Science.gov

Sample records for radiation measurement program

  1. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges. PMID:26717161

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 6: Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Simon, Steven L; Zeman, Gary H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 6 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation measurements and dosimetry--one of the most fundamental scientific areas of the Council's expertise. Seminal reports published by PAC 6 over many decades have documented the scientific and technical foundations of radiation measurements and dosimetry for generations of radiation scientists and radiation protection professionals. Ongoing work of PAC 6 is driven by advancing technology, such as development of new types of instruments, biodosimetry and nanotechnology; by evolving understanding of radiation hazards, such as effects on the lens of the eye and risks as from some high-dose medical imaging procedures; and by new situations faced in the modern socio-political environment including radiological and nuclear threats. The activities of PAC 6 are intended to formulate and document the dosimetric framework for radiological science to address these ever-emerging challenges.

  3. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  4. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-10-02

    This Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter covers the following topics: The Raman lidar at the SGP central facility is receiving upgrades to its environmental controls; The instrument tower at Okmulgee State Park is receiving upgrades to prevent Turkey Vultures from roosting on the booms.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-05-05

    This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.

  6. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-08-29

    ARM in Australia--The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched its newest Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in Darwin, Australia. This is the fifth research site established since ARM Program inception in 1989. The new Darwin site and two other ARCS sites--on Manus Island and the island of Nauru--are in the Tropical Western Pacific region. The North American sites in the U.S. Southern Great Plains and on the North Slope of Alaska represent two different climate regions. A goal of the ARM Program is to improve understanding of (1) the ways clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and (2) the effects of these interactions on both a local and global climate. Years of collected data are being used to improve computer climate models so that their predictions are more accurate. The new Darwin site is at the Darwin International Airport, adjacent to the Darwin Airport Meteorological Office. The site features state-of-the-art instrumentation used to measure solar radiation and surface radiation balance; cloud parameters; and standard meteorological variables such as temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric moisture, precipitation rates, and barometric pressure. A data management system (DMS) consisting of two computer workstations collects, stores, processes, and backs up data from each of the ARCS instruments. Data are transmitted via the Internet to the United States for further processing and archiving with data from the other ARM sites. All ARM data are freely available via the Internet to the public and the worldwide scientific community (http://www.arm.gov/). Operational since April 2002, the Darwin site was officially dedicated on July 30, 2002, by dignitaries from both the United States and Australia. The site is a collaborative effort between DOE and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Special Services Unit--the equivalent of the U.S. National Weather Service

  7. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-02-16

    The subject of this newsletter is the ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle program. The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifically research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisticated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in the atmosphere. The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense joined together to use a high-tech, high-altitude, long-endurance class of unmanned aircraft known as the unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV). A UAV is a small, lightweight airplane that is controlled remotely from the ground. A pilot sits in a ground-based cockpit and flies the aircraft as if he were actually on board. The UAV can also fly completely on its own through the use of preprogrammed computer flight routines. The ARM UAV is fitted with payload instruments developed to make highly accurate measurements of atmospheric flux, radiance, and clouds. Using a UAV is beneficial to climate research in many ways. The UAV puts the instrumentation within the environment being studied and gives scientists direct measurements, in contrast to indirect measurements from satellites orbiting high above Earth. The data collected by UAVs can be used to verify and calibrate measurements and calculated values from satellites, therefore making satellite data more useful and valuable to researchers.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) -- Summer 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, G.; Ruderman, M.; Treiman, S.

    1995-10-01

    ARM is a highly focused program designed to improve the understanding of the transport of infrared and solar radiation through the atmosphere. The program pays particular attention to the interaction of radiation with the three phases of water. The goals of ARM are usually articulated in terms of improvements in climate models. The authors agree that ARM can indeed make significant contributions to the understanding of climate change. In addition the authors believe that the results of the program will have wide applicability to a broad range of problems, including more accurate short-term and seasonal weather forecasting. This report examines the issues of anomalous atmospheric absorption and makes recommendations concerning future directions for the ARM program.

  10. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-10-10

    Our Changing Climate--Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  11. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A. ); Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M. ); Ellingson, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  12. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM`s highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM`s experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program.

  13. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, July 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-08-12

    ARM Participating in Off-site Intensive Operational Period--The ARM Program is playing a role in the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) intensive operational period (IOP), under way through July in South Florida. The objective of CRYSTAL-FACE is to investigate the physical properties and formation processes of tropical cirrus clouds. The ARM Program has deployed a suite of ground-based instruments in Florida for CRYSTAL-FACE. In addition, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration provides six research aircraft equipped with state-of-the-art instruments to measure characteristics of cirrus clouds and their ability to alter the temperature of the atmosphere. The reliability of climate predictions depends on the accuracy of computer models of climate. Interactions between clouds and solar radiation are a major source of current uncertainty in the models, hindering accurate climate prediction. A goal of CRYSTAL-FACE is to improve on the way clouds are represented in and integrated into the models and thus achieve more reliable climate predictions. CRYSTAL-FACE will be followed in 2004 by CRYSTAL-TWP, to be held at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) location on Manus and Nauru Islands. New Storage Building Proposed for Central Facility--Now in the design phase is a new storage building to be erected at the central facility, west of the shipping and receiving trailer. The added storage is needed because shipping needs for the TWP are now being handled by the SGP site. New Seminole Extended Facility Location Approved--The extended facility formerly on the property of the Seminole Industrial Foundation had to be removed from service in April, after the land was sold to a new owner. Both the foundation and the new land owner offered options for new extended facility locations in the area. An Environmental Evaluation Notification Form has now been approved by the USDOE (ARM Program sponsor), as

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2006-09-06

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, May 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    2000-06-01

    This month the authors will visit an ARM CART site with a pleasant climate: the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) CART site, along the equator in the western Pacific Ocean. The TWP locale lies between 10 degrees North latitude and 10 degrees South latitude and extends from Indonesia east-ward beyond the international date line. This area was selected because it is in and around the Pacific warm pool, the area of warm sea-surface temperatures that determine El Nino/La Nina episodes. The warm pool also adds heat and moisture to the atmosphere and thus fuels cloud formation. Understanding the way tropical clouds and water vapor affect the solar radiation budget is a focus of the ARM Program. The two current island-based CART sites in the TWP are in Manus Province in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru Island.

  16. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-05-03

    Intensive Observation Period Projects Scheduled--Several IOP projects have been scheduled for the SGP CART site this spring. These projects either have already begun or will begin shortly. Radiosondes--The RS-90 Transition IOP is currently under way. The RS-90 model radiosonde is gradually replacing the older RS-80 model. Radiosondes are instrument packages attached to and launched by weather balloons. The instruments measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity as the balloon rises through the air. The new RS-90 model is a high-performance radiosonde with fast-response sensors capable of providing data for each variable every second. The relatively environmentally friendly package is constructed of cardboard and steel rather than Styrofoam, and it has a water-activated battery that contains no toxic substances. The RS-90 Transition IOP is taking place during April. Operators will launch both the old RS-80 and the new RS-90 radiosondes simultaneously once each day to obtain duplicate vertical profiles of the atmosphere for comparison. This procedure will also allow data users to test the output from the old and new radiosondes in models. Narrow Field of View (NFOV) Solar Spectrometer Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval Campaign--The NFOV IOP is scheduled to take place on May 7-August 31, 2001. A researcher from Pennsylvania State University will be deploying a dual-spectrometer instrument that measures the hemispheric flux and zenith NFOV radiance over a wavelength range of 300- 1000 nanometers. (One nanometer equals 1 billionth of a meter or 0.000000039 inches.) This wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectra. These measurements are used to estimate cloud optical depth--a quantity related to the amount of solar radiation intercepted by a cloud--for broken cloud fields over vegetated surfaces. The IOP measurements will be compared with optical depth measurements made by SGP instruments. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS

  17. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  18. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Environmental Radiation Measurements on MIR Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental radiation levels on the Russian space station Mir are being monitored under differing shielding conditions by a series of six area passive dosimeters (APDs) placed at individual locations inside the Core and Kvant 2 modules, and by an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) to be-deployed on the exterior surface of the Kvant 2 module. Each APD and the EDA contains CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for measurement of LET spectra and TLDs for absorbed dose measurements. Two of the missions, NASA-2/Mir-21 and NASA-3/Mir-22 have been completed and the six APDs from each mission returned to Earth from Mir. This report covers progress to date on the analysis of TLDs and PNTDs from these two missions. For NASA-2/Mir-21, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 271 to 407 micro-Gy/d at the APDS. For NASA-3/Mir-22, average mission absorbed dose rates varied from 265 to 421 micro-Gy/d.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-02-05

    In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil moisture and temperature at eight distinct subsurface levels. A special set of probes used in the SWATS measures soil temperature, soil-water potential, and volumetric water content. Sensors are placed at eight different depths below the soil surface, starting at approximately 5 cm (2 in.) below the surface and ending as deep as 175 cm (69 in.). Each site has two identical sets of probes buried 1 m (3.3 ft) apart, to yield duplicate measurements as a quality control measure. At some sites, impenetrable soil or rock layers prevented installation of probes at the deeper levels. The sensors are connected to an electronic data logger that collects and stores the data. Communication equipment transfers data from the site. All of the electronic equipment is housed in a weatherproof enclosure mounted on a concrete slab.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    1999-07-30

    Summer research efforts continue in July with the SGP99 Hydrology Campaign headed by the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Other participants are the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the ARM Program. This campaign focuses on measuring soil moisture by using satellite-based instruments and takes place July 7--22, 1999. Soil moisture is an important component of Earth's hydrologic cycle and climate, but the understanding of it and the ability to measure it accurately are limited. Scientists need to understand soil moisture better so that it can be incorporated correctly into general circulation models. As an important factor in growing crops, soil moisture dictates a farmer's success or failure. Too much soil moisture can drown out croplands and cause flooding, whereas too little can lead to drought conditions, robbing crops of their life-supporting water. Decisions about which crops to plant and other land use issues depend on the understanding of soil moisture patterns. Soil moisture can be measured in various ways. ARM employs several direct methods using soil moisture probes buried from 1 inch to 6.5 feet below the surface. One type of probe has two stainless steel screens separated by a piece of fiberglass. Electrical resistance, which is a function of soil moisture content, is measured between the screens. Another type of probe measures soil temperature and the increase in temperature after the soil is heated by small heating element. From this measurement, the volume of water in the soil can be calculated.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2000-11-09

    Energy Balance Bowen Ratio System--Estimates of surface energy fluxes are a primary product of the data collection systems at the ARM SGP CART site. Surface fluxes tell researchers a great deal about the effects of interactions between the sun's energy and Earth. Surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat can be estimated by measuring temperature and relative humidity gradients across a vertical distance. Sensible heat is what we feel coming from a warm sidewalk or a metal car door; it can be measured with a thermometer. Latent heat, on the other hand, is released or absorbed during transformations such as the freezing of water into ice or the evaporation of morning dew from a lawn. Such a transformation is referred to as a ''phase change,'' the conversion of a substance among its solid, liquid, and vapor phases. Phase change is an important aspect of our climate. Earth's water cycle abounds with phase changes: rain falls and evaporates, changing from liquid to vapor; the water vapor in the air condenses to form clouds, changing from a gas into a liquid cloud droplet, and eventually falls to Earth's surface as rain or snow; snow falls and melts to liquid or sublimes directly to water vapor. This cyclic process has no end. Surface vegetation and land use play extremely important roles in surface energy fluxes. Plants absorb and reflect solar radiation and also take up water and expel water vapor. The type of plant material, its stage of growth, and its color determine whether and to what extent the surface and air can couple and exchange energy.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Ellingson, Robert G.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Klein, Steve A.; McFarquhar, Gregory M.; Lamb, Peter J.; Long, Charles M.; Verlinde, Johannes

    2004-10-30

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years; Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square; Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds; Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations; Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites; Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale; and, Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, October 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-11-04

    Aerosol Observing System Upgraded--The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the SGP central facility recently received maintenance and was upgraded to improve its performance. The AOS measures the properties of the aerosol particles around it. Several AOS components were removed, repaired, and calibrated to operate within specifications. The system continuously gathers information about the way minute aerosol particles interact with solar radiation. A better understanding of these interactions will help climate change researchers integrate aerosol effects more accurately into global climate computer models. Polar Bears Make Work Dangerous at ARM North Slope of Alaska Site--The late development of seasonal sea ice has increased polar bear sitings at ARM's Barrow site. The bears were recently seen next to the ARM instrument towers at Barrow, making the normal work day a bit more tricky for the technicians who are at the site year-round. Polar bears are not afraid of people and will attack and kill. The bears usually spend most of their time on off-shore ice floes hunting seals. This season, a large storm pushed the floes out to sea while the bears were ashore at Barrow, leaving them to forage for food on land until the sea ice reforms with the onset of colder weather. The hungry bears have made working at the Barrow CART site a dangerous proposition. ARM workers carry shotguns with them at all times for protection. On a recent journey to the site, ARM instrument mentor Michael Ritsche encountered the animals. ''You become much more aware of your surroundings,'' said Ritsche after returning safely to Argonne. Barrow residents protect themselves by shooting warning shells to scare the bears away from developed areas. Hearing the firing in the early mornings and late evenings at Barrow reminded Ritsche that he was in a more dangerous world.

  6. Environmental Radiation Measurements on the Mir Space Station. Program 1; Internal Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Benton, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the NASA/Mir Phase 1B Science Program, the ionizing radiation environment inside and outside the Russian Mir's Space Station was monitored using a combination of Thermoluminescent Detectors (TLD) and CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detectors (PNTD). Radiation measurements inside the Mir station were carried out using six Area Passive Dosimeters (APD), four located inside the Mir Base Block and two located inside the Kvant 2 module, during the NASA-2/Mir-21, NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 missions. The radiation environment under low shielding was measured using an External Dosimeter Array (EDA) mounted on the outer surface of the Kvant 2 module. The external radiation environment and a location inside the Kvant 2 roughly corresponding to the location of the EDA were monitored for 130 days during the NASA- 4/Mir-23 and NASA-5/Mir-24 missions. Dose rates measured by APD TLDs ranged from 271 to 407 microGy/d during the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission, from 265 to 378 microGy/d during the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission, and from 287 to 421 microGy/d during the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission. APD PNTDs have been analyzed and LET spectra have been Cenerated for the five APDs exposed on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission and for two APD PNTDs exposed on the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission. Dose equivalent rates on the NASA-2/Mir-21 mission ranged from 513 microSv/d in the Kvant 2 module to 710 microSv/d on the floor of the Base Block. Dose as a function of shielding depth in TLDs has been measured in the thin TLD stacks including in the EDA. EDA dose range from 72.5 Gy under 0.0146 g/sq cm to 0.093 Gy under 3.25 g/sq cm of shielding. Readout and analysis of the reaming PNTDs form the NASA-3/Mir-22 mission and PNTDs from the NASA-4/Mir-23 mission (including those from the EDA) is ongoing and will be completed during the final year of this experiment. Dose equivalent rates for the NASA-3/Mir-22 and NASA-4/Mir-23 APDs will then be determined and comparisons will be made with both model calculations and with

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D.L.

    1999-09-03

    With the end of summer drawing near, the fall songbird migration season will soon begin. Scientists with the ARM Program will be able to observe the onset of the migration season as interference in the radar wind profiler (RWP) data. An RWP measures vertical profiles of wind and temperature directly above the radar from approximately 300 feet to 3 miles above the ground. The RWP accomplishes this by sending a pulse of electromagnetic energy skyward. Under normal conditions, the energy is scattered by targets in the atmosphere. Targets generally consist of atmospheric irregularities such as variations in temperature, humidity, and pressure over relatively short distances. During the spring and fall bird migration seasons, RWP beam signals are susceptible to overflying birds. The radar beams do not harm the birds, but the birds' presence hampers data collection by providing false targets to reflect the RWP beam, introducing errors into the data. Because of the wavelength of the molar beam, the number of individuals, and the small size of songbirds' bodies (compared to the larger geese or hawks), songbirds are quite likely to be sampled by the radar. Migrating birds usually fly with the prevailing wind, making their travel easier. As a result, winds from the south are ''enhanced'' or overestimated in the spring as the migrating birds travel northward, and winds from the north are overestimated in the fall as birds make their way south. This fact is easily confirmed by comparison of RWP wind data to wind data gathered by weather balloons, which are not affected by birds.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-03-08

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled--The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded--New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''--Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog--Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-07-23

    Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, May 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-06-03

    Eight eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement systems are now deployed throughout the ARM SGP CART site. These systems are used to determine the flux (flow) of sensible heat, the flux of latent heat, and air momentum just above cropland a few hundred feet upwind of the ECOR locations. Sensible heat is energy we feel as warmth. Latent heat is the energy that evaporated water vapor measured in the atmosphere. The ECOR systems actually measure wind velocity and temperature fluctuations, water vapor, and barometric pressure. The surface flux values for sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are calculated from these measurements.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-09-19

    This is the third water vapor IOP and it will focus on the lower portions of the atmosphere. Again, scientists will work to achieve absolute calibrations of water vapor instrumentation. For this purpose, several instruments will be deployed, and measurements will be compared. Instruments to be used include radiosondes, Raman lidar, chilled-mirror hygrometers, surface meteorological observation station (SMOS) towers, a variety of microwave radiometers, and global positioning systems (GPS). The current experiment has two goals. The first is to characterize the accuracy of the water vapor measurements, especially the daily operational observations being made around the clock in the lower levels of the atmosphere at the CART site. The second goal is to develop techniques for improving the accuracy of these observations in order to obtain the best possible water vapor measurements under a wide range of atmospheric conditions.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, December 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Liljegren, J. C.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2001-01-09

    Winter has set its sights upon us, just in time to make the holidays bright. Remembering the joy winter brought us when we were children might help us cope with the hazards and inconvenience of the season, but we can't avoid the coping. The basic mechanisms that support summer storms also occur in winter storms. These mechanisms include low-pressure centers, warm fronts, and cold fronts. As winter approaches, the northern branch of the jet stream dips to the south, bringing cold polar air into the Midwest and Southern Great Plains states. Counterclockwise rotation around a low-pressure center allows relatively warm, moist air from the south to flow northward on the eastern side of the low. Cold air from the north is drawn southward, behind the low-pressure center. Sufficiently cold air and abundant moisture are two ingredients necessary to fuel a winter storm system. The intensity of a storm depends on the strength and position of the jet stream relative to the low-pressure center, as well as horizontal temperature gradients and upper-air disturbances. The most frequent origin for snowstorms that affect the Southern Great Plains states is the lee of the Rocky Mountains. Low-pressure systems develop in this area and move eastward or northeastward, encountering and picking up moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Such storms contribute to average annual snowfall levels over the ARM Program sites ranging from 5-15 inches in Oklahoma to 15-30 inches in Kansas.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-04-29

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recently announced the development of El Nino conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean near the South American coastline. Scientists detected a 4 F increase in the sea-surface temperatures during February. Conrad C. Lautenbacher, NOAA administrator and Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, indicated that this warming is a sign that the Pacific Ocean is heading toward an El Nino condition. Although it is too early to predict how strong the El Nino will become or the conditions it will bring to the United States, Lautenbacher said that the country is likely to feel the effects as soon as midsummer (Figure 1). During the last El Nino in 1997-1998, the United States experienced strong weather impacts. Even though researchers don't understand what causes the onset of El Nino, they do recognize what to expect once development has begun. Scientists can monitor the development of El Nino through NOAA's advanced global climate monitoring system of polar-orbiting satellites and 72 ocean buoys moored across the equator in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting measurements of surface meteorological parameters and upper ocean temperatures are made available to scientists on a real-time basis, allowing for timely monitoring and predictions. This complex monitoring array enabled NOAA to predict the 1997-1998 El Nino six months in advance.

  14. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, August 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Holdridge, D. J.,ed.

    2001-09-04

    Summer 2001 Heat Wave--This summer has proved to be downright hot in the Southern Great Plains states. The temperatures soared to record-setting levels. The state of Oklahoma saw its fourth hottest July since 1895, while Kansas experienced its seventh warmest. The average temperature throughout most of Oklahoma for the month of July was 2.5-5.5 F above normal. The highest temperature recorded in the region during July was 107 F in Oklahoma City. Wichita, Kansas, had 17 July days with recorded temperatures of 100 F or above, while Medicine Lodge, Kansas, had 21. In addition, Oklahoma suffered its ninth driest July, with precipitation levels much below normal. Kansas fared better, receiving above-normal precipitation amounts. Nevertheless, regional July rainfall averaged 1.5-3.0 inches below normal. Not only is a summer heat wave uncomfortable, but it can also be dangerous. The National Weather Service (NWS) has increased efforts to alert the public to the hazards of heat waves. Prolonged excessive heat and humidity stress the human body and can, in some cases, cause death. The NWS has devised a heat index that is a measure of the heat we perceive as a function of air temperature and humidity. A heat index chart displays different zones from caution to extreme danger, much like a wind chill index chart used in the winter. The values represent conditions of light winds and shade. Thus, in full sunshine heat index values can increase by 15 F. Exposure to winds in hot, dry weather can be equally dangerous. The NWS sends out alerts when the heat index is expected to reach values with significant potential impact. The danger of heat-related illness increases with the number of consecutive days with high heat and humidity levels. Heat and humidity take their toll faster on the elderly, small children, and those with respiratory health problems. Heat-related illnesses come in several forms with different symptoms. From common sunburns to heat stroke, these heat disorders

  15. Collective dose as a performance measure for occupational radiation protection programs: Issues and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Harty, R.; Hickey, E.E.; Martin, J.B.; Peffers, M.S.; Kathren, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Collective dose is one of the performance measures used at many US Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities to quantitatively assess the objectives of the radiation protection program. It can also be used as a management tool to improve the program for keeping worker doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Collective dose is used here to mean the sum of all total effective dose equivalent values for all workers in a specified group over a specified time. It is often used as a surrogate estimate of radiological risk. In principle, improvements in radiation protection programs and procedures will result in reduction of collective dose, all other things being equal. Within the DOE, most frequently, a single collective dose number, which may or may not be adjusted for workload and other factors, is used as a performance measure for a contractor. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the use of collective dose as a performance measure for ALARA programs at DOE sites.

  16. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, G.M. ); Tichler, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's research strategy to address global climate change and is a direct continuation of DOE's decade-long effort to improve the ability of General Circulation Models (GCMs) to provide reliable simulations of regional, and long-term climate change in response to increasing greenhouse gases. The effort is multi-disciplinary and multi-agency, involving universities, private research organizations and more than a dozen government laboratories. The objective of the ARM Research is to provide an experimental testbed for the study of important atmospheric effects, particularly cloud and radiative processes, and to test parameterizations of these processes for use in atmospheric models. This effort will support the continued and rapid improvement of GCM predictive capability. 2 refs.

  17. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  18. Evaluation of the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework using Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2004-07-01

    One of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was to provide long-term observations for evaluation of cloud and radiation treatment in global climate models. Unfortunately, traditional parametric approach of diagnosing cloud and radiation properties from large-scale model fields is not well suited for comparison with observed time series at selected locations. A recently emerging approach called the multi-scale modeling framework (MMF) has shown promise to bridge the gap. MMF consists of a two-dimensional cloud system resolving model (CSRM) embedded into each CAM grid column of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM), thereby computing cloud properties at a scale that is more consistent with observations. Because the approach is computationally expensive only limited simulations have been carried out. In this presentation, we will present a comparison of data from two ARM sites, one at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) in Oklahoma and one at Nauru island in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) region, with output from both CAM and MMF. Two sets of one year long simulations are considered: one using climatological sea surface temperatures (SST) and another using 1999 SST. Each set includes a run with MMF as well as CAM run with traditional or standard cloud and radiation treatment. Time series of cloud fraction, precipitation intensity, and downwelling solar radiation flux at the surface are statistically analyzed. For the TWP site, nearly all parameters of frequency distributions of these variables from MMF run are shown to be more consistent with observation than those from CAM run. For the SGP, the improvements are marginal.

  19. Data systems for science integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gracio, D.K.; Hatfield, L.D.; Yates, K.R.; Voyles, J.W.; Tichler, J.L.; Cederwall, R.T.; Laufersweiler, M.J.; Leach, M.J.; Singley, P.

    1995-12-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was developed by the US Department of Energy to support the goals and mission of the US Global Change Research Program. The purpose of the ARM program is to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCMs) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. Three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments to collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCMs. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in early 1996 in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska (NSA). Approximately 1.5 GB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the CART sites, and external data sources to the ARM Experiment Center (EC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experimental Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis and delivery of ARM data. Data from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems and from external data sources are transferred to the Experiment Center. The EC processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while maintaining a three-month running archive of data.

  20. Data management and scientific integration within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracio, Deborah K.; Hatfield, Larry D.; Yates, Kenneth R.; Voyles, Jimmy W.; Tichler, Joyce L.; Cederwall, Richard T.; Laufersweiler, Mark J.; Leach, Martin J.; Singley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy with the goal to improve the predictive capabilities of General Circulation Models (GCM's) in their treatment of clouds and radiative transfer effects. To achieve this goal, three experimental testbeds were designed for the deployment of instruments that will collect atmospheric data used to drive the GCM's. Each site, known as a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART), consists of a highly available, redundant data system for the collection of data from a variety of instrumentation. The first CART site was deployed in April 1992 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP), Lamont, Oklahoma, with the other two sites to follow in September 1995 in the Tropical Western Pacific and in 1997 on the North Slope of Alaska. Approximately 400 MB of data are transferred per day via the Internet from the SGP site to the ARM Experiment Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The Experiment Center is central to the ARM data path and provides for the collection, processing, analysis, and delivery of ARM data. Data are received from the CART sites from a variety of instrumentation, observational systems, amd external data sources. The Experiment Center processes these data streams on a continuous basis to provide derived data products to the ARM Science Team in near real-time while providing a three-month running archive of data. A primary requirement of the ARM Program is to preserve and protect all data produced or acquired. This function is performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory where leading edge technology is employed for the long-term storage of ARM data. The ARM Archive provides access to data for participation outside of the ARM Program. The ARM Program involves a collaborative effort by teams from various DOE National Laboratories, providing multi-disciplinary areas of expertise. This paper will discuss the collaborative methods in which the ARM teams

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - January 1 - March 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 – June 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2006-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - July 1 - September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-01-08

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2009-01-15

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2008-06-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1 - June 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-07-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 – March 31, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-04-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2007-10-01

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program May 2003 Intensive Operations Period Examining Aerosol Properties and Radiative Influences: Preface to Special Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, Richard; Feingold, Graham; Ghan, Steven; Ogren, John; Schmid, Beat; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Sheridan, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols influence climate by scattering and absorbing radiation in clear air (direct effects) and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei, modifying the microphysical properties of clouds, influencing radiation and precipitation development (indirect effects). Much of present uncertainty in forcing of climate change is due to uncertainty in the relations between aerosol microphysical and optical properties and their radiative influences (direct effects) and between microphysical properties and their ability to serve as cloud condensation nuclei at given supersaturations (indirect effects). This paper introduces a special section that reports on a field campaign conducted at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in North Central Oklahoma in May, 2003, examining these relations using in situ airborne measurements and surface-, airborne-, and space-based remote sensing.

  13. Application of Aerosol Hygroscopicity Measured at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains Site to Examine Composition and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasparini, Roberto; Runjun, Li; Collins, Don R.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Brackett, Vincent G.

    2006-01-01

    A Differential Mobility Analyzer/Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA/TDMA) was used to measure submicron aerosol size distributions, hygroscopicity, and occasionally volatility during the May 2003 Aerosol Intensive Operational Period (IOP) at the Central Facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) site. Hygroscopic growth factor distributions for particles at eight dry diameters ranging from 0.012 micrometers to 0.600 micrometers were measured throughout the study. For a subset of particle sizes, more detailed measurements were occasionally made in which the relative humidity or temperature to which the aerosol was exposed was varied over a wide range. These measurements, in conjunction with backtrajectory clustering, were used to infer aerosol composition and to gain insight into the processes responsible for evolution. The hygroscopic growth of both the smallest and largest particles analyzed was typically less than that of particles with dry diameters of about 0.100 micrometers. It is speculated that condensation of secondary organic aerosol on nucleation mode particles is largely responsible for the minimal hygroscopic growth observed at the smallest sizes considered. Growth factor distributions of the largest particles characterized typically contained a nonhygroscopic mode believed to be composed primarily of dust. A model was developed to characterize the hygroscopic properties of particles within a size distribution mode through analysis of the fixed size hygroscopic growth measurements. The performance of this model was quantified through comparison of the measured fixed size hygroscopic growth factor distributions with those simulated through convolution of the size-resolved concentration contributed by each of the size modes and the mode-resolved hygroscopicity. This transformation from sizeresolved hygroscopicity to mode-resolved hygroscopicity facilitated examination of changes in the hygroscopic

  14. Orbital measurements of the Earth's radiation budget during the first decade of the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The instrumentation and data analysis methods applied to data from the Explorer 7, TIROS 2, 3, 4, and 7, and Nimbus 2 and 3 experimental satellites are summarized. Problems encountered in analyzing these data included: determining the value of the solar constant, inaccuracies introduced by degradation of the sensors in orbit, the need to infer the total reflected and emitted radiation from filtered measurements, the development of corrections for anisotropy in order to determine the outgoing flux densities at the moment of measurement, and the development of corrections to account for diurnal variability. The corrections for long- and shortwave anisotropy and historical determinations of the solar constant and albedo are treated in detail. These early measurements indicated that the planetary albedo was lower, the emitted radiation higher, and the equator-to-pole gradient of net radiation greater than previously supposed.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program - unmanned aerospace vehicle: The follow-on phase

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) demonstration flights (UDF) are designed to provide an early demonstration of the scientific utility of UAVs by using an existing UAV and instruments to measure broadband radiative flux profiles under clear sky conditions. UDF is but the first of three phases of ARM-UAV. The second phase significantly extends both the UAV measurement techniques and the available instrumentation to allow both multi-UAV measurements in cloudy skies and extended duration measurements in the tropopause. These activities build naturally to the third and final phase, that of full operational capability, i.e., UAVs capable of autonomous operations at 20-km altitudes for multiple days with a full suite of instrumentation for measuring radiative flux, cloud properties, and water vapor profiles.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2008-09-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2008 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-01-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, they calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The US Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.80 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because the data have not yet been released from China to the DMF for processing. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2006-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year; and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,052 hours (0.95 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1 - December 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-12-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program: Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - April 1 - June 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-06-30

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 × 2,184 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 × 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 × 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 (0.95 × 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-03-31

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for this second quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2052 hours (0.95 × 2,160 hours this quarter). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1944 hours (0.90 × 2,160), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1836 hours (0.85 × 2,160). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 90

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-01-24

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 - December 31, 2007, for the fixed sites and the mobile site. The AMF has been deployed to Germany and this was the final operational quarter. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. Although the average exceeded our goal this quarter, a series of severe weather events (i.e., widespread ice storms) disrupted utility services, which affected the SGP performance measures. Some instruments were covered in ice and power and data communication lines were down for more than 10 days in some areas of Oklahoma and Kansas, which resulted in lost data at the SGP site. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. The AMF completed its mission at the end of this quarter in Haselback, Germany (FKB designation). NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facilities quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-07-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.80 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter); for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale it is 1,965.60 hours (0.90 x 2,184); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale it is 1,856.40 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 1390.80 hours (0.95 x 1464). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report April 1 - June 30, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-07-26

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter of FY 2007 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,965.6 hours (0.90 x 2,184), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,856.4 hours (0.85 x 2,184). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,074.8 hours (0.95 x 2,184). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - Sep. 30, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 ? 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 ? 2,208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 ? 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was officially operational May 1 in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive result from downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2009-04-23

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the second quarter of FY 2009 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,052.00 hours (0.95 x 2,160 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,944.00 hours (0.90 x 2,160), and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,836.00 hours (0.85 x 2,160). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is not reported this quarter because not all of the metadata have been acquired that are used to generate this metric. The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-10-08

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period July 1 - September 30, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF has been deployed to China, but the data have not yet been released. The fourth quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. The average exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. HFE represents the AMF statistics for the Shouxian, China, deployment in 2008. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report January 1 - March 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2008-05-22

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), actual hours of operation, and variance (unplanned downtime) for the period January 1 - March 31, 2008, for the fixed sites. The AMF is being deployed to China and is not in operation this quarter. The second quarter comprises a total of 2,184 hours. The average as well as the individual site values exceeded our goal this quarter. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed and mobile sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a central facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. FKB represents the AMF statistics for the Haselbach, Germany, past deployment in 2007. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the Niamey, Niger, Africa, past deployment in 2006. PYE represents just the AMF Archive statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be provided through the ACRF Archive can request a research account on the local site data system. The seven computers for the research accounts are located at the Barrow

  10. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  11. Space radiation health program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program intends to establish the scientific basis for the radiation protection of humans engaged in the exploration of space, with particular emphasis on the establishment of a firm knowledge base to support cancer risk assessment for future planetary exploration. This document sets forth the technical and management components involved in the implementation of the Space Radiation Health Program, which is a major part of the Life Sciences Division (LSD) effort in the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). For the purpose of implementing this program, the Life Sciences Division supports scientific research into the fundamental mechanisms of radiation effects on living systems and the interaction of radiation with cells, tissues, and organs, and the development of instruments and processes for measuring radiation and its effects. The Life Sciences Division supports researchers at universities, NASA field centers, non-profit research institutes and national laboratories; establishes interagency agreements for cooperative use and development of facilities; and conducts a space-based research program using available and future spaceflight vehicles.

  12. Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.; Goldsmith, JE M.

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This instrument, which makes high-resolution measurements of water vapor both spatially and temporally, is capable of making these measurements with no operator interaction (other than initial startup) for days at a time. Water vapor measurements collected during the 1996 and 1997 WVIOPs are discussed here, illustrating both the nighttime and daytime capabilities of this system. System characteristics, calibration issues, and techniques are presented. Finally, detailed intercomparisons of the lidar's data with those from a microwave radiometer, radiosondes, an instrumented tower, a chilled mirror flown on both a tethersonde and a kite, and measurements from aircraft are shown and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and stability of this system for both nighttime and daytime measurements.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Sisterson

    2010-01-12

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY 2010 for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1,987.20 hours (0.90 x 2,208); for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208); and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 x 2,208). The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues; its OPSMAX time this quarter is 2,097.60 hours (0.95 x 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are the result of downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  14. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program climate research facility operations quarterly report October 1 - December 31, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2007-03-14

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. Table 1 shows the accumulated maximum operation time (planned uptime), the actual hours of operation, and the variance (unplanned downtime) for the period October 1 through December 31, 2006, for the fixed and mobile sites. Although the AMF is currently up and running in Niamey, Niger, Africa, the AMF statistics are reported separately and not included in the aggregate average with the fixed sites. The first quarter comprises a total of 2,208 hours. For all fixed sites, the actual data availability (and therefore actual hours of operation) exceeded the individual (and well as aggregate average of the fixed sites) operational goal for the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2007. The Site Access Request System is a web-based database used to track visitors to the fixed sites, all of which have facilities that can be visited. The NSA locale has the Barrow and Atqasuk sites. The SGP site has a Central Facility, 23 extended facilities, 4 boundary facilities, and 3 intermediate facilities. The TWP locale has the Manus, Nauru, and Darwin sites. NIM represents the AMF statistics for the current deployment in Niamey, Niger, Africa. PYE represents the AMF statistics for the Point Reyes, California, past deployment in 2005. In addition, users who do not want to wait for data to be

  18. METHOD FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Roesch, W.C.; McCall, R.C.

    1961-11-21

    A method for measuring an unknown integrated quantity of radiation with a condenser ionization chamber is described. The chamber is initially charged to a predetermined voltage by a voltage source. The chamber is then removed from the source and exposed to an unknown quantity of radiation for a period of time. The quantity of radiation to which the chamber was exposed is then measured by detecting the magnitude of the pulse of current necessary to recharge the chamber of its initial value through a suitable impedance. The current pulse is amplified and measured directly by a suitable pulse height analyzing system. (AEC)

  19. Final Technical Report. Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar measurement of atmospheric aerosols for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, Richard A.

    2002-08-19

    Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are required for determination of the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux. Since recent studies have demonstrated the inability to compute these profiles on surface aerosol measurements alone, vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties must be acquired to compute aerosol radiative effects throughout the entire atmospheric column. Following the recommendation of the ARM Aerosol Working Group, the investigator developed, evaluated, and implemented algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering. By virtue of its ability to measure vertical profiles of both aerosol extinction and water vapor simultaneously in the same scattering volume, we used the resulting profiles from the CART Raman Lidar to investigate the impact of water vapor and relative humidity on aerosol extinction throughout the column on a continuous and routine basis. The investigator used these the CART Raman Lidar aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles to evaluate the vertical variability of aerosol extinction and the extinction/backscatter ratio over the ARM SGP site.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report. October 1 - December 31, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near-real time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 - (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the first quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 x 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 x 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continued through this quarter, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) began deployment this quarter to Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The experiment officially began November 15, but most of the instruments were up and running by November 1. Therefore, the OPSMAX time for the AMF2 was 1390.80 hours (.95 x 1464 hours) for November and December (61 days). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operation quarterly report July 1 - September 30, 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2010-10-26

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1-(ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the fourth quarter of FY2010 for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2097.60 hours (0.95 2208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale is 1987.20 hours (0.90 2208) and for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is 1876.80 hours (0.85 2208). The first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) deployment in Graciosa Island, the Azores, Portugal, continues, so the OPSMAX time this quarter is 2097.60 hours (0.95 x 2208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or datastream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous datastreams that have been received by the Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to

  2. The role of the EPA radiation quality assurance program in the measurement quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    As the nature and extent of radiological contamination becomes better documented and more public, radioanalytical laboratories are faced with a constantly expanding variety of new and difficult analytical requirements. Concurrent with those requirements is the responsibility to provide customers, regulatory officials, or the public with defensible data produced in an environment of verifiable, controlled quality. To meet that need, a quality assurance accreditation program for radioassay laboratories has been proposed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The standard will provide the organizational framework and functional requirements needed to assure the quality of laboratory outputs. Under the proposed program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Laboratory Intercomparison Program plays a key role as a reference laboratory. The current and proposed roles of the EPA Intercomparison Program are discussed, as are the functional relationships between EPA, the accreditating organization, and the service and monitoring laboratories.

  3. Flame Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claus, R. W.; Humenik, F. M.; Neely, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Spectral and total flame radiation measurements exhibited: (1) that radiant heat flux increases with vision combustor inlet air pressure; (2) the effect of fuel atomization characteristics on radiant heat flux; and (3) that a reduction in fuel hydrogen content produces a significant increase in radiant heat flux primarily at low combustor pressures.

  4. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP)

    SciTech Connect

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2011-10-21

    The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various scientific communities inside and outside of ARM and the associated working groups, 3) the coordination and selection of the relative importance of the three different focus areas (routine observations, IOPs, instrument development program), 4) the examination and quality control of the data collected by AVP, and 5) providing field support for flight series. This report documents the accomplishments in each of these focus areas for the 3 years of funding for the grant that were provided.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Specific Instruments Used in the ARM Program

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM is known for its comprehensive set of world-class, and in some cases, unique, instruments available for use by the global scientific community. In addition to the ARM instruments, the ARM Climate Research Facility identifies and acquires a wide variety of data including model, satellite, and surface data, from "external instruments," to augment the data being generated within the program. External instruments belong to organizations that are outside of the ARM Program. Field campaign instruments are another source of data used to augment routine observations. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by instrument categories into twelve "collections:" Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Ocean Observations, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, Surface Meteorology, Surface/Subsurface Properties, and Other. Clicking on one of the instrument categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Atmospheric Profiling" is broken down into ARM instruments (with 11 subsets), External Instruments (with 6 subsets), and Field Campaign Instruments (with 42 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading.

  6. RADIATION MEASURING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Bouricius, G.M.B.; Rusch, G.K.

    1960-03-22

    A radiation-measuring device is described having an a-c output. The apparatus has a high-energy particle source responsive to radiation flux disposed within a housing having a pair of collector plates. A potential gradient between the source and collector plates causes ions to flow to the plates. By means of electrostatic or magnetic deflection elements connected to an alternating potential, the ions are caused to flow alternately to each of the collector plates causing an a-c signal thereon.

  7. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud Profiling Radars: Second-Generation Sampling Strategies, Processing, and Cloud Data Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Miller, Mark A.; Luke, Edward; Johnson, Karen L.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Widener, Kevin B.; Albrecht, Bruce A.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program operates millimeter-wavelength cloud radars in several climatologically distinct regions. The digital signal processors for these radars were recently upgraded and allow for enhancements in the operational parameters running on them. Recent evaluations of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar signal processing performance relative to the range of cloud dynamical and microphysical conditions encountered at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites have indicated that improvements are necessary, including significant improvement in temporal resolution (i.e., less than 1 s for dwell and 2 s for dwell and processing), wider Nyquist velocities, operational dealiasing of the recorded spectra, removal of pulse compression while sampling the boundary layer, and continuous recording of Doppler spectra. The new set of millimeter-wavelength cloud radar operational modes that incorporate these enhancements is presented. A significant change in radar sampling is the introduction of an uneven mode sequence with 50% of the sampling time dedicated to the lower atmosphere, allowing for detailed characterization of boundary layer clouds. The changes in the operational modes have a substantial impact on the post-processing algorithms that are used to extract cloud information from the radar data. New methods for post-processing of recorded Doppler spectra are presented that result in more accurate identification of radar clutter (e.g., insects) and extraction of turbulence and microphysical information. Results of recent studies on the error characteristics of derived Doppler moments are included so that uncertainty estimates are now included with the moments. A micro-scale data product based on the new temporal resolution of the millimeter-wavelength cloud radars is proposed that contains the number of local maxima in each Doppler spectrum, the Doppler moments of the primary peak, uncertainty

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 - September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2005-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the ACRF fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at PNNL for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998. The DOE requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The OPSMAX time for the third quarter for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208 hours this quarter). The OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 1,987.2 hours (0.90 × 2,208), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 1,876.8 hours (0.85 × 2,208). The OPSMAX time for the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) is 2,097.6 hours (0.95 × 2,208). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the average percent of the time (24 hours per day, 92 days for this quarter) the instruments were operating

  9. Modeling Workflow for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Xiao, H.; Cheng, X.; Endo, S.; Li, Z.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is expanding its products to include routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling to compliment its extensive suite of climate-relevant observations, with the name of the new venture being the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow". Decisions are currently being made regarding how to best configure both the specific model to be used, as well as the overall workflow that will be established. The initial focus of the routine modeling will be shallow convection at the ARM megasite in Oklahoma with a vision toward expanding the modeling to include other meteorological conditions once the routine modeling has been established. This presentation outlines the modeling portion of the workflow that includes generation of multiple forcing datasets and ensemble LES runs. The goal of the ensembles is to gauge the uncertainty of the forcings from event-to-event and to help derive a best estimate representation of the atmosphere over the megasite. This will then be used to construct "data cubes" that combine observations with the model output. A companion presentation by Vogelmann et al. presents the data cube concept that optimizes usage of observations with the LES.

  10. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. McFarlane, Y. Shi, C.N. Long

    2009-04-15

    In 2009, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will produce and make available new continuous time series of radiative fluxes based on one year of observations from Barrow, Alaska, during the International Polar Year and report on comparisons of observations with baseline simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  11. The program RADLST (Radiation Listing)

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, T.W.

    1988-02-29

    The program RADLST (Radiation Listing) is designed to calculate the nuclear and atomic radiations associated with the radioactive decay of nuclei. It uses as its primary input nuclear decay data in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) format. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and, with a few exceptions, is consistent with the ANSI standard. 65 refs.

  12. Updated Thermal-Radiation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal Radiation Analyzer System, TRASYS II, is computer-software system with generalized capability to solve radiation-related aspects of thermal-analysis problems. Used in conjunction with generalized thermal-analysis program, any thermal problem expressed in terms of lumped-parameter R-C thermal network solved.

  13. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow: Initialization, Forcing and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Cheng, X.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Xiao, H.; Endo, S.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is developing a routine large-eddy simulation (LES) modeling framework at the ARM Climate Research Facility sites, known as the "LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation" (LASSO) Workflow. The routine simulations will be assessed using comprehensive ARM observations of the atmosphere and land-surface states, particularly cloud observations. Since small changes in thermodynamic profiles can manifest large changes in cloud properties, successful simulations require careful initialization, appropriate forcing, and possibly suitable lateral boundary conditions. We use a multiscale data assimilation (MS-DA) system as a major methodology for producing forcing datasets required by the LES modeling. The MS-DA will be implemented in the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at a cloud resolving resolution (~1 km). MS-DA leverages existing reanalyses (e.g., the NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis, NARR) and operational forecasting products (e.g. the North American Mesoscale Forecast System, NAM; the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh, HRRR) products, and takes advantage of ARM observations to directly constrain the spectra of horizontal scales down to a few km. The analysis from the MS-DA allows deriving initial conditions and forcing datasets for a range of spatial and temporal scales, developing hydrometeor forcing, exploring time-varying boundary conditions, and diagnosing other needed thermodynamic variables. It is stressed that the datasets from the MS-DA are integrated with datasets from other sources to form ensembles to account for uncertainties. The methodologies, implementation and evaluations are presented.

  14. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  15. The NASA Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Schimmerling, W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA program for determining the impact of cosmic radiation on health is described in terms of its long-term goal of reducing the uncertainty of radiation-model prediction to +/- 25 percent by 2010. The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is intended to address fundamental issues for establishing a scientific basis for human radiation protection: (1) the prediction of the probability of biological effects from radiation; (2) the reduction of uncertainty in predicted highly charged energetic particles; and (3) the characterization of background flux from Galactic cosmic rays. Another key objective is to develop related technologies for ground- and space-based solar monitoring to predict events involving solar energetic particles. Although substantial uncertainties are involved in the prediction of such events, the SRHP is essential for determining crucial variables related to launching mass and humans into orbit.

  16. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Cumulative Quarterly Report October 1, 2003 - September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2004-09-30

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for processing in near real time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998. The United States Department of Energy requires national user facilities to report time-based operating data. The requirements concern the actual hours of operation (ACTUAL); the estimated maximum operation or uptime goal (OPSMAX), which accounts for planned downtime; and the VARIANCE [1 – (ACTUAL/OPSMAX)], which accounts for unplanned downtime. The annual OPSMAX time for the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site is 8,322 hours per year (0.95 × 8,760, the number hours in a year, not including leap year). The annual OPSMAX for the North Slope Alaska (NSA) site is 7,884 hours per year (0.90 × 8,760), and that for the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is 7,446 hours per year (0.85 × 8,760). The differences in OPSMAX performance reflect the complexity of local logistics and the frequency of extreme weather events. It is impractical to measure OPSMAX for each instrument or data stream. Data availability reported here refers to the average of the individual, continuous data streams that have been received by the ACRF Archive. Data not at the Archive are caused by downtime (scheduled or unplanned) of the individual instruments. Therefore, data availability is directly related to individual instrument uptime. Thus, the average percent of data in the Archive represents the

  18. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  19. Migrating birds : assessment of impact on 915-MHz radar wind profiler performance at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's southern great plains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, M. S.

    2002-03-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program is running a small network of 915-MHz radar wind profilers (RWPs) at its Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas. Seasonal migration of passerines may cause significant interference with the operation of 915-MHz RWPs. The extent of this ''bird jamming'' depends on the radar's parameters, the place of deployment, the season, and the time of day. This poster presents a new diagnostic method for detecting possible bird contamination in RWP data, along with an evaluation of the method using a three-year data set for two RWPs.

  20. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. The NASA Radiation Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1991-01-01

    The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is defined in terms of motivation and methodology with specific reference given to the impacts of HZE particles and solar energetic particles. The biological hazards are mentioned that can be associated with the two particle types and ionizing radiation in general. The lack of data on the impact of such radiation and effective shielding countermeasures is identified as the primary motivation for worst-case assumptions. However, the resulting shielding designs can potentially overestimate the thickness by a factor of 10 and add unnecessarily to vehicle take-off mass. A space-based validation system is proposed to complement ground-based investigations of the effects of ionizing radiation in interplanetary space. The Lifesat satellite is proposed as a part of the SRHP effort to determine the requirements for protection and future shielding specifications.

  4. Measurement of solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, A.; Levite, T.; Sohar, E.

    1984-11-27

    There is provided a device for indicating the level of solar radiation intensity, and especially that region of the spectrum in the ultraviolet region which causes sunburn. The device may be provided with an output subdivided into a plurality of discrete levels of intensity indicated as numerals and figures. It may be provided with means of adjustment to the physiology of the user.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Mars Radiator Characterization Experimental Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Larry C.; Hollingsworth, D. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Radiators are an enabling technology for the human exploration and development of the moon and Mars. As standard components of the heat rejection subsystem of space vehicles, radiators are used to reject waste heat to space and/or a planetary environment. They are typically large components of the thermal control system for a space vehicle or human habitation facility, and in some cases safety factors are used to oversize them when the operating environment cannot be fully characterized. Over-sizing can impose significant weight and size penalties that might be prohibitive for future missions. Radiator performance depends on the size of the radiator surface, its emittance and absorptance, the radiator temperature, the effective sky temperature surrounding the radiator, solar radiation and atmospheric irradiation levels, convection to or from the atmosphere (on Mars), and other conditions that could affect the nature of the radiator surface, such as dust accumulation. Most particularly, dust is expected to be a major contributor to the local environmental conditions on either the lunar or Martian surface. This conclusion regarding Mars is supported by measurements of dust accumulation on the Mars Sojourner Rover solar array during the Pathfinder mission. This Final Report describes a study of the effect of Martian dust accumulation on radiator performance. It is comprised of quantitative measurements of effective emittance for a range of dust accumulation levels on surfaces of known emittance under clean conditions. The test radiator coatings were Z-93P, NS-43G, and Silver Teflon (10 mil) film. The Martian dust simulant was Carbondale Red Clay. Results were obtained under vacuum conditions sufficient to reduce convection effects virtually to zero. The experiments required the development of a calorimetric apparatus that allows simultaneous measurements of the effective emittance for all the coatings at each set of experimental conditions. A method of adding dust to

  9. Acoustic radiation stress measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Yost, William T.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrasonic radio frequency tone-bursts are launched into a sample of material tested. The amplitude of the tone-bursts and the slope of the resulting static displacement pulses are measured. These measurements are used to calculate the nonlinearities of the materials.

  10. Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Nievergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2011-08-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  11. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  12. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  13. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelmann, A. M.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Toto, T.; Endo, S.; Cheng, X.; Li, Z.; Xiao, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities' Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow is currently being designed to provide output from routine LES to complement its extensive observations. The modeling portion of the LASSO workflow is presented by Gustafson et al., which will initially focus on shallow convection over the ARM megasite in Oklahoma, USA. This presentation describes how the LES output will be combined with observations to construct multi-dimensional and dynamically consistent "data cubes", aimed at providing the best description of the atmospheric state for use in analyses by the community. The megasite observations are used to constrain large-eddy simulations that provide a complete spatial and temporal coverage of observables and, further, the simulations also provide information on processes that cannot be observed. Statistical comparisons of model output with their observables are used to assess the quality of a given simulated realization and its associated uncertainties. A data cube is a model-observation package that provides: (1) metrics of model-observation statistical summaries to assess the simulations and the ensemble spread; (2) statistical summaries of additional model property output that cannot be or are very difficult to observe; and (3) snapshots of the 4-D simulated fields from the integration period. Searchable metrics are provided that characterize the general atmospheric state to assist users in finding cases of interest, such as categorization of daily weather conditions and their specific attributes. The data cubes will be accompanied by tools designed for easy access to cube contents from within the ARM archive and externally, the ability to compare multiple data streams within an event as well as across events, and the ability to use common grids and time sampling, where appropriate.

  14. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Christopher J.; Turner, David D. ); Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, III, V. S.; Hwang, I. H.

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, has constructed four long-term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, Barrow, Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of nearly all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM MPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for ARM cloud and aerosol research.

  15. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  16. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  17. EXOMARS IRAS (DOSE) radiation measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, C.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Fonte, S.; Pauselli, C.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.

    The characterization and the study of the radiations on their interaction with organic matter is of great interest in view of the human exploration on Mars. The Ionizing RAdiation Sensor (IRAS) selected in the frame of the ExoMars/Pasteur ESA mission is a lightweight particle spectrometer combining various techniques of radiation detection in space. It characterizes the first time the radiation environment on the Mars surface, and provide dose and dose equivalent rates as precursor information absolutely necessary to develop ways to mitigate the radiation risks for future human exploration on Mars. The Martian radiation levels are much higher than those found on Earth and they are relatively low for space. Measurements on the surface will show if they are similar or not to those seen in orbit (modified by the presence of ``albedo'' neutrons produced in the regolith and by the thin Martian atmosphere). IRAS consists of a telescope based on segmented silicon detectors of about 40\\userk\\milli\\metre\\user;k diameter and 300\\user;k\\micro\\metre\\user;k thickness, a segmented organic scintillator, and of a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The telescope will continuously monitor temporal variation of the particle count rate, the dose rate, particle and LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra. Tissue equivalent BC430 scintillator material will be used to measure the neutron dose. Neutrons are selected by a criteria requiring no signal in the anti-coincidence. Last, the passive thermoluminescence dosimeter, based on LiF:Mg detectors, regardless the on board operation timing, will measure the total dose accumulated during the exposure period and due to beta and gamma radiation, with a responsivity very close to that of a human tissue.

  18. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

  19. Radiation Measurements aboard Spacelab 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, E. V.; Almasi, J.; Cassou, R.; Frank, A.; Henke, R. P.; Rowe, V.; Parnell, T. A.; Schopper, E.

    1984-07-01

    The radiation environment inside Spacelab 1 was measured by a set of passive radiation detectors distributed throughout the volume inside the module, in the access tunnel, and outside on the pallet. Measurements of the low-LET (linear energy transfer) component obtained from the thermoluminescence detectors ranged from 102 to 190 millirads, yielding an average low-LET dose rate of 11.2 millirads per day inside the module, about twice the low-LET dose rate measured on previous flights of the space shuttle. Because of the higher inclination of the orbit (57 degrees versus 28.5 degrees for previous shuttle flights), substantial fluxes of highly ionizing HZE particles (high charge and energy galactic cosmic rays) were observed, yielding an overall average mission dose-equivalent of about 150 millirems, more than three times higher that measured on previous shuttle missions.

  20. Radiation measurements aboard Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Almasi, J.; Cassou, R.; Frank, A.; Henke, R. P.; Rowe, V.; Parnell, T. A.; Schopper, E.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation environment inside Spacelab 1 was measured by a set of passive radiation detectors distributed throughout the volume inside the module, in the access tunnel, and outside on the pallet. Measurements of the low linear energy transfer (LET) component obtained from the thermoluminescence detectors ranged from 102 to 190 millirads, yielding an average low LET dose rate of 11.2 millirads/day inside the module, about twice the low LET dose rate measured on previous flights of the Space Shuttle. Because of the higher inclination of the orbit (57 versus 28.5 deg for previous Shuttle flights), substantial fluxes of highly ionizing high charge and energy galactic cosmic ray particles were observed, yielding an overall average mission dose-equivalent of about 150 millirems, more than three times higher than that measured on previous Shuttle missions.

  1. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-3). [solar radiation and thermal radiation brightness temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneously with Skylab overpasses in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. The solar radiation region from 400 to 1300 nanometers and the thermal radiation region from 8 to 14 micrometer region were investigated. The measurements of direct solar radiation were analyzed for atmospheric optical depth; the total and reflected solar radiation were analyzed for target reflectivity. These analyses were used in conjunction with a radiative transfer computer program in order to calculate the amount and spectral distribution of solar radiation at the apertures of the EREP sensors. The instrumentation and techniques employed, calibrations and analyses performed, and results obtained are discussed.

  2. Proceedings of a Meeting on Traceability for Ionizing Radiation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, H. T., II

    1982-02-01

    General concepts for traceability were presented from several perspectives. The national standards for radiation dosimetry, radioactivity measurements, and neutron measurements were described. Specific programs for achieving traceability to the national standards for radiation measurements in medical, occupational, and environmental applications were summarized.

  3. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  4. Process measurement assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for determining, improving, and controlling the measurement process errors (or measurement uncertainty) of a measurement system used to monitor product as it is manufactured. The method is called the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP). It integrates metrology early into the product realization process and is a step beyond statistical process control (SPC), which monitors only the product. In this method, a control standard is used to continuously monitor the status of the measurement system. Analysis of the control standard data allow the determination of the measurement error inherent in the product data and allow one to separate the variability in the manufacturing process from variability in the measurement process. These errors can be then associated with either the measurement equipment, variability of the measurement process, operator bias, or local environmental effects. Another goal of PMAP is to determine appropriate re-calibration intervals for the measurement system, which may be significantly longer or shorter than the interval typically assigned by the calibration organization.

  5. Pyroelectric detector development for the Radiation Measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. S.; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.; Hanel, R. P.; Dominguez, D. E.; Valero, F. P. J.; Baumann, Hilary; Hansen, W. L.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of high detectivity pyroelectric detectors developed for optimization of the radiation measurement system within the framework of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is described. These devices are intended to provide detectivities of up to about 10 exp 11 cm Hz exp 0.5/W with cooling to about 100 K required for the detector focal plane.

  6. The NASA Space Radiation Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of the NASA Space Radiation Research Program. This program combines basic research on the mechanisms of radiobiological action relevant for improving knowledge of the risks of cancer, central nervous system and other possible degenerative tissue effects, and acute radiation syndromes from space radiation. The keystones of the NASA Program are five NASA Specialized Center's of Research (NSCOR) investigating space radiation risks. Other research is carried out through peer-reviewed individual investigations and in collaboration with the US Department of Energies Low-Dose Research Program. The Space Radiation Research Program has established the Risk Assessment Project to integrate data from the NSCOR s and other peer-reviewed research into quantitative projection models with the goals of steering research into data and scientific breakthroughs that will reduce the uncertainties in current risk projections and developing the scientific knowledge needed for future individual risk assessment approaches and biological countermeasure assessments or design. The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was created by the Program to simulate space radiation on the ground in support of the above research programs. New results from NSRL will be described.

  7. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  8. Radiation Transmission Measurements for Demron Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H; Singh, M S

    2003-01-07

    Radiation Shield Technologies has requested a measurement survey of its Demron fabric to determine the shielding properties in the x-ray, gamma ray and beta particle emissions in the range of energies relevant to clinical and Homeland Security applications. It is important to perform a detailed measurement program in order to sort out the shielding properties of this material in light of the often-times complex spectra emitted by standard radio-nuclides and x-ray generators. Low energy portions of the spectra are shielded more easily by this fabric than are the higher energy components and a simple single-layer test can lead to misleading results. This concept of ''spectral hardening'' was investigated by measuring the transmission factors for many layers and extracting information from the slopes of the transmission curves thereby obtaining a true picture of the shielding properties of the material as a function of energy. After the initial measurement program was completed, the mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using the LLNL cross section data, TART code, RST supplied weight fractions and the measured density of the fabric. This code is used for the Monte Carlo simulation of coupled neutron-photon transport in 3-D geometry for shielding and other applications. With such a design tool, it is possible to ''tune'' the characteristics of the Demron fabric to meet the specific needs for a given radiation environment.

  9. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program Business Model

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a “virtual pharmaceutical firm,” coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  10. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  11. NASA Human Research Program Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Lori; Huff, Janice; Patel, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hu, Shaowwen; Kidane, Yared; Myung-Hee, Kim; Li, Yongfeng; Nounu, Hatem; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Hada, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is to ensure that crews can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. Current work is focused on developing the knowledge base and tools required for accurate assessment of health risks resulting from space radiation exposure including cancer and circulatory and central nervous system diseases, as well as acute risks from solar particle events. Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) Space Radiation Team scientists work at multiple levels to advance this goal, with major projects in biological risk research; epidemiology; and physical, biophysical, and biological modeling.

  12. CRC handbook of management of radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.L.; Weider, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume details the organization and management of radiation safety programs, including both preventive and emergency response measures. Included are guidelines and checklists for managing radioactive waste processing programs, dealing with litigation, and responding to public or news media concerns. The last sections list state, federal, and international requirements for transportation of radioactive materials.

  13. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  14. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  15. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  16. Radiation awareness program for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy using Medstone lithotripters.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, R R; Cass, A S

    1998-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a radiation awareness program in reducing the radiation exposure to patients treated by a Medstone lithotripter, the exposure was calculated at the end of each extracorporeal shockwave (SWL) treatment using a table of measurements of the estimated entrance exposure rates 70 cm from the X-ray tube port. The results, related to stone size and patient weight, were distributed every month to each radiologic technologist, and a summary was sent regularly to the treating urologists. The doses before and after the introduction of the radiation awareness program were compared to determine the effectiveness of the program, and the chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance. The average calculated radiation exposure before and after introduction of the radiation awareness program was 16.39 rad and 8.26 rad, respectively, for patients with single renal stones; 17.31 rad and 9.02 rad, respectively, with single ureteral stones; 18.45 rad and 9.39 rad, respectively, with multiple renal stones; and 20.59 rad and 11.28 rad, respectively with multiple ureteral stones. These reductions in calculated radiation exposure were statistically significant only with multiple ureteral stones (P = 0.03). The only statistically significant differences in the stone-free rates, retreatment rates, and post-SWL secondary procedure rates before and after the introduction of the radiation awareness program were seen in the stone-free rates with single renal stones: 70% v 65%, respectively (P = 0.02); in the retreatment rates with single ureteral stones: 10% v 6%, respectively ( P < .01); and in the post-SWL secondary procedure rates with single renal stones: 4% v 2%, respectively (P = 0.01), and single ureteral stones: 7% v 4%, respectively (P = 0.05). The radiation awareness program resulted in a 51% reduction in the estimated radiation exposure to patients during SWL using Medstone lithotripters.

  17. Former radiation worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, N M; Falk, R B; Furman, F J; Aldrich, J M; Hilmas, D E

    2001-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Occupational Medicine and Medical Surveillance, has supported an ongoing Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at the DOE Rocky Flats site since 1992. The program currently is managed for DOE by Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education through a contract with Oak Ridge Associated Universities. Participation in the program is entirely voluntary and provides former Rocky Flats workers who were exposed to radiation with long-term medical monitoring and an update to the assessment of their radiation dose. Program participants receive medical examinations and in vivo and in vitro bioassay measurements of residual radioactivity. Radiation doses to participants are largely a result of internal depositions of plutonium and its radioactive decay products. The causes of many of the higher internal doses were accidents that generally are well documented. Former radiation workers are invited to participate in the program if they meet specific criteria for radiation exposure. Informed consent is documented using a consent form approved by an Institutional Review Board. Demographic, medical, and dosimetric information is maintained in a computer database and will be evaluated for any trends or correlations between exposure and health outcome. PMID:11388723

  18. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  19. Overview of NASA's space radiation research program.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, Walter

    2003-06-01

    NASA is developing the knowledge required to accurately predict and to efficiently manage radiation risk in space. The strategy employed has three research components: (1) ground-based simulation of space radiation components to develop a science-based understanding of radiation risk; (2) space-based measurements of the radiation environment on planetary surfaces and interplanetary space, as well as use of space platforms to validate predictions; and, (3) implementation of countermeasures to mitigate risk. NASA intends to significantly expand its support of ground-based radiation research in line with completion of the Booster Applications Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, expected in summer of 2003. A joint research solicitation with the Department of Energy is under way and other interagency collaborations are being considered. In addition, a Space Radiation Initiative has been submitted by the Administration to Congress that would provide answers to most questions related to the International Space Station within the next 10 years.

  20. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  1. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.D.

    1993-12-21

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. 9 figures.

  2. Method for radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength.

  3. Dosimetry measurements of x-ray and neutron radiation levels near the shuttle and end beam dump at the advanced test accelerator: Beam Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, T.A. Jr.; Struve, K.W.; Lindgren, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Electron beams as a source of directed energy are under study at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An intense 10-kA, 50-MeV, 50-ns full-width half-maximum, pulsed electron beam is generated by the prototype Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at the Laboratory's Site 300. Whenever the electron beam is stopped in materials, intense radiation is generated. Estimates based on available data in the literature show that for materials such as lead, photon radiation (x ray, gamma, bremsstrahlung) levels can be as large as 10/sup 4/ roentgens per pulse at 1 m in the zero-degree direction (i.e., the electron-beam direction). Neutrons, which are emitted isotropically, are produced at a level of 10/sup 13/ n/m/sup 2/ per pulse. Depending upon the number of pulses and the shielding geometry, the accumulated dose is potentially lethal to personnel and potentially damaging to instrumentation that may be used for diagnostics. To provide shielding for minimizing the risk of exposure to personnel and radiation damage to instrumentation, it is important to determine the x-ray and neutron radiation environment near beamline components such as the beam shuttle dump and beam stop. Photon and neutron dosimetry measurements were performed around the beam shuttle dump on January 9, 1985, and near the carbon beam stop at the end of the beamline before the entrance to the diagnostic tunnel on April 12 and December 23, 1985. These measurements together with simple rule-of-thumb estimates and Monte Carlo electron-photon shower calculations of the absorbed dose are presented in this report. 17 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  7. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  9. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, SRPE is taking the initiative to promote tissue sharing among the scientists in the space radiation research community. This initiative is enthusiastically supported by the community members as voiced in the responses to a recent survey. For retrospective tissue samples, an online platform will be established for the PIs to post a list of the available samples, and to exchange information with the potential recipients. For future animal experiments, a tissue sharing policy is being developed by SRPE.

  10. Overview of the NASA Space Radiation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Nelson, Greg; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long-duration, manned space missions. Outside the Earth’s protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high-energy, high-charge (HZE) particles as well as high-energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. Understanding the quantitative and qualitative differences in biological responses produced by galactic cosmic radiation compared to Earth-based radiation is imperative for accurate risk mitigation and is a major focus of the NASA Space Radiation Program’s research strategy. The main health risks of concern are epithelial carcinogenesis and leukemias, central nervous system effects that may result in acute (in-flight) cognitive impairment and/or late neurological disorders, degenerative tissue effects including circulatory and heart disease, and the possibility of acute radiation syndromes resulting from an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Space Radiation Program is focused on the characterization and mitigation of these health risks and understanding possible interactions with other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this presentation, evidence for health risks associated with heavy ion exposure will be presented.

  11. Radiation: Physical Characterization and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Production of Neutrons from Interactions of GCR-Like Particles; Solar Particle Event Dose Distributions, Parameterization of Dose-Time Profiles; Assessment of Nuclear Events in the Body Produced by Neutrons and High-Energy Charged Particles; Ground-Based Simulations of Cosmic Ray Heavy Ion Interactions in Spacecraft and Planetary Habitat Shielding Materials; Radiation Measurements in Space Missions; Radiation Measurements in Civil Aircraft; Analysis of the Pre-Flight and Post-Flight Calibration Procedures Performed on the Liulin Space Radiation Dosimeter; and Radiation Environment Monitoring for Astronauts.

  12. A Program for Calculating Radiation Dose Rates.

    1986-01-27

    Version 00 SMART calculates radiation dose rate at the center of the outer cask surface. It can be applied to determine the radiation dose rate on each cask if source conditions, characteristic function, and material conditions in the bottle regions are given. MANYCASK calculates radiation dose rate distribution in a space surrounded by many casks. If the dose rate on each cask surface can be measured, MANYCASK can be applied to predict dose spatial dosemore » rate distribution for any case of cask configuration.« less

  13. Measurement and Applications of Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy; Munday Lab Team

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Measuring and utilizing radiation pressure have aroused growing interest in a wide spectrum of research fields. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are good candidates for measuring radiation pressure, but accompanying photothermal effects often obscure the measurement. In this work, we investigate the accurate measurement of the radiation force on microcantilevers in ambient conditions and ways to separate radiation pressure and photothermal effects. Further, we investigate an optically broadband switchable device based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal which has potential applications in solar sails and maneuvering spacecraft without moving parts. The authors would like to thank NASA Early Career Faculty Award and NASA Smallsat Technology Partnership Award for their funding support.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  15. Radiative flux measurements in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to determine how the stratospheric tropospheric exchange of water vapor is affected by the interaction of solar (visible) and planetary (infrared) radiation with tropical cumulonimbus anvils. This research involves field measurements from the ER-2 aircraft as well as radiative transfer modelling to determine heating and cooling rates and profiles that directly affect the exchange between the troposphere and the stratosphere.

  16. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  17. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  18. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  19. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  20. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  1. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  2. Metrology: Measurement Assurance Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eicke, W. G.; Riley, J. P.; Riley, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    The 5300.4 series of NASA Handbooks for Reliability and Quality Assurance Programs have provisions for the establishment and utilization of a documented metrology system to control measurement processes and to provide objective evidence of quality conformance. The intent of these provisions is to assure consistency and conformance to specifications and tolerances of equipment, systems, materials, and processes procured and/or used by NASA, its international partners, contractors, subcontractors, and suppliers. This Measurement Assurance Program (MAP) guideline has the specific objectives to: (1) ensure the quality of measurements made within NASA programs; (2) establish realistic measurement process uncertainties; (3) maintain continuous control over the measurement processes; and (4) ensure measurement compatibility among NASA facilities. The publication addresses MAP methods as applied within and among NASA installations and serves as a guide to: control measurement processes at the local level (one facility); conduct measurement assurance programs in which a number of field installations are joint participants; and conduct measurement integrity (round robin) experiments in which a number of field installations participate to assess the overall quality of particular measurement processes at a point in time.

  3. Array Of Sensors Measures Broadband Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Grush, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple broadband radiation sensors aimed at various portions of total field of view. All sensors mounted in supporting frame, serving as common heat sink and temperature reference. Each sensor includes heater winding and differential-temperature-sensing bridge circuit. Power in heater winding adjusted repeatedly in effort to balance bridge circuit. Intended to be used aboard satellite in orbit around Earth to measure total radiation emitted, at various viewing angles, by mosaic of "footprint" areas (each defined by its viewing angle) on surface of Earth. Modified versions of array useful for angle-resolved measurements of broadband radiation in laboratory and field settings on Earth.

  4. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C.; Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H. E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  5. Environmental Measurements Laboratory program review, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1984-03-01

    This volume contains all of the written material that was submitted to the panel of Reviewers in advance of a Program Review conducted by the US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) December 7-9, 1983. In addition to a general introduction there are nineteen papers grouped into the five broad program categories covering all of the scientific and engineering projects of the Laboratory: Natural Radioactivity and Radiation, Anthropogenic Radioactivity and Radiation, Non-nuclear, Quality Assurance, and Development and Support. These short articles, for the most part, focus on the rationale for EML's involvement in each project, emphasizing their relevance to the EML and Department of Energy missions. Project results and their interpretation were presented at the Review and can be found in the material referenced in this volume.

  6. Inversion of Multi-Angle Radiation Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, B.; Alexandrov, M. Lacis, A.; Carlson, B.

    2005-03-18

    Our need to reconcile models and measurements in an efficient manner that allows for the operational retrieval of particle sizes for a two layer cloud led us to develop a new method for calculating the Green's functions for radiative transfer. The method uses the fact that doubling/adding codes can be easily used to calculate internal radiation fields at arbitrarily high resolution. We have also determined that the adjoint downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields are simply related to the usual downwelling and upwelling vector radiation fields so that the entire Green's function can be determined from a single calculation. The Green's functions have then been used to calculate the particle sizes in a two layer cloud that are consistent with both the reflectance and polarization measurements. This approach may be of use in other applications where adjoint calculations are used, particularly if multiangle measurements are being analyzed.

  7. Space Radiation Program Element Tissue Sharing Forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Mayeaux, B M.; Huff, J. L.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, a large number of animal experiments have been conducted at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory and other facilities under the support of the NASA Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE). Studies using rodents and other animal species to address the space radiation risks will remain a significant portion of the research portfolio of the Element. In order to maximize scientific return of the animal studies, the SRPE has recently released the Space Radiation Tissue Sharing Forum. The Forum provides access to an inventory of investigator-stored tissue samples and enables both NASA SRPE members and NASA-funded investigators to exchange information regarding stored and future radiobiological tissues available for sharing. Registered users may review online data of available tissues, inquire about tissues posted, or request tissues for an upcoming study using an online form. Investigators who have upcoming sacrifices are also encouraged to post the availability of samples using the discussion forum. A brief demo of the forum will be given during the presentation

  8. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  9. Radiation Transmission Measurements for a Lightweight Fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H; Singh, M S; DeMeo, R F

    2003-01-17

    Radiation Shield Technologies has developed a lightweight fabric, shown in Fig. 1, with radiation shielding properties for X ray, gamma ray and beta particle emissions in the range of energies relevant to clinical and Homeland Security applications. Detailed measurements were done to measure the shielding properties of this material against the spectra of standard radionuclides and x-ray generators. The mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using LLNL cross section data, a 3-D photon transport code, elemental weight fractions and the measured density of the fabric.

  10. Measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fix, John D.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging instrumentation on the Dynamics Explorer 1 satellite has been used to measure the intensity of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation on two great circles about the sky. It is found that the isotropic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation (possibly of extragalactic origin) has an intensity of 530 + or - 80 units (a unit is 1 photon per sq cm s A sr) at a wavelength of 150 nm. The Galactic component of the diffuse ultraviolet radiation has a dependence on Galactic latitude which requires strongly forward scattering particles if it is produced by dust above the Galactic plane.

  11. Shock Layer Radiation Measurements and Analysis for Mars Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Bogdanoff, David W.; Wright, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion program is supporting the development of shock radiation transport models for aerocapture missions to Mars. A comprehensive test series in the NASA Antes Electric Arc Shock Tube facility at a representative flight condition was recently completed. The facility optical instrumentation enabled spectral measurements of shocked gas radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the near infrared. The instrumentation captured the nonequilibrium post-shock excitation and relaxation dynamics of dispersed spectral features. A description of the shock tube facility, optical instrumentation, and examples of the test data are presented. Comparisons of measured spectra with model predictions are also made.

  12. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here.

  13. MSL-RAD radiation environment measurements.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Hassler, Donald M; Ehresmann, Bent; Köhler, Jan; Böhm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Brinza, David; Burmeister, Sönke; Cucinotta, Francis; Martin, Cesar; Posner, Arik; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-09-01

    In this study, results are presented from the on-board radiation assessment detector (RAD) of Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). RAD is designed to measure the energetic particle radiation environment, which consists of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) as well as secondary particles created by nuclear interactions of primary particles in the shielding (during cruise) or Martian soil and atmosphere (surface measurements). During the cruise, RAD collected data on space radiation from inside the craft, thus allowing for a reasonable estimation of what a human crew travelling to/from Mars might be exposed to. On the surface of Mars, RAD is shielded by the atmosphere (from above) and the planet itself (from below). RAD measures the first detailed radiation data from the surface of another planet, and they are highly relevant for planning future crewed missions. The results for radiation dose and dose equivalent (a quantity most directly related to human health risk) are presented during the cruise phase, as well as on the Martian surface. Dose and dose equivalent are dominated by the continuous GCR radiation, but several SEP events were also detected and are discussed here. PMID:25969529

  14. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative

  15. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of 137Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <<0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  16. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  17. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered. PMID:27274073

  18. The ALTAIR Meteor Measurements Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Established in late 2006, the Meteor Measurements Program is in the process of using the ALTAIR radar located on Kwajelein Atoll to obtain radar observations of sporadic and shower meteoroids. The goals are to determine meteoroid masses, orbits, ballistic coefficients and densities, which shall be provided to the Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) at Marshall Space Flight Center. These data and analyses shall then be used by the MEO to 1) Add a realistic density distribution to the new Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), which is the specified environment for vehicle design in the NASA Constellation (return to Moon) program. This program is the implementation of President Bush's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE). 2) Investigate the meteoroid velocity distribution at smaller masses. 3) Strive to understand the differences (biases) in meteoroid observations produced by systems like ALTAIR and those of the meteor patrol radars, such as the University of Western Ontario's CMOR system. This paper outlines the program details and its progress.

  19. Real time radiation measurements in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, I.; Mackay, G.

    Radiation composed of energetic electrons, protons, photons, and galactic cosmic rays will be experienced by all space missions and may have effects on radiation sensitive electronic components and biological specimens. Radiation issues of interest to microgravity and biological experiments are discussed and the design of a new direct reading electronic radiation monitoring system is described. The proposed system consists of a radiation sensitive metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) specially designed to respond to ionizing radiation. On exposure to radiation, a permanent charge is stored in the MOSFET's insulating oxide, altering the device's electrical characteristics in a manner directly proportional to the dose exposed. A simple circuit reads the MOSFET's cumulative dose, making it possible to obtain real-time measurements and store the data or transfer the data to an earth station. Tests have shown that the MOSFET dosimeter shows a linear response up to at least 30,000 centiGray at a resolution of 0.1 centiGray. The MOSFET dosimetry system will be installed on the European Space Agency's ARTEP satellite scheduled for launch in November 1991.

  20. Sources and measurement of ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian L

    2002-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further subdivided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. Quantities of UV radiation are expressed using radiometric terminology. A particularly important term in clinical photobiology is the standard erythema dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. UV radiation is produced either by heating a body to an incandescent temperature, as is the case with solar UV, or by passing an electric current through a gas, usually vaporized mercury. The latter process is the mechanism whereby UV radiation is produced artificially. Both the quality (spectrum) and quantity (intensity) of terrestrial UV radiation vary with factors including the elevation of the sun above the horizon and absorption and scattering by molecules in the atmosphere, notably ozone, and by clouds. For many experimental studies in photobiology it is simply not practicable to use natural sunlight and so artificial sources of UV radiation designed to simulate the UV component of sunlight are employed; these are based on either optically filtered xenon arc lamps or fluorescent lamps. The complete way to characterize an UV source is by spectroradiometry, although for most practical purposes a detector optically filtered to respond to a limited portion of the UV spectrum normally suffices.

  1. Sources and measurement of ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian L

    2002-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further subdivided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. Quantities of UV radiation are expressed using radiometric terminology. A particularly important term in clinical photobiology is the standard erythema dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. UV radiation is produced either by heating a body to an incandescent temperature, as is the case with solar UV, or by passing an electric current through a gas, usually vaporized mercury. The latter process is the mechanism whereby UV radiation is produced artificially. Both the quality (spectrum) and quantity (intensity) of terrestrial UV radiation vary with factors including the elevation of the sun above the horizon and absorption and scattering by molecules in the atmosphere, notably ozone, and by clouds. For many experimental studies in photobiology it is simply not practicable to use natural sunlight and so artificial sources of UV radiation designed to simulate the UV component of sunlight are employed; these are based on either optically filtered xenon arc lamps or fluorescent lamps. The complete way to characterize an UV source is by spectroradiometry, although for most practical purposes a detector optically filtered to respond to a limited portion of the UV spectrum normally suffices. PMID:12231182

  2. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1988-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, Earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  3. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  4. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  5. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  6. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  7. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  8. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  9. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  10. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  11. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  12. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  13. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  14. A Climatology of Fair-Weather Cloud Statistics at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains Site: Temporal and Spatial Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Gustafson, William I.

    2006-03-30

    In previous work, Berg and Stull (2005) developed a new parameterization for Fair-Weather Cumuli (FWC). Preliminary testing of the new scheme used data collected during a field experiment conducted during the summer of 1996. This campaign included a few research flights conducted over three locations within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. A more comprehensive verification of the new scheme requires a detailed climatology of FWC. Several cloud climatologies have been completed for the ACRF SGP, but these efforts have focused on either broad categories of clouds grouped by height and season (e.g., Lazarus et al. 1999) or height and time of day (e.g., Dong et al. 2005). In these two examples, the low clouds were not separated by the type of cloud, either stratiform or cumuliform, nor were the horizontal chord length (the length of the cloud slice that passed directly overhead) or cloud aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cloud thickness to the cloud chord length) reported. Lane et al. (2002) presented distributions of cloud chord length, but only for one year. The work presented here addresses these shortcomings by looking explicitly at cases with FWC over five summers. Specifically, we will address the following questions: •Does the cloud fraction (CF), cloud-base height (CBH), and cloud-top height (CTH) of FWC change with the time of day or the year? •What is the distribution of FWC chord lengths? •Is there a relationship between the cloud chord length and the cloud thickness?

  15. Measurement of Global Radiation using Photovoltaic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Bronders, Jan; Lefevre, Filip; Mensink, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    The Vito Unit - Environmental and Spatial Aspects (RMA) - for many of its models makes use of global solar radiation. From this viewpoint and also from the notion that this variable is seldom measured or available at the local scale and at high multi-temporal frequencies, it can be stated that many models are fed with low quality estimates of global solar radiation at the local to regional scales. A project was initiated called SUNSPIDER with the following objective. To make use of photovoltaic solar panels to measure solar radiation at the highest spatio-temporal resolution, from the local to the regional scales and from minutes to years. To integrate the measured solar fields in different application fields like, plant systems and agriculture, agro-meteorology and hydrology and last but not least solar energy applications. In Belgium about 250.000 PV installations have been built leading to about 6% electric power supply from photovoltaics on a yearly basis. Last year in June, the supply reached a peak of more than 20% of the total power input on the Belgian grid. A database of Belgian residential solar panel sites will be compiled. The database will serve as an input to an inverted PV model to be able to perform radiation calculations specifically for each of the validated panel sites based on minutely logged power data. Data acquisition for these sites will start each time a site is validated and hence imported in the database. Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels; PV modelling; Global Radiation.

  16. Neutron radiation measurements on several international flights.

    PubMed

    Poje, Marina; Vuković, Branko; Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Planinić, Josip

    2015-03-01

    The earth is continually exposed to cosmic radiation of both solar and galactic origin. High-energy particles interact with the constituents in the atmosphere producing secondary particles that create radiation fields at aircraft altitudes. These secondary particles consist mainly of photons, protons, neutrons, charged and uncharged pions, and muons. The neutron component dominates the hadron cascade at lower altitudes as a result of its longer mean free path. Since air transportation has become more available to a greater number of people, this has led to an increase in the number of persons exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin. This concerns pilots and cabin crews as well as frequent flyers. A neutron component of cosmic radiation was measured using an LR 115/CR-39 track detector associated with a 10B converter foil. The measurement of the neutron dose is a good approximation of the total dose since neutrons carry about 50% of the total ambient dose equivalent at aircraft altitudes. Also, the results of the measurements were compared with the data obtained by EPCARD software simulation. The measured neutron dose rate had a span from 0.36 to 8.83 μSv h(-1) (dose enhancement due to high solar activity in the flight period). PMID:25627946

  17. Wedge immersed thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreyfus, M. G.

    1965-01-01

    Wedge immersed-thermistor bolometer measures infrared radiation in the atmosphere. The thermistor flakes are immersed by optical contact on a wedge-shaped germanium lens whose narrow dimension is clamped between two complementary wedge-shaped germanium blocks bonded with a suitable adhesive.

  18. Neutron radiation measurements on several international flights.

    PubMed

    Poje, Marina; Vuković, Branko; Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Planinić, Josip

    2015-03-01

    The earth is continually exposed to cosmic radiation of both solar and galactic origin. High-energy particles interact with the constituents in the atmosphere producing secondary particles that create radiation fields at aircraft altitudes. These secondary particles consist mainly of photons, protons, neutrons, charged and uncharged pions, and muons. The neutron component dominates the hadron cascade at lower altitudes as a result of its longer mean free path. Since air transportation has become more available to a greater number of people, this has led to an increase in the number of persons exposed to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin. This concerns pilots and cabin crews as well as frequent flyers. A neutron component of cosmic radiation was measured using an LR 115/CR-39 track detector associated with a 10B converter foil. The measurement of the neutron dose is a good approximation of the total dose since neutrons carry about 50% of the total ambient dose equivalent at aircraft altitudes. Also, the results of the measurements were compared with the data obtained by EPCARD software simulation. The measured neutron dose rate had a span from 0.36 to 8.83 μSv h(-1) (dose enhancement due to high solar activity in the flight period).

  19. Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehe, David K.

    2015-06-01

    On June 9-12, 2014, the Symposium on Radiation Measurements and Applications (SORMA XV) took place at the University of Michigan campus. This was the 15th in the long-running series traditionally held every four years in Ann Arbor, and marked its 50th anniversary since inception. Attendance peaked again at nearly 500 conferees, with 135 students in attendance.

  20. Radiation measurements on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is becoming a reality with the docking of the Russian Service module (Zarya) with the Unity module (Zaveda). ISS will be in a nominal 51.65-degree inclination by 400 km orbit. This paper reviews the currently planned radiation measurements, which are in many instances, based on experiments previously flown on the Space Shuttle. Results to be expected based on Shuttle measurements are presented.

  1. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING RADIATION

    DOEpatents

    Reeder, S.D.

    1962-04-17

    A chemical dosimeter for measuring the progress of a radiation-induced oxidation-reduction reaction is described. The dosimeter comprises a container filled with an aqueous chemical oxidation-reduction system which reacts quantitatively to the radiation. An anode of the group consisting of antimony and tungsten and a cathode of the group consisting of gold and platnium are inserted into the system. Means are provided to stir the system and a potential sensing device is connected across the anode and cathode to detect voltage changes. (AEC)

  2. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections of crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/microns) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated doses inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 plus or minus 0.6 cGy to 38.9 plus or minus 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53 percent higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37 percent of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than in the LDEF experiments.

  3. Preliminary results of radiation measurements on EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    The eleven-month duration of the EURECA mission allows long-term radiation effects to be studied similarly to those of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Basic data can be generated for projections to crew doses and electronic and computer reliability on spacecraft missions. A radiation experiment has been designed for EURECA which uses passive integrating detectors to measure average radiation levels. The components include a Trackoscope, which employs fourteen plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) stacks to measure the angular dependence of high LET (greater than or equal to 6 keV/micro m) radiation. Also included are TLD's for total absorbed doses, thermal/resonance neutron detectors (TRND's) for low energy neutron fluences and a thick PNTD stack for depth dependence measurements. LET spectra are derived from the PNTD measurements. Preliminary TLD results from seven levels within the detector array show that integrated does inside the flight canister varied from 18.8 +/- 0.6 cGy to 38.9 +/- 1.2 cGy. The TLD's oriented toward the least shielded direction averaged 53% higher in dose than those oriented away from the least shielded direction (minimum shielding toward the least shielded direction varied from 1.13 to 7.9 g/cm(exp 2), Al equivalent). The maximum dose rate on EURECA (1.16 mGy/day) was 37% of the maximum measured on LDEF and dose rates at all depths were less than measured on LDEF. The shielding external to the flight canister covered a greater solid angle about the canister than the LDEF experiments.

  4. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  5. Measuring Acoustic-Radiation Stresses in Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    System measures nonlinearity parameters of materials. Uses static strain generated by acoustic wave propagating in material. Since static strain is effectively "dc" component of waveform distortion, problems associated with phase-cancellation artifacts disappear. Further, sign of nonlinearity parameter obtained by simple inspection of measured signal polarity. These features make this system very amenable to use in field. System expected to become standard for acoustic-radiation-stress measurements for solids and liquids and for characterization of material properties related to strength and residual or applied stresses. Also expected to become standard for transducer calibration.

  6. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  7. The international atom: evolution of radiation control programs.

    PubMed

    Bradley, F J

    2002-07-01

    Under the Atoms for Peace program, Turkey received a one MWt swimming pool reactor in 1962 that initiated a health physics program for the reactor and a Radiation Control Program (RCP) for the country's use of ionizing radiation. Today, over 13,000 radiation workers, concentrated in the medical field, provide improved medical care with 6,200 x-ray units, including 494 CAT scanners, 222 radioimmunoassay (RIA) labs and 42 radiotherapy centers. Industry has a large stake in the safe use of ionizing radiation with over 1,200 x-ray and gamma radiography and fluoroscopic units, 2,500 gauges in automated process control and five irradiators. A 48-person RCP staff oversees this expanded radiation use. One incident involving a spent 3.3 TBq (88 Ci) 60Co source resulted in 10 overexposures but no fatalities. Taiwan received a 1.6 MWt swimming pool reactor in 1961 and rapidly applied nuclear technology to the medical and industrial fields. Today, there are approximately 24,000 licensed radiation workers in nuclear power field, industry, medicine and academia. Four BWRs and two PWRs supply about 25% of the island's electrical power needs. One traumatic event galvanized the RCP when an undetermined amount of 60Co was accidentally incorporated into reinforcing bars, which in turn were incorporated into residential and commercial buildings. Public exposures were estimated to range up to 15 mSv (1.3 rem) per annum. There were no reported ill effects, except possibly psychological, to date. The RCP now has instituted stringent control measures to ensure radiation-free dwellings and work places. Albania's RCP is described as it evolved since 1972. Regulations were promulgated which followed the IAEA Basic Safety Standards of that era. With 525 licenses and 600 radiation workers, the problem was not in the regulations per se but in their enforcement. The IAEA helped to upgrade the RCP as the economy evolved from one that was centrally planned economy to a free market economy. As this

  8. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  9. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1986-01-01

    Data on the cosmic microwave background radiation obtained with a maser at 12 mm and a Schottky diode mixer at 3 mm are presented. The dipole anisotropy, apparently due to our motion, has been measured sufficiently well to determine our direction of motion within two degrees. The results show that the Galaxy is moving in a direction that is about 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster.

  10. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Poje, M; Varga, M; Radolić, V; Miklavcić, I; Faj, D; Stanić, D; Planinić, J

    2010-12-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21° to 58°; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was Ḣ(n)=5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of Ḣ(f)=1.4 μSv/h.

  11. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Heinrich, W

    2002-10-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources. PMID:12440430

  12. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Atwell, W; Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Heinrich, W

    2002-10-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250 x 10(4) Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 microGy day-1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0 +/- 0.5 degrees W, and 1.6 +/- 0.5 degrees N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources.

  13. National radon measurement proficiency (RMP) program: Individual proficiency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. Until recently, the RMP Program measured the proficiency of organizations only and listed them according to their measurement service capabilities. Organizations listed in the report are called Listed RMP Program Participants. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for the new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. The Measurement Exam adds to the RMP Program by evaluating the knowledge of individual radon measurement service providers. The addition of the component is appropriate since the quality and reliability of radon measurement services depend on the ability of individual measurement contractors. The RMP Program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon measurement contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report.

  14. Radiation exposure measurement onboard civil aircraft.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, R; Burmeister, S; Petersen, F; Reitz, G

    2005-01-01

    The active dosemeter DOSTEL based on two silicon planar detectors was flown on civil aircraft flights to study the radiation exposure of air crew members. The altitude and latitude dependence of count and dose rates as well as long-term variations are measured. After calibration of the DOSTEL response against measurements of a TEPC instrument, total dose-equivalent values for various flights are compared with H*(10) calculations by EPCARD yielding a ratio of 1.02 +/- 0.09 (standard variation).

  15. Results of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs (ADROP) Survey of Radiation Oncology Residency Program Directors

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Eleanor Abdel-Wahab, May; Spangler, Ann E.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Amdur, Robert J.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To survey the radiation oncology residency program directors on the topics of departmental and institutional support systems, residency program structure, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements, and challenges as program director. Methods: A survey was developed and distributed by the leadership of the Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs to all radiation oncology program directors. Summary statistics, medians, and ranges were collated from responses. Results: Radiation oncology program directors had implemented all current required aspects of the ACGME Outcome Project into their training curriculum. Didactic curricula were similar across programs nationally, but research requirements and resources varied widely. Program directors responded that implementation of the ACGME Outcome Project and the external review process were among their greatest challenges. Protected time was the top priority for program directors. Conclusions: The Association of Directors of Radiation Oncology Programs recommends that all radiation oncology program directors have protected time and an administrative stipend to support their important administrative and educational role. Departments and institutions should provide adequate and equitable resources to the program directors and residents to meet increasingly demanding training program requirements.

  16. Miniature detector measures deep space radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-08-01

    The 1972 journey of Apollo 17 marked not only the last time a human walked on the Moon but also the most recent manned venture beyond the outer reaches of the Earth's atmosphere. With preparations being made for humans to once again explore deep space, important steps are under way to quantify the hazards of leaving low-Earth orbit. One significant risk for long-distance missions is the increased exposure to ionizing radiation—energetic particles that can strip electrons off of otherwise neutral materials, affecting human health and the functioning of spacecraft equipment. The deep space probes that are being sent to measure the risks from ionizing radiation and other hazards can be costly, so maximizing the scientific value of each launch is important. With this goal in mind, Mazur et al. designed and developed a miniature dosimeter that was sent into lunar orbit aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009. Weighing only 20 grams, the detector is able to measure fluctuations in ionizing radiation as low as 1 microrad (equivalent to 1.0 × 10-8 joules of energy deposited into 1 kilogram) while requiring minimal power and computer processing. The postage stamp-sized detector tracked radiation dosages for the first year of LRO's mission, with the results being confirmed by other onboard and near-Earth detectors. (Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2010SW000641, 2011)

  17. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  18. Future radiation measurements in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The first Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission has demonstrated the value of the LDEF concept for deep surveys of the space radiation environment. The kinds of measurements that could be done on a second LDEF mission are discussed. Ideas are discussed for experiments which: (1) capitalize on the discoveries from LDEF 1; (2) take advantage of LDEF's unique capabilities; and (3) extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1. These ideas have been gleaned from investigators on LDEF 1 and others interested in the space radiation environment. They include new approaches to the investigation of Be-7 that was discovered on LDEF 1, concepts to obtain further information on the ionic charge state of cosmic rays and other energetic particles in space and other ideas to extend the investigations begun on LDEF 1.

  19. A modular radiative transfer program for gas filter correlation radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, J. C.; Campbell, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fundamentals of a computer program, simulated monochromatic atmospheric radiative transfer (SMART), which calculates atmospheric path transmission, solar radiation, and thermal radiation in the 4.6 micrometer spectral region, are described. A brief outline of atmospheric absorption properties and line by line transmission calculations is explained in conjunction with an outline of the SMART computational procedures. Program flexibility is demonstrated by simulating the response of a gas filter correlation radiometer as one example of an atmospheric infrared sensor. Program limitations, input data requirements, program listing, and comparison of SMART transmission calculations are presented.

  20. Methods of and apparatus for radiation measurement, and specifically for in vivo radiation measurement

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, D.D.; Hughes, R.C.; Kelsey, C.A.; Lane, R.; Ricco, A.J.; Snelling, J.B.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1986-08-29

    Methods of and apparatus for in vivo radiation measurements rely on a MOSFET dosimeter of high radiation sensitivity which operates in both the passive mode to provide an integrated dose detector and active mode to provide an irradiation rate detector. A compensating circuit with a matched unirradiated MOSFET is provided to operate at a current designed to eliminate temperature dependence of the device. Preferably, the MOSFET is rigidly mounted in the end of a miniature catheter and the catheter is implanted in the patient proximate the radiation source.

  1. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  2. Radiation Measurements on the Russian MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    1999-01-01

    The Russian Mir orbital station was launched into an orbit with a 51.65 deg inclination in March 1986. It has operated continuously in the altitude range of 380 to 460 km. Almost immediately, cosmonauts began to carry out missions to the station. To date, there have been some 25 Russian missions. As part of the NASA Mir Program, a comprehensive set of radiation measurements were made to map the radiation in all of the Mir module. Numerous radiation measurements have been made on the Mir station throughout its lifetime. However, the comparison of these measurements have been difficult because of different sensitivities of detectors, some active and some passive, differing self shielding and in most cases unknown location shielding. In spite of these complications, very significant progress in the knowledge of the radiation environment onboard the Mir station has been made. These results are directly applicable to expected radiation environment on the International Space Station. In this paper, we describe the combined results from all seven NASA Mir missions. We show: (1) the absorbed dose rate from trapped particles is well correlated with the atmospheric density computed nearly 400 days earlier than the time of observation, (2) developed a relationship between the absorbed dose rate from galactic cosmic rays to the deceleration potential derived using the Climax neutron monitor rate, giving a tool to predict GCR dose rates to +/- 15% nearly 90 days prior to observations, (3) describe the drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) with time, (4) compare the predictions of the dose rates as a function of time from the November 6-8, 1998 solar particle event with observations, (5) compare measurements made with NASA Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) with the ESA DOSTEL device, the Hungarian Pille system, and the Russian R-16 dosimeter. Implications of these measurements for the ISS will be discussed.

  3. Radiated microwave power transmission system efficiency measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.; Brown, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The measured and calculated results from determining the operating efficiencies of a laboratory version of a system for transporting electric power from one point to another via a wireless free space radiated microwave beam are reported. The system's overall end-to-end efficiency as well as intermediated conversion efficiencies were measured. The maximum achieved end-to-end dc-to-ac system efficiency was 54.18% with a probable error of + or - 0.94%. The dc-to-RF conversion efficiency was measured to be 68.87% + or - 1.0% and the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was 78.67 + or - 1.1%. Under these conditions a dc power of 495.62 + or - 3.57 W was received with a free space transmitter antenna receiver antenna separation of 170.2 cm (67 in).

  4. Design of a differential radiometer for atmospheric radiative flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaDelfe, P.C.; Weber, P.G.; Rodriguez, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The Hemispherical Optimized NEt Radiometer (HONER) is an instrument under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for deployment on an unmanned aerospace vehicle as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM/UAV) program. HONER is a differential radiometer which will measure the difference between the total upwelling and downwelling fluxes and is intended to provide a means of measuring the atmospheric radiative flux divergence. Unlike existing instruments which measure the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately, HONER will achieve an optical difference by chopping the two fluxes alternately onto a common pyroelectric detector. HONER will provide data resolved into two spectral bands; one covering the solar dominated region from less than 0.4 micrometer to approximately 4.5 micrometers and the other covering the region from approximately 4.5 micrometers to greater than 50 micrometers, dominated by thermal radiation. The means of separating the spectral regions guarantees seamless summation to calculate the total flux. The fields-of-view are near-hemispherical, upward and downward. The instrument can be converted, in flight, from the differential mode to absolute mode, measuring the upwelling and downwelling fluxes separately and simultaneously. The instrument also features continuous calibration from on-board sources. We will describe the design and operation of the sensor head and the on-board reference sources as well as the means of deployment.

  5. Radiated BPF sound measurement of centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchida, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2013-12-01

    A technique to measure radiated BPF sound from an automotive turbocharger compressor impeller is proposed in this paper. Where there are high-level background noises in the measurement environment, it is difficult to discriminate the target component from the background. Since the effort of measuring BPF sound was taken in a room with such condition in this study, no discrete BPF peak was initially found on the sound spectrum. Taking its directionality into consideration, a microphone covered with a parabolic cone was selected and using this technique, the discrete peak of BPF was clearly observed. Since the level of measured sound was amplified due to the area-integration effect, correction was needed to obtain the real level. To do so, sound measurements with and without a parabolic cone were conducted for the fixed source and their level differences were used as correction factors. Consideration is given to the sound propagation mechanism utilizing measured BPF as well as the result of a simple model experiment. The present method is generally applicable to sound measurements conducted with a high level of background noise.

  6. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  7. RADIATIVE PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF OXY-FUEL FLAMES

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton R. Bedick; Stephen K. Beer; Kent H. Casleton; Benjamin T. Chorpening; David W. Shaw; M. Joseph Yip

    2011-03-01

    As part of the DOE Existing Plants, Emissions and Capture (EPEC) program, oxy-combustion is being investigated as a method to simplify carbon capture and reduce the parasitic energy penalties associated with separating CO2 from a dilute flue gas. Gas-phase radiation heat transfer in boilers becomes significant when shifting from air-firing to oxycombustion, and must be accurately represented in models. Currently, radiative property data are not widely available in the literature for conditions appropriate to this environment. In order to facilitate the development and validation of accurate oxy-combustion models, NETL conducted a series of studies to measure radiation properties of oxy-fuel flames at adiabatic flame temperatures of 1750 - 1950K, and product molar concentrations ranging from 95% CO2 to 100% steam, determined by equilibrium calculations. Transmission coefficients were measured as a function of wavelength using a mid-IR imaging spectrometer and a blackbody radiation source. Additionally, flame temperatures were calculated using data collected within CO2 and H2O absorption bands. Experimental results were compared to two statistical narrowband models and experimental data from literature sources. These comparisons showed good overall agreement, although differences between the models and experimental results were noted, particularly for the R branch of the 2.7 μm H2O band.

  8. New radiation detectors for field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjie, A.; Quam, W.

    1993-12-31

    Two new types of radiation detectors are discussed; the first is a large area TLD and the second is a high pressure xenon proportional counter. The large area TLD can be used to measure In situ alpha activity with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. Some field measurements are presented. The high pressure xenon proportional counter (XGPC) is capable of realtime survey work and monitoring of plutonium (through detection of the 60 keV Americium-241 gamma ray) and uranium. Spectral resolution data from the 8 atmosphere proportional counter are presented. In many applications the counting efficiency penalty due to low stopping power of xenon at higher gamma energies can be offset by increasing gas pressure and using physically long counters.

  9. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, S. D.; Kuehne, M.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.

    1992-01-01

    The experiment Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) is designed for the investigations of plasma flow characteristics, turbulence and wave motions, plasma densities and temperatures, structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity in the chromosphere, the transition zone and the corona. Specifically, SUMER will measure profiles and intensities of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lines emitted in the solar atmosphere ranging from the upper chromosphere to the lower corona; determine line broadenings, spectral positions and Doppler shifts with high accuracy, provide stigmatic images of selected areas of the Sun in the EUV with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution and obtain full images of the Sun and the inner corona in selectable EUV lines, corresponding to a temperature from 10,000 to more than 1,800,000 K.

  10. Measuring Success: Evaluating Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2010-01-01

    This paper reveals a new evaluation model, which enables educational program and project managers to evaluate their programs with a simple and easy to understand approach. The "index of success model" is comprised of five parameters that enable to focus on and evaluate both the implementation and results of an educational program. The integration…

  11. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  12. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris surveys. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m are both employed to acquire filter photometry data as well as synchronously observe targets in selected optical filters. Obtaining data synchronously yields data for material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. Observations of GEO orbital debris using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) began in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris has been detected that reaches approx. 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the spectral data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and sourcetarget- sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a modified

  13. Measuring space radiation with ADIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Merk, J.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of radiation in space, cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles, date back to the dawn of space flight. Solid state detectors, the basis of most modern high energy charged particle instruments, first flew in space in the 1960's. Modern particle spectrometers, such as ACE/CRIS, ACE/SIS and Ulysses/HET, can measure the elemental and isotopic composition of ions through the iron peak. This is achieved by using position sensing detectors (PSD's) arranged into hodoscopes to measure particle trajectories through the instrument, allowing for pathlength corrections to energy loss measurements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) technique measures particle angle of incidence using a simple system of detectors inclined to the instrument axis. It achieves elemental resolution well beyond iron, and isotopic resolution for moderate mass elements without the complexity of position sensing detectors. An ADIS instrument was selected to fly as the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) on NPOESS, but was de-scoped with the rest of the space weather suite. Another ADIS instrument, the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), is being developed for GOES-R. UNH has built and tested a engineering unit of the EHIS. Applications for manned dosimetery on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are also being explored. The basic ADIS technique is explained and accelerator data for heavy ions shown.

  14. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  15. Measurement problem in PROGRAM UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.

    1984-12-01

    We present a discrete theory that meets the measurement problem in a new way. We generate a growing universe of bit strings, labeled by 2/sup 127/ + 136 strings organized by some representation of the closed, four level, combinatorial hierarchy, of bit-length N/sub 139/ greater than or equal to 139. The rest of the strings for each label, which grow in both length and number, are called addresses. The generating algorithm, called PROGRAM UNIVERSE, starts from a random choice between the two symbols ''0'' and ''1'' and grows (a) by discriminating between two randomly chosen strings and adjoining a novel result to the universe, or when the string so generated is not novel, by (b) adjoining a randomly chosen bit at the growing end of each string. We obtain, by appropriate definitions and interpretations, stable ''particles'' which satisfy the usual relativistic kinematics and quantized angular momentum without being localizable in a continuum space-time. The labeling scheme is congruent with the ''standard model'' of quarks and leptons with three generations, but for the problem at hand, the implementation of this aspect of the theory is unimportant. What matters most is that (a) these complicated ''particles'' have the periodicities familiar from relativistic ''deBroglie waves'' and resolve in a discrete way the ''wave-particle dualism'' and (b) can be ''touched'' by our discrete equivalent of ''soft photons'' in such a way as to follow, macroscopically, the usual Rutherford scattering trajectories with the associated bound states. Thus our theory could provide a discrete description of ''measurement'' in a way that allows no conceptual barrier between the ''micro'' and the ''macro'' worlds, if we are willing to base our physics on counting and exclude the ambiguities associated with the unobservable ''continuum''. 27 refs.

  16. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, G.F.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Witebsky, C.

    1984-12-01

    We have continued our program to measure the long-wavelength spectrum of the cosmic background radiation. Our previous observations were at five wavelengths--0.33, 0.9, 3.0, 6.3, and 12.0 cm--and had a weighted average value of 2.73 {+-} 0.05 K and deviated from a Planckian spectrum by less than 6%. In August 1984, we repeated our observations at 3.0, 0.9, and 0.33 cm and made new observations with a radiometer tunable from 1.7 to 15 cm. Preliminary analysis indicate that the new data are consistent with our previous results.

  19. Millimeter wave radiative transfer studies for precipitation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Evans, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Scattering calculations using the discrete dipole approximation and vector radiative transfer calculations were performed to model multiparameter radar return and passive microwave emission for a simple model of a winter storm. The issue of dendrite riming was addressed by computing scattering properties of thin ice disks with varying bulk density. It was shown that C-band multiparameter radar contains information about particle density and the number concentration of the ice particles. The radiative transfer modeling indicated that polarized multifrequency passive microwave emission may be used to infer some properties of ice hydrometers. Detailed radar modeling and vector radiative transfer modeling is in progress to enhance the understanding of simultaneous radar and radiometer measurements, as in the case of the proposed TRMM field program. A one-dimensional cloud model will be used to simulate the storm structure in detail and study the microphysics, such as size and density. Multifrequency polarized radiometer measurements from the SSMI satellite instrument will be analyzed in relation to dual-frequency and dual-polarization radar measurements.

  20. CRRES: Combined release and radiation effects satellite program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Laura D.; Miller, George P.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments that comprise the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite Program (CRRES) (Apr. 1990 - Jul. 1992) are presented. The experiments are as follows: PEGSAT; El Coqui; the Kwajalein Campaign; and experiments G1 - G14.

  1. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  2. SUMER: Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Axford, W. I.; Curdt, W.; Gabriel, A. H.; Grewing, M.; Huber, M. C. E.; Jordan, M. C. E.; Lemaire, P.; Marsch, E.; Poland, A. I.

    1988-01-01

    The SUMER (solar ultraviolet measurements of emitted radiation) experiment is described. It will study flows, turbulent motions, waves, temperatures and densities of the plasma in the upper atmosphere of the Sun. Structures and events associated with solar magnetic activity will be observed on various spatial and temporal scales. This will contribute to the understanding of coronal heating processes and the solar wind expansion. The instrument will take images of the Sun in EUV (extreme ultra violet) light with high resolution in space, wavelength and time. The spatial resolution and spectral resolving power of the instrument are described. Spectral shifts can be determined with subpixel accuracy. The wavelength range extends from 500 to 1600 angstroms. The integration time can be as short as one second. Line profiles, shifts and broadenings are studied. Ratios of temperature and density sensitive EUV emission lines are established.

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  4. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Akopova, A B; Manaseryan, M M; Melkonyan, A A; Tatikyan, S Sh; Potapov, Yu

    2005-02-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380 km and inclination 51.6 degrees are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z > or = 2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during the last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and "Kosmos" spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2 x 10(3) keV/micrometers and the value of equivalent dose 360 microSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z > or = 2 was measured (3.85 x 10(3) particles/cm2).

  5. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  6. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.

    1985-07-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  7. Nonequilibrium air radiation (Nequair) program: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1985-01-01

    A supplement to the data relating to the calculation of nonequilibrium radiation in flight regimes of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles contains the listings of the computer code NEQAIR (Nonequilibrium Air Radiation), its primary input data, and explanation of the user-supplied input variables. The user-supplied input variables are the thermodynamic variables of air at a given point, i.e., number densities of various chemical species, translational temperatures of heavy particles and electrons, and vibrational temperature. These thermodynamic variables do not necessarily have to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The code calculates emission and absorption characteristics of air under these given conditions.

  8. Acoustic radiation from lined, unflanged ducts: Acoustic source distribution program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckemeyer, R. J.; Sawdy, D. T.

    1971-01-01

    An acoustic radiation analysis was developed to predict the far-field characteristics of fan noise radiated from an acoustically lined unflanged duct. This analysis is comprised of three modular digital computer programs which together provide a capability of accounting for the impedance mismatch at the duct exit plane. Admissible duct configurations include circular or annular, with or without an extended centerbody. This variation in duct configurations provides a capability of modeling inlet and fan duct noise radiation. The computer programs are described in detail.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  10. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  11. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  12. Mitigation measures and programs in Hungary

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.

    1996-12-31

    In Hungary there are four main governmental programs, which may result in a decrease of emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) National program of energy efficiency improvement and energy conservation, (2) Afforestation program, (3) Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission reduction program, and (4) Program to reduce the use of ozone depleting substances. These ambitious programs were launched in the beginning of the 90`s, but they have been slowed down because of budgetary problems. The comprehensive action plan for mitigation of GHG emissions should be based on these ongoing programs. These programs should be expanded by further measures and programs in order to fulfill the requirements of the FCCC. In the next sections the results and prospects of the above mentioned programs will be summarized. Also the results of the mitigation study supported by the U.S. Country Studies Program are included.

  13. Smart measurement system for an environmental radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee-Reyoung; Chung, Kun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Han; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A smart measurement system for an on-line gamma monitoring has been developed to overcome the problems of a conventional system which cannot automatically restore the previous-lost data of several posts by a radio telemetry. It is similar to the conventional system except for a new electronic circuit board and an integrated operation program. The new electronic circuit board is able to store the radiation data with a time tag of 6 or more months if the recording interval time is 10 s. The operation program automatically sends the time correction command to the six monitoring posts for a daily synchronization between the monitoring posts and the central control computer as a Korean mean time. The previous-lost radiation data for 6 or more months could be restored by using two components with the functions of a time tag and a daily synchronization without any additional equipment. It was tested for more than 1 year, from which the test results, the data collection rate was dramatically improved without any tedious manual work, which was almost about 100% for 1 year. The smart measurement system has been applied for an effective gamma monitoring around the nuclear facilities at KAERI since it was developed and tested in 2003.

  14. Solar Radiation Measurements Onboard the Research Aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, I.; Bohn, B.; Werner, F.; Ehrlich, A.; Wendisch, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne measurements of the separated upward and downward components of solar spectral actinic flux densities for the determination of photolysis frequencies and of upward nadir spectral radiance were performed with the HALO Solar Radiation (HALO-SR) instrument package onboard the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The instrumentation of HALO-SR is characterized and first measurement data from the Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies (NARVAL) campaigns in 2013 and 2014 are presented. The measured data are analyzed in the context of the retrieved microphysical and optical properties of clouds which were observed underneath the aircraft. Detailed angular sensitivities of the two optical actinic flux receivers were determined in the laboratory. The effects of deviations from the ideal response are investigated using radiative transfer calculations of atmospheric radiance distributions under various atmospheric conditions and different ground albedos. Corresponding correction factors are derived. Example photolysis frequencies are presented, which were sampled in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Atlantic Ocean during the 2013/14 HALO NARVAL campaigns. Dependencies of photolysis frequencies on cloud cover, flight altitude and wavelength range of the photolysis process are investigated. Calculated actinic flux densities in the presence of clouds benefit from the measured spectral radiances. Retrieved cloud optical thicknesses and effective droplet radii are used as model input for the radiative transfer calculations. By comparison with the concurrent measurements of actinic flux densities the retrieval approach is validated. Acknowledgements: Funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the priority program HALO (BO 1580/4-1, WE 1900/21-1) is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

  17. Office of radiation and indoor air: Program description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Radiation and Indoor Air is to protect the public and the environment from exposures to radiation and indoor air pollutants. The Office develops protection criteria, standards, and policies and works with other programs within EPA and other agencies to control radiation and indoor air pollution exposures; provides technical assistance to states through EPA`s regional offices and other agencies having radiation and indoor air protection programs; directs an environmental radiation monitoring program; responds to radiological emergencies; and evaluates and assesses the overall risk and impact of radiation and indoor air pollution. The Office is EPA`s lead office for intra- and interagency activities coordinated through the Committee for Indoor Air Quality. It coordinates with and assists the Office of Enforcement in enforcement activities where EPA has jurisdiction. The Office disseminates information and works with state and local governments, industry and professional groups, and citizens to promote actions to reduce exposures to harmful levels of radiation and indoor air pollutants.

  18. Space life sciences: radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    The volume contains papers presented at COSPAR symposia in October 2002 about radiation risk assessment and radiation measurements in low Earth orbit. The risk assessment symposium brought together multidisciplinary expertise including physicists, biologists, and theoretical modelers. Topics included current knowledge about known and predicted radiation environments, radiation shielding, physics cross section models, improved ion beam transport codes, biological demonstrations of specific shielding materials and applications to a manned mission to Mars, advancements in biological measurement of radiation-induced protein expression profiles, and integration of physical and biological parameters to assess key elements of radiation risk. Papers from the radiation measurements in low Earth orbit symposium included data about dose, linear energy transfer spectra, and charge spectra from recent measurements on the International Space Station (ISS), comparison between calculations and measurements of dose distribution inside a human phantom and the neutron component inside the ISS; and reviews of trapped antiprotons and positrons inside the Earth's magnetosphere. PMID:15880912

  19. User's manual for University of Arizona APART program (Analysis Program - Arizona Radiation Trace)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breault, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A description and operating instructions for the Analysis Program Arizona Radiation Trace (APART) are given. This is a computer program that is able to efficiently and accurately predict the off-axis rejection characteristics of unwanted stray radiation for complex rotationally symmetric optical systems. The program first determines the critical objects or areas that scatter radiation to the image plane either directly or through imaging elements: this provides the opportunity to modify, if necessary, the design so that the number of critical areas seen by the image plane is reduced or the radiation to these critical areas is minimized. Next, the power distribution reaching the image plane and a sectional power map of all internal surfaces are computed. Angular information is also provided that relates the angle by which the radiation came into a surface to the angle by which the radiation is scattered out of the surface.

  20. Status of LDEF ionizing radiation measurements and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    At this symposium significant new data and analyses were reported in cosmic ray research, radiation dosimetry, induced radioactivity, and radiation environment modeling. Measurements of induced radioactivity and absorbed dose are nearly complete, but much analysis and modeling remains. Measurements and analyses of passive nuclear track detectors (PNTD), used to derive the cosmic ray composition and spectra, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, are only a few percent complete, but important results have already emerged. As one might expect at this stage of the research, some of the new information has produced questions rather than answers. Low-energy heavy nuclei detected by two experiments are not compatible with known solar or cosmic components. Various data sets on absorbed dose are not consistent, and a new trapped proton environment model does not match the absorbed dose data. A search for cosmogenic nuclei other than Be-7 on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) surfaces has produced an unexpected result, and some activation data relating to neutrons is not yet understood. Most of these issues will be resolved by the analysis of further experiment data, calibrations, or the application of the large LDEF data set that offers alternate data or analysis techniques bearing on the same problem. The scope of the papers at this symposium defy a compact technical summary. I have attempted to group the new information that I noted into the following groups: induced radioactivity; absorbed dose measurements; LET spectra and heavy ion dosimetry; environment modeling and three dimensional shielding effects; cosmogenic nuclei; and cosmic rays and other heavy ions. The papers generally are expository and have excellent illustrations, and I refer to their figures rather than reproduce them here. The general program and objectives of ionizing radiation measurements and analyses on LDEF has been described previously.

  1. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  2. New radiosonde techniques to measure radiation profiles through the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Romanens, Gonzague; Levrat, Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Solar and thermal radiation fluxes are usually measured at Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Here we show radiosonde techniques that allow measuring radiation flux profiles and the radiation budget from the Earth's surface to above 30 km in the stratosphere. During two-hour flights solar shortwave and thermal longwave irradiance, downward and upward, is measured with four individual sensors at one-second resolution, along with standard PTU radiosonde profiles. Daytime and nighttime shortwave and longwave radiation measurements, and 24 hours surface measurements, allow determining radiation budget- and total net radiation profiles through the atmosphere. We use a double balloon technique to prevent pendulum motion during the ascent and to keep the sonde as horizontal as possible. New techniques using auto controlled airplanes are now investigated to retrieve the sonde after release at a certain altitude and to land it if possible at the launch station.

  3. In-flight radiation measurements on STS-60.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Golightly, M J; Konradi, A; Atwell, W; Kern, J W; Cash, B; Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Sanner, D; Keegan, R P; Frigo, L A; Petrov, V M; Tchernykh, I V; Akatov YuA; Shurshakov, V A; Arkhangelsky, V V; Kushin, V V; Klyachin, N A; Vana, N; Schoner, W

    1996-01-01

    A joint investigation between the United States and Russia to study the radiation environment inside the Space Shuttle flight STS-60 was carried out as part of the Shuttle-Mir Science Program (Phase 1). This is the first direct comparison of a number of different dosimetric measurement techniques between the two countries. STS-60 was launched on 3 February 1994 in a nearly circular 57 degrees x 353 km orbit with five U.S. astronauts and one Russian cosmonaut for 8.3 days. A variety of instruments provided crew radiation exposure, absorbed doses at fixed locations, neutron fluence and dose equivalent, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of trapped and galactic cosmic radiation, and energy spectra and angular distribution of trapped protons. In general, there is good agreement between the U.S. and Russian measurements. The AP8 Min trapped proton model predicts an average of 1.8 times the measured absorbed dose. The average quality factor determined from measured lineal energy, y, spectra using a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), is in good agreement with that derived from the high temperature peak in the 6LiF thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). The radiation exposure in the mid-deck locker from neutrons below 1 MeV was 2.53 +/- 1.33 microSv/day. The absorbed dose rates measured using a tissue equivalent proportional counter, were 171.1 +/- 0.4 and 127.4 +/- 0.4 microGy/day for trapped particles and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. The combined dose rate of 298.5 +/- 0.82 microGy/day is about a factor of 1.4 higher than that measured using TLDs. The westward longitude drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.22 +/- 0.02 degrees/y. We evaluated the effects of spacecraft attitudes on TEPC dose rates due to the highly anisotropic low-earth orbit proton environment. Changes in spacecraft attitude resulted in dose-rate variations by factors of up to 2 at the location of the TEPC. PMID:11539199

  4. [Radiation safety in space flights in the Intercosmos program].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E; Ryzhov, N I; Sakovich, V A

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic stages in the development of radiation safety of space flights within the framework of the Intercosmos program, including ground-based experiments on charged particle accelerators and gamma-emitters and actual flight studies onboard biosatellites and orbital stations. The paper also discusses norms and standards of radiation safety as related to flights of varying duration. It emphasizes the contribution made by Intercosmos cooperative projects into the development of space flight radiation safety parameters adopted as standards by the USSR Standardization Committee.

  5. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  6. Neutron Measurements Using the Universal Radiation Spectrum Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Cummings; Byron Christiansen; Laird Bean

    2005-02-01

    The Universal Radiation Spectrum Analyzer (URSA-II), developed by Radiation Safety Associates, and manufactured by SE International (Figure 1) is an interface between a radiation detector and a personal computer. Originally, the URSA-II was developed for use with detectors that measure the energy of gamma rays. At the Idaho National Laboratory, the URSA-II is an integral part of standard measurement techniques to measure characteristics of neutron radiation fields. Those techniques are discussed briefly and spectra using the URSA-II are presented.

  7. Soot and Radiation Measurements in Microgravity Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jerry C.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of soot formation and radiation heat transfer in microgravity jet diffusion flames is important not only for the understanding of fundamental transport processes involved but also for providing findings relevant to spacecraft fire safety and soot emissions and radiant heat loads of combustors used in air-breathing propulsion systems. Our objectives are to measure and model soot volume fraction, temperature, and radiative heat fluxes in microgravity jet diffusion flames. For this four-year project, we have successfully completed three tasks, which have resulted in new research methodologies and original results. First is the implementation of a thermophoretic soot sampling technique for measuring particle size and aggregate morphology in drop-tower and other reduced gravity experiments. In those laminar flames studied, we found that microgravity soot aggregates typically consist of more primary particles and primary particles are larger in size than those under normal gravity. Comparisons based on data obtained from limited samples show that the soot aggregate's fractal dimension varies within +/- 20% of its typical value of 1.75, with no clear trends between normal and reduced gravity conditions. Second is the development and implementation of a new imaging absorption technique. By properly expanding and spatially-filtering the laser beam to image the flame absorption on a CCD camera and applying numerical smoothing procedures, this technique is capable of measuring instantaneous full-field soot volume fractions. Results from this technique have shown the significant differences in local soot volume fraction, smoking point, and flame shape between normal and reduced gravity flames. We observed that some laminar flames become open-tipped and smoking under microgravity. The third task we completed is the development of a computer program which integrates and couples flame structure, soot formation, and flame radiation analyses together. We found good

  8. OARDAS - A New Ray-Based Stray Radiation Analysis Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, David F.

    1987-06-01

    The new Off-Axis Rejection Design Analysis Software (OARDAS) aids in modeling complex baffle configurations for generally asymmetric and folded optical systems in order to estimate their background suppression performance. This interactive program uses real raytracing and a combination of Monte Carlo and deterministic methods to aid the user in finding stray radiation paths and calculating stray backgrounds. User friendliness and flexibility were two primary goals in the program design. With its extensive graphics capability, OARDAS is a powerful tool for diagnosing and understanding complex radiation paths. This paper first gives an overview of OARDAS philosophy and capabilities and then shows how OARDAS is used to analyze a complex baffle design.

  9. Method for increased sensitivity of radiation detection and measurement

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1994-01-01

    Dose of radiation to which a body of crystalline material has been exposed is measured by exposing the body to optical radiation at a first wavelength, which is greater than about 540 nm, and measuring optical energy emitted from the body by luminescence at a second wavelength, which is longer than the first wavelength. Reduced background is accomplished by more thorough annealing and enhanced radiation induced luminescence is obtained by treating the crystalline material to coalesce primary damage centers into secondary damage centers.

  10. Workshop on measurement quality assurance for ionizing radiation: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.A.; Swinth, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This workshop was held to review the status of secondary level calibration accreditation programs, review related measurement accreditation programs, document lessons learned, and to present changes in programs due to new national priorities involving radioactivity measurements. Contents include: fundamentals of measurement quality assurance (MQA), standards for MQA programs; perspectives and policies; complete MQA programs; future MQA programs; QA/QC programs--radioactivity; QA/QC programs--dosimetry; laboratory procedures for QA/QC; in-house control of reference dosimetry laboratories; in-house controls of radioactivity laboratories; and poster session. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  12. Measurements of the frequency spectrum of transition radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, M. L.; Mueller, D.

    1977-01-01

    We report a measurement of the frequency spectrum of X-ray transition radiation. X rays were generated by electrons of 5 and 9 GeV in radiators of multiple polypropylene foils, and detected in the range 4 to 30 keV with a calibrated single-crystal Bragg spectrometer. The experimental results closely reproduce the features of the theoretically predicted spectrum. In particular, the pronounced interference pattern of multifoil radiators and the expected hardening of the radiation with increasing foil thickness are clearly observed. The overall intensity of the radiation is somewhat lower than predicted by calculations.

  13. Measurement of radiation property of long infrared emitter and examination of infrared radiation heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Miyanaga, T.; Miyakawa, M.

    1989-05-01

    Long infrared radiation is becoming widely used for process heating, drying and space heating. In order to make more effective use of long infrared radiation, the investigations on measuring method of radiation property of long infrared emitter, the measuring results, and selection of suitable emitters for heating objects, were carried out. Using Fourier transform infrared radiation spectrophotometer, trial manufacture of an apparatus for measuring spectral emissivity of long infrared emitters was conducted and the measuring method was established. By this, the following knowledges on ceramic long infrared emitter were obtained: spectral emissivity almost never depends on temperature of the emitter, variation with time is hardly shown, and radiation efficiency is shown to be 50 to 60 percent. Infrared radiation heating processes on foods and synthetic resins were investigated, and an examination on the method for selecting emitters, which are suitable to materials to be heated, was conducted.

  14. Ground truth data for test sites (SL-4). [thermal radiation brightness temperature and solar radiation measurments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Field measurements performed simultaneous with Skylab overpass in order to provide comparative calibration and performance evaluation measurements for the EREP sensors are presented. Wavelength region covered include: solar radiation (400 to 1300 nanometer), and thermal radiation (8 to 14 micrometer). Measurements consisted of general conditions and near surface meteorology, atmospheric temperature and humidity vs altitude, the thermal brightness temperature, total and diffuse solar radiation, direct solar radiation (subsequently analyzed for optical depth/transmittance), and target reflectivity/radiance. The particular instruments used are discussed along with analyses performed. Detailed instrument operation, calibrations, techniques, and errors are given.

  15. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  16. PRELIMINARY MEASURMENTS OF THE HIGH-GAIN FEL RADIATION PROPERTIES ALONG THE RADIATOR.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN,T.; LOOS,H.; SHEEHY,B.; YU,L.H.

    2004-08-29

    We present preliminary experimental results on evolution of properties of the DUV FEL [1,2] radiation along the radiator. Intercepting the electron beam at the different locations inside the undulator we recorded and analyzed transverse profiles, spectra and intensity of the FEL output. Shot-to-shot fluctuations of the FEL radiation may significantly affect the accuracy of measurement. In the paper we present and discuss a single-shot measurement technique, based on a special imaging system.

  17. The NOAA Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) - A new surface radiation monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.B.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a new radiation monitoring program, the Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS), that builds upon and takes over from earlier NOAA networks monitoring components of solar radiation [both the visible component (SOLRAD) and the shortwave component that causes sunburn, UV-B] across the continental United States. ISIS is implemented in two levels. Level 1 addresses incoming radiation only, and level 2 addresses the surface radiation balance. Level 2 also constitutes the SURFRAD (Surface Radiation) program of the NOAA Office of Global Programs, specifically intended to provide radiation data to support large-scale hydrologic studies that will be conducted under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment. Eventually, it is planned for level 2 sites to monitor all components of the surface energy balance. Both levels of ISIS will eventually measure both visible and UV radiation components. At present, there are nine sites that are considered to be at ISIS level 1 standard and an additional four level 2 SURFRAD sites. A 10th level 1 site will be in operation soon. Plans call for an increase in the number of sites of both kinds, up to about 15 ISIS sites, of which 6 will be at the SURFRAD level. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A New Standard for Measuring Doctoral Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a new standard for measuring graduate programs in the United States. The Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index, produced by Academic Analytics, a for-profit company, rates faculty members' scholarly output at nearly 7,300 doctoral programs around the country. It examines the number of book and journal articles published by…

  19. Effective UV radiation from model calculations and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feister, Uwe; Grewe, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Model calculations have been made to simulate the effect of atmospheric ozone and geographical as well as meteorological parameters on solar UV radiation reaching the ground. Total ozone values as measured by Dobson spectrophotometer and Brewer spectrometer as well as turbidity were used as input to the model calculation. The performance of the model was tested by spectroradiometric measurements of solar global UV radiation at Potsdam. There are small differences that can be explained by the uncertainty of the measurements, by the uncertainty of input data to the model and by the uncertainty of the radiative transfer algorithms of the model itself. Some effects of solar radiation to the biosphere and to air chemistry are discussed. Model calculations and spectroradiometric measurements can be used to study variations of the effective radiation in space in space time. The comparability of action spectra and their uncertainties are also addressed.

  20. Comparison of environmental radiation monitoring programs in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wolbarst, Anthony B; Griggs, John; Lee, H N; Ren, Tianshan; Hudson, Tonya; White, Jacolyn D; Zhu, Changshou

    2008-06-01

    The monitoring of environmental radiation has been carried out across the United States by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's RadNet (formerly the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System, ERAMS) and the Global Network Program (GNP) of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), and in the People's Republic of China (PRC) by their National Radioactivity Contamination Monitoring System (NRCMS). It is expected that an awareness of the similarities and differences in the structure and operation of these programs will prove helpful to both countries and perhaps others as they continue to develop their monitoring capabilities.

  1. Radiation Measured during ISS-Expedition 13 with Different Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Lee, K.; George, T.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). The biological impact of space radiation to astronauts depends strongly on the particles linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to measure the LET spectrum for the space radiation field and to investigate the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the preferred active dosimeters sensitive to all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors in various configurations; the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. The TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation exposure for the ISS mission Expedition 13 (ISS-12S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the space mission with different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operational principles for the dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs, and presents the LET spectra and the radiation quantities measured. Keywords: space radiation; cosmic rays; active and passive dosimeters; LET spectra

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  3. Recollections on Sixty Years of NBS Ionizing Radiation Programs for Energetic X Rays and Electrons1

    PubMed Central

    Koch, H. William

    2006-01-01

    These recollections are on ionizing radiation programs at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) that started in 1928 and ended in 1988 when NBS became the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The independent Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards (CIRMS) was formed in 1992. This article focuses on how measurements and standards for x rays, gamma rays, and electrons with energies above 1 MeV began at NBS and how they progressed. It also suggests how the radiation processors of materials and foods, the medical radiographic and radiological industries, and the radiological protection interests of the government (including homeland security) represented in CIRMS can benefit from NIST programs. PMID:27274947

  4. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, L. E.; Badawy, M. K.

    2016-03-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care.

  5. The SunWise School Program Guide: A School Program that Radiates Good Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2003

    2003-01-01

    To help educators raise sun safety awareness, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the SunWise School Program, a national education program for children in grades K through 8. SunWise Partner Schools sponsor classroom and schoolwide activities that raise children's awareness of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation,…

  6. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  7. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Measurements of radiated emissions. The Commission's Rules require that the peak efficetive radiated power... quarter-wave monopole antenna located on a one wavelength minimum diameter metal ground plane. The Rules... (1) Place a 121.5 MHz quarter-wave vertical antenna element at the center of the ground plane...

  8. Development of programs for computing characteristics of ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, J. V.

    1972-01-01

    Efficient programs were developed for computing all four characteristics of the radiation scattered by a plane-parallel, turbid, terrestrial atmospheric model. They were developed (FORTRAN 4) and tested on the IBM /360 computers with 2314 direct access storage facility. The storage requirement varies between 200K and 750K bytes depending upon the task. The scattering phase matrix (or function) is expanded in a Fourier series whose number of terms depend upon the zenith angles of the incident and scattered radiations, as well as on the nature of aerosols. A Gauss-Seidel procedure is used for obtaining the numerical solution of the transfer equation.

  9. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  10. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  11. Measuring plasma turbulence using low coherence microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.

    2012-02-20

    Low coherence backscattering (LCBS) is a proposed diagnostic technique for measuring plasma turbulence and fluctuations. LCBS is an adaptation of optical coherence tomography, a biomedical imaging technique. Calculations and simulations show LCBS measurements can achieve centimeter-scale spatial resolution using low coherence microwave radiation. LCBS measurements exhibit several advantages over standard plasma turbulence measurement techniques including immunity to spurious reflections and measurement access in hollow density profiles. Also, LCBS is scalable for 1-D profile measurements and 2-D turbulence imaging.

  12. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  13. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  14. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, P.; Villela, T.

    1987-01-01

    Maps of the large scale structure (theta is greater than 6 deg) of the cosmic background radiation covering 90 percent of the sky are now available. The data show a very strong 50-100 sigma (statistical error) dipole component, interpreted as being due to our motion, with a direction of alpha = 11.5 + or - 0.15 hours, sigma = -5.6 + or - 2.0 deg. The inferred direction of the velocity of our galaxy relative to the cosmic background radiation is alpha = 10.6 + or - 0.3 hours, sigma = -2.3 + or - 5 deg. This is 44 deg from the center of the Virgo cluster. After removing the dipole component, the data show a galactic signature but no apparent residual structure. An autocorrelation of the residual data, after substraction of the galactic component from a combined Berkeley (3 mm) and Princeton (12 mm) data sets, show no apparent structure from 10 to 180 deg with a rms of 0.01 mK(sup 2). At 90 percent confidence level limit of .00007 is placed on a quadrupole component.

  15. Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerezo, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

  16. Estimation of Effective Doses for Radiation Cancer Risks on ISS, Lunar, and Mars Missions with Space Radiation Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, M.Y.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation protection practices define the effective dose as a weighted sum of equivalent dose over major sites for radiation cancer risks. Since a crew personnel dosimeter does not make direct measurement of effective dose, it has been estimated with skin-dose measurements and radiation transport codes for ISS and STS missions. The Phantom Torso Experiment (PTE) of NASA s Operational Radiation Protection Program has provided the actual flight measurements of active and passive dosimeters which were placed throughout the phantom on STS-91 mission for 10 days and on ISS Increment 2 mission. For the PTE, the variation in organ doses, which is resulted by the absorption and the changes in radiation quality with tissue shielding, was considered by measuring doses at many tissue sites and at several critical body organs including brain, colon, heart, stomach, thyroid, and skins. These measurements have been compared with the organ dose calculations obtained from the transport models. Active TEPC measurements of lineal energy spectra at the surface of the PTE also provided the direct comparison of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) or trapped proton dose and dose equivalent. It is shown that orienting the phantom body as actual in ISS is needed for the direct comparison of the transport models to the ISS data. One of the most important observations for organ dose equivalent of effective dose estimates on ISS is the fractional contribution from trapped protons and GCR. We show that for most organs over 80% is from GCR. The improved estimation of effective doses for radiation cancer risks will be made with the resultant tissue weighting factors and the modified codes.

  17. The program on radiative inputs of the sun to the Earth (rise)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter V.

    1990-01-01

    General concerns about changes in the Earth's climate and in the ozone layer have increased the importance of measuring and understanding variations in the sun's radiative outputs. These outputs appear, for instance, at the top of the list of global change forcing agents in the recent FY-90 document on the U.S. Global Change Program. Significant advances have been made over the past decade in radiometry of the total solar irradiance. Photometry of light variations in stars similar to the sun, but much younger, is providing new insights into the sun's variations in luminosity and UV radiation at previous epochs of interest to paleoclimate studies. Measurement of the sun's 11-year output variability in the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet still possess a challenge of great importance. All of these topics are addressed by the program on Radiative Inputs of the Sun to Earth (RISE). RISE is a 5-year program of observations, data analysis, and theory, that has been defined at two workshops held in Boulder, Colorado in November 1987, and in Tucson, Arizona in October 1989. These meetings involved about 60 solar and atmospheric physicists, and stellar astronomers. A proceedings of the 1987 workshop was issued in early 1988. A substantial component of the program, consisting of ground-based observations, data analysis, and theory, is directed at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the program is seeking a FY-92 funding start at the NSF. RISE also makes recommendations on measurements required from NASA and NOAA satellites.

  18. HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, R

    2002-01-31

    of the agreement are met. The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within NNSA implements the transparency provisions of the bilateral agreement. It is constantly making progress towards meeting its objectives and gathering the information necessary to confirm that Russian weapons-usable HEU is being blended into LEU. Since the first shipment in 1995 through December 2001, a total of 141 MT of weapons-grade HEU, about 28% of the agreed total and equivalent to 5,650 nuclear weapons, was converted to LEU, further reducing the threat of this material returning back into nuclear weapons. In the year 2001, the LEU sold to electric utility customers for fuel was sufficient to supply the annual fuel needs for about 50 percent of the U.S. installed nuclear electrical power generation capacity. There are four primary uranium processing activities involved in converting HEU metal components extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons into fuel for power reactors: (1) Converting HEU metal to purified HEU oxide; (2) Converting purified HEU oxide to HEU hexafluoride; (3) Downblending HEU hexafluoride to LEU hexafluoride; and (4) Converting LEU hexafluoride into reactor fuel. The first three processes are currently being performed at four Russian nuclear processing facilities: Mayak Production Association (MPA), Electrochemical Plant (ECP), Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), and Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP). Following the blending down of HEU, the LEU hexafluoride is loaded into industry, standard 30B cylinders at the downblending facilities and transported to St. Petersburg, Russia. From there the LEU is shipped by sea to the United States where it is converted into fuel to be used in nuclear power plants. There are six U.S. facilities processing LEU subject to the HEU purchase agreement: the Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant, Global Nuclear Fuel -America, Framatome-Lynchburg, Framatome-Richland, Westinghouse-Hematite, and

  19. Measurement of divergence of co/sub 2/-laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shepelenko, A.A.; Shulyat'ev, V.B.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents a modification of the Foucault method for measuring the radiation divergence of high-power CW lasers in which the limiting diaphram is produced by an aperture burned through by the laser radiation itself. The method is suitable for beams with any cross-sectional intensitiy distribution. Results of divergence measurements of a CO/sub 2/ production laser with power to 2 kW are presented.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet line radiation measurements of a shock-heated nitrogen plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Line radiation, in the wavelength region from 1040 to 2500 A from nitrogen plasmas, was measured at conditions typical of those produced in the shock layer in front of vehicles entering the earth's atmosphere at superorbital velocities. The radiation was also predicted with a typical radiation transport computer program to determine whether such calculations adequately model plasmas for the conditions tested. The results of the comparison show that the radiant intensities of the lines between 1040 and 1700 A are actually lower than are predicted by such computer models.

  1. Evaluation of the shortwave radiative balance via measurements and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, V.; Koepke, P.; Quenzel, H.; Kriebel, K. T.

    A new method of calculating the shortwave radiative balance is presented. Radiative densities are measured while the atmospheric state values necessary for the calculation are assumed and varied. Two situations are used, a cloud-free atmosphere over ocean and a cloud-free atmosphere over a homogeneous land area southeast of Madrid. Aircraft measurements of spectral and integrated radiative densities obtained at various heights and angles are compared with the calculated values. The agreement is good, and the boundaries of the model at low height stand out.

  2. Balloon measurements of the far-infrared background radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlner, D.; Weiss, R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a balloon-borne radiometer designed to make direct measurements of the background radiation in the spectral range from 1 to 20 cm, and evaluation of the results of two balloon flights performed with the aid of this radiometer. Measurements in five different passbands in the spectral region below 20 per cm were made with a liquid-helium-cooled radiometer in two flights at approximately 40-km altitude. The results obtained are found to be consistent with a 2.7 K thermal radiation background. In addition, an atmospheric radiation of certain magnitude is found to dominate the region above 11 per cm.

  3. Radiation measurements over a snowfield at an elevated site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korff, H. C.; Gailiun, J. J.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    The components of short wave radiation were measured over a snowfield in a valley of the Rocky Mountains at a height of 2700 m above sea level. Global and reflected radiation were obtained by a set of Eppley pyranometers. In addition, the direct solar radiation and the turbidity of the atmosphere were derived from pyrheliometric data on cloud-free days. Emphasis was given to the reflectance of the snowfield in relation to the position of the sun, especially at low elevation angles. These reflectance values were measured for cloudless as well as for cloudy days and compared with already published values for arctic and antarctic conditions.

  4. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS).

    PubMed

    Bitar, A; Maghrabi, M

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems.

  5. Radiation internal exposure measurements archiving system (REMAS).

    PubMed

    Bitar, A; Maghrabi, M

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a personal-computer-based software, REMAS, which helps users to estimate intake activity and resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in (International Commission on Radiological Protection) ICRP 78 and other important elements. In addition to its use in internal dose calculations, it facilitates management of data of monitored persons who are occupationally exposed to unsealed radioactive substances. Furthermore, REMAS offers the possibility to generate different reports of results. The program is suitable for laboratories working in the field of assessment of occupational intake and also for users of radioactive material who are routinely monitored. REMAS, which is bilingual program (English and Arabic), was built with GUI environment and was developed using Microsoft FoxPro. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP operating systems. PMID:23782905

  6. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic X rays for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Delis, Harry; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated.

  7. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories

    DOE Data Explorer

    The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Lin, Uei-Tyng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-03-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated (3)He detector, high-pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼ 275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h(-1).

  10. Radiation budget measurements for the eighties and nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.L.; Barkstrom, B.R.; Harrison, E.F.; Lee, R.B. III; Wielicki, B.A. )

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consisted of a scanning radiometer and non-scanning radiometers on each of three spacecraft. These instruments began flying in October 1984. The nonscanning radiometers continue to operate, providing broadband radiation measurements of the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation and reflected solar radiation, in addition to measurements of the solar output. The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) features a scanning radiometer, which is an improved version of the ERBE scanning radiometer, and will fly on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and Earth Observation System platforms in the late nineties. The CERES project will provide not only radiant fluxes at the top of the atmosphere' (TOA), but also at the surface and will compute radiant flux divergence through the atmosphere.

  11. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.; Hillger, D. W.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) cloud effects in climate determination; (2) annual variation in the global heat balance of the earth; (3) the accuracy of precipitation estimates made from passive microwave measurements from satellites; (4) seasonal oceanic precipitation frequencies; (5) determination of mesoscale temperature and moisture fields over land from satellite radiance measurements; and (6) Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer data evaluation for surface wind and pressure components in tropical storms.

  12. An evaluation of RAMS radiation schemes by field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S; Doran, J C

    1994-02-01

    At present, two radiation schemes are used in RAMS: the Mahrer and Pielke (M-P) scheme and the Chen and Cotton (C-C) scheme. The M-P scheme requires little computational expense, but does not include the radiative effects of liquid water or ice; the C-C scheme accounts for the radiative effects of liquid water and ice but is fairly expensive computationally. For simulations with clouds, the C-C scheme is obviously a better choice, but for clear sky conditions, RAMS users face a decision regarding which radiation scheme to use. It has been noted that the choice of radiation scheme may result in significantly different results for the same case. To examine the differences in the radiative fluxes and the boundary-layer structure corresponding to the two radiation schemes in RAMS we have carried out a study where Rams was used to simulate the same case with two different radiation schemes. The modeled radiative fluxes by the two schemes were then compared with the field measurements. A description of the observations and the case study, a comparison and discussion of the results, and a summary and conclusions follow.

  13. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  14. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  15. Measuring Student Engagement in an Online Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigatel, Paula; Williams, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to measure the effectiveness of faculty development courses promoting student engagement, the faculty development unit of Penn State's Online Campus conducted a pilot study within a large online Bachelor of Science in Business (BSB) program. In all, 2,296 students were surveyed in the spring and summer semesters of 2014 in order to…

  16. The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system from Nimbus 3 radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.; Vonderhaar, T. H.; Pasternak, M.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The radiation balance of the earth-atmosphere system and its components was computed from global measurements of radiation reflected and emitted from the earth to space. These measurements were made from the meteorological satellite Nimbus 3 during the periods from April 16 to August 15, 1969; October 3 to 17, 1969; and January 21 to February 3, 1970. Primarily the method of evaluation, its inherent assumptions, and possible error sources were discussed. Results are presented by various methods: (1) global, hemispherical, and zonal averages obtained from measurements in all semimonthly periods and (2) global maps of the absorbed solar radiation, the albedo, the outgoing longwave radiation, and the radiation balance obtained from measurements during semimonthly periods in each season (May 1 to 15, July 16 to 31, and October 3 to 17, 1969, and January 21 to February 3, 1970). Annual global averages of the albedo and of the outgoing longwave radiation were determined. These values balance to within 1 percent the annual global energy input by solar radiation that was computed for a solar constant.

  17. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  18. A computer program to calculate radiation properties of reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. K.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program to calculate the radiation properties of the reflector antennas is presented. It can be used for paraboloidal, spherical, or ellipsoidal reflector surfaces and is easily modified to handle any surface that can be expressed analytically. The program is general enough to allow any arbitrary location and pointing angle for the feed antenna. The effect of blockage due to the feed horn is also included in the computations. The computer program is based upon the technique of tracing the rays from the feed antenna to the reflector to an aperture plane. The far field radiation properties are then calculated by performing a double integration over the field points in the aperture plane. To facilitate the computation of double intergral, the field points are first aligned along the equispaced straight lines in the aperture plane. The computation time is relatively insensitive to the absolute size of the aperture and even though no limits on the largest reflector size have been determined, the program was used for reflector diameters of 1000 wavelenghts.

  19. Aerosol direct radiative effect over China estimated with visibility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, K.; Lin, J.

    2012-12-01

    As a short-lived climate forcer, aerosols exhibit strong radiative effects that vary significantly across the space and time. Current understanding of the long-term variability of aerosol climate forcings is however very poor due to lack of relevant atmospheric measurements. Historic records for visibility measurements from thousands of ground meteorological stations offer a plausible tool to study the decadal and multi-decadal variability of aerosol radiative effects. As a first step, this study presents a method to estimate aerosol direct radiative effect over China based on visibility data for 2006. Visibility data from about 400 ground stations are converted to near-surface aerosol extinction coefficients, which are converted then to aerosol optical depth (AOD) based on spatially and temporally varying vertical distributions of aerosol optical properties simulated by the widely used chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The resulting AOD data are consistent with direct measurements from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in regions where visibility and AOD measurement sites are close in distance. Next, the visibility-derived AOD data are combined with other aerosol optical properties adopted from GEOS-Chem, cloud data from ground stations and surface albedo data from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) to derive the direct radiative effect, by employing the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer model (SBDART). Spatial and monthly variations of aerosol radiative effects are examined.

  20. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring spatial uniformity of radiation

    DOEpatents

    Field, Halden

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the spatial uniformity of the intensity of a radiation beam from a radiation source based on a single sampling time and/or a single pulse of radiation. The measuring apparatus includes a plurality of radiation detectors positioned on planar mounting plate to form a radiation receiving area that has a shape and size approximating the size and shape of the cross section of the radiation beam. The detectors concurrently receive portions of the radiation beam and transmit electrical signals representative of the intensity of impinging radiation to a signal processor circuit connected to each of the detectors and adapted to concurrently receive the electrical signals from the detectors and process with a central processing unit (CPU) the signals to determine intensities of the radiation impinging at each detector location. The CPU displays the determined intensities and relative intensity values corresponding to each detector location to an operator of the measuring apparatus on an included data display device. Concurrent sampling of each detector is achieved by connecting to each detector a sample and hold circuit that is configured to track the signal and store it upon receipt of a "capture" signal. A switching device then selectively retrieves the signals and transmits the signals to the CPU through a single analog to digital (A/D) converter. The "capture" signal. is then removed from the sample-and-hold circuits. Alternatively, concurrent sampling is achieved by providing an A/D converter for each detector, each of which transmits a corresponding digital signal to the CPU. The sampling or reading of the detector signals can be controlled by the CPU or level-detection and timing circuit.

  2. Techniques for measuring radiation induced effects of acousto optic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, E.W.

    1995-08-01

    Innovative measurement techniques for determining radiation induced changes in acousto optic devices are briefly discussed. Measurements of acousto optic operational parameters such as signal transmission efficiency, diffraction efficiency, spatial intensity and bandwidth responses during electron irradiations are described. During exposure to pulsed electrons, only transient perturbations to the acousto optic operational parameters were experienced. Examples of new measurement procedures and typical data resulting from the measurements are presented.

  3. Shortwave Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, Joseph J.; Anderson, Gail; Barnard, James C.; Delamere, Jennifer; Gueymard, C.; Kato, Seiji; Kiedron, P.; McComiskey, A.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    2006-07-20

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large aerosol intensive observation period (AIOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this AIOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are in the worst case 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 1.9%.

  4. Absolute Radiation Measurements in Earth and Mars Entry Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of radiative heating for shock heated flows which simulate conditions for Mars and Earth entries. Radiation measurements are made in NASA Ames' Electric Arc Shock Tube at velocities from 3-15 km/s in mixtures of N2/O2 and CO2/N2/Ar. The technique and limitations of the measurement are summarized in some detail. The absolute measurements will be discussed in regards to spectral features, radiative magnitude and spatiotemporal trends. Via analysis of spectra it is possible to extract properties such as electron density, and rotational, vibrational and electronic temperatures. Relaxation behind the shock is analyzed to determine how these properties relax to equilibrium and are used to validate and refine kinetic models. It is found that, for some conditions, some of these values diverge from non-equilibrium indicating a lack of similarity between the shock tube and free flight conditions. Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  5. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550757

  6. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550757

  7. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  8. The need to measure man-made radiation from orbit for spectrum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.; Wolff, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of RF radiation from orbiting spacecraft are discussed as an approach to improving man-made radio-wave spectrum management for avoidance and prediction of harmful RF interferences. It is pointed out that a measurement program is required for acquisition of data on electromagnetic fields to be expected in orbits, and that several types of satellites could provide platforms for such missions. Papers by Reich et al. (1972) and Kelleher et al. (1972) are referred to for descriptions as to how such platforms could be used. An electromagnetic field spectrum measurement program is outlined for orbital missions.

  9. Liquid droplet radiator program at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Coles, C. E.; Diem-Kirsop, P. S.; White, K. A., III

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) are jointly engaged in a program for technical assessment of the Liquid Droplet Radiator (LDR) concept as an advanced high performance heat ejection component for future space missions. NASA Lewis has responsibility for the technology needed for the droplet generator, for working fluid qualification, and for investigating the physics of droplets in space; NASA Lewis is also conducting systems/mission analyses for potential LDR applications with candidate space power systems. For the droplet generator technology task, both micro-orifice fabrication techniques and droplet stream formation processes have been experimentally investigated. High quality micro-orifices (to 50 micron diameter) are routinely fabricated with automated equipment. Droplet formation studies have established operating boundaries for the generation of controlled and uniform droplet streams. A test rig is currently being installed for the experimental verification, under simulated space conditions, of droplet radiation heat transfer performance analyses and the determination of the effect radiative emissivity of multiple droplet streams. Initial testing has begun in the NASA Lewis Zero-Gravity Facility for investigating droplet stream behavior in microgravity conditions. This includes the effect of orifice wetting on jet dynamics and droplet formation. Results for both Brayton and Stirling power cycles have identified favorable mass and size comparisons of the LDR with conventional radiator concepts.

  10. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-15

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  11. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tairan; Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou

    2014-04-01

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100-2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700-1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments. PMID:24784642

  12. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  13. CERES: The Next Generation of Earth Radiation Budget Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Gary G.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is part of an international program for studying the Earth from space using a multiple-instrument, multiple-satellite approach. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) experiment is designed to monitor changes in the Earth s radiant energy system and cloud systems and to provide these data with sufficient simultaneity and accuracy to examine critical cloud/climate feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. The first EOS satellite (Terra), scheduled for launch this year, and the EOS-PM satellite, to be launched in late 2000, will each carry two CERES instruments. The first CERES instrument was launched in 1997 on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The CERES TRMM data show excellent instrument stability and a factor of 2 to 3 less error than previous Earth radiation budget missions. The first CERES data products have been validated and archived. The data consist of instantaneous longwave and shortwave broadband radiances, top-of-atmosphere fluxes, scene types, and time and space averaged fluxes and albedo. A later data product will combine CERES radiances and high- resolution imager data to produce cloud properties and fluxes throughout the atmosphere and at the surface.

  14. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  15. The NASA Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Coss, J.; Nichols, D.; Shaw, D.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective of the Microelectronics Space Radiation Effects Program (MSREP) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to assist NASA in the selection of radiation hardened microelectronic parts for insertion in NASA space systems through radiation testing and research. Prior to presenting examples of the research and testing on Single Event Effects (SEE) and Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effects, the space radiation environment and radiation requirements for the CRAFT/Cassini program, a typical JPL space project, are discussed.

  16. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, D.; Matiella Novak, A.; Beisser, K.; Fox, N.

    2013-11-01

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program serves as a pipeline of activities to inspire and educate a broad audience about Heliophysics and the Sun-Earth system, specifically the Van Allen Radiation Belts. The program is comprised of a variety of formal, informal and public outreach activities that all align with the NASA Education Portfolio Strategic Framework outcomes. These include lesson plans and curriculum for use in the classroom, teacher workshops, internship opportunities, activities that target underserved populations, collaboration with science centers and NASA visitors' centers and partnerships with experts in the Heliophysics and education disciplines. This paper will detail the activities that make up the RBSP E/PO program, their intended audiences, and an explanation as to how they align with the NASA education outcomes. Additionally, discussions on why these activities are necessary as part of a NASA mission are included. Finally, examples of how the RBSP E/PO team has carried out some of these activities will be discussed throughout.

  17. Validating CERES Radiative Fluxes in the Arctic with Airborne Radiative Flux Measurements from the ARISE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J.; Bucholtz, A.; Kato, S.; Rose, F. G.; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on board NASA's Terra, Aqua, and Soumi-NPP satellites provide the only measurements of reflected solar shortwave and emitted longwave radiative flux over the Arctic. Various methods have shown the uncertainty of CERES fluxes over sea ice to be higher than other scene types. However validation against an independent radiative flux measurement has never been attempted. We present here an attempt to better quantify the uncertainty of time-and-space averaged CERES flux measurements using airborne measurements from the Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea Ice Experiment (ARISE). The ARISE campaign took place during September of 2014 based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, with most of the measurements taken in the vicinity of the sea ice edge between 125°W and 150°W, and 71°N to 77°N. For six of the flights, measurements were taken in a lawnmower type pattern over either 100 x 200 km box regions at a constant altitude of >6 km, or 100 x 100 km box regions at an altitude of between 200 m to 500 m. They were designed to resemble the CERES Level 3 spatial averaging grids, and were located and timed to coincide with a high number of CERES overpasses. On board the aircraft were a set of upward and downward facing shortwave and longwave broadband radiometers (BBR), along with other instruments measuring meteorological conditions and cloud properties. We have compared the broadband radiative fluxes from BBR with those from CERES for the three days where the aircraft was flying the high altitude pattern. We use the Fu-Liou radiative transfer model to account for differences in the measurement altitude between BBR and CERES. We will present results of the comparisons between the computed fluxes and the measured longwave and shortwave radiative fluxes.

  18. Evaporation and radiation measurements at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, Alex M.

    1978-01-01

    Evaporation from Salton Sea, Calif. was computed for a 539-day period between duly 14, 1967, and January 2, 1969, by use of energy-budget, mass-transfer, and water-budget methods. The total evaporation computed by the three methods agreed within 5 percent. For computing evaporation by the mass-transfer method, vapor pressure measured at raft stations on the sea was considered to be more representative of the conditions over the sea than vapor pressure measured at land stations. The values of heat transfer to and from the bed were used in energy-budget computations. The inclusion of these heat transfer values improved the correlation of evaporation computed by the energy-budget and water-budget methods. Monthly evaporation computed by the energy budget method for 1968 showed that the Salton Sea exhibited a double-wave evaporation similar to that of oceans in the same latitude. Weekly and monthly comparisons were made to determine if radiation measured by the flat-plate radiometer is seasonally biased. Weekly totals of radiation from three flat-plate radiometers were compared to values of a Cummings Radiation Integrator. Monthly totals of radiation for each of the two types of instruments were compared to an empirical method for determining radiation. These comparisons indicate that the measurements of radiation by the flat-plate radiometer are not seasonally biased, and that the Cummings Radiation Integrator gives reliable measurements of radiation for periods as short as 1 week. The net incoming radiation was measured at three stations around the Salton Sea. The areal variation was less than 1 percent on an annual basis and the largest weekly variation was less than 6 percent. An empirical mass-transfer coefficient, N, was determined from energy-budget measurements. The value of this coefficient to give evaporation in inches per day is 0.00245 when the windspeed is expressed in miles per hour and vapor pressure is expressed in millibars. The coefficient is valid

  19. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  20. Measurement of microwave radiation from electron beam in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, I. S.; Akimune, H.; Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D.; Inome, Y.; Matthews, J. N.; Ogio, S.; Sagawa, H.; Sako, T.; Shibata, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2016-02-01

    We report the use of an electron light source (ELS) located at the Telescope Array Observatory in Utah, USA, to measure the isotropic microwave radiation from air showers. To simulate extensive air showers, the ELS emits an electron beam into the atmosphere and a parabola antenna system for the satellite communication is used to measure the microwave radiation from the electron beam. Based on this measurement, an upper limit on the intensity of a 12.5 GHz microwave radiation at 0.5 m from a 1018 eV air shower was estimated to be 3.96×10-16 W m-2 Hz-1 with a 95% confidence level.

  1. A molecular fraction method for measuring personnel radiation doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel, M. A.; Khalil, W. A.; Krodja, R. P.; Sheta, N.; Abd El-Baset, M. S.

    1987-02-01

    This work represents a development in fast and albedo neutron and gamma ray dosimetry, using cellulose nitrate, as a tissue equivalent material, in which radiation damage was registered. The changes in molecular fractions of the polymer were measured after irradiation with neutron fluences from a 252Cf source in the range 10 5-10 10 n/cm 2 and gamma doses in the range 10 -4-10 -1 Gy through the use of gel filtration chromatography. Effects of irradiation on phantom, phantom to dosimeter distance, phantom thickness and storage at extreme environmental conditions were studied on the detector response and readout. The results showed that main chain scission followed by formation of new molecular configurations is the predominant effect of radiation on the polymer. The method enables measurements of neutron fluences and gamma doses in mixed radiation fields. Empirical formulae for calculating the absorbed dose from the measured changes in molecular fraction intensities are given.

  2. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  3. Radiating Shock Measurements in the Z-Pinch Dynamic Hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Chandler, G. A.; Lemke, R. W.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, D. V.; Fisher, V. I.; Stambulchik, E.; Dunham, G. S.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Schroen, D. G.

    2008-03-28

    The Z-pinch dynamic hohlraum is an x-ray source for high energy-density physics studies that is heated by a radiating shock to radiation temperatures >200 eV. The time-dependent 300-400 eV electron temperature and 15-35 mg/cc density of this shock have been measured for the first time using space-resolved Si tracer spectroscopy. The shock x-ray emission is inferred from these measurements to exceed 50 TW, delivering >180 kJ to the hohlraum.

  4. Analytical chemistry measurement assurance programs: More than just measurement control programs

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Shull, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Assurance of measurement accuracy and precision is required and/or recommended by regulations and guides for good laboratory practices for analytical chemistry laboratories. Measurement Control programs(MCPs) and or Measurement Assurance programs (MAPs) are means for determining and controlling the accuracy and precision of a laboratory`s measurements. Regulations and guides often allow for interpretation of what is necessary to assure measurement quality and how it is done. Consequently, a great diversity exists between laboratories` measurement quality control programs. This paper will describe various levels of measurement control(MC) and the differences between a comprehensive MAP and various levels of MCPs. It will explain the benefits of establishing a comprehensive MAP based on a set of basic principles. MCPs range from go/no-go testing of a check standard`s measurement against control limits to a comprehensive MAP. Features of the latter include: an independent verisimilitude (matrix matched) standard having known uncertainties; customer tolerance limits as well as control limits; statistical tests for bias and precision testing; and estimating the total measurement process uncertainty based upon the combination of both the measurement system and standard`s uncertainties. A commercial measurement assurance program (JTIPMAP TradeMark) was evaluated by the author`s laboratories and compared to locally developed as well as other commercial software packages. Results of the evaluation, comparisons, conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  5. Radiative flux measurements during the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) Guam Deployment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindel, B. C.; Pilewskie, P.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment was a field program utilizing the NASA Global Hawk aircraft, to make extensive measurements of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) over the Pacific Ocean. In February and March of 2014, the NASA Global Hawk was deployed to Guam and flew six long duration science flights. The aircraft was outfitted with a suite of instruments to study the composition of the TTL. Measurements included: water vapor amount, cloud particle size and shape, various gaseous species (e.g. CO, CH4, CO2, O3), and radiation measurements. The radiation measurements were comprised of the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) that made spectrally resolved measurements of upwelling and downwelling solar irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm and thermal broadband (4μm to 42 μm) upwelling and downwelling irradiance. Once airborne, the Global Hawk made numerous vertical profiles (14 - 18 km) through the TTL. In this work we present results of combined solar spectral irradiance and broadband thermal irradiance measurements. Solar spectral measurements are correlated, wavelength-by-wavelength, with broadband thermal measurements. The radiative impact in the TTL of water vapor and cirrus clouds are examined both in the solar and thermal wavelengths from both upwelling and downwelling irradiances. The spectral measurements are used in an attempt to attribute physical mechanisms to the thermal (spectrally integrated) measurements. Measurements of heating rates are also presented, highlighting the difficultly in obtaining reliable results from aircraft measurements.

  6. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    PubMed

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  7. High spectral resolution measurements for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Revercomb, H.E.

    1992-05-22

    This report focuses on the design and fabrication of high spectral resolution FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) instrumentation for the CART sites of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ultimate objective of this grant is to develop three different types of instruments, named the AERI, AERI-X, and SORT. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is the simplest. It will be available for early deployment at the first ARM site and will be deployable at several locations in the extended network to give horizontal coverage. The AERI will be an 0.5 cm{sup {minus}1} resolution instrument, which measures accurately calibrated radiance spectra for radiation studies and for remote sensing of atmospheric state variables. The AERI-X and the SORTI are higher spectral resolution instruments for obtaining the highest practical resolution for spectroscopy at the ARM central sites. The AERI-X, like the AERI will measure atmospheric emitted radiance, but with resolutions as high as 0.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. The Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer will measure the total transmission of the atmosphere by tracking the sun through changes in atmospheric air mass. The large solar signal makes it practical for this instrument to offer the ultimate in spectral resolution, about 0.002 cm{sup {minus}1}.

  8. A New Quantum Sensor for Measuring Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Thomas, T.; Heinicke, D.; Peterson, R.; Morgan, P.; McDermitt, D. K.; Burba, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    A quantum sensor measures photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, in μmol of photons m-2 s-1) in the 400 nm to 700 nm waveband. Plants utilize this radiation to drive photosynthesis, though individual plant responses to incident radiation may vary within this range. The new quantum sensor (model LI-190R, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE), with an optical filter and silicon photodiode detector housed in a cosine-corrected head, is designed to provide a better response to incident radiation across the 400-700 nm range. The new design is expected to significantly improve spectral response due to uniformity across the PAR waveband, but particularly in the wavebands from 520 nm to 600 nm and 665 nm to 680 nm, and sharp cutoffs in the regions below and above the PAR waveband. Special care was taken to make sure that PAR sensor would not substantially respond to incident radiation above the 700 nm threshold because this can lead to errors when performing measurements in environments with a large proportion of near-infrared radiation, such as canopy understory. The physical housing of the sensor is designed to be weather-resistant, to effectively shed precipitation, provide protection at high temperature and high humidity conditions, and has a cosine-corrected response to 82° zenith angle. The latter is particularly important when measuring incident radiation at low elevation angles, diffuse light, or low light conditions. This presentation describes the principles of the new design, and shows the performance results from field experiments and laboratory tests.

  9. Improvements to the Ionizing Radiation Risk Assessment Program for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semones, E. J.; Bahadori, A. A.; Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Flores-McLaughlin, J.

    2011-01-01

    To perform dosimetry and risk assessment, NASA collects astronaut ionizing radiation exposure data from space flight, medical imaging and therapy, aviation training activities and prior occupational exposure histories. Career risk of exposure induced death (REID) from radiation is limited to 3 percent at a 95 percent confidence level. The Radiation Health Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is implementing a program to integrate the gathering, storage, analysis and reporting of astronaut ionizing radiation dose and risk data and records. This work has several motivations, including more efficient analyses and greater flexibility in testing and adopting new methods for evaluating risks. The foundation for these improvements is a set of software tools called the Astronaut Radiation Exposure Analysis System (AREAS). AREAS is a series of MATLAB(Registered TradeMark)-based dose and risk analysis modules that interface with an enterprise level SQL Server database by means of a secure web service. It communicates with other JSC medical and space weather databases to maintain data integrity and consistency across systems. AREAS is part of a larger NASA Space Medicine effort, the Mission Medical Integration Strategy, with the goal of collecting accurate, high-quality and detailed astronaut health data, and then securely, timely and reliably presenting it to medical support personnel. The modular approach to the AREAS design accommodates past, current, and future sources of data from active and passive detectors, space radiation transport algorithms, computational phantoms and cancer risk models. Revisions of the cancer risk model, new radiation detection equipment and improved anthropomorphic computational phantoms can be incorporated. Notable hardware updates include the Radiation Environment Monitor (which uses Medipix technology to report real-time, on-board dosimetry measurements), an updated Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter, and the Southwest Research Institute

  10. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  11. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  12. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  13. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  14. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  15. Detectors and electronics for real time measurement of radiation dose and quality using the variance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wen-Hsing

    The product of the radiation dose and radiation quality indicates the biological consequences of radiation exposure. Therefore, quantifying both radiation dose and radiation quality is important to biological experiments as well as radiation protection. A small, specialized amplifier based on commercial ICs was developed to measure the radiation dose and quality in real-time using a microdosimetric detector, operated in the current mode, and the variance method. The random nature of radiation induces variance in the dose (in a small volume such as that of cell or DNA) for a specific radiation field that is proportional to the radiation quality. The charges from the microdosimetric detector, operated in the current mode, were repeatedly collected for a fixed period of time for 20 cycles of 100 integrations, and processed by the specialized amplifier to produce signals of pulse height between 0 and 10 volts. These signals with various amplitudes, which are proportional to the channel number, were then recorded by the MCA and stored in a computer. FORTRAN programs written in this study then calculated the average dose and the average dose variance from the stored data. Benchmarks of different brand's ICs were conducted to select a component with the best performance versus cost. The specialized amplifier showed the following characteristics: low input capacitance, low output impedance, adjustable integration time for controlling the amount of charge collected from the detector, linearity of system response to input currents, adjustable gain control, and low background noise. Standardized procedures of constructing a functional device (the specialized amplifier) were established, including arrangements of circuit diagram, processing of a printed circuit board, and construction of an aluminum-shielding box that served as a united ground point. In addition, procedures for determining the inner dimensions of the detector using radiography are also presented along with

  16. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  17. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  1. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  2. Listing of solar radiation measuring equipment and glossary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, E. A.; Greenbaum, S. A.; Patel, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt is made to list and provide all available information about solar radiation measuring equipment which are being manufactured and are available on the market. The list is in tabular form and includes sensor type, response time, cost data and comments for each model. A cost code is included which shows ranges only.

  3. Evaporation and radiation measurements at Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, Alex M.

    1977-01-01

    Evaporation from the Salton Sea, Calif., was computed for a 539-day period between July 14, 1967, and January 2, 1969, by use of energy-budget, mass-transfer, and water budget methods. The total evaporation computed by the three methods agreed within 5 percent. The values of heat transfer to and from the bed were used in the energy-budget computations. Monthly evaporation computed by the energy-budget method for 1968 showed that the Salton Sea exhibited a double wave evaporation similar to that of oceans in the same latitude. Weekly and montly comparisons were made to determine if radiation measured by the flat-plate radiometer is seasonally biased. These comparisons indicate that the measurements of radiation by the flat-plate radiometer are not seasonally biased, and that the Cummings Radiation Integrator gives reliable measurements of radiation for periods as short as 1 week. An empirical mass-transfer coefficient, N, as determined from energy-budget measurements. The value of this coefficient to give evaporation in inches per day is 0.00245 when the windspeed is expressed in miles per hour and the vapor pressure expressed in millibars. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  5. Interpretation of TEPC Measurements in Space Flights for Radiation Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    For the proper interpretation of radiation data measured in space, the results of integrated radiation transport models were compared with the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measurements. TEPC is a simple, time-dependent approach to radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Qave(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Qave(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. The deviation of y from LET is caused by energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. The response distribution functions of the wall-less and walled TEPCs were calculated from Monte-Carlo track simulations. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with the walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. Good agreement was found for Qave(y) between the model and measured spectra from past NASA missions. The Qave(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Qave(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Qave(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis

  6. Ground-Based Measurement of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a research program between 1996 and 2004 to measure UV at 21 unique locations through out the U.S. The program conducted long-term monitoring of UV to detect trends due to ch...

  7. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-09-11

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10{sup −3} at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively.

  8. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  9. Analysis of the Army Materiel Command radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, C.A.; Stephenson, J.D.; Young, V.I.

    1986-02-28

    This report documents an analysis of and recommendations to enhance the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) Radiation Protection Program. Data were collected from all AMC installations that participate in radiation-control activities. The data reflected radiation protection officer capabilities and specific-installation radiation sources. The analysis and subsequent recommendations assess the scope of activities performed at AMC installations, management issues related to radiation control, tasks, and responsibilities in support of radiation control, training status, and requirements to train primary and alternate radiation protection officers, and the capability of primary and alternate RPOs to operate and calibrate specific ionizing radiation-detection equipment.

  10. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  11. Measuring Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation from Varying Signal Strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bette; Gaul, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the process of measuring radiofrequency and microwave radiation from various signal strengths. The topics include: 1) Limits and Guidelines; 2) Typical Variable Standard (IEEE) Frequency Dependent; 3) FCC Standard 47 CFR 1.1310; 4) Compliance Follows Unity Rule; 5) Multiple Sources Contribute; 6) Types of RF Signals; 7) Interfering Radiations; 8) Different Frequencies Different Powers; 9) Power Summing - Peak Power; 10) Contribution from Various Single Sources; 11) Total Power from Multiple Sources; 12) Are You Out of Compliance?; and 13) In Compliance.

  12. Dosimetry of occupational exposure to RF radiation: Measurements and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tofani, S.; Agnesod, G.

    1987-06-01

    Workers engaged in the operation of RF industrial devices are exposed to electromagnetic radiation in the near-field zone that is characterized by high spatial and temporal gradients. This paper is concerned with measurement methods and data analyses which allow the evaluation of the electromagnetic field exposure of the operator together with the SAR induced by near-field exposure accounting for the spatial and temporal variations. These methods are applied to the theoretical dosimetry of the occupational exposure to RF radiation emitted by 27.12-MHz plastic sealers. The data obtained are compared with those deducible through a conventional wide-band isotropic field meter.

  13. Measurement of the radiative transport properties of reticulated alumina foams

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, M.J.; Bohn, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents a method for determining radiative transport properties of reticulated materials. The method has both experimental and analytical components. A polar nephelometer is used to measure the scattering profile of a sample of the reticulated material. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment are then combined with the experimental results to give the scatter albedo and extinction coefficient. This paper presents the results of using this method to determine the radiative transport properties of four different porosities (10, 20, 30, 65 pores per inch) of cylindrical reticulated alumina samples ranging in thickness form 0.5 inches to 2. 5 inches.

  14. Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, S K; Fluss, M J; Chung, B W

    2010-04-21

    A material subjected to radiation damage will usually experience changes in its physical properties. Measuring these changes in the physical properties provides a basis to study radiation damage in a material which is important for a variety of real world applications from reactor materials to semiconducting devices. When investigating radiation damage, the relative sensitivity of any given property can vary considerably based on the concentration and type of damage present as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. By measuring multiple physical properties, these differing sensitivities can be leveraged to provide greater insight into the different aspects of radiation damage accumulation, thereby providing a broader understanding of the mechanisms involved. In this report, self-damage from {alpha}-particle decay in Pu is investigated by measuring two different properties: magnetic susceptibility and resistivity. The results suggest that while the first annealing stage obeys second order chemical kinetics, the primary mechanism is not the recombination of vacancy-interstitial close pairs.

  15. Remote sensing strategy at the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement field site

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.; Griffin, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was initiated in 1990 by the US Department of Energy to improve climate model simulations of radiative energy transport and cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation. ARM stresses the modeling of phenomena occurring at subgrid scales in general circulation models (GCMs). Measurements to support the modeling research will be made at three primary locations. The central facility, the primary location at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for study of radiative transfer, uses ground-based remote sensing instrumentation to observe radiation and the atmospheric properties that affect it. Remote sensing instruments and balloon-borne sounding systems installed at several boundary facilities on the perimeter of the overall Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site evaluate vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity. These observations are needed to run single-column models derived from GCMs for a single grid square with an area equivalent to the overall CART area. Observations of local meteorological conditions, air-surface exchange, and solar and infrared radiation at up to 23 extended facilities scattered throughout the CART site provide the surface boundary information needed in the single-column models. Finally, auxiliary facilities at the central facility and at a few locations within 10 km of the central facility will contain whole-sky imaging systems to map cloud characteristics. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the strategy used to obtain remote sensing instrumentation for continuous operation at the central facility.

  16. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  17. Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

    2013-06-01

    Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned.

  18. Measurement of Radiation Belt Partcles by MDS-1 Onboard SEDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Koshiishi, H.; Goka, T.

    The Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) is on board the Mission Demonstration Test Satellite-1 (MDS-1) to measure the radiation environment, which was launched into geo-stationary transfer orbit (GTO) on February 4, 2002 with an apogee of about 35,700km, a perigee of about 500 km and an inclination of about 28.5 degrees. SEDA consists of the four instruments. Standard Dose Monitor monitors the electron and proton flux. Dosimeter measures the integrated radiation dose at fifty-six points of the satellite. Heavy Ion Telescope monitors the flux of heavy ions from He to Fe. Magnetometer measures the magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In this paper are described first results and comparison with the ISO standard model for the space environment

  19. Measurement of emission from a radiatively collapsed shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Gjeci, N.; Gillespie, R. S.; Shultz, J. D.; Campbell, D. A.; Human, J.

    2007-11-01

    Radiatively collapsed shocks are systems in which radiation transport causes the shock to ``collapse'' or compress to high densities. Such shocks are present in supernova remnants, passing through interstellar medium, and other such astrophysical systems. With the advent of large laser facilities, conditions can be created so that radiativly collapsed shocks can be studied in quantitative way. Recent experiments have been preformed on the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics to study the dynamics of these shocks. Measurements of radiative emission from the collapsed shock and precursor region have been made using a streaked optical pyrometer from which the temperature of the system can be calculated. Details of the experiment and results will be discussed. This research was sponsored by the NNSA through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  20. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  1. Polarimeter measures sea state characteristics using emitted infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T.

    1977-01-01

    An infrared polarimeter, capable of operating between 1 and 12 micrometers wavelength has been used to measure the polarization of emitted radiation from the sea. The observed polarization at 10.6 micrometers from a smooth sea was found to be positive, indicating the dominance of reflected infrared sky radiation over the emitted. With the appearance of waves, the percent polarization increased, as expected, for a zenith angle well above the Brewster angle for water. This is qualitatively in accordance with a model presented to explain the behavior. Initial analyses indicate that the polarized components of the sea's emitted and reflected radiation are affected by type and direction of waves, angle of viewing, and foam. The effects of variations in these parameters require further delineation. The infrared polarimetric technique appears to be a novel new passive method for remote monitoring of waves.

  2. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  3. Measurements of radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Silari, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of ionising radiation around high-energy particle accelerators is a difficult task due to the complexity of the radiation field, which is made up of neutrons, charged hadrons, muons, photons and electrons, with energy spectra extending over a wide energy range. The dose-equivalent outside a thick shield is mainly owing to neutrons, with some contribution from photons and, to a minor extent, the other particles. Neutron dosimetry and spectrometry are thus of primary importance to correctly evaluate the exposure of personnel. This paper reviews the relevant techniques and instrumentation employed for monitoring radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators, with particular emphasis on the recent development to increase the response of neutron measuring devices > 20 MeV. Rem-counters, pressurised ionisation chambers, superheated emulsions, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and Bonner sphere spectrometers are discussed. PMID:16604662

  4. Radiation measured with passive dosimeters in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Weyland, M.

    begin center Radiation Measured with Passive Dosimeters in Low Earth Orbit end center begin center D Zhou 1 2 E Semones 1 R Gaza 1 2 M Weyland 1 end center begin center 1 Johnson Space Center - NASA 2101 Nasa Road 1 Houston 77058 USA end center begin center 2 Universities Space Research Association 2101 Nasa Parkway Houston 77058 USA end center begin center Abstract end center The linear energy transfer LET of particles in low Earth orbit LEO is extended from sim 0 1 to sim 1000 keV mu m water The best passive dosimeters for the radiation measurement are thermoluminescence dosimeters TLDs or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters OSLDs for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors PNTDs for high LET Radiation quantities fluence absorbed dose dose equivalent and quality factor were measured with the passive dosimeters composed of TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs for STS-114 mission This paper introduces the operation principles for TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs describes the method to combine the results measured by TLDs OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs and presents the results measured by different dosimeters for different LET band and that combined for all LET

  5. Optical measurements of plastic (polyimide) hollow waveguides for IR radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Nathan I.; Inberg, Alexandra; Oksman, Mark; Ben-David, M.

    1997-12-01

    Hollow waveguides for infrared radiation are suitable for high power radiation and large interval of wavelengths. This has enabled to begin its preparation for several practical applications in medicine which are already investigated. One of the types of these waveguides is made from plastic (teflon) tubes and several papers were published in this field. Although the Teflon waveguides have several important advantages (high flexibility and biological suitability) for application in medicine, there are also difficulties in achieving low attenuation (low radiation losses), of the transmitted radiation, which is limiting their applications. One of the main reasons of the large losses of the transmitted radiation through these waveguides is the relative large roughness of the internal wall of the tubes which produce scattering of the incident radiation. Several attempts to reduce the roughness have given only a limited improvement since the internal wall of the Teflon tube is not easy to polish (the needed average roughness is less than 10 nm). In previous papers we have reported first results obtained in developing a new type of hollow waveguide for infrared made from polyimide which is a type of plastic with high melting temperature and which can be prepared with very flat surface roughness, less than 10 nm. In this paper we shall present new results of a study made for developing this type of plastic hollow waveguide. The attenuation was reduced to values less than 1 dB. Data about the process of etching for decreasing the roughness of the internal wall of polyimide tube and new methods of deposition of high adhesive and minimal roughness of the Ag and AgI guiding layers will be presented. Results of measurements of attenuation as a function of bending radius, coupled power and time of transmitted radiation will be shown and discussed. New type of dependence of attenuation on bending due to the mechanical properties of the polyimide tubes will be shown and discussed.

  6. Optical measurements of plastic (polyimide) hollow waveguides for IR radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croitoru, Nathan I.; Inberg, Alexandra; Oksman, Mark; Ben-David, M.

    1998-01-01

    Hollow waveguides for infrared radiation are suitable for high power radiation and large interval of wavelengths. This has enabled to begin its preparation for several practical applications in medicine which are already investigated. One of the types of these waveguides is made from plastic (teflon) tubes and several papers were published in this field. Although the Teflon waveguides have several important advantages (high flexibility and biological suitability) for application in medicine, there are also difficulties in achieving low attenuation (low radiation losses), of the transmitted radiation, which is limiting their applications. One of the main reasons of the large losses of the transmitted radiation through these waveguides is the relative large roughness of the internal wall of the tubes which produce scattering of the incident radiation. Several attempts to reduce the roughness have given only a limited improvement since the internal wall of the Teflon tube is not easy to polish (the needed average roughness is less than 10 nm). In previous papers we have reported first results obtained in developing a new type of hollow waveguide for infrared made from polyimide which is a type of plastic with high melting temperature and which can be prepared with very flat surface roughness, less than 10 nm. In this paper we shall present new results of a study made for developing this type of plastic hollow waveguide. The attenuation was reduced to values less than 1 dB. Data about the process of etching for decreasing the roughness of the internal wall of polyimide tube and new methods of deposition of high adhesive and minimal roughness of the Ag and AgI guiding layers will be presented. Results of measurements of attenuation as a function of bending radius, coupled power and time of transmitted radiation will be shown and discussed. New type of dependence of attenuation on bending due to the mechanical properties of the polyimide tubes will be shown and discussed.

  7. Small business innovation program. Phase 1: Selective thermal radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauer, C. R.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments used ion implantation to modify the radiation and evaporation surface properties of tungsten filaments operating at about 2800 K. Tungsten filaments ion implanted with carbon at low energy showed an ability to dissipate more energy than unimplanted tungsten filaments when operated in parallel prior to filament failure. Infrared reflectance measurements of a blackbody source indicated anomolous behavior, in that the reflectance and emittance of the surface appeared to be a strong function of the wavelength in the vicinity of the period. There appeared to be a concomitant shift toward longer wavelengths in the peak of the reflected blackbody radiance spectrum when a periodically structured reflector was used.

  8. A Comparison of EAST Shock-Tube Radiation Measurements with a New Air Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the recent EAST shock tube radiation measurements (Grinstead et al., AIAA 2008-1244) and the HARA radiation model. The equilibrium and nonequilibrium radiation measurements are studied for conditions relevant to lunar-return shock-layers; specifically shock velocities ranging from 9 to 11 kilometers per second at initial pressures of 0.1 and 0.3 Torr. The simulated shock-tube flow is assumed one-dimensional and is calculated using the LAURA code, while a detailed nonequilibrium radiation prediction is obtained in an uncoupled manner from the HARA code. The measured and predicted intensities are separated into several spectral ranges to isolate significant spectral features, mainly strong atomic line multiplets. The equations and physical data required for the prediction of these strong atomic lines are reviewed and their uncertainties identified. The 700-1020 nm wavelength range, which accounts for roughly 30% of the radiative flux to a peak-heating lunar return shock-layer, is studied in detail and the measurements and predictions are shown to agree within 15% in equilibrium. The plus or minus 1.5% uncertainty on the measured shock velocity is shown to cause up to a plus or minus 30% difference in the predicted radiation. This band of predictions contains the measured values in almost all cases. For the highly nonequilibrium 0.1 Torr cases, the nonequilibrium radiation peaks are under-predicted by about half. This under-prediction is considered acceptable when compared to the order-of-magnitude over-prediction obtained using a Boltzmann population of electronic states. The reasonable comparison in the nonequilibrium regions provides validation for both the non-Boltzmann modeling in HARA and the thermochemical nonequilibrium modeling in LAURA. The N2 (+)(1-) and N2(2+) molecular band systems are studied in the 290 480 nm wavelength range for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The non-Boltzmann rate models for these

  9. Research program with no ''measurement problem''

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  10. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  11. RadICalc. A program for estimating radiation intensity of radionuclide mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, John W.; Dion, Michael P.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Farmer, Orville T.; Liezers, Martin

    2014-09-24

    RadICalc is a cross-platform program designed to calculate the intensity of radiation released by the decay of arbitrary isotopic mixtures. It was developed to address the need for a program that could calculate the composition, activity, and measurable radiation of a sample over time without significant effort from end-users. RadICalc uses Bateman's solutions for radioactive decay to determine activity over time. Radiation intensities are subsequently calculated using a database containing information about alpha particles, beta electrons, gamma- rays, conversion and Auger electrons, and X-rays. The user interface accepts input for isotopic mixture, initial number of atoms, and time passed since sample composition was known. Results are plotted graphically, and there is a search interface provided to and isotopes of interest. RadICalc can determine activity and radiation expected at specific masses with user-defined molecules in addition to atomic species; the latter is useful in mass based isotope separations for radiometric counting applications, a novel method under development at PNNL.

  12. Measuring Radiation Damage from Heavy Energetic Ions in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, M., PI-MSU; Ronningen, R., PI-MSU; Ahle, L., PI-LLNL; Gabriel, T., Scientific Investigation and Development; Mansur, L., PI-ORNL; Leonard, K., ORNL; Mokhov, N., FNAL; Niita, K., RIST, Japan

    2009-02-21

    An intense beam of 122 MeV/u (9.3 GeV) 76Ge ions was stopped in aluminum samples at the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL, MSU. Attempts were made at ORNL to measure changes in material properties by measuring changes in electrical resistivity and microhardness, and by transmission electron microscopy characterization, for defect density caused by radiation damage, as a function of depth and integrated ion flux. These measurements are relevant for estimating damage to components at a rare isotope beam facility.

  13. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  14. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  15. Using a simple apparatus to measure direct and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation at remote locations.

    PubMed

    Cruse, Michael J; Kucharik, Christopher J; Norman, John M

    2015-01-01

    Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) drives carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal) of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the potential to support

  16. Using a Simple Apparatus to Measure Direct and Diffuse Photosynthetically Active Radiation at Remote Locations

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Michael J.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Norman, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant canopy interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) drives carbon dioxide (CO2), water and energy cycling in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Quantifying intercepted PAR requires accurate measurements of total incident PAR above canopies and direct beam and diffuse PAR components. While some regional data sets include these data, e.g. from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites, they are not often applicable to local research sites because of the variable nature (spatial and temporal) of environmental variables that influence incoming PAR. Currently available instrumentation that measures diffuse and direct beam radiation separately can be cost prohibitive and require frequent adjustments. Alternatively, generalized empirical relationships that relate atmospheric variables and radiation components can be used but require assumptions that increase the potential for error. Our goal here was to construct and test a cheaper, highly portable instrument alternative that could be used at remote field sites to measure total, diffuse and direct beam PAR for extended time periods without supervision. The apparatus tested here uses a fabricated, solar powered rotating shadowband and other commercially available parts to collect continuous hourly PAR data. Measurements of total incident PAR had nearly a one-to-one relationship with total incident radiation measurements taken at the same research site by an unobstructed point quantum sensor. Additionally, measurements of diffuse PAR compared favorably with modeled estimates from previously published data, but displayed significant differences that were attributed to the important influence of rapidly changing local environmental conditions. The cost of the system is about 50% less than comparable commercially available systems that require periodic, but not continual adjustments. Overall, the data produced using this apparatus indicates that this instrumentation has the potential to support

  17. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  18. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  19. A Novel Microsensor for Measuring Angular Distribution of Radiative Intensity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Pilorz, Stuart; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the design, construction and characterization of a novel type of light probe for measuring the angular radiance distribution of light fields. The differential acceptance angle (DAA) probe can resolve the directionality of a light field in environments with steep light gradients, such as microbial mats, without the need to remove, reorient, and reinsert the probe, a clear advantage over prior techniques. The probe consists of an inner irradiance sensor inside a concentric, moveable light-absorbing sheath. The radiative intensity in a specific zenith direction can be calculated by comparing the irradiance onto the sensor at different acceptance angles. We used this probe to measure the angular radiance distribution of two sample light fields, and observed good agreement with a conventional radiance probe. The DAA probe will aid researchers in understanding light transfer physics in dense microbial communities and expedite validation of numerical radiative transfer models for these environments. PMID:25763775

  20. Organic Aerosol Composition Measurements at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parworth, C. L.; Zhang, Q.; Fast, J. D.; Shippert, T.; Sivaraman, C.; Mei, F.; Tilp, A.

    2012-12-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large portion of aerosols in the atmosphere. A better understanding of the chemical composition of OA is needed to quantify the effects that aerosols have on radiation and clouds. OA is composed of thousands of species making its chemical and physical properties difficult to characterize. The complex composition of OA can be decomposed into several factors representative of distinct sources and evolution processes through the application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) on ambient OA data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS). Previous studies have shown that the OA factors thus determined can be particularly useful for closure studies on aerosol optical and cloud condensation properties. Three units of Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) were recently added to two long-term measurement sites (Tropical Western Pacific and Southern Great Plains) and a mobile facility supported by the DOE ARM program. An ACSM is a smaller version of an AMS that provides long term, continuous measurements of aerosols and requires low maintenance. In this presentation, we will report the development of methods that take measurements of total organic matter and mass spectral information from the ACSM and derive OA factors. We will describe how the OA factors are derived, the quality assurance (QA) procedures, and comparisons of side-by-side measurements from AMS and ACSM instruments. The code generated in this analysis will be run within the Data Management Facility of ARM and the new data product called the Organic Aerosol Composition (Oacomp) value-added product will be added to the ARM archive. We will also present data from over a year-long period from the SGP site, along with an analysis that explains the seasonal and multi-day variations in inorganic and organic aerosol components.

  1. Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, F.; Stupakov, G.V.; Zolotorev, M.S.; Filippetto, D.; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

    2009-12-09

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  2. Absolute bunch length measurements by incoherent radiation fluctuation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Stupakov, Gennady; Zolotorev, Max; Filippetto, Daniele; Jagerhofer, Lukas

    2008-09-29

    By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

  3. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  4. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Radolić, V; Lisjak, I; Vekić, B; Poje, M; Planinić, J

    2008-02-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 microSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 microSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 microSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4microSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 microSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data. PMID:17935999

  5. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge exchange recombination radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D. E.

    1983-02-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He+ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  6. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge-exchange recombination radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

    1982-11-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  7. Plasma ion temperature measurements via charge exchange recombination radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fonck, R.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Post, D.E.

    1983-02-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved plasma ion temperatures can be determined by measuring the Doppler-broadened line profiles of transitions excited by charge-exchange recombination reactions between fast hydrogen atoms and fully ionized low-Z ions. Plasma rotation velocity profiles can also be obtained. A sample result from the PDX tokamak using He/sup +/ radiation is presented, and expected line intensities for model cases for PDX and TFTR are calculated.

  8. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  9. 48 CFR 519.7005 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 519.7005 Section 519.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7005 Measurement of...

  10. 48 CFR 819.7114 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 819.7114 Section 819.7114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7114 Measurement of...

  11. 48 CFR 819.7114 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 819.7114 Section 819.7114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7114 Measurement of...

  12. 48 CFR 819.7114 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 819.7114 Section 819.7114 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7114 Measurement of...

  13. European measurements of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H G; O'Sullivan, D; Beck, P; Bartlett, D

    2000-11-01

    For more than 5 y, the European Commission has supported research into scientific and technical aspects of cosmic-ray dosimetry at flight altitudes in civil radiation. This has been in response to legislation to regard exposure of aircraft crew as occupational, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60. The response to increased public interest and concern, and in anticipation of European and national current work, within a total of three multi-national, multi-partner research contracts, is based on a comprehensive approach including measurements with dosimetric and spectrometric instruments during flights, at high-mountain altitudes, and in a high-energy radiation reference field at CERN, as well as cosmic-ray transport calculations. The work involves scientists in the fields of neutron physics, cosmic-ray physics, and general dosimetry. A detailed set of measurements has been obtained by employing a wide range of detectors on several routes, both on subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Many of the measurements were made simultaneously by several instruments allowing the intercomparison of results. This paper presents a brief overview of results obtained. It demonstrates that the knowledge about radiation fields and on exposure data has been substantially consolidated and that the available data provide an adequate basis for dose assessments of aircraft crew, which will be legally required in the European Union after 13 May 2000.

  14. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  15. Theory and measurement of emittance properties for radiation thermometry applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some basic concepts of radiation physics are briefly reviewed to provide an introduction to the radiative properties - including emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance - their definitions, interrelations, theory and methods of measurement. Analyzed data showing typical characteristics of temperature and wavelength dependence, surface effects and environmental influences on the radiation properties of selected classes of materials are presented. Emphasis is placed on those emittance properties of particular interest to conventional radiation thermometry applications, but sufficient generality on all properties is presented to be useful for new or unusual techniques where a more detailed understanding of the behavior of materials is desirable. Data sources are identified to assist the reader in locating property information. It is the intention of the paper to give the reader a background to become more fully aware of the pitfalls, limitations, but of course, advantages in the use of data from the literature. The paper is written in the form of an abbreviated review fully documenting the more important topics and concepts which can only be treated briefly.

  16. UV index forecasts and measurements of health-effective radiation.

    PubMed

    Feister, Uwe; Laschewski, Gudrun; Grewe, Rolf-Dieter

    2011-01-10

    While erythemal irradiance as a potentially damaging effect to the skin has been extensively studied and short-term forecasts have been issued to the public to reduce detrimental immediate and long-term effects such as sunburn and skin cancer by overexposure, beneficial effects to human health such as vitamin D(3) production by UV radiation and melatonin suppression by blue visible light have attained more and more attention, though both of them have not become part of forecasting yet. Using 4years of solar radiation data measured at the mid-latitude site Lindenberg (52°N), and forecast daily maximum UV index values, an overall good correspondence has been found. The data base of solar UV radiation and illuminance has also been used to analyze effects of clouds and aerosols on the effective irradiance. Optically thick clouds can strongly modify the ratios between erythemal and vitamin D(3) effective irradiance such that direct radiative transfer modeling of the latter in future UV forecasts should be preferably used. If parameterizations of vitamin D(3) effective irradiance from erythemal irradiance are used instead, the optical cloud depth would have to be taken into account to avoid an overestimation of vitamin D(3) with parameterizations neglecting cloud optical depth. Particular emphasis for the beneficial effects has been laid in our study on low exposure. Daily doses of solar irradiation for both vitamin D(3) and melatonin suppression do not reach minimum threshold doses even with clear sky and unobstructed horizon during the winter months.

  17. Measuring solar UV radiation with EBT radiochromic film.

    PubMed

    Butson, Ethan T; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin J

    2010-10-21

    Ultraviolet radiation dosimetry has been performed with the use of a radiochromic film dosimeter called Gafchromic EBT for solar radiation exposure. The film changes from a clear colour to blue colour when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and results have shown that the colour change is reproducible within ±10% at 5 kJ m(-2) UV exposure under various conditions of solar radiation. Parameters tested included changes in season (summer versus winter exposure), time of day, as well as sky conditions such as cloudy skies versus clear skies. As the radiochromic films' permanent colour change occurs in the visible wavelengths the film can be analysed with a desktop scanner with the most sensitive channel for analysis being the red component of the signal. Results showed that an exposure of 5 kJ m(-2) (approximately 1 h exposure in full sun during summer) produced an approximate 0.28 change in the net OD when analysed in reflection mode on the desktop scanner which is significant darkening. The main advantages of this film type, and thus the new EBT2 film which has replaced EBT for measurement of UV exposure, is the visible colour change and thus easy analysis using a desktop scanner, its uniformity in response and its robust physical strength for use in outside exposure situations. PMID:20858922

  18. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of Kapton.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Eric F.; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Stringer, Thomas Arthur

    2010-10-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Kapton (polyimide) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil samples were irradiated with a 0.5 {mu}s pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E10 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 6E-17 and 2E-16 mhos/m per rad/s, depending on the dose rate and the pulse width.

  19. [Analyses of spectral emissivity in radiation temperature measurement].

    PubMed

    Fu, Tai-Ran; Cheng, Xiao-Fang; Zhong, Mao-Hua; Yang, Zang-Jian

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of the spectral emissivity of actual surfaces is the key point in the research and applications of radiation temperature measurement, resulting in the difficulty in the achievement of the temperature measurement. In the present paper, based on the discussions of the Taylor expansion, the non-dimension wavelength and the exponent, the authors describe the mathematical expression of the spectral emissivity of actual surfaces, and establish the general spectral emissivity function. Through the fitting of experimental data of the spectral emissivities of different metals at different temperatures, the applicability of the spectral emissivity function is verified which especially becomes the fundamental in the research of primary spectrum pyrometry.

  20. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity in Teflon (PTFE).

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, E.

    2013-05-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity (RIC) in thin samples of Teflon (PTFE) at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Three mil (76.2 microns) samples were irradiated with a 0.5 %CE%BCs pulse of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E9 to 1E11 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 2 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Details of the experimental apparatus and analysis are reported in this report on prompt RIC in Teflon.

  1. Analysis of radiation measurement data of the BUSS cask

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) is a Type-B packaging developed for shipping nonfissile, special-form radioactive materials to facilities such as sewage, food, and medical-product irradiators. The primary purpose of the BUSS cask is to provide shielding and confinement, as well as impact, puncture, and thermal protection for its certified special-form contents under both normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. A BUSS cask that contained 16 CsCl capsules (2.723 {times} 10{sup 4} TBq total activity) was recently subjected to radiation survey measurements at a Westinghouse Hanford facility, which provided data that could be used to validate computer codes. Two shielding analysis codes, MICROSHIELD (User`s Manual 1988) and SAS4 (Tan 1993), that are used at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the safety of packaging of radioactive materials during transportation, have been selected for analysis of radiation data obtained from the BUSS cask. MICROSHIELD, which performs only gamma radiation shielding calculation, is based on a point-kernel model with idealized geometry, whereas SAS4 is a control module in the SCALE code system (1995) that can perform three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding calculation for photons and neutrons, with built-in procedures for cross-section data processing and automated variance reduction. The two codes differ in how they model the details of the physics of gamma photon attenuation in materials, and this difference is reflected in the associated engineering cost of the analysis. One purpose of the analysis presented in this paper, therefore, is to examine the effects of the major modeling assumptions in the two codes on calculated dose rates, and to use the measured dose rates for comparison. The focus in this paper is on analysis of radiation dose rates measured on the general body of the cask and away from penetrations.

  2. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Barry S.; Held, Kathryn D.; Rockwell, Sara; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Zeman, Elaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this survey was to obtain detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the U.S. and Canada. Methods and Materials In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the U.S. and Canada. Results The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the ASTRO Radiation & Cancer Biology Practice Exam used by residents and educators. Consoination and Study Guides, were widely lidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course, were viewed as unlikely to be employed by most programs. Conclusions A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses, but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology. PMID:19733012

  3. Solar Radiation and Cloud Radiative Forcing in the Pacific Warm Pool Estimated Using TOGA COARE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zhao, Wenzhong

    1999-01-01

    The energy budget of the tropical western Pacific (TWP) is particularly important because this is one of the most energetic convection regions on the Earth. Nearly half of the solar radiation incident at the top of atmosphere is absorbed at the surface and only about 22% absorbed in the atmosphere. A large portion of the excess heat absorbed at the surface is transferred to the atmosphere through evaporation, which provides energy and water for convection and precipitation. The western equatorial Pacific is characterized by the highest sea surface temperature (SST) and heaviest rainfall in the world ocean. A small variation of SST associated with the eastward shift of the warm pool during El-Nino/Souther Oscillation changes the atmospheric circulation pattern and affects the global climate. In a study of the TWP surface heat and momentum fluxes during the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) Intensive observing period (IOP) from November 1992 to February have found that the solar radiation is the most important component of the surface energy budget, which undergoes significant temporal and spatial variation. The variations are influenced by the two 40-50 days Madden Julian Oscillations (MJOs) which propagated eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Central Pacific during the IOP. The TWP surface solar radiation during the COARE IOP was investigated by a number of studies. In addition, the effects of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere in the TWP was studied using energy budget analysis. In this study, we present some results of the TWP surface solar shortwave or SW radiation budget and the effect of clouds on the atmospheric solar heating using the surface radiation measurements and Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 4 radiance measurements during COARE IOP.

  4. Twenty Years of Radiation Measurements in Low-Earth Orbit - What Have We Learned Space Radiation Environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Michael J.; Weyland, Mark D.; Johnson, A. S.; Semones, E.

    2001-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle program has made possible space radiation environment measurements spanning a wide range of altitudes and orbital inclinations over multiple solar cycles. These measurements range from routine integral dose measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters to particle energy spectra measurements made with a charged particle telescope. This paper will review the new understanding about the space radiation environment gained from this diverse data set. Major findings from these measurements include: estimations of the westward drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) of 0.28-0.49/y; evidence for a northward component to the SAA drift of 0.08-0.12/y; observation of the formation and decay of the pseudo-stable additional radiation belt following the Mar 1991 SPE and geomagnetic storm with an estimated decay e-folding time of 9-10 months; observation of a local geomagnetic east-west trapped proton exposure anisotropy with an estimated magnitude of 1.6-3.3; demonstration that the trapped proton exposure in low-Earth orbit (LEO) can be reasonably modeled as a power law function of atmospheric density in the SAA region, with best correlations obtained when the exospheric temperature saturates at 938-975 K; the actual solar cycle modulation of trapped proton exposure in LEO is less than predicted by the AP8 model; and the testing and validation of GCR flux models, radiation transport codes, and dynamic geomagnetic cutoff models. Long-term, time-resolved proportional counter measurements made aboard the Mir during the same period provides further demonstration of the solar cycle modulation of the trapped protons at low altitudes - the observed modulation is also well described as power law function of atmospheric density. These data and findings have helped to improve the overall accuracy of pre-mission crew exposure projections using various semi-empirical space environment models, radiation transport codes, and spacecraft radiation

  5. Investigation of scene identification algorithms for radiation budget measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekmann, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    The computation of Earth radiation budget from satellite measurements requires the identification of the scene in order to select spectral factors and bidirectional models. A scene identification procedure is developed for AVHRR SW and LW data by using two radiative transfer models. These AVHRR GAC pixels are then attached to corresponding ERBE pixels and the results are sorted into scene identification probability matrices. These scene intercomparisons show that there generally is a higher tendency for underestimation of cloudiness over ocean at high cloud amounts, e.g., mostly cloudy instead of overcast, partly cloudy instead of mostly cloudy, for the ERBE relative to the AVHRR results. Reasons for this are explained. Preliminary estimates of the errors of exitances due to scene misidentification demonstrates the high dependency on the probability matrices. While the longwave error can generally be neglected the shortwave deviations have reached maximum values of more than 12% of the respective exitances.

  6. Radiation measuring apparatus employing variable rate pulse sampling control

    SciTech Connect

    Kakegawa, M.; Kumano, N.; Nohara, N.; Tanaka, E.; Tomitani, T.

    1980-01-29

    A scintillation type radiation-measuring apparatus comprising a radiation-detecting scintillator is described. A scintillation given off from the scintillator is converted into current by a photomultiplier tube. A current amplifier generates a plurality of pulses each proportional to the intensity of said converted current. The pulses have the width clipped by a clipped pulse generating circuit. The clipped form of the pulses is delayed by a delay circuit and integrated by an integrator; the wave height value of the outputs from the integrator is sampled by a sampling circuit to provide a sampled output. Means are provided to supply instructions to start and reset the operation of the integrator and to commence the operation of the sampling circuit in accordance with the interval between successively detected current pulses.

  7. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  10. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  11. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  12. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014 H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System)0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are ~3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  13. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  14. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. Steve; Badhwar, Gautam D.; Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.; Konradi, Andrei; Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  15. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  16. A computer program to calculate radiating viscous stagnation streamline flow with strong blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Garrett, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program (program LEE) has been developed to calculate the fully coupled solution of the radiating viscous stagnation streamline flow with strong blowing. The report describes the digital computer program, including FORTRAN IV listing, flow charts, instructions for the user, and a test case with input and output. Program LEE is available through COSMIC.

  17. Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

    2011-01-08

    Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

  18. Comparison Between Lidar and Nephelometer Measurements of Aerosol Hygroscopicity at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlow, M.; Feingold, G.; Jefferson, A.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J. A.; Wang, J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol hygroscopicity has a significant effect on radiative properties of aerosols. Here a lidar method, applicable to cloud-capped, well-mixed atmospheric boundary layers, is employed to determine the hygroscopic growth factor f(RH) under unperturbed, ambient atmospheric conditions. The data used for the analysis were collected under a wide range of atmospheric aerosol levels during both routine measurement periods and during the intensive operations period (IOP) in May 2003 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility in Oklahoma, USA, as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. There is a good correlation (approx. 0.7) between a lidar-derived growth factor (measured over the range 85% RH to 96% RH) with a nephelometer-derived growth factor measured over the RH range 40% to 85%. For these RH ranges, the slope of the lidar-derived growth factor is much steeper than that of the nephelometer-derived growth factor, reflecting the rapid increase in particle size with increasing RH. The results are corroborated by aerosol model calculations of lidar and nephelometer equivalent f(RH) based on in situ aerosol size and composition measurements during the IOP. It is suggested that the lidar method can provide useful measurements of the dependence of aerosol optical properties on relative humidity, and under conditions closer to saturation than can currently be achieved with humidified nephelometers.

  19. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffroni, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yeh, M.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including -ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  20. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  1. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Battistoni, G.; Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Pandola, L.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; and others

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  2. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including -ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  3. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  4. How to obtain traceability on optical radiation measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamoros García, Carlos H.

    2006-02-01

    Traceability to national standards provides confidence in measurements results, granting a guaranty when carrying out governmental rules and when demonstrating conformity with quality requirements such as ISO 9000 or ISO/IEC 17025 (and the Mexican equivalent standards). The appropriate traceability contributes with confidence of the quality of products or services. This paper presents different ways to obtain traceability in Mexico for the optical radiation measurements, mentioning some applications, and highlighting the necessity of having traceability to the appropriate units of the SI. Additionally it present the national standards maintained by Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), the national metrology institute in Mexico, that give the technical support to Mexican measurements in this field and the international recognition that the personal of the Optics and Radiometry Division had gained in 10 years of development.

  5. A computer program for calculation of spectral radiative properties of gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer code is described whereby calculations of radiative properties of gas mixtures may be made. The program is arranged so that distinct radiative processes for each species are computed in individual subroutines. Provision is made for calculating radiative properties in nonequilibrium situations - separate rotational, vibrational, and electronic temperatures may be used. These features should provide a flexibility not currently available in such programs. The basic equations and the program listing in FORTRAN 4 language are presented. Sample calculations are given for high temperature air and carbon dioxide and are compared to calculations made with previously developed programs.

  6. Sensor intercomparison of distributed surface radiation measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Baocheng; Wen, Jianguang; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Xiao, Qing; Bai, Junhua; Peng, Jingjing; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhigang; Wu, Xiaodan; Cai, Erli; Zhang, Jialin; Chang, Chongyan

    2015-12-01

    The Wireless Sensor Networks of Coarse-resolution Pixel Parameters (CPP-WSN) was established to monitor the heterogeneity of coarse spatial resolution pixel, with consideration of different categories of land surface parameters in Huailai, Hebei province, China (40.349°N, 115.785°E). The observation network of radiation parameters (RadNet) in CPP-WSN was developed for multi-band radiation measurement and consisted of 6 nodes covering 2km*2km area to capture its heterogeneity. Each node employed four sensors to observe the five radiation parameters. The number and location of nodes in RadNet were determined through the representativeness-based sampling method. Thus, the RadNet is a distributed observation system with nodes work synchronously and measurements used together. The intercomparison experiment for RadNet is necessary and was conducted in Huailai Remote Sensing Station from 5th Aug to 10th Aug in 2012. Time series observations from various sensors were collected and analyzed. The maximum relative differences among sensors of UVR, SWR, LWR, PAR, and LST are 4.83%, 5.3%, 3.71%, 11%, and 0.54%, respectively. Sensor/parameter differences indeed exist and are considerable large for PAR, SWR, UVR, and LWR, which cannot be ignored. The linear normalization and quadratic polynomial normalization perform similar for CUV5/UVR, PQS1/PAR, CNR4/SWR, and SI-111/LST. As for CNR4/LWR, quadratic polynomial normalization show higher accuracy than linear normalization, especially in node2, node4, and node5. Thus, the LWR measured by CNR4 is proved to be nonlinear, and should be normalized with quadratic polynomial coefficients for higher precision.

  7. Intercomparison of Shortwave Radiative Transfer Codes and Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Crisp, David; Schwartz, Stephen E.; Anderson, Gail; Berk, A.; Bonnel, B.; Boucher, Olivier; Chang, Fu-Lung; Chou, Ming-Dah; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Dubuisson, P.; Fomin, Boris; Fouquart, Y.; Freidenreich, S.; Gautier, Catherine; Kato, Seiji; Laszlo, Istvan; Li, Zhanqing; Mather, Jim H.; Plana-Fattori, Artemio; Ramaswamy, V.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Shiren, Y.; Trishchenko, A.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2005-06-03

    Computation of components of shortwave (SW) or solar irradiance in the surface-atmospheric system forms the basis of intercomparison between 16 radiative transfer models of varying spectral resolution ranging from line-by-line models to broadband and general circulation models. In order of increasing complexity the components are: direct solar irradiance at the surface, diffuse irradiance at the surface, diffuse upward flux at the surface, and diffuse upward flux at the top of the atmosphere. These components allow computation of the atmospheric absorptance. Four cases are considered from pure molecular atmospheres to atmospheres with aerosols and atmosphere with a simple uniform cloud. The molecular and aerosol cases allow comparison of aerosol forcing calculation among models. A cloud-free case with measured atmospheric and aerosol properties and measured shortwave radiation components provides an absolute basis for evaluating the models. For the aerosol-free and cloud-free dry atmospheres, models agree to within 1% (root mean square deviation as a percentage of mean) in broadband direct solar irradiance at surface; the agreement is relatively poor at 5% for a humid atmosphere. A comparison of atmospheric absorptance, computed from components of SW radiation, shows that agreement among models is understandably much worse at 3% and 10% for dry and humid atmospheres, respectively. Inclusion of aerosols generally makes the agreement among models worse than when no aerosols are present, with some exceptions. Modeled diffuse surface irradiance is higher than measurements for all models for the same model inputs. Inclusion of an optically thick low-cloud in a tropical atmosphere, a stringent test for multiple scattering calculations, produces, in general, better agreement among models for a low solar zenith angle (SZA = 30?) than for a high SZA (75?). All models show about a 30% increase in broadband absorptance for 30? SZA relative to the clear-sky case and almost no

  8. The next step in Earth radiation budget measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiscombe, Warren; Chiu, Christine

    2013-05-01

    Space-based Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) measurements are ready to take their next major evolutionary step beyond the ERBE three-satellite constellation of the 1980s. This step would complete the ERBE vision by using not just three but dozens of satellites, and it would complete the GERB vision by providing global diurnal cycle. Such a large constellation would measure true diurnal cycle, without long chains of assumptions and extrapolations, allowing ERB to take its place alongside the other synoptic variables that are assimilated in weather and climate models, and bringing ERB back to a forefront research area. This constellation approach would make it possible to study ERB for rapidly evolving large-scale phenomena. It would also allow, for the first time, the measurement of the true Earth Radiation Imbalance, a crucial quantity, much in the news of late, for testing climate models and for predicting the future course of global warming. Among many side benefits, the greatest would be that all interested nations could participate. Such nations would merely need to meet the instrument functional requirements and find rides to space, and the system could thus grow with time, allowing continuously improved sampling, rapid deployment of new technologies with minimal damage to data continuity, and economies of scale. This is really the perfect ERB system for a budget-constrained decade.

  9. Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing using Satellite and Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Christopher, S. A.

    2007-12-01

    Over the industrial period, aerosols have increased due to human activities and their effects on climate are the largest source of uncertainty in the current IPCC estimates of global climate forcing due to human activities. Inhomogeneous distribution of aerosols in space and time poses a challenge in their characterization and requires global measurements to assess their effects and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this paper we use global measurements from both satellite and ground based observations for one year time period to estimate the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and discuss the associated uncertainties. For this, aerosol properties (optical depth) derived from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), a federation of ground-based remote sensing instruments, are used in this paper in conjunction with measurements of the TOA shortwave flux from CERES instrument (onboard Terra satellite). High spectral and spatial resolution observations from Imager (MODIS) will be used to identify clear sky conditions within CERES foot print and GOCART results will also be used for separating aerosol types. Global aerosol forcing and corresponding radiative forcing efficiencies will be presented as a function of major aerosol types [including anthropogenic (sulfate, soot, black carbon) and natural (dust) aerosols], region and season. This study should serve as a useful constraint for both numerical modeling simulations and satellite based estimates of SWARF.

  10. Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing Using Satellite and Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patadia, F.; Christopher, S. A.

    2008-05-01

    Over the industrial period, aerosols have increased due to human activities and their effects on climate are the largest source of uncertainty in the current IPCC estimates of global climate forcing due to human activities. Inhomogeneous distribution of aerosols in space and time poses a challenge in characterizing their properties and requires global measurements to assess their effects and reduce the associated uncertainties. In this paper we use global measurements from both satellite and ground based observations for one year time period to estimate the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and discuss the associated uncertainties. For this, aerosol properties (optical depth) derived from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET), a federation of ground-based remote sensing instruments, are used in this paper in conjunction with measurements of the TOA shortwave flux from CERES instrument (onboard Terra satellite). High spectral and spatial resolution observations from Imager (MODIS) is used to identify clear sky conditions within CERES foot print and GOCART results will also be used for separating aerosol types. Global aerosol forcing and corresponding radiative forcing efficiencies will be presented as a function of major aerosol types [including anthropogenic (sulfate, soot, black carbon) and natural (dust) aerosols], region and season. This study should serve as a useful constraint for both numerical modeling simulations and satellite based estimates of SWARF.

  11. ACCURATE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN A NATURALLY-ASPIRATED RADIATION SHIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2009-09-09

    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  12. Measurement of solar UV radiation in Antarctica with collagen sheets.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Irie, Shinkichi; Kudoh, Sakae; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Collagen sheets were used in a unique evaluation method to examine skin damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) light of short wavelength during a season of the Antarctic ozone hole. The collagen sheets were exposed outdoors for 25 and 50 d, in the spring when the ozone hole was formed and in the ozone-hole-free autumn. Extracts from the exposed collagen sheets were analyzed for total protein and terminal amino acid concentrations as an index of collagen fragmentation. The results show that the amount of extractable collagen and terminal amino acid concentration in the spring exposure were approximately double and five times higher, respectively, when compared with those in the autumn exposure. During the ozone hole occurrence, the terminal amino acid concentration of the extracted collagen was about five times higher when exposure lasted 50 d from mid-September to the end of October compared to when exposure lasted 25 d from mid-September to early October. This result could be attributed to a limited amount of short-wavelength UV radiation reaching the ground surface as a result of the low height of the sun in September, when the ozone hole occurred. In fact, UV radiation measurements taken at Syowa Station indicate that short-wavelength UV radiation in the range 290-295 nm was not detected until approximately 1-2 months after the beginning of the ozone hole occurrence. PMID:22419356

  13. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  14. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  15. Gamma rays and supernova explosions. [high temperature radiation measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal radiation associated with the explosion of supernovae is investigated. High temperature is required to produce copious gamma radiation of this sort. It appears that type 11 supernovae do not release much of their energy as gamma ray continuum radiation.

  16. A framework for selecting performance measures for opioid treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Luc R; Hoffman, Jeffrey A

    2002-01-01

    As a result of new federal regulations released in early 2001 that move the monitoring and evaluation of opioid treatment programs from a government regulation to an accreditation model, program staff members are now being challenged to develop performance measurement systems that improve care and service. Using measurement selection criteria is the first step in developing a performance measurement system as a component of an overall quality management (QM) strategy. Opioid treatment programs can "leapfrog" the development of such systems by using lessons learned from the healthcare quality industry. This article reviews performance measurement definitions, proposes performance measurement selection criteria, and makes a business case for Internet automation and accessibility. Performance measurement sets that are appropriate for opioid treatment programs are proposed, followed by a discussion on how performance measurement can be used within a comprehensive QM program. It is hoped that through development, adoption, and implementation of such a performance measurement program, treatment for clients and their families will continuously improve.

  17. Measurement of soil moisture using remote sensing multisensor radiation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, W. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical modeling as well as laboratory and field measurement were coupled with analysis of aircraft data obtained from controlled sites in an effort to enhance understanding of the microwave response due to soil moisture so as to specify sensor parameters and develop inversion algorithms. Models to predict the complex dielectric constant were produced which led to the interpretation of the results in terms of a matrix potential rather than simply moisture content. Similar advances were made in the development of coherent and incoherent radiative transfer models and rough surface scattering models.

  18. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-06-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  19. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214...

  2. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Measurement of program success. 1819.7214 Section 1819.7214 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214...

  3. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214 Measurement... the Program results in— (1) An increase in the number and dollar value of contracts and subcontract... agreement; (2) An increase in the number and dollar value of subcontracts awarded to a protégé (or...

  4. 48 CFR 1819.7214 - Measurement of program success.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Mentor-Protégé Program 1819.7214 Measurement... the Program results in— (1) An increase in the number and dollar value of contracts and subcontract... agreement; (2) An increase in the number and dollar value of subcontracts awarded to a protégé (or...

  5. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  6. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  7. 7 CFR 1484.72 - How is program effectiveness measured?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Reporting, Evaluation, and Compliance § 1484.72 How is program effectiveness measured... program. Evaluation of the Cooperator program's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by each... activity results. (b) Evaluation is an integral element of program planning and implementation,...

  8. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D.

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  9. Radiative properties measurements of photoionized plasmas on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, Jim; Nagayama, Taisuke; Hansen, Stephanie; Rochau, Greg; Liedahl, Duane; Fontes, Chris; Flaugh, Matt; Koepke, Mark; Lane, Ted; Mancini, Roberto

    2015-11-01

    Physical descriptions of accretion-powered objects such as black holes, x-ray binaries, or AGN are informed through the interpretation of emergent spectra from the photoionized plasmas that surround them. Line formation in photoionized plasmas is dependent on the details of the radiation transport treatment and the so-called Resonant Auger Destruction hypothesis typically required to interpret the relativistically broadened Fe K α emitted from near the black hole event horizon. The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories can produced such photoionized plasmas producing 1.6MJ of x-rays from the z-pinch dynamic hohlraum. The extended suite of diagnostics allows for a detailed characterization of plasmas conditions through absorption spectroscopy. present accurate and high-resolution emergent intensity observed from a photoionized silicon plasma for a discrete set of column densities that will help us evaluate understanding for radiation transport in accretion powered objects. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Level of radiation dose in university hospital non-insured private health screening programs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation exposure resulting from the comprehensive health examinations of selected university hospital programs and to present basic data for research and management strategies on the health effects of medical radiation exposure. Methods Radiation-based diagnostic studies of the comprehensive health examination programs of ten university hospitals in Seoul, Korea, as introduced in their websites, were analyzed. The medical radiation studies of the programs were reviewed by radiologists. Only the effective doses of the basic studies were included in the analysis. The optional studies of the programs were excluded. Results Among the 190 comprehensive health examination programs, 132 programs (69.5%) included computed tomography studies, with an average of 1.4 scans. The average effective dose of radiation by program was 3.62 mSv for an intensive program for specific diseases; 11.12 mSv for an intensive program for cancer; 18.14 mSv for a premium program; and 24.08 mSv for an overnight program. A higher cost of a programs was linked to a higher effective dose (r=0.812). The effective doses of the examination programs for the same purposes differed by as much as 2.1 times by hospital. Inclusion of positron emission tomography–computed tomography was the most critical factor in determining the level of effective dose. Conclusions It was found that radiation exposure dose from comprehensive health exam programs targeted for an asymptomatic, healthy public reached between 3.6 and 24 times the annual dose limit for the general public. Relevant management policies at the national level should be provided to minimize medical radiation exposure. PMID:27032387

  11. Measuring Program Outcomes: Using Retrospective Pretest Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; McGuigan, William M.; Katsev, Aphra R.

    2000-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 307 mothers of firstborn infants participating in a home-visitation, child abuse prevention program in a retrospective pretest methodology. Results shows that when response shift bias was present, the retrospective pretest methodology produced a more legitimate assessment of program outcomes than did the traditional…

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Femtosecond electron beam generation and measurement for laser synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Kenichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Ueda, Toru; Yoshii, Koji; Harano, Hideki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Ogata, Atsushi; Sakai, Fumio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Dewa, Hideki; Kondo, Shuji; Shibata, Yukio; Ishi, Kimihiro; Ikezawa, Mikio

    1998-02-01

    One of the S-band twin linacs (18L linac) of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory of University of Tokyo is modified in order to produce femtosecond electron single bunch for femtosecond X-ray generation via Thomson backward scattering, namely laser synchrotron radiation. Laser photocathode RF gun and chicane-type magnetic pulse compressor are installed at the S-band linac. 10 ps (FWHM) laser pulse generates 5 MeV, 10 ps (FWHM), 1 nC electron single bunch, which is accelerated up to 20 MeV in the S-band accelerating tube and compressed to 200 fs (FWHM) by the chicane. Design study has been performed by using the code of PARMELA and the installation has been finished. For precise and reliable measurement of the compressed pulse length, the comparison of measurement between the femtosecond streak camera and coherent transition radiation interferometry was carried out. Good agreement between them for 1-10 ps (FWHM) pulses was achieved. A new Michelson interferometer for the 200 fs pulse is now under construction.

  14. Cloud cover models derived from satellite radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using daily measurement of day and night infrared and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a TIROS satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four three-month periods, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained for each grid location. The (a,b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a,b) estimates were in the same region in the (a,b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world was thus divided into separate cloud cover types. Using estimates of mean cloud cover for each season, the world was again divided into separate cloud cover types. The process was repeated for standard deviations. Thus for each season, three separate cloud cover models were obtained using the criteria of shape of frequency distribution, mean cloud cover, and variability of cloud cover. The cloud cover statistics were derived from once-a-day, near-local-noon satellite radiation measurements.

  15. Visualization of Radiation Environment on Mars: Assessment with MARIE Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P.; Cucinotta, F.; Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Flanders, J.; Riman, F.; Hu, X.; Pinsky, L.; Lee, K.; Anderson, V.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2003-01-01

    For a given GCR (Galactic Cosmic Ray) environment at Mars, particle flux of protons, alpha particles, and heavy ions, are also needed on the surface of Mars for future human exploration missions. For the past twelve months, the MARJE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 200J Mars Odyssey has been providing the radiation measurements from the Martian orbit. These measurements are well correlated with the HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations during these specific GCR environment conditions are now extended and transported through the CO2 atmosphere onto the Martian surface. These calculated pa11icle flux distributions are presented as a function of the Martian topography making use of the MOLA (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter) data from the MGS (Mars Global Surveyor). Also, particle flux calculations are presented with visualization in the human body from skin depth to the internal organs including the blood-forming organs.

  16. BOREAS HYD-3 Subcanopy Incoming Solar Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set contains solar radiation measurements from several pyranometers (solar radiometers) placed on the snow surface in jack pine (1994) and black spruce and aspen forests (1996) in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). An array of radiometers was used to collect data for three to four consecutive days in each forest type to study the hypothesis that energy transfer and snow water equivalent would vary spatially as a function of canopy closure. The quality of the data is good, because the days were generally clear and the radiometers were checked daily to remove anything that landed on the radiometers. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy incoming solar radiation measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Martian Radiation Environment: Model Calculations and Recent Measurements with "MARIE"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saganti, P. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; zeitlin, C. J.; Cleghorn, T. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Galactic Cosmic Ray spectra in Mars orbit were generated with the recently expanded HZETRN (High Z and Energy Transport) and QMSFRG (Quantum Multiple-Scattering theory of nuclear Fragmentation) model calculations. These model calculations are compared with the first eighteen months of measured data from the MARIE (Martian Radiation Environment Experiment) instrument onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft that is currently in Martian orbit. The dose rates observed by the MARIE instrument are within 10% of the model calculated predictions. Model calculations are compared with the MARIE measurements of dose, dose-equivalent values, along with the available particle flux distribution. Model calculated particle flux includes GCR elemental composition of atomic number, Z = 1-28 and mass number, A = 1-58. Particle flux calculations specific for the current MARIE mapping period are reviewed and presented.

  18. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  19. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-11-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region.

  20. A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of

  1. Space radiation protection: Human support thrust exploration technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space radiation protection are presented. For crew and practical missions, exploration requires effective, low-mass shielding and accurate estimates of space radiation exposure for lunar and Mars habitat shielding, manned space transfer vehicle, and strategies for minimizing exposure during extravehicular activity (EVA) and rover operations.

  2. CRRES combined radiation and release effects satellite program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, B. L. (Compiler); Mccook, M. A. (Compiler); Mccook, M. W. (Compiler); Miller, G. P. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The various regions of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are coupled by flows of charged particle beams and electromagnetic waves. This coupling gives rise to processes that affect both technical and non-technical aspects of life on Earth. The CRRES Program sponsored experiments which were designed to produce controlled and known input to the space environment and the effects were measured with arrays of diagnostic instruments. Large amounts of material were used to modify and perturb the environment in a controlled manner, and response to this was studied. The CRRES and PEGSAT satellites were dual-mission spacecraft with a NASA mission to perform active chemical-release experiments, grouped into categories of tracer, modification, and simulation experiments. Two sounding rocket chemical release campaigns completed the study.

  3. Secondary calibration laboratory for ionizing radiation laboratory accreitation program National Institute of Standards and Technology National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures and requirements for accreditation under the Secondary Calibration Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Program (SCLIR LAP). The requirements for a quality system, proficiency testing and the onsite assessment are discussed. The purpose of the accreditation program is to establish a network of secondary calibration laboratories that can provide calibrations traceable to the primary national standards.

  4. RESULTS OF THE NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY BEAM STUDIES PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,K.A.AHRENS,L.BEUTTENMULLER,R.H.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. The purpose of the NSRL Beam Studies Program is to develop a clear understanding of the beams delivered to the facility, to fully characterize those beams, and to develop new capabilities in the interest of understanding the radiation environment in space. In this report we will describe the first results from this program.

  5. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M.; Troyan, D.

    2006-01-09

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to complete a continuous time series of the vertical profile of water vapor for selected 30-day periods from each of the fixed ARM sites. In order to accomplish this metric, a new technique devised to incorporate radiosonde data, microwave radiometer data and analysis information from numerical weather forecast models has been developed. The product of this analysis, referred to as the merged sounding value-added product, includes vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor concentration and several other important thermodynamic state variables at 1-minute time intervals and 266 vertical levels.

  6. Detailed Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has been gaining recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to characterize the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the MODIS bow-tie effects and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show preliminary results of the MODIS FRP data analysis, including comparisons with airborne measurements.

  7. Simplified calibration for broadband solar ultraviolet radiation measurements.

    PubMed

    Oppenrieder, A; Hoeppe, P; Koepke, P; Reuder, J; Schween, J; Schreder, J

    2003-12-01

    Aspects of different calibration procedures for erythemally weighing broadband radiometers are presented in this study. These instruments are common in projects dealing with ultraviolet radiation effects on humans. Many erythemally weighing broadband radiometers are still operated using a single calibration factor (cf) that is provided with the instrument. The individual characteristics of every instrument are strongly dependent on the total ozone amount and the solar elevation. Therefore, a calibration procedure also has to take into account the ozone concentrations and the solar elevation to compensate for the effects of the individual characteristics and to provide comparable measurements. Given the variation of the ozone concentrations and the solar elevation, an individual cf has to be calculated for every measurement. Using a simplified version of the calibration procedure, which is presented in this study, can lessen this effort. Taking into account the relevant meteorological conditions for a measuring site, a single cf is calculated to compensate the individual characteristics of the instruments and therefore deliver comparable measurements with less effort. PMID:14743870

  8. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  9. Space radiation measurements on-board ISS--the DOSMAP experiment.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Benton, E; Burmeister, S; Dachev, Ts; Deme, S; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Olko, P

    2005-01-01

    The experiment 'Dosimetric Mapping' conducted as part of the science program of NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) between March and August 2001 was designed to measure integrated total absorbed doses (ionising radiation and neutrons), heavy ion fluxes and its energy, mass and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, time-dependent count rates of charged particles and their corresponding dose rates at different locations inside the US Lab at the International Space Station. Owing to the variety of particles and energies, a dosimetry package consisting of thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) chips and nuclear track detectors with and without converters (NTDPs), a silicon dosimetry telescope (DOSTEL), four mobile silicon detector units (MDUs) and a TLD reader unit (PILLE) with 12 TLD bulbs as dosemeters was used. Dose rates of the ionising part of the radiation field measured with TLD bulbs applying the PILLE readout system at different locations varied between 153 and 231 microGy d(-1). The dose rate received by the active devices fits excellent to the TLD measurements and is significantly lower compared with measurements for the Shuttle (STS) to MIR missions. The comparison of the absorbed doses from passive and active devices showed an agreement within +/- 10%. The DOSTEL measurements in the HRF location yielded a mean dose equivalent rate of 535 microSv d(-1). DOSTEL measurements were also obtained during the Solar Particle Event on 15 April 2001. PMID:16604663

  10. NOAA-ERL solar ultraviolet radiation and climate research project: Program description and progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, R. F.; Baker-Blocker, A.; Bouwer, S. D.; Lean, J.

    1982-09-01

    Research of the temporal variations of solar ultraviolet radiation is reviewed. Progress on a collaborative program to analyze Dr. D. F. Heath's NIMBUS-7 SBUV measurements of the solar UV spectral irradiance is summarized. Significant progress has been made on determining the wavelength and temporal characteristics of UV variations caused by solar active region evolution (birth, growth, peak, decay and occasionally rejuvenation) and by solar rotation (area foreshortening, center-to-limb darkening and limb occulation). Work on trying to corroborate an observed semiannual UV variation has commenced. Extensive progress on modeling solar UV variations has been achieved. Support for improved rocket-flight measurements of solar UV spectral irradiance is discussed. The importance of obtaining accurate recalibration is stressed.

  11. Radiation shielding materials characterization in the MoMa-Count program and further evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobascio, Cesare

    In the frame of the space research programme MoMa (From Molecules to Man) -Count (Coun-termeasures), funded by the Italian Space Agency, multi-functional protections for human space exploration have been investigated, paying particular attention to flexible materials, selected also for their excellent structural, thermal and ballistic performances. Flexible materials such as Kevlar R are qualified for space application, but have poorly known space radiation prop-erties, with consequent uncertainties about their shielding efficiency against the radiation en-vironment. The necessary evaluation of their shielding efficiency has been chiefly based on dedicated ground experiments in accelerators, supplemented by Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport in the materials or multi-layers. In addition, flight experiments have been performed in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the re-entry capsule Foton, to measure the shielding behaviour in the actual operating environment of space, via dedicated detectors and dosimeters. This paper aims at presenting the results and lessons learned accrued within the MoMa-Count program, as well as the future actions planned for improving radiation shielding in long duration human exploration missions.

  12. Outreach and Program Evaluation: Some Measurement Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The experience of 10 years evaluating HIV risk-reduction intervention for drug users leads to the argument that program outreach workers are part of the intervention continuum and have important effects on service delivery. Improving pre-enrollment data collection will address evaluation issues raised by pre-enrollment outreach contacts. (SLD)

  13. Measurement of the radiation field surrounding the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    K. Kordas et al.

    2004-01-28

    We present here the first direct and detailed measurements of the spatial distribution of the ionizing radiation surrounding a hadron collider experiment. Using data from two different exposures we measure the effect of additional shielding on the radiation field around the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Employing a simple model we parameterize the ionizing radiation field surrounding the detector.

  14. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 17 crew of 1.3 R was calculated from the specific activities of Na-24 in their postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of K-42, Cr-51, Co60, and Sb-124, introduced by injection into the astronauts, are extremely high in these specimens. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 levels are also reported and appear to be normal. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Fe, Co, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, As, Sb, Se, Br, Sc, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, and Th were measured in urine specimens from the Apollo 17 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. Strontium, barium, gold, cadmium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, terbium, thorium, and tin are reported for the first time. The concentrations or excretion rates of bromine and the alkali metals exhibit singificantly reduced postflight levels and are generally lower than values observed for previous missions. Chromium concentrations reflect radiochromium injections.

  15. Radiative temperature measurements at Kupaianaha lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.; Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-04-01

    The radiative temperature of the surface of Kupaianaha lava lake is computed using field spectroradiometer data. Observations were made during periods of active overturning. The lake surface exhibits three stages of activity. Magma fountaining and overturning events characterize stage 1, which exhibits the hottest crustal temperatures and the largest fractional hot areas. Rifting events between plates of crust mark stage 2; crustal temperatures in this stage are between 100 C and 340 C, and fractional hot areas are at least an order of magnitude smaller than those in stage 1. Stage 3 is characterized by quiescent periods when the lake is covered by a thick crust. This stage dominates the activity of the lake more than 90 percent of the time. The results of this study are relevant for satellite and airborne measurement of the thermal characteristics of active volcanoes, and indicate that the thermal output of a lava lake varies on a time scale of seconds to minutes.

  16. Resolution of Transverse Electron Beam Measurements using Optical Transition Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard H.; Krejcik, Patrick; Lincoln, Melissa; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Clayton, Chris E.; Huang, Chengkun; Lu, Wei; Deng, Suzhi; Oz, Erdem; /Southern California U.

    2005-06-22

    In the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment E-167, optical transition radiation is used to measure the transverse profile of the electron bunches before and after the plasma acceleration. The distribution of the electric field from a single electron does not give a point-like distribution on the detector, but has a certain extension. Additionally, the resolution of the imaging system is affected by aberrations. The transverse profile of the bunch is thus convolved with a point spread function (PSF). Algorithms that deconvolve the image can help to improve the resolution. Imaged test patterns are used to determine the modulation transfer function of the lens. From this, the PSF can be reconstructed. The Lucy-Richardson algorithm is used to deconvolute this PSF from test images.

  17. Radiation pressure efficiency measurements of nanoparticle coated microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Y.; Taylor, Joseph D.; Ladouceur, Harold D.; Hart, Sean J.; Terray, Alex

    2013-12-02

    Experimental measurements of the radiation pressure efficiency (Q{sub pr}) for several microparticles have been compared to theoretical calculations extrapolated from the Bohren-Huffman code for Mie scattering of coated particles. An increased shift of the Q{sub pr} parameter was observed for 2 μm SiO{sub 2} core particles coated with nanoparticles of higher refractive indices. Coatings of 14 nm melamine particles were found to increase the Q{sub pr} parameter 135 times over similar coatings using SiO{sub 2} particles of the same size. While a coating of 100 nm polystyrene particles also showed a significant increase, they did not agree well with theoretical values. It is hypothesized that other factors such as increased scatter, drag, and finite coating coverage are no longer negligible for coatings using nanoparticles in this size regime.

  18. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr.; Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  19. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    DOEpatents

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Buckner, Mark A.; Hanson, Gregory R.; Bryan, William L.

    2011-05-03

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  20. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, Mark A; Hanson, Gregory R; Bryan, William L

    2009-04-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes insitu polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.