pressure, complicating its measurement. In this letter, we investigate the radiation force on an uncoated silicon nitride microcantilever in ambient conditions. We identify and separate the radiation pressure and photothermal forces through an analysis of the cantilever's frequency response. Further, by working in a regime where radiation pressure is dominant, we are able to accurately measure the radiation pressure. Experimental results are compared to theory and found to agree within the measured and calculated uncertainties.

  2. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-12-01

    Winter Weather Outlook--With the chill of colder temperatures in the air, we can rest assured that the icy grips of winter are just around the corner. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC), a specialized part of the National Weather Service (NWS), has issued its annual winter outlook for the 2000-2001 winter season. The CPC, located in Camp Springs, Maryland, is a government agency that focuses its predictions on Earth's climate. In comparison to the NWS forecasts of short-term weather events, the CPC goes farther into the future (from a week to seasons). The CPC conducts real-time monitoring of Earth's climate and makes predictions of climate variability over land and ocean and in the atmosphere. The CPC also evaluates the sources of major climate anomalies. The operations branch of the CPC prepares long-range forecasts by applying dynamical, empirical, and statistical techniques. The analysis branch performs applied research to identify physical factors responsible for climate fluctuations. The two branches work jointly to test new forecast methods and models, with the goal of improving model output. The CPC also evaluates the outlook for floods, droughts, hurricanes, ozone depletion, and El Nino and La Nina environments. So, what is the CPC outlook for winter 2000-2001? For the most part, winter weather will return to ''normal'' this season, because the El Nino and La Nina anomalies that shaped our past three winters have dissipated. Normal winter weather statistics are based on data for 1961-1990. The strong influence of the sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean during an El Nino or La Nina episode, which makes it easier for forecasters to predict the trend for weather events, has given way to more neutral conditions. This winter, we should be prepared for swings in temperature and precipitation. The CPC is forecasting a more normal winter in general. Thus, we should expect colder temperatures than during the past three winters, which were greatly influenced and warmed by La Nina conditions.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program facilities newsletter, November 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-12-07

    This newletter begins a discussion on Lightning--Natures's light show. This issue explains what lightning is. Fortunately, lightning strikes on ARM's instruments occurs infrequently. Next month's issue will explain lightning safety and how ARM has dealt with lightning safety.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-11-08

    This newsletter contains two articles. The first is about problems at the 60-ft. instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park. Wasps have taken up residency at the tower which has hampered maintenance work there. The second article describes the cloud layer experiment at the Oklahoma site.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Facilities Newsletter - June 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J., ed.; Sisterson, D. L.

    1999-07-15

    The Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) Campaign is underway at the SGL CART site and will continue through September 1999. This field study is investigating the small-scale physics of precipitation and the convective dynamics of MCSs in the middle latitudes. An MCS is defined as a precipitation system that is 10--300 miles wide and contains deep convection at some time in its life span. MCSs occur in the midlatitudes of the US and can include large, isolated thunderstorms, squall lines, and mesoscale convective complexes.

  7. A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, R. J.; Roberts, F. P.; Merrill, J. A.; Brown, W. B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

  8. Measurements of environmental radiation exposure dose rates at selected sites in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, W C; Penna-Franca, E; Ribeiro, C C; Nogueira, A R; Londres, H; Oliveira, A E

    1981-12-01

    Two types of portable instruments were developed by the former Health and Safety Laboratory of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to characterize external gamma radiation fields and to estimate individual exposure dose rates from major natural or fission radionuclides distributed in the soil: a pressurized ionization chamber and a NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. The two instruments were used to measure environmental radiation exposure rates at three distinct geological areas of Brazil: - in the towns of Guarapari and Meaípe located on the monazite sand belt, ES. - on the vicinities of the uranium mine of Poços de Caldas, MG. - around the site of the Brazilian first nuclear power plant, in Angra dos Reis, RJ. The radiometric survey demonstrated once more the usefulness and versatility of the two instruments used. The measurements around the nuclear installations of Poços de Caldas and Angra dos Reis, allowed a rapid assessment of the local radiation background and its variability, as well as the selection of stations for the routine monitoring program. Radioactive anomalies were detected and characterized previously to the start of plant operations. The survey in Guarapari and Meaípe confirmed the results obtained by Roser and Cullen in 1958 and 1962, except on sites where considerable changes took place since then. The spectrometric measurements gave estimations of the relative proportion of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in the ground and also indications on the homogeneity of their distribution in the soil.

  9. Radiation profiles through the atmosphere measured by an auto controlled glider aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    In 2011 radiation measurements through the atmosphere were made with a balloon borne short- and longwave net radiometer. These measurements were very promising and therefore new and improved sensors from Kipp&Zonen were used to equip a glider aircraft together with the standard Swiss radiosonde from Meteolabor AG. The glider serves as returning platform for the expensive and well calibrated radiation sensors. Double balloon technique is used to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible. The built-in autopilot allows to return the gliderradiosonde to the launch site or to land it on predefined open space, which makes recovery much easier. The new return gliderradiosonde technique as well as new measurement possibilities will be shown. First measurements show radiation profiles through the atmosphere during different cloud conditions. Radiation profiles during different daytimes show the temporal resolution of vertical radiation profiles trough the atmosphere.

  10. National Guard State Partnership Program: Measuring Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    Strategy Research Project titled, National Guard State Partnership Program: a Whole-of-Government Approach, conducted by COL John Jansen in 2010 asks the...Narrative Research The narrative research conducted for this thesis follows John Creswell’s examples by focusing on the story or history of the...individual ( Creswell 2013, 71). In this case, the individual is the SPP. Utilizing narrative research allowed for the development of a chronology when

  11. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western Pacific, and North Slope of Alaska Sky Radiation, Ground Radiation, and MET Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M.T.; Holdridge, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    2005-03-18

    Aging systems and technological advances mandated changes to the data collection systems at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites. Key reasons for the upgrade include the following: achieve consistency across all ACRF sites for easy data use and operational maintenance; minimize the need for a single mentor requiring specialized knowledge and training; provide local access to real-time data for operational support, intensive operational period (IOP) support, and public relations; eliminate problems with physical packaging (condensation, connectors, etc.); and increase flexibility in programming and control of the data logger.

  12. Education and training for radiation scientists: radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003.

    PubMed

    Coleman, C Norman; Stone, Helen B; Alexander, George A; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Bedford, Joel S; Bristow, Robert G; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Fuks, Zvi; Gorelic, Lester S; Hill, Richard P; Joiner, Michael C; Liu, Fei-Fei; McBride, William H; McKenna, W Gillies; Powell, Simon N; Robbins, Michael E C; Rockwell, Sara; Schiff, Peter B; Shaw, Edward G; Siemann, Dietmar W; Travis, Elizabeth L; Wallner, Paul E; Wong, Rosemary S L; Zeman, Elaine M

    2003-12-01

    Current and potential shortfalls in the number of radiation scientists stand in sharp contrast to the emerging scientific opportunities and the need for new knowledge to address issues of cancer survivorship and radiological and nuclear terrorism. In response to these challenges, workshops organized by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), National Cancer Institute (NCI) (Radiat. Res. 157, 204-223, 2002; Radiat. Res. 159, 812-834, 2003), and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) (Nature, 421, 787, 2003) have engaged experts from a range of federal agencies, academia and industry. This workshop, Education and Training for Radiation Scientists, addressed the need to establish a sustainable pool of expertise and talent for a wide range of activities and careers related to radiation biology, oncology and epidemiology. Although fundamental radiation chemistry and physics are also critical to radiation sciences, this workshop did not address workforce needs in these areas. The recommendations include: (1) Establish a National Council of Radiation Sciences to develop a strategy for increasing the number of radiation scientists. The strategy includes NIH training grants, interagency cooperation, interinstitutional collaboration among universities, and active involvement of all stakeholders. (2) Create new and expanded training programs with sustained funding. These may take the form of regional Centers of Excellence for Radiation Sciences. (3) Continue and broaden educational efforts of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), and the Radiation Research Society (RRS). (4) Foster education and training in the radiation sciences for the range of career opportunities including radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation epidemiology, radiation safety, health/government policy, and industrial research. (5) Educate other

  13. New measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dual goals of optimizing clinical efficacy of hadrontherapy and determining radiation risk estimates for space research have intersected to a common focus for investigation of the biological effects of charged particles. This paper briefly highlights recent international progress at accelerator facilities engaged in both biological and clinical studies of the effects of particle beams, primarily protons, carbon and iron ions. Basic mechanisms of molecular, cellular and tissue responses continue under investigation for radiations with a range of ionization densities. Late normal tissue effects, including the risk of cancer in particular, are of importance for both research fields. International cooperation has enhanced the rate of progress as evidenced by recent publications. Specific areas of biomedical research related to the biological radiotoxicity of critical organs (especially the central nervous system), individual radiosensitivities to radiation carcinogenesis, and the analysis of effects in mixed radiation fields still require more research. Recommendations for addressing these issues are made.

  14. New measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: biology.

    PubMed

    Blakely, E A

    2001-01-01

    The dual goals of optimizing clinical efficacy of hadrontherapy and determining radiation risk estimates for space research have intersected to a common focus for investigation of the biological effects of charged particles. This paper briefly highlights recent international progress at accelerator facilities engaged in both biological and clinical studies of the effects of particle beams, primarily protons, carbon and iron ions. Basic mechanisms of molecular, cellular and tissue responses continue under investigation for radiations with a range of ionization densities. Late normal tissue effects, including the risk of cancer in particular, are of importance for both research fields. International cooperation has enhanced the rate of progress as evidenced by recent publications. Specific areas of biomedical research related to the biological radiotoxicity of critical organs (especially the central nervous system), individual radiosensitivities to radiation carcinogenesis, and the analysis of effects in mixed radiation fields still require more research. Recommendations for addressing these issues are made.

  15. Neutron Measurements for Radiation Protection in Low Earth Orbit - History and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, M. J.; Se,pmes. E/

    2003-01-01

    The neutron environment inside spacecraft has been of interest from a scientific and radiation protection perspective since early in the history of manned spaceflight. With 1:.1e exception of a few missions which carried plutonium-fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators, all of the neutrons inside the spacecraft are secondary radiations resulting from interactions of high-energy charged particles with nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, spacecraft structural materials, and the astronaut's own bodies. Although of great interest, definitive measurements of the spacecraft neutron field have been difficult due to the wide particle energy range and the limited available volume and power for traditional techniques involving Bonner spheres. A multitude of measurements, however, have been made of the neutron environment inside spacecraft. The majority of measurements were made using passive techniques including metal activation fo ils, fission foils, nuclear photoemulsions, plastic track detectors, and thermoluminescent detectors. Active measurements have utilized proton recoil spectrometers (stilbene), Bonner Spheres eRe proportional counter based), and LiI(Eu)phoswich scintillation detectors. For the International Space Station (ISS), only the plastic track! thermoluminescent detectors are used with any regularity. A monitoring program utilizing a set of active Bonner spheres was carried out in the ISS Lab module from March - December 200l. These measurements provide a very limited look at the crew neutron exposure, both in time coverage and neutron energy coverage. A review of the currently published data from past flights will be made and compared with the more recent results from the ISS. Future measurement efforts using currently available techniques and those in development will be also discussed.

  16. Space debris measurement program at Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dao, Phan D.; Mcnutt, Ross T.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based optical sensing was identified as a technique for measuring space debris complementary to radar in the critical debris size range of 1 to 10 cm. The Phillips Laboratory is building a staring optical sensor for space debris measurement and considering search and track optical measurement at additional sites. The staring sensor is implemented in collaboration with Wright Laboratory using the 2.5 m telescope at Wright Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. The search and track sensor is designed to detect and track orbital debris in tasked orbits. A progress report and a discussion of sensor performance and search and track strategies will be given.

  17. Research progress in radiation detectors, pattern recognition programs, and radiation damage determination in DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    The radiological implications of statistical variations in energy deposition by ionizing radiation were investigated in the conduct of the following experiments: (1) study of the production of secondary particles generated by the passage of the primary radiation through bone and muscle; (2) the study of the ratio of nonreparable to reparable damage in DNA as a function of different energy deposition patterns generated by X rays versus heavy fast charged particles; (3) the use of electronic radiography systems for direct fluoroscopic tomography and for the synthesis of multiple planes and; (4) the determination of the characteristics of systems response to split fields having different contrast levels, and of minimum detectable contrast levels between the halves under realistic clinical situations.

  18. Lessons learned from the Radiation measurements of the Mars Science Lab Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL-RAD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) was designed to characterize the radiation environment on the Mars surface and to contribute to an improved assessment of radiation risk for a future human mission to Mars. The flight was chosen to cover a period of solar maximum activity to allow besides the measurement of the galactic cosmic rays an intense study of exposures by solar particle events. The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft (MSL), containing the Curiosity rover, in which RAD was integrated, was launched to Mars on November 26, 2011. Although not part of the mission planning, RAD was operated already during the 253 day and 560 million km cruise to Mars and made the first time detailed measurements of a radiation environment comparable to that inside a future spacecraft carrying humans to Mars and in other deep space missions. Exactly 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays on August 7, 1912 RAD makes the first observation of the radiation environment on the surface of another planet and is still gathering data until today. Meanwhile the maximum activity of the current solar cycle has been passed and the solar activity is decreasing. Unfortunately the present solar cycle was an unexpected weak cycle. As a matter of fact only very small solar particle events could be observed during the still ongoing RAD measurements. The paper highlights the achievements of RAD by presenting selected data measured during the cruise and on the Mars surface and describes its impact on predictive models for health risks of astronauts during space missions.

  19. Designing, implementing, and conducting a web-based radiation safety training program to meet Texas standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Cerecero, Jennifer A; Charlton, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The implementation of a web-based radiation safety training program for a large biomedical research institution has the capability of increasing the knowledge of proper use of radionuclides in the laboratories in a more cost effective and efficient way of demonstrating this material. The design and implementation of the web-based course for the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio must meet Texas radioactive material regulations while ensuring that the content engages and challenges the student's health physics knowledge. The implementation of this course required updating the existing course to reflect current regulatory requirements for radiation safety training, emergency response, and biological effects risk coefficients. The final web-based radiation safety training program was evaluated by a standard examination that it is equivalent to the knowledge gained in the classroom course. The results of the scores for the standard examination were equivalent for both the classroom and the web-based course. However, the web-based version with 1 h in the classroom has saved 5,407 h total throughout the institution.

  20. The direct measurement using an imaging plate for coincidence of radiation centre and laser position in external radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Toshiyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Tsunashima, Yoshikazu

    2003-02-21

    A new method of quality assurance has been studied to measure coincidence of the radiation centre and a patient-setup laser position on a transverse plane to the beam at the isocentre. This measurement is achieved by using an imaging plate (IP). When radiation is applied to an IP, the energy is stored as trapped electrons. The number of electrons is decreased by local laser exposure. As a result, the radiation field produced by external beam irradiation is recorded as 'positive' information and the position of the patient-setup laser is recorded as 'negative' on an IP. The advantages of this method are the direct measurement, short time and high resolution. These are required for daily and monthly quality checks. We confirmed the advantage of this method by an experiment using a proton beam.