Science.gov

Sample records for radiation meter type

  1. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  2. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  3. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  4. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  5. Radiation rate meter development

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    We are still in a very preliminary stage of examining the potentials of a new series of instruments which may be inexpensive and versatile enough to complement, or conceivably even replace, electroscope dosimeters in Civil Defense and other situations requiring radiation monitoring by the general public. These instruments were developed to provide a qualitative signal so simple to interpret that anyone can tell immediately whether they are in a dangerous radiation field, and whether they are moving into a hotter area or a cooler area. A second goal in the development has been to produce the simplest possible device at minimum cost, without compromise in effectiveness. In the simplest implementation the device is essentially a very inexpensive version of the much older Personal Radiation Monitor (PRM).

  6. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  7. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  8. Average power meter for laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevnina, Elena I.; Maraev, Anton A.; Ishanin, Gennady G.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced metrology equipment, in particular an average power meter for laser radiation, is necessary for effective using of laser technology. In the paper we propose a measurement scheme with periodic scanning of a laser beam. The scheme is implemented in a pass-through average power meter that can perform continuous monitoring during the laser operation in pulse mode or in continuous wave mode and at the same time not to interrupt the operation. The detector used in the device is based on the thermoelastic effect in crystalline quartz as it has fast response, long-time stability of sensitivity, and almost uniform sensitivity dependence on the wavelength.

  9. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  10. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, R.A.

    1980-05-12

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for couting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensation circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  11. Compensated count-rate circuit for radiation survey meter

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Richard A.

    1981-01-01

    A count-rate compensating circuit is provided which may be used in a portable Geiger-Mueller (G-M) survey meter to ideally compensate for counting loss errors in the G-M tube detector. In a G-M survey meter, wherein the pulse rate from the G-M tube is converted into a pulse rate current applied to a current meter calibrated to indicate dose rate, the compensated circuit generates and controls a reference voltage in response to the rate of pulses from the detector. This reference voltage is gated to the current-generating circuit at a rate identical to the rate of pulses coming from the detector so that the current flowing through the meter is varied in accordance with both the frequency and amplitude of the reference voltage pulses applied thereto so that the count rate is compensated ideally to indicate a true count rate within 1% up to a 50% duty cycle for the detector. A positive feedback circuit is used to control the reference voltage so that the meter output tracks true count rate indicative of the radiation dose rate.

  12. The response of survey meters to pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, R.C.; Ipe, N.E.

    1987-11-01

    The response of most survey meters to steady radiation fields is fairly well known and documented. However, hardly any data is available in the literature regarding the response of these instruments to pulsed radiation. Pulsed radiation fields are encountered, e.g., in the vicinity of linear electron accelerators or klystrons. An instrument that ordinarily responds well to the average dose rate spread out evenly in time may not be able to cope with such a high dose rate. Instruments which have long dead times such as Geiger Mueller and proportional counters tend to become saturated in such fields and only count repetition rate. Ionization chambers are less influenced, however, they must be operated with adequate voltage to overcome recombination losses. Scintillation survey meters may become non-linear at higher dose rates for pulsed radiation because the photomultiplier cannot handle the instantaneous currents that are required. Because of the need to test the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed fields, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built (I/sub p/87). A brief description of this facility is given along with tests of several different instruments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  14. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m2 with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s.

  15. Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.

  16. Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1988-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

  17. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--second report: radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-20

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of "leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination" and "contamination of radioactive substances in the air," the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome.

  18. Reflection-Type Oil-Film Skin-Friction Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1993-01-01

    Oil-film skin-friction meter for both flight and wind-tunnel applications uses internal reflection and is self-contained, compact unit. Contained in palm-sized housing, in which source of light, mirrors, and sensor mounted rigidly in alignment. Entire unit mounted rigidly under skin of aircraft or wind tunnel, eliminating any relative vibration between optical elements and skin of aircraft or wind tunnel. Meter primarily applicable to flight and wind-tunnel tests, also used in chemical-processing plants.

  19. Open-channel integrating-type flow meter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, K.C.

    1971-01-01

    A relatively inexpensive meter for measuring cumulative flow in open channels with a rated control,. called a "totalizer", was developed. It translates the nonlinear function of gage height to flow by use of a cam and a float. A variable resistance element in an electronic circuit is controlled by the float so that the electron flow in the circuit corresponds to the flow of water. The flow of electricity causes electroplating of an electrode with silver. The amount of silver deposited is proportionate to the flow of water. The total flow of water is determined by removing the silver from the electrode at a fixed rate with ·an electronic device and recording the time for removal with a counter. The circuit is designed so that the ,resultant reading on the counter is in acre-feet of water.

  20. [Metrology of pulse modulated electromagnetic fields with diode-type meters].

    PubMed

    Kubacki, Roman; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Sobiech, Jaromir; Puta, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic field meters used for occupational and general public health protection are commonly calibrated in the continuous wave conditions, but a large number of medical devices, mobile base station antennas and radars generate pulse modulated fields. The results of an analysis of additional errors of pulse fields measurements by diode-type meters (EMR 200/300, PMM and MEH) are presented in this paper.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of postsurgical inflammation by infrared radiation thermometer and laser flare-cell meter.

    PubMed

    Fujishima, H; Toda, I; Yagi, Y; Tsubota, K

    1994-07-01

    Using an infrared radiation thermometer and a laser flare-cell meter, we evaluated intraocular inflammation in 40 patients who had cataract surgery by measuring central corneal temperature, number of cells, and amount of flare in the anterior chamber. Patients were divided into two groups based on duration of surgery: Group A, more than 40 minutes; Group B, less than 40 minutes. In Group A (n = 32), corneal temperature (degrees Celsius) increased by 1.10 +/- 0.57, 0.75 +/- 0.69, 0.41 +/- 0.56, and 0.24 +/- 0.45 on days 1, 2, 14, and 30, respectively. Group B (n = 8) had no significant rise in corneal temperature, but cell count (mean +/- 1 SD) increased to 39.3 +/- 13.6, 36.4 +/- 18.1, 15.5 +/- 16.5, and 4.4 +/- 3.1 on days 1, 2, 7, and 14, respectively. Flare increased to 88.9 +/- 88.9, 45.8 +/- 30.1, 38.3 +/- 25.4, and 18.5 +/- 9.4 on days 2, 7, 14, and 30, respectively. These observations show that the longer the cataract surgery, the greater the inflammation. Although inflammation was evaluated quantitatively by both infrared radiation thermometer and laser flare-cell meter, the latter appears to be more sensitive. Thermometry will only detect the results of very traumatic surgery, with a corresponding breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier.

  2. Effects of simulated ice on the performance of price type-AA current meter rotors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.

    1994-01-01

    Slush ice readily adheres to the standard metal rotor of the winter Price type-AA current meter and affects the ability of the meter to measure the flow velocity accurately. Tests conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey Hydraulics Laboratory at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, attempt to quantify the effects of slush ice on the performance of standard Price type-AA meter metal rotors. Test data obtained for rotors filled with simulated slush are compared with data for solid-cup polymer and standard hollow-cup metal rotors. Partial filling of the cups only marginally affects rotor performance at velocities greater than 15.24 centimeters per second. However, when cups are filled or over-filled with simulated slush, rotor performance is noticeably affected. Errors associated with slush over-filling and filling of cups are also significant when flows are angled vertically.

  3. Improving the accuracy of electronic moisture meters for runner-type peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runner-type peanut kernel moisture content (MC) is measured periodically during curing and post harvest processing with electronic moisture meters for marketing and quality control. MC is predicted for 250 g samples of kernels with a mathematical function from measurements of various physical prope...

  4. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and how exposure might affect cancer risk. UV Radiation (Sun) Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from the sun and ...

  5. Research on the method of establishing the total radiation meter calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xia, Ming; Xia, Junwen; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the solar radiation, according to pyranometer differs as installation state, can be respectively measured total solar radiation, reflected radiation, or with the help of shading device for measuring scattering radiation. Pyranometer uses the principle of thermoelectric effect, inductive element adopts winding plating type multi junction thermopile, its surface is coated with black coating with high absorption rate. Hot junction in the induction surface, while the cold junction is located in the body, the cold and hot junction produce thermoelectric potential. In the linear range, the output signal is proportional to the solar irradiance. Traceability to national meteorological station, as the unit of the national legal metrology organizations, the responsibility is to transfer value of the sun and the earth radiation value about the national meteorological industry. Using the method of comparison, with indoor calibration of solar simulator, at the same location, standard pyranometer and measured pyranometer were alternately measured radiation irradiance, depending on the irradiation sensitivity standard pyranometer were calculated the radiation sensitivity of measured pyranometer. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the pyranometer indoor device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  6. Calibration and use of continuous heat-type automated seepage meters for submarine groundwater discharge measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mwashote, B.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chanton, J.; Santos, I.R.; Dimova, N.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) assessments were conducted both in the laboratory and at a field site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, using a continuous heat-type automated seepage meter (seepmeter). The functioning of the seepmeter is based on measurements of a temperature gradient in the water between downstream and upstream positions in its flow pipe. The device has the potential of providing long-term, high-resolution measurements of SGD. Using a simple inexpensive laboratory set-up, we have shown that connecting an extension cable to the seepmeter has a negligible effect on its measuring capability. Similarly, the observed influence of very low temperature (???3 ??C) on seepmeter measurements can be accounted for by conducting calibrations at such temperatures prior to field deployments. Compared to manual volumetric measurements, calibration experiments showed that at higher water flow rates (>28 cm day-1 or cm3 cm-2 day-1) an analog flowmeter overestimated flow rates by ???7%. This was apparently due to flow resistance, turbulence and formation of air bubbles in the seepmeter water flow tubes. Salinity had no significant effect on the performance of the seepmeter. Calibration results from fresh water and sea water showed close agreement at a 95% confidence level significance between the data sets from the two media (R2 = 0.98). Comparatively, the seepmeter SGD measurements provided data that are comparable to manually-operated seepage meters, the radon geochemical tracer approach, and an electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Properties of Special Types of Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report discusses the general performance characteristics of three special classes of radiators: those with flat plate water tubes, fin and tube types, and types that whistle in an air stream. Curves and tables show the performance of representative radiators of each class and compare the flat plate and whistling types. Empirical equations are given for estimating the performance of flat plate radiators of various dimensions. This report also contains a brief discussion, with curves, showing the effect of yawing on the properties of a radiator.

  8. An improved maximum permissible exposure meter for safety assessments of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, D. A.; Evans, D. R.; Tyrer, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Current interest in laser radiation safety requires demonstration that a laser system has been designed to prevent exposure to levels of laser radiation exceeding the Maximum Permissible Exposure. In some simple systems it is possible to prove this by calculation, but in most cases it is preferable to confirm calculated results with a measurement. This measurement may be made with commercially available equipment, but there are limitations with this approach. A custom designed instrument is presented in which the full range of measurement issues have been addressed. Important features of the instrument are the design and optimisation of detector heads for the measurement task, and consideration of user interface requirements. Three designs for detector head are presented, these cover the majority of common laser types. Detector heads are designed to optimise the performance of relatively low cost detector elements for this measurement task. The three detector head designs are suitable for interfacing to photodiodes, low power thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. Design of the user interface was an important aspect of the work. A user interface which is designed for the specific application minimises the risk of user error or misinterpretation of the measurement results. A palmtop computer was used to provide an advanced user interface. User requirements were considered in order that the final implement was well matched to the task of laser radiation hazard audits.

  9. Solar Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The instrument pictured is an inexpensive solar meter which is finding wide acceptance among architects, engineers and others engaged in construction of solar energy facilities. It detects the amount of solar energy available at a building site, information necessary to design the most efficient type of solar system for a particular location. Incorporating technology developed by NASA's Lewis Research Center, the device is based upon the solar cell, which provides power for spacecraft by converting the sun's energy to electricity. The meter is produced by Dodge Products, Inc., Houston, Texas, a company formed to bring the technology to the commercial marketplace.

  10. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.

    1989-01-01

    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  11. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T ); Whitaker, S.Y. )

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  12. DNA Radiation Environments Program - Spring 1990 2-meter box experiments and analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T; Whitaker, S.Y.

    1992-09-01

    This report summarizes the Spring 1990 2-m Box Experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. These studies were sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) under the Radiation Environments Program to obtain measured data for benchmarking the Adjoint Monte Carlo Code System, MASH, Version 1.0. MASH was developed as the Department of Defense and NATO code system for calculating neutron and gamma-ray radiation fields and shielding protection factors for armored vehicles and military structures against nuclear weapon radiation. In the experiments, neutron and gamma-ray dose and reduction factors were measured in the free-field and as a function of position on an anthropomorphic phantom that was placed outside and inside the steel-walled 2-m box. The data were acquired at a distance of 400-m from the APRF reactor. The measurements were performed by APRF, Bubble Technology Industries, the Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, Establishment Technique Central de l`Armement, and Harry Diamond Laboratory. Calculations were carried out by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation. The purpose of these experiments was to measure the neutron and gamma-ray dose as a function of detector location on the phantom for cases when the phantom was standing in the free-field and inside of the box. Neutron measurements were made using a BD-IOOR bubble detector and gamma-ray measurements were made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD). Calculated and measured data were compared in terms of the C/M ratio. DNA mandated that C/M values of {plus_minus}20% define the acceptable limits for the comparison of the dose and reduction factor data and for qualifying the MASH code in replicating integral parameters.

  13. Film type SO-168 radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. N.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were performed to determine optimum exposure and processing procedures necessary to partially offset the effect of radiation to which film type SO-168 will be exposed during the Skylab Mission. This task became necessary when it was determined that original predictions of 2 to 3 RADS of radiation to which the film will be exposed were too low, and that levels as high as 3.5 to 4.0 RADS may be incurred, thus reducing image quality below an acceptable level. Tests results show that forced processing of type SO-168 film tended to reduce the density range to an unusable level, and that processing to a lower ASA value would provide greater image quality for the user.

  14. Radiation Transport in Type IA Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, R

    1999-11-16

    It has been said more than once that the critical link between explosion models and observations is the ability to accurately simulate cooling and radiation transport in the expanding ejecta of Type Ia supernovae. It is perhaps frustrating to some of the theorists who study explosion mechanisms, and to some of the observers too, that more definitive conclusions have not been reached about the agreement, or lack thereof, between various Type Ia supernova models and the data. Although claims of superlative accuracy in transport simulations are sometimes made, I will argue here that there are outstanding issues of critical importance and in need of addressing before radiation transport calculations are accurate enough to discriminate between subtly different explosion models.

  15. A reflection-type oil-film skin-friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. R.; Weinstein, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike many conventional methods of measuring skin-friction, the oil-film method is absolute in nature, requires no calibration, and, in principle, can be universally applied. In all existing forms of the meter, however, interferometry is used to make measurements of the oil film. Here, the technique has been simplified by completely eliminating interferometry. This has been achieved by making direct and dynamic measurements of the oil-film slope by directing a reflected beam of light off the top of the oil film to a small position sensing photodiode. The reflection method has been verified in incompressible flat plate turbulent boundary-layers. The standard of deviation of the measurements is about 10 percent of the mean. The present version of the meter is compact and simple.

  16. IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation--COMAR technical information statement radiofrequency safety and utility Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Bushberg, Jerrold T; Foster, Kenneth R; Hatfield, James B; Thansandote, Arthur; Tell, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    This Technical Information Statement describes Smart Meter technology as used with modern electric power metering systems and focuses on the radio frequency (RF) emissions associated with their operation relative to human RF exposure limits. Smart Meters typically employ low power (-1 W or less) transmitters that wirelessly send electric energy usage data to the utility company several times per day in the form of brief, pulsed emissions in the unlicensed frequency bands of 902-928 MHz and 2.4-2.48 GHz or on other nearby frequencies. Most Smart Meters operate as wireless mesh networks where each Smart Meter can communicate with other neighboring meters to relay data to a data collection point in the region. This communication process includes RF emissions from Smart Meters representing energy usage as well as the relaying of data from other meters and emissions associated with maintaining the meter's hierarchy within the wireless network. As a consequence, most Smart Meters emit RF pulses throughout the day, more at certain times and less at others. However, the duty cycle associated with all of these emissions is very small, typically less than 1%, and most of the time far less than 1%, meaning that most Smart Meters actually transmit RF fields for only a few minutes per day at most. The low peak power of Smart Meters and the very low duty cycles lead to the fact that accessible RF fields near Smart Meters are far below both U.S. and international RF safety limits whether judged on the basis of instantaneous peak power densities or time-averaged exposures. This conclusion holds for Smart Meters alone or installed in large banks of meters.

  17. The LBL 55-meter spherical grating monochromator at SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Chin, J.; DiGennaro, R.; Fong, E.; Gath, W.; Guigli, J.; Hogrefe, H.; Meneghetti, J.; Plate, D.; Heimann, P.A.; Terminello, L.; Ji, Z.; Shirley, D. ); Senf, S. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

    1989-08-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 55-m spherical grating monochromator (SGM) beamline is located as a branch line of the 54-pole wiggler/undulator at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). It was designed and constructed by LBL's Center for X-Ray Optics and the engineering staff of LBL's Advanced Light Source with the cooperation and assistance of the research group of David Shirley at LBL and the staff of SSRL. The main goals of the project were to test the SGM concept and to develop a capability for designing and building a water-cooled mirror and grating capability in anticipation of the ALS. A water-cooled plane mirror deflects the beam horizontally, taking in general a small fraction of the flux from the 54-pole insertion device. This mirror is a brazed assembly of Glidcop (a proprietary alumina-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy) and OFHC copper. Its surface was finished in polished electroless nickel, then overcoated with gold as all optics in the beamline are overcoated. Next in the line is a fused silica toroid which focuses the SPEAR source vertically onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and horizontally onto the nominal position of the exit slit, in the manner of Rense and Violett. The magnification factors are 0.3x vertically and 0.7x horizontally. The monochromator is a Rowland-circle design; both slits move on large granite-based slides that maintain flatness of travel to {plus minus}2 {mu}m in peak-to-peak variation from straightness.

  18. Your Glucose Meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  19. Technology for radiation efficiency measurement of high-power halogen tungsten lamp used in calibration of high-energy laser energy meter.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ji Feng; Hu, Xiao Yang; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Chang, Yan

    2015-03-20

    The calibration method using a high-power halogen tungsten lamp as a calibration source has many advantages such as strong equivalence and high power, so it is very fit for the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. However, high-power halogen tungsten lamps after power-off still reserve much residual energy and continually radiate energy, which is difficult to be measured. Two measuring systems were found to solve the problems. One system is composed of an integrating sphere and two optical spectrometers, which can accurately characterize the radiative spectra and power-time variation of the halogen tungsten lamp. This measuring system was then calibrated using a normal halogen tungsten lamp made of the same material as the high-power halogen tungsten lamp. In this way, the radiation efficiency of the halogen tungsten lamp after power-off can be quantitatively measured. In the other measuring system, a wide-spectrum power meter was installed far away from the halogen tungsten lamp; thus, the lamp can be regarded as a point light source. The radiation efficiency of residual energy from the halogen tungsten lamp was computed on the basis of geometrical relations. The results show that the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency was improved with power-on time but did not change under constant power-on time/energy. All the tested halogen tungsten lamps reached 89.3% of radiation efficiency at 50 s after power-on. After power-off, the residual energy in the halogen tungsten lamp gradually dropped to less than 10% of the initial radiation power, and the radiation efficiency changed with time. The final total radiation energy was decided by the halogen tungsten lamp's radiation efficiency, the radiation efficiency of residual energy, and the total power consumption. The measuring uncertainty of total radiation energy was 2.4% (here, the confidence factor is two).

  20. Plugging meter

    DOEpatents

    Nagai, Akinori

    1979-01-01

    A plugging meter for automatically measuring the impurity concentration in a liquid metal is designed to have parallel passages including a cooling passage provided with a plugging orifice and with a flow meter, and a by-pass passage connected in series to a main passage having another flow meter, so that the plugging points may be obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. The plugging meter has a program signal generator, a flow-rate ratio setter and a comparator, and is adapted to change the temperature of the plugging orifice in accordance with a predetermined pattern or gradient, by means of a signal representative of the temperature of plugging orifice and a flow-rate ratio signal obtained from the outputs of both flow meters. This plugging meter affords an automatic and accurate measurement of a multi-plugging phenomenon taking place at the plugging orifice.

  1. A Type-S radiation thermometer for steel mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, G. Raymond

    2003-04-01

    The need for standardization in infrared radiation thermometry has never been more significant than now, particularly in the US Steel industry. The situation must be similar to that faced by thermocouple users and makers in the last century. The technology is mature and the applications well understood by pyrometry and instrumentation specialists. Yet, neither is well understood by the majority of mill engineers. Selection of optimum devices for various mill applications requires specialized knowledge. The steel companies have trimmed staff to the point that vendors are becoming the default technology specialists. Yet the companies have no means to evaluate the competence of competing vendors and their devices. They thus default to devices & practices believed adequate instead of proven optimums. One solution is to develop a comprehensive set of standards, similar to those for thermocouples. These would include terminology, used in device specifications, along with recommended practices for use of certain device types in specific mill conditions and finally recommended practices for ancillary equipment & utilities, installation, commissioning, maintenance and periodic calibration verification.

  2. Cloud types and the tropical Earth radiation budget, revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and Earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. The normal analysis was to consider net radiation as the independent variable and examine how cloud cover, cloud type, albedo and emitted radiation varied with the net radiation. Two recurring themes keep repeating on a local, regional, and zonal basis: the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. A common feature in the tropical oceans are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  3. Type-II Bursts in Meter and Deca - Hectometer Wavelengths and Their Relation to Flares and CMEs: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, O.; Umapathy, S.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Pappa Kalaivani, P.; Vršnak, Bojan

    2010-09-01

    A study of the relationship between 38 type-II bursts recorded in meter and deca-hectometer (hereinafter m and DH) wavelength range and the associated flares and CMEs observed during the years 2000 - 2005 was carried out by Prakash et al. (2009). These events were divided into two classes: i) Class I, representing events where DH-type-II bursts are not a continuation of m-type-II bursts and ii) Class II, where DH-type-II bursts are a continuation of m-type-II bursts. In the present work, we extend the analysis of this sample of 38 events in three different steps: i) statistical properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts; ii) analysis of time lags between onsets of flares and CMEs associated with type-II bursts; and iii) statistical properties and relation between flares and CMEs of Class I and Class II events. We found a significant difference between the properties of m- and DH-type-II bursts of Class I and Class II events. For example, there are significant differences in starting and ending frequencies, bandwidth and speed. From the time delay analysis, we found the following. i) In 64% of Class I events, flares start after the onset of CMEs and the remaining 36% of flares start before the onset of CMEs. On the other hand, in the case of Class II events, the values are 83% and 17%, respectively. ii) The difference between the mean values of delay between flare start and DH start has high statistical significance (probability P of null hypothesis <1%). The time delays between the start of m-type-II burst and the CME onset are considerably larger for Class I events ( P=7%) than Class II events. iii) There are notable differences in: (a) delay between the flare and CME onset times ( P<1%); (b) flare rise time of Class I and Class II events ( P<5%). iv) While the flare rise time is well correlated with the lag between the flare start and the CME onset in Class I events, there is no such correlation for Class II events.

  4. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  5. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision. PMID:27223291

  6. An Improved Measurement Method for the Strength of Radiation of Reflective Beam in an Industrial Optical Sensor Based on Laser Displacement Meter.

    PubMed

    Bae, Youngchul

    2016-05-23

    An optical sensor such as a laser range finder (LRF) or laser displacement meter (LDM) uses reflected and returned laser beam from a target. The optical sensor has been mainly used to measure the distance between a launch position and the target. However, optical sensor based LRF and LDM have numerous and various errors such as statistical errors, drift errors, cyclic errors, alignment errors and slope errors. Among these errors, an alignment error that contains measurement error for the strength of radiation of returned laser beam from the target is the most serious error in industrial optical sensors. It is caused by the dependence of the measurement offset upon the strength of radiation of returned beam incident upon the focusing lens from the target. In this paper, in order to solve these problems, we propose a novel method for the measurement of the output of direct current (DC) voltage that is proportional to the strength of radiation of returned laser beam in the received avalanche photo diode (APD) circuit. We implemented a measuring circuit that is able to provide an exact measurement of reflected laser beam. By using the proposed method, we can measure the intensity or strength of radiation of laser beam in real time and with a high degree of precision.

  7. [Radiation screening test for commercial food products and foodstuffs for food services using NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Masaru; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Kihara, Akiko; Tsutake, Toyoshige; Mitsui, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Screening tests were carried out for radioactive cesium in foods using a NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter. The screening level was set at 250 Bq/kg, and specimens exceeding this level were scheduled to be sent to an external testing organization, which would conduct further tests using a germanium semiconductor detector. Some specimens that did not reach the screening level were also sent to the same organization. Foodstuffs used in commercial food products circulated in Chiba city were targeted, along with food services provided to schools and day care centers. In all, 495 specimens were tested; however, no specimens exceeded the screening level. The results of verification tests confirmed that no specimen exceeded the tentative regulatory limit.

  8. Saturation meter

    DOEpatents

    Gregurech, S.

    1984-08-01

    A saturation meter for use in a pressurized water reactor plant comprising a differential pressure transducer having a first and second pressure sensing means and an alarm. The alarm is connected to the transducer and is preset to activate at a level of saturation prior to the formation of a steam void in the reactor vessel.

  9. Cloud types and the tropical earth radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, Harbans L.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Nimbus-7 cloud and earth radiation budget data are compared in a study of the effects of clouds on the tropical radiation budget. The data consist of daily averages over fixed 500 sq km target areas, and the months of July 1979 and January 1980 were chosen to show the effect of seasonal changes. Six climate regions, consisting of 14 to 24 target areas each, were picked for intensive analysis because they exemplified the range in the tropical cloud/net radiation interactions. It is found that the net radiation is strongly influenced by the average cloud type and amount present, but most net radiation values could be produced by several combinations of cloud types and amount. The regions of highest net radiation (greater than 125 W/sq m) tend to have medium to heavy cloud cover. In these cases, thin medium-altitude clouds predominate. Their cloud tops are normally too warm to be classified as cirrus by the Nimbus cloud algorithm. In the tropical oceans there are large regions where the total regional cloud cover varies from 20 to 90 percent, but with little regional difference in the net radiation. The monsoon and rain areas are high net radiation regions.

  10. Evaluation of 2 possible further developments of the UK in-flight radiation warning meter for SSTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, I. J.; Eustace, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A mass reduction of the moderator and the response to the nucleon flux, responsible for the tissue-star component of the total-dose equivalent rate using a high atomic number material, are discussed. Radiation situations at SST cruising altitudes (approximately 20 km) due to solar proton flares were simulated in the stratosphere and on the ground. Actual stratospheric situations due to galactic cosmic radiation with a limited range of quality factor values (2-4) were encountered during slow ascents by balloons to 36 km. Synthetic situations obtained from high and low energy acclerator radiations were used to obtain radiation distributions having a larger range of quality factor values (11/2-9) than experienced in the stratosphere. The measurements made in these simulations related to the directly ionizing, neutron and tissue-star components of dose-equivalent rate. Due to the restricted range of neutron spectra encountered in the stratosphere, a significant mass reduction of the moderator by 4 kg was made, with the moderator clad with cadmium or some other slow neutron absorber.

  11. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  12. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  13. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  14. Analysis of the Fall-1989 two-meter box test bed experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. O.; Drischler, J. D.; Barnes, J. M.

    This report summarizes the results of a benchmark analysis of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System (MASH) against a series of experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The series of experiments was performed in the Fall of 1989 and involved experimentalists from APRF; the Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Canada (DREO); Bubble Technology Industries, Canada, (BTI); and the Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, France (ETCA). The 'benchmark' analysis of MASH is designed to determine the capability of MASH to reproduce the measured neutron and gamma ray integral and differential (spectral) data. Results of the 'benchmark' analysis are to be used in the recommendations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Panel 7 Ad Hoc Group of Shielding Experts for replacing the Vehicle Code System (VCS) with MASH as the reference code of choice for armored vehicle nuclear vulnerability calculations.

  15. Sun meter

    DOEpatents

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  16. Metering Characteristics of Carburetors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S; Dickinson, H C

    1919-01-01

    Report presents the results of an extensive experimental investigation of the performance of different types of carburetors as effecting the maintenance under all conditions of correct ratio between the weights of fuel and air. It also gives a description of the Bureau of Standards carburetor test plant, test equipment and measuring instruments used to determine the metering characteristics of carburetors.

  17. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  18. Prediction of Type II Burst Radiation for Large CME Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Type IIs are associated with shocks in the corona and solar wind, either driven by CMEs or else blast waves. Recent quantitative theories for type II radiation show that the amount of radiation depends on the speed and spatial extent of the 3D shock, as well as on the background plasma, magnetic field configuration, and the number of superthermal electrons available for acceleration by the shock. In principle, then, Type II bursts may provide 1-3 day warnings of large and fast CMEs that might produce space weather at Earth. In this paper we couple the advanced 3D MHD BATS-R-US code of Toth, Gombosi, and colleagues with our new ``bolt-on'' theory for type II emission. The modeling includes initialization with coronal and active region magnetic fields reconstructed from solar magnetograms, coronal densities determined by 1 AU data, and CMEs modelled using STEREO coronagraph data. Two events with type IIs and strong CMEs are analyzed: 15 February 2011 and 7 March 2012. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for both type II bursts. This strongly supports the type II theory, implies real understanding of the physics involved, and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  19. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOEpatents

    Miller, W.H.; Berliner, R.R.

    1994-09-13

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation. 2 figs.

  20. System for determining the type of nuclear radiation from detector output pulse shape

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William H.; Berliner, Ronald R.

    1994-01-01

    A radiation detection system determines the type of nuclear radiation received in a detector by producing a correlation value representative of the statistical cross correlation between the shape of the detector signal and pulse shape data previously stored in memory and characteristic of respective types of radiation. The correlation value is indicative of the type of radiation. The energy of the radiation is determined from the detector signal and is used to produce a spectrum of radiation energies according to radiation type for indicating the nature of the material producing the radiation.

  1. Critical ingredients of Type Ia supernova radiative-transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Blondin, Stéphane; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2014-07-01

    We explore the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves and spectra using the 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one `standard' 1D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an `opacity problem', characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in non-LTE. We show that including forbidden-line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation are also critical since they affect the colour evolution and the ΔM15 decline rate of our model. While impacting little the bolometric luminosity, a more complete treatment of decay routes leads to enhanced line blanketing, e.g. associated with 48Ti in the U and B bands. Overall, we find that SN Ia radiation properties are influenced in a complicated way by the atomic data we employ, so that obtaining converged results is a real challenge. Nonetheless, with our fully fledged CMFGEN model, we obtain good agreement with the golden standard Type Ia SN 2005cf in the optical and near-IR, from 5 to 60 d after explosion, suggesting that assuming spherical symmetry is not detrimental to SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling at these times. Multi-D effects no doubt matter, but they are perhaps less important than accurately treating the non-LTE processes that are crucial to obtain reliable temperature and ionization structures.

  2. Optical watthour meter digitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.H.

    1980-10-01

    As concern about energy conservation and energy-use efficiency increases, a simple and inexpensive instrument that would provide accurate, reliable and high-resolution data on electrical energy usage should find widespread application in research and industrial facilities. An instrument that would also provide one or more outputs compatible with a wide range of digital data acquisition systems would be especially appropriate, since the use of automatic data logging equipment is now common, even in small-scale and low-budget operations. An optical watthour meter digitizer was developed which meets these criteria. Based on the induction-type watthour meter, the digitizer provides an output pulse for a fixed amount of energy use. The digitizer senses the motion of the rotor disc of the meter by optically detecting passage of a nonreflective area painted on the underside of the disc. The passage of such area initiates a logic-compatible output pulse that can be used to measure power or energy usage in a variety of ways. The accuracy of the measurement is determined by the watthour meter. The resolution of the measurement is determined by the K/sub h/ constant (in watthours per revolution) of the meter and the number of equally spaced targets painted on the disc. The resolution of this device can be as small as a fraction of a watthour; the resolution of the manually read register on a watthour meter is typically a fraction of a kilowatthour. Several digitizers were fabricated, bench-tested, and installed in the field for long-term performance testing. All are performing satisfactorily.

  3. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  4. Fundamental and harmonic radiation in type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    1994-01-01

    Type III solar radio bursts are investigated by modeling the propagation of the electron beam and the generation and subsequent propagation of waves to the observer. Predictions from this model are compared in detail with particle, Langmuir wave, and radio data from the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISSE-3) spacecraft and with other observations to clarify the roles of fundamental and harmonic emission in type III radio bursts. Langmuir waves are seen only after the arrival of the beam, in accord with the standard theory. These waves persist after a positive beam slope is last resolved, implying that sporadic positive slopes persist for some time, unresolved but in accord with the predictions of stochastic growth theory. Local electromagnetic emission sets in only after Langmuir waves are seen, in accord with the standard theory, which relies on nonlinear processes involving Langmuir waves. In the events investigated here, fundamental radiation appears to dominate early in the event, followed and/or accompanied by harmonic radiation after the peak, with a long-lived tail of multiply scattered fundamental or harmonic emission extending long afterwards. These results are largely independent of, but generally consistent with, the conclusions of earlier works.

  5. Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and gamma radiation meter for comparison with and validation and tuning of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, Chaminda; Yan, Ru; Vestøl, Sondre; Melaaen, Morten C.; Mylvaganam, Saba

    2014-07-01

    The electrical capacitance tomographic (ECT) approach is increasingly seen as attractive for measurement and control applications in the process industries. Recently, there is increased interest in using the tomographic details from ECT for comparing with and validating and tuning CFD models of multiphase flow. Collaboration with researchers working in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of multiphase flows gives valuable information for both groups of researchers in the field of ECT and CFD. By studying the ECT tomograms of multiphase flows under carefully monitored inflow conditions of the different media and by obtaining the capacitance values, C(i, j, t) with i = 1…N, j = 1, 2,…N and i ≠ j obtained from ECT modules with N electrodes, it is shown how the interface heights in a pipe with stratified flow of oil and air can be fruitfully compared to the values of those obtained from ECT and gamma radiation meter (GRM) for improving CFD modeling. Monitored inflow conditions in this study are flow rates of air, water and oil into a pipe which can be positioned at varying inclinations to the horizontal, thus emulating the pipelines laid in subsea installations. It is found that ECT-based tomograms show most of the features seen in the GRM-based visualizations with nearly one-to-one correspondence to interface heights obtained from these two methods, albeit some anomalies at the pipe wall. However, there are some interesting features the ECT manages to capture: features which the GRM or the CFD modeling apparently do not show, possibly due to parameters not defined in the inputs to the CFD model or much slower response of the GRM. Results presented in this paper indicate that a combination of ECT and GRM and preferably with other modalities with enhanced data fusion and analysis combined with CFD modeling can help to improve the modeling, measurement and control of multiphase flow in the oil and gas industries and in the process industries

  6. Radiation Hydrodynamical Models for Type I Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Sorokina, Elena; Blinnikov, Sergei; Tolstov, Alexey; Bersten, Melina; Quimby, Robert

    The physical origin of Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose luminosities are 10 to 100 times brighter than normal core-collapse supernovae, remains still unknown. Radioactive-decays, magnetars, and circumstellar interactions have been proposed for the power source the light curves, although no definitive conclusions have been reached yet. Since most of light curve studies have been based on simplified semi-analytic models, we have constructed detailed light curve models for various mass of stars including very massive ones and large amount of mass loss with radiation hydrodynamical calculations. Here we focus on the magnetar and circumstellar interaction models and compare their rising time, peak luminosity, width, decline rate of the light curves with observations which show quite a large diversities. We then discuss how to discriminate these models, relevant models parameters, their evolutionary origins, possible roles of chemical enrichment of the early universe, and implications for the identifications of first stars.

  7. Radiative type III seesaw model and its collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Pahlen, Federico; Palacio, Guillermo; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the present bounds of a scotogenic model, the radiative type III seesaw, in which an additional scalar doublet and at least two fermion triplets of S U (2 )L are added to the Standard Model. In the radiative type III seesaw, the new physics (NP) sector is odd under an exact global Z2 symmetry. This symmetry guaranties that the lightest NP neutral particle is stable, providing a natural dark matter candidate, and leads to naturally suppressed neutrino masses generated by a one-loop realization of an effective Weinberg operator. We focus on the region with the highest sensitivity in present and future LHC searches, with light scalar dark matter and at least one NP fermion triplet at the sub-TeV scale. This region allows for significant production cross sections of NP fermion pairs at the LHC. We reinterpret a set of searches for supersymmetric particles at the LHC obtained using the package CheckMATE, to set limits on our model as a function of the masses of the NP particles and their Yukawa interactions. The most sensitive search channel is found to be dileptons plus missing transverse energy. In order to target the case of tau enhanced decays and the case of compressed spectra, we reinterpret the recent slepton and chargino search bounds by ATLAS. For a lightest NP fermion triplet with a maximal branching ratio to either electrons or muons, we exclude NP fermion masses of up to 650 GeV, while this bound is reduced to approximately 400 GeV in the tau-philic case. Allowing for a general flavor structure, we set limits on the Yukawa couplings, which are directly related to the neutrino flavor structure.

  8. Reflection type skin friction meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R. (Inventor); Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A housing block is provided having an upper surface conforming to the test surface of a model or aircraft. An oil film is supplied upstream of a transparent wedge window located in this upper surface by an oil pump system located external to the housing block. A light source located within the housing block supplies a light beam which passes through this transparent window and is reflected back through the transparent window by the upper surface of the oil film to a photo-sensitive position sensor located within the housing. This position sensor allows the slope history of the oil film caused by and aerodynamic flow to be determined. The skin friction is determined from this slope history. Internally located mirrors augment and sensitize the reflected beam as necessary before reaching the position sensor. In addition, a filter may be provided before this sensor to filter the beam.

  9. A novel flattop current regulated energy discharge type pulsed power supply and magnet yielding 4. 4 kGauss-meter for 6 milliseconds

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1989-07-01

    Most energy discharge power supplies obtain their bursts of power from the energy stored in charged capacitors when it is suddenly released into a load. This note describes the design of a similar small 800 Joules energy discharge type power supply and magnet. The magnet gap is 2 in.{times}2 in.{times}25-1/2 in. long and produces about 4.4 kGauss-meters at a rate of 12 pulses per minute. Each pulse is current regulated at the top for a duration of 6 msec. and varies less than 0.6% of set value. Current regulation at flattop is obtained by switching a resistor in and out of the discharge circuit with an IGBT at a rate of about 5 kHz. Most energy discharge systems produce half sine wave pulses, and current regulation is obtained by controlling the charge voltage at the energy storage capacitor, resulting only in a controlled peak current value of the half sine wave pulse. The current value at the top changes substantially during 6 msec. depending on the operating frequency.

  10. A Matter of Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Writing verse is a learning experience. Arranging words, sounds and syllables can turn everyday language into metered language (language that can be measured), and metered language is the definition of verse. This article discusses the use of meter in helping students establish sets of syllables and lines that can be counted, enabling them to…

  11. Measurement capabilities of a compact thermal-type standard of energy unit of pulse laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech

    2001-08-01

    New instrument for measurements of laser pulse energy is described. Due to its parameters it can be used as a standard for unit of energy of pulse laser radiation. The instrument consists of a control unit, three sources of laser radiation, two receivers of optical signal, and a laptop. The whole system can be easily transported enabling one to carry out measurements in situ, at customer's, not only in laboratory conditions. This is a very important feature of the instrument because it allows inexpensive calibration and testing of large industrial laser installations and interesting laboratory intercomparisons as well. A method of measurement used in operation of the standard is presented. Main characteristics of the standard are shown. Methods of calculation of uncertainties of measurement during laser energy meters calibration by means of the standard of energy unit of pulse laser radiation are also presented. An alternative measurement option of the standard operating as an energy calibrator for unknown pulse optical radiation source is also available. Some results of testing of laser energy meters at eye-safe wavelength (1.54 micrometer) are presented.

  12. Radiation-hydrodynamical modelling of underluminous Type II plateau supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumo, M. L.; Zampieri, L.; Spiro, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Manicò, G.; Turatto, M.

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of improving our knowledge about the nature of the progenitors of low-luminosity Type II plateau supernovae (LL SNe IIP), we made radiation-hydrodynamical models of the well-sampled LL SNe IIP 2003Z, 2008bk and 2009md. For these three SNe, we infer explosion energies of 0.16-0.18 foe, radii at explosion of 1.8-3.5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of 10-11.3 M⊙. The estimated progenitor mass on the main sequence is in the range ˜13.2-15.1 M⊙ for SN 2003Z and ˜11.4-12.9 M⊙ for SNe 2008bk and 2009md, in agreement with estimates from observations of the progenitors. These results together with those for other LL SNe IIP modelled in the same way enable us also to conduct a comparative study on this SN sub-group. The results suggest that (a) the progenitors of faint SNe IIP are slightly less massive and have less energetic explosions than those of intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP; (b) both faint and intermediate-luminosity SNe IIP originate from low-energy explosions of red (or yellow) supergiant stars of low to intermediate mass; (c) some faint objects may also be explained as electron-capture SNe from massive super-asymptotic giant branch stars; and (d) LL SNe IIP form the underluminous tail of the SNe IIP family, where the main parameter `guiding' the distribution seems to be the ratio of the total explosion energy to the ejected mass. Further hydrodynamical studies should be performed and compared to a more extended sample of LL SNe IIP before drawing any conclusion on the relevance of fall-back to this class of events.

  13. Direct-reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  14. Multipath ultrasonic flow meters for gas measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    This paper gives an introduction to the practical application of ultrasonic gas flow meters. A general outline of the theory and methods applied using multipath flow meters. The multi-path type meter provides state of the art gas flow measurements and its accuracy and reliability satisfy the requirements for custody transfer. A typical multi-path device can achieve accuracies better than 0.2%.

  15. Program computes orifice-meter flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.R.

    1981-10-12

    Useful for designing new metering stations or figuring flow rates through existing ones, the program developed for the Tl-59 programmable calculator computes the gas flow rate through an orifice-meter run. The user inputs are the orifice diameter, meter run ID, flowing gas temperature, density, flowing gas pressure, and differential pressure. The program's results are more accurate than those of flow charts or slide-rule-type calculators.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiation from Vortex Flow in Type-II Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2006-11-10

    We show that a moving vortex lattice, as it comes to a crystal edge, radiates into a free space the harmonics of the washboard frequency, {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}v/a, up to a superconducting gap, {delta}/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). Here v is the velocity of the vortex lattice and a is the intervortex spacing. We compute radiation power and show that this effect can be used for the generation of terahertz radiation and for characterization of moving vortex lattices.

  17. Portable fluorescence meter with reference backscattering channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Burkov, Dmitriy S.

    2016-09-01

    Methods based on fluorescence and backscattering are intensively used for determination of the advanced glycation end products (AGE) concentration in the biological tissues. There are strong correlation between the AGE concentration and the severity of such diseases like diabetes, coronary heart disease and renal failure. This fact can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical applications. Only few investigations in this area can be useful for development of portable and affordable in vivo AGE meter because the most of them are oriented on using spectrometers. In this study we describe the design and the results of tests on volunteers of portable fluorescence meter based on two photodiodes. One channel of such fluorimeter is used for measurement of the autofluorescence (AF) intensity, another one - for the intensity of elastically scattered radiation, which can be used as a reference. This reference channel is proposed for normalization of the skin autofluorescence signal to the human skin photo type. The fluorimeter, that was developed is relatively compact and does not contain any expensive optical and electronic components. The experimental results prove that proposed tool can be used for the AGE estimation in human skin.

  18. Calculation of tubular radiators of the automobile type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, L

    1926-01-01

    We propose to show how to calculate the cooling capacity of all radiators through which the air flows in separate treamlets, whether enclosed in actual tubes or not and whatever cross-sectional shape the tubes may have. The first part will give the fundamental principles for calculating velocity of air in the tubes and the heat exchange by radiation, conduction and convection, and show, by examples, the agreement of the calculation with experiments. In the second part, the effect of the dimensions and conditions of operation on the heat exchange will be systematically investigated.

  19. Emesis in Ferrets Following Exposure to Different Types of Radiation: A Dose-Response Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    SR92-34 Emesis in Ferrets Following Exposure to Different Types of Radiation: N A Dose -Response Study L51 BERNARD M. RABIN, Ph.D., WALTER A. HUNT...fission neutrons (1500-2000 following exposure to different types o" radiation: a dose -response cGy), Young (13) reported that increasing the propor...order to establish the dose -response relationships monkey, but did not produce an increase in the total for emesis following exposure to different types

  20. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ji Feng; Chang, Yan; Sun, Li Qun; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  1. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  2. Radiation and smoking effects on lung cancer incidence by histological types among atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2012-09-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1-4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3-1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0-1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses.

  3. Radiation and Smoking Effects on Lung Cancer Incidence by Histological Types Among Atomic Bomb Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiromi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Yonehara, Shuji; Matsuo, Takeshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2014-01-01

    While the risk of lung cancer associated separately with smoking and radiation exposure has been widely reported, it is not clear how smoking and radiation together contribute to the risk of specific lung cancer histological types. With individual smoking histories and radiation dose estimates, we characterized the joint effects of radiation and smoking on type-specific lung cancer rates among the Life Span Study cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Among 105,404 cohort subjects followed between 1958 and 1999, 1,803 first primary lung cancer incident cases were diagnosed and classified by histological type. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks under several interaction models. Adenocarcinoma (636 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma (330) and small-cell carcinoma (194) made up 90% of the cases with known histology. Both smoking and radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of each major lung cancer histological type. Smoking-associated excess relative risks were significantly larger for small-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinoma. The gender-averaged excess relative risks per 1 Gy of radiation (for never-smokers at age 70 after radiation exposure at age 30) were estimated as 1.49 (95% confidence interval 0.1–4.6) for small-cell carcinoma, 0.75 (0.3–1.3) for adenocarcinoma, and 0.27 (0–1.5) for squamous-cell carcinoma. Under a model allowing radiation effects to vary with levels of smoking, the nature of the joint effect of smoking and radiation showed a similar pattern for different histological types in which the radiation-associated excess relative risk tended to be larger for moderate smokers than for heavy smokers. However, in contrast to analyses of all lung cancers as a group, such complicated interactions did not describe the data significantly better than either simple additive or multiplicative interaction models for any of the type-specific analyses. PMID:22862780

  4. Model Performance of Water-Current Meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of discharge in natural streams requires hydrographers to use accurate water-current meters that have consistent performance among meters of the same model. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the performance of four models of current meters - Price type-AA, Price pygmy, Marsh McBirney 2000 and Swoffer 2100. Tests for consistency and accuracy for six meters of each model are summarized. Variation of meter performance within a model is used as an indicator of consistency, and percent velocity error that is computed from a measured reference velocity is used as an indicator of meter accuracy. Velocities measured by each meter are also compared to the manufacturer's published or advertised accuracy limits. For the meters tested, the Price models werer found to be more accurate and consistent over the range of test velocities compared to the other models. The Marsh McBirney model usually measured within its accuracy specification. The Swoffer meters did not meet the stringent Swoffer accuracy limits for all the velocities tested.

  5. What to Know about Brachytherapy (A Type of Internal Radiation Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer cells. Sometimes an applicator or a balloon attached to a thin tube is used. ■ ■ Then the seeds, ribbons, or wires are put inside the small holder so that the radiation can reach and destroy cancer cells. ■ ■ Depending on the type of implant you receive, the radiation source may ...

  6. High-resolution results from the LBL 55-meter SGM (Spherical Grating Monochromator) at SSRL (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory) near the K-edge of carbon and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, P.A.; McKinney, W.; Howells, M.; van Zee, R.D.; Medhurst, L.J.; Lauritzen, T.; Chin, J.; Meneghetti, J.; Gath, W.; Hogrefe, H.; Shirley, D.A. ); Senf, F. . Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.)

    1989-07-01

    The performance of a 55-meter Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) is described. A resolution of 60 MeV has been achieved at 400 eV, inferred from the linewidths of the nitrogen 1s-{pi}* resonance. With 0.5 eV resolution, a photon flux of 4 {times} 10{sup 10} photons/sec has been observed at 440 eV. An initial experiment has studied the core-shell resonances of gas-phase ethylene, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Vibrational fine structure was resolved both for the carbon 1s-{pi}* and carbon 1s-Rydberg excitations. Comparison with the vibrational frequencies of ground state ethylene implies that the {nu}{sub 1} (C-H stretch) and {nu}{sub 2} (C-C stretch) or {nu}{sub 3} (H-C-H bend) are excited. It is suggested that the lower Rydberg orbitals, 3s and 3p{sigma}, have molecular, anti-bonding character. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  7. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  8. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  9. Groundwater-Seepage Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Harry G.; Reay, William G.

    1993-01-01

    Instrument measures seepage of groundwater into inland or coastal body of water. Positioned at depth as great as 40 meters, and measures flow at low rate and low pressure differential. Auxiliary pressure meter provides data for correlation of flow of groundwater with tides and sea states. Seepage meter operates independently for several weeks. Its sampling rate adjusted to suit hydrologic conditions; to measure more frequently when conditions changing rapidly. Used in water-quality management and for biological and geological research. Potential industrial uses include measurement of seepage of caustic and corrosive liquids.

  10. Space Age Meter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Julie

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the history and evolution of measurement standards from 3000 BC to the modern metric system. Traces measurement techniques from comparisons with the human body to use of atomic clocks and lasers to establish the length of a meter. (JM)

  11. Peak flow meter (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  12. DIGITAL Q METER

    DOEpatents

    Briscoe, W.L.

    1962-02-13

    A digital Q meter is described for measuring the Q of mechanical or electrical devices. The meter comprises in combination a transducer coupled to an input amplifier, and an upper and lower level discriminator coupled to the amplifier and having their outputs coupled to an anticoincidence gate. The output of the gate is connected to a scaler. The lower level discriminator is adjusted to a threshold level of 36.8 percent of the operating threshold level of the upper level discriminator. (AEC)

  13. Simulated Space Radiation: Impact of Four Different Types of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Lichen Xanthoria elegans.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Annette; Meeßen, Joachim; Jänicke, Reiner U; Raguse, Marina; Ott, Sieglinde

    2017-02-01

    This study addresses the viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans after high-dose ionizing irradiation in the frame of the STARLIFE campaign. The first set of experiments was intended to resemble several types of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) as present beyond the magnetic shield of Earth. In the second set of experiments, γ radiation up to 113 kGy was applied to test the limit of lichen resistance to ionizing radiation. Entire thalli of Xanthoria elegans were irradiated in the anhydrobiotic state. After STARLIFE 1, the metabolic activity of both symbionts was quantified by live/dead staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The photosynthetic activity was measured after the respective irradiation to assess the ability of the symbiotic green algae to restore photosynthesis after irradiation. The STARLIFE campaign complements the results of the LIFE experiments at the EXPOSE-E facility on the International Space Station by testing the model organism Xanthoria elegans on its resistance to hazardous radiation that might be accumulated during long-term space exposure. In addition, the photosynthetic activity of metabolically active lichen was investigated after X-ray irradiation up to 100 Gy (3.3 Gy/min). Since previous astrobiological experiments were mostly performed with anhydrobiotic lichen, these experiments will broaden our knowledge on the correlation of physiological state and astrobiological stressors. Key Words: Astrobiology-Extremotolerance-Gamma rays-Ionizing radiation-Lichens-Viability. Astrobiology 17, 136-144.

  14. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  15. Radiation budget and soil heat fluxes in different Arctic tundra vegetation types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Iturrate Garcia, Maitane; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    While solar radiation is one of the primary energy sources for warming and thawing permafrost soil, the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the soil is reduced by vegetation shading. Climate change has led to greening, shrub expansion and encroachment in many Arctic tundra regions and further changes are anticipated. These vegetation changes feed back to the atmosphere and permafrost as they modify the surface energy budget. However, canopy transmittance of solar radiation has rarely been measured or modelled for a variety of tundra vegetation types. We assessed the radiation budget of the most common vegetation types at the Kytalyk field site in North-East Siberia (70.8°N, 147.5°E) with field measurements and 3D radiative transfer modelling and linked it to soil heat fluxes. Our results show that Arctic tundra vegetation types differ in canopy albedo and transmittance as well as in soil heat flux and active layer thickness. Tussock sedges transmitted on average 56% of the incoming light and dwarf shrubs 27%. For wet sedges we found that the litter layer was very important as it reduced the average transmittance to only 6%. Model output indicated that both, albedo and transmittance, also depend on the spatial aggregation of vegetation types. We found that permafrost thaw was more strongly related to soil properties than to canopy shading. The presented radiative transfer model allows quantifying effects of the vegetation layer on the surface radiation budget in permafrost areas. The parametrised model can account for diverse vegetation types and variation of properties within types. Our results highlight small scale radiation budget and permafrost thaw variability which are indicated and partly caused by vegetation. As changes in species composition and biomass increase can influence thaw rates, small scale patterns should be considered in assessments of climate-vegetation-permafrost feedbacks.

  16. Dependence of Early and Late Chromosomal Aberrations on Radiation Quality and Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Krieger, Stephanie; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Goss, Rosalin; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to radiation induces different types of DNA damage, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo. The susceptibility of cells to radiation depends on genetic background and growth condition of cells, as well as types of radiation. Mammalian cells of different tissue types and with different genetic background are known to have different survival rate and different mutation rate after cytogenetic insults. Genomic instability, induced by various genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors including radiation, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Accurate measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is important for estimating radiation-related risks. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles and their RBE, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast AG1522, human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10), and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH(CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice to high energy protons and Fe ions. Normal human fibroblasts AG1522 have apparently normal DNA damage response and repair mechanisms, while mammary epithelial cells (M10) are deficient in the repair of DNA DSBs. Mouse strain CBA is radio-sensitive while C57 is radio-resistant. Metaphase chromosomes at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and chromosome aberrations were analyzed as RBE for different cell lines exposed to different radiations at various time points up to one month post irradiation.

  17. 26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. CURRENT METERS WITH FOLDING SCALE (MEASURED IN INCHES) IN FOREGROUND: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  18. 25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CURRENT METERS: GURLEY MODEL NO. 665 AT CENTER, GURLEY MODEL NO. 625 'PYGMY' CURRENT METER AT LEFT, AND WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METER AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  19. Effect of vertical motion on current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kallio, Nicholas A.

    1966-01-01

    The effect of vertical motion on the performance of current meters at various stream velocities was evaluated to determine whether accurate discharge measurements can be made from a bobbing boat. Three types of current meters--Ott, Price, and vane types--were tested under conditions simulating a bobbing boat. A known frequency and amplitude of vertical motion were imparted to the current meter, and the related effect on the measured stream velocity was determined. One test of the Price meter was made under actual conditions, using a boat and standard measuring gear. The results of the test under actual conditions verified those obtained by simulating the vertical movements of a boat. The tests show that for stream velocities below 2.5 feet per second the accuracy of all three meters is significantly affected when the meters are subjected to certain conditions of vertical motion that can occur during actual field operations. Both the rate of vertical motion and the frequency of vertical oscillation affect the registration of the meter. The results of these tests, presented in the form of graphs and tables, can be used as a guide to determine whether wind and stream flow are within an acceptable range for a reliable discharge measurement from a boat.

  20. Aerosol types and radiative forcing estimates over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhawar, Rohini L.; Lee, Woo-Seop; Rahul, P. R. C.

    2016-09-01

    Using the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data sets along with the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations, we analyzed the aerosol optical depth (AOD) variability during March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) along with their annual mean variability over East Asia for the period 2006-2012. The CALIPSO measurements correlated well with the MODIS measurements and the CSIRO-MK 3.6.0 model simulations over the spatial distribution patterns of the aerosols, but CALIPSO underestimated the magnitudes of the AOD. Maximum smoke aerosol loading is observed to occur during JJA, as a result of wind transport from Southern China while dust loading dominated during MAM via the transport from desert region. The vertical distribution profiles revealed that there is uniform distribution of smoke aerosols during both MAM and JJA, only differing at the altitude at which they peak; while the dust aerosols during MAM showed a significant distribution from the surface to 10 km altitude and JJA was marked with lower dust loading at the same altitudes. Both dust and smoke aerosols warm the atmosphere in MAM but due to the absorbing nature of smoke aerosols, they cause considerable cooling at the surface which is double when compared to the dust aerosols. The top of the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to smoke and dust aerosols is positive in MAM which indicates warming over East Asia. During MAM a consistent declining trend of the surface ARF due to smoke aerosols persisted over the last three decades as conspicuously evidenced from model analysis; the decline is ∼10 W/m2 from 1980 to 2012.

  1. New mechanism of radiation polarization in type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silant'ev, N. A.; Gnedin, Yu. N.; Piotrovich, M. Yu.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.; Buliga, S. D.

    2016-10-01

    In most type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the optical linear continuum polarization degree is usually small (less than 1 per cent) and the polarization position angle is nearly parallel to the AGN radio axis. However, there are many type 1 AGNs with unexplained intermediate values for both positional angles and polarization degrees. Our explanation of polarization degree and positional angle of type 1 Seyfert AGNs focuses on the reflection of non-polarized radiation from sub-parsec jets in optically thick accretion discs. The presence of a magnetic field surrounding the scattering media will induce Faraday rotation of the polarization plane, which may explain the intermediate values of positional angles if there is a magnetic field component normal to the accretion disc. The Faraday rotation depolarization effect in the disc diminishes the competition between polarization of the reflected radiation with the parallel component of polarization and the perpendicular polarization from internal radiation of the disc (the Milne problem) in favour of polarization of the reflected radiation. This effect allows us to explain the observed polarization of type 1 Seyfert AGN radiation even though the jet optical luminosity is much lower than the luminosity of the disc. We present the calculation of polarization degrees for a number of type 1 Seyfert AGNs.

  2. Simulated Space Radiation: Impact of Four Different Types of High-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Lichen Xanthoria elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Annette; Meeßen, Joachim; Jänicke, Reiner U.; Raguse, Marina; Ott, Sieglinde

    2017-02-01

    This study addresses the viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans after high-dose ionizing irradiation in the frame of the STARLIFE campaign. The first set of experiments was intended to resemble several types of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) as present beyond the magnetic shield of Earth. In the second set of experiments, γ radiation up to 113 kGy was applied to test the limit of lichen resistance to ionizing radiation. Entire thalli of Xanthoria elegans were irradiated in the anhydrobiotic state. After STARLIFE 1, the metabolic activity of both symbionts was quantified by live/dead staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The photosynthetic activity was measured after the respective irradiation to assess the ability of the symbiotic green algae to restore photosynthesis after irradiation. The STARLIFE campaign complements the results of the LIFE experiments at the EXPOSE-E facility on the International Space Station by testing the model organism Xanthoria elegans on its resistance to hazardous radiation that might be accumulated during long-term space exposure. In addition, the photosynthetic activity of metabolically active lichen was investigated after X-ray irradiation up to 100 Gy (3.3 Gy/min). Since previous astrobiological experiments were mostly performed with anhydrobiotic lichen, these experiments will broaden our knowledge on the correlation of physiological state and astrobiological stressors.

  3. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hua; Casson, William H.; Vasilik, Dennis G.; Kleck, Jeffrey H.; Beverding, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  4. Smad, but not MAPK, pathway mediates the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Hiroyuki; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Miki; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine how radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta}1 mRNA is elevated earlier than those of collagen genes after irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smad pathway mediates the expression of collagen in radiation induced fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK pathways are not affected in the expression of collagen after irradiation. -- Abstract: Radiation induced fibrosis occurs following a therapeutic or accidental radiation exposure in normal tissues. Tissue fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of collagen and other extracellular matrix components. This study investigated how ionizing radiation affects the expression level and signal pathway of type I collagen. Real time RT-RCR showed that both {alpha}1and {alpha}2 chain of type I collagen mRNA were elevated from 48 h after irradiation with 10 Gy in NIH3T3 cells. The relative luciferase activities of both genes and type I collagen marker were elevated at 72 h. TGF-{beta}1 mRNA was elevated earlier than those of type I collagen genes. A Western blot analysis showed the elevation of Smad phosphorylation at 72 h. Conversely, treatment with TGF-{beta} receptor inhibitor inhibited the mRNA and relative luciferase activity of type I collagen. The phosphorylation of Smad was repressed with the inhibitor, and the luciferase activity was cancelled using a mutant construct of Smad binding site of {alpha}2(I) collagen gene. However, the MAPK pathways, p38, ERK1/2 and JNK, were not affected with specific inhibitors or siRNA. The data showed that the Smad pathway mediated the expression of type I collagen in radiation induced fibrosis.

  5. Fabrication of paper devices via laser-heating-wax-printing for high-tech enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with low-tech pen-type pH meter readout.

    PubMed

    Le, Shangwang; Zhou, Hui; Nie, Jinfang; Cao, Chaohong; Yang, Jiani; Pan, Hongcheng; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-26

    In this work, a new method named laser-heating-wax-printing (LHWP) is described to fabricate paper devices for developing sensitive, affordable, user-friendly paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (P-ELISAs) that initially use common pen-type pH meters for portable, quantitative readout. The LHWP enables a rapid patterning of wax in paper via one step of heating the wax layer coated on the paper surface using a mini-type CO2 laser machine. Wax-patterned paper microzones created in this way are utilized to conduct the pen-type pH meter-based P-ELISAs with enzyme-loaded SiO2 microbeads for highly efficient signal amplification of each antibody-antigen binding event. The results show that this new P-ELISA system is quantitatively sensitive to the concentrations of a model protein analyte in buffer samples ranging from 12.5 to 200 pg mL(-1), with a limit of detection of ca. 7.5 pg mL(-1) (3σ). Moreover, the satisfactory recovery results of assaying several human serum samples validate its feasibility for practical applications.

  6. Prospective Study Validating Inter- and Intraobserver Variability of Tissue Compliance Meter in Breast Tissue of Healthy Volunteers: Potential Implications for Patients With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Riley, Lillian; Christos, Paul J.; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K.S. Clifford

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate detection of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is crucial in management of breast cancer survivors. Tissue compliance meter (TCM) has been validated in musculature. We validate TCM in healthy breast tissue with respect to interobserver and intraobserver variability before applying it in RIF. Methods and Materials: Three medical professionals obtained three consecutive TCM measurements in each of the four quadrants of the right and left breasts of 40 women with no breast disease or surgical intervention. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) assessed interobserver variability. The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were used to assess intraobserver variability within each rater. Results: The median age was 45 years (range, 24-68 years). The median bra size was 35C (range, 32A-40DD). Of the participants, 27 were white (67%), 4 black (10%), 5 Asian (13%), and 4 Hispanic (10%). ICCs indicated excellent interrater reliability (low interobserver variability) among the three raters, by breast and quadrant (all ICC {>=}0.99). The paired t test and Pearson correlation coefficient both indicated low intraobserver variability within each rater (right vs. left breast), stratified by quadrant (all r{>=} 0.94, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The interobserver and intraobserver variability is small using TCM in healthy mammary tissue. We are now embarking on a prospective study using TCM in women with breast cancer at risk of developing RIF that may guide early detection, timely therapeutic intervention, and assessment of success of therapy for RIF.

  7. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  8. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  9. Effects of exposure to different types of radiation on behaviors mediated by peripheral or central systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Erat, S.

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on behavior may result from effects on peripheral or on central systems. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by peripheral systems (e.g., radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion or vomiting), the behavioral effects of exposure to heavy particles (^56Fe, 600 MeV/n) are qualitatively similar to the effects of exposure to gamma radiation (^60Co) and to fission spectrum neutrons. For these endpoints, the only differences between the different types of radiation are in terms of relative behavioral effectiveness. For behavioral endpoints that are mediated by central systems (e.g., amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning), the effects of exposure to ^56Fe particles are not seen following exposure to lower LET gamma rays or fission spectrum neutrons. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to heavy particles on behavioral endpoints cannot necessarily be extrapolated from studies using gamma rays, but require the use of heavy particles.

  10. The stimulation of auroral kilometric radiation by type III solar radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1981-01-01

    It has been found that the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) frequently coincides with the arrival of type III solar radio bursts. Although the AKR onsets are usually abrupt and appear to be spontaneous, they sometimes develop from a discrete frequency near the leading edge of a type III burst or sometimes occur at progressively lower frequencies following that edge. From this, and the absence of the related solar electrons in specific cases, it was concluded that the incoming type III waves were sometimes responsible for stimulating auroral kilometric radiation. It was estimated that intense, isolated type III bursts were capable of stimulating AKR roughly one third of the time, and that at least ten percent of the observed AKR onsets could be attributed to these and weaker bursts, including some barely detectable by the ISEE plasma wave receivers.

  11. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density <5 microcycle/(Hz)1/2 and to be capable of determining the power spectral density of the phase difference over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz. Such a phase meter could also be used on Earth to perform similar measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  12. Black hole and hawking radiation by type-II Weyl fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2016-11-01

    The type-II Weyl and type-II Dirac fermions may emerge behind the event horizon of black holes. Correspondingly, the black hole can be simulated by creation of the region with overtilted Weyl or Dirac cones. The filling of the electronic states inside the "black hole" is accompanied by Hawking radiation. The Hawking temperature in the Weyl semimetals can reach the room temperature, if the black hole region is sufficiently small, and thus the effective gravity at the horizon is large.

  13. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1995-03-01

    Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.

  14. Bianchi type-I magnetized radiating cosmological model in self creation theory of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vimal Chand; Jain, Nikhil

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated Bianchi type-I cosmological model in the presence of magnetized field with disordered radiation in Barber's second self-creation theory of gravitation. To obtain exact solution we assume that the component of shear tensor is proportional to expansion ( θ). Some geometrical and physical properties of the model have also been discussed.

  15. Calibration services for medical applications of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    Calibration services for the medical community applications of radiation involve measuring radiation precisely and having traceability to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Radiation therapy applications involve the use of ionization chambers and electrometers for external beams and well-type ionization chamber systems as well as radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Diagnostic x-ray applications involve ionization chamber systems and devices to measure other parameters of the x-ray machine, such as non-invasive kVp meters. Calibration laboratories have been established to provide radiation calibration services while maintaining traceability to NIST. New radiation applications of the medical community spur investigation to provide the future calibration needs.

  16. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  17. Ride quality meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A ride quality meter is disclosed that automatically transforms vibration and noise measurements into a single number index of passenger discomfort. The noise measurements are converted into a noise discomfort value. The vibrations are converted into single axis discomfort values which are then converted into a combined axis discomfort value. The combined axis discomfort value is corrected for time duration and then summed with the noise discomfort value to obtain a total discomfort value.

  18. Hand-Strength Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Elliot, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Special grip-strength meter designed for accurate, reproducible measurement of hand rehabilitation. Four strain gauges connected in Wheatstone bridge to measure deflection caused by gripping hand. Compressive force exerted by hand transmitted to measuring beams. Beams therefore deflected or strained, and mechanical strain sensed by strain gauges and converted into electrical signal. After amplification and conditioning, signal displayed on LED as measure of gripping strength of hand.

  19. Effects of radiation types and dose rates on selected cable-insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, F.; Maier, P.; Okada, S.; Schönbacher, H.

    A series of radiation tests have been carried out on halogen-free cable-insulating and cable-sheathing materials comprising commercial LDPE, EPR, EVA and SIR compounds. samples were irradiated at five different radiation sources, e.g. a nuclear reactor, fuel elements, a 60Co source, and in the stray radiation field of high-energy proton and electron accelerators at CERN and DESY. The integrated doses were within 50-5000 kGy and the dose rates within 10 mGy/s-70 Gy/s. Tensile tests and gel-fraction measurements were carried out. The results confirm that LDPEs are very sensitive to long-term ageing effects, and that important errors exceeding an order of magnitude can be made when assessing radiation damage by accelerated tests. On the other hand, well-stabilized LDPEs and the cross-linked rubber compounds do not show large dose-rate effects for the values given above. Furthermore, the interpretation of the elongation-at-break data and their relation to gel-fraction measurements show that radiation damage is related to the total absorbed dose irrespective of the different radiation types used in this experiment.

  20. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results.

    PubMed

    Dachev, T P; Semkova, J V; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk, Yu N; Dimitrov, P G; Koleva, R T; Malchev, St; Bankov, N G; Shurshakov, V A; Benghin, V V; Yarmanova, E N; Ivanova, O A; Häder, D-P; Lebert, M; Schuster, M T; Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O; Cubancak, J; Nikolaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented.

  1. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Semkova, J. V.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Koleva, R. T.; Malchev, St.; Bankov, N. G.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Benghin, V. V.; Yarmanova, E. N.; Ivanova, O. A.; Häder, D.-P.; Lebert, M.; Schuster, M. T.; Reitz, G.; Horneck, G.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Ploc, O.; Cubancak, J.; Nikolaev, I.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented.

  2. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  3. EPR investigation of the gamma radiation response of different types of glasses.

    PubMed

    Gancheva, Veselka; Yordanov, Nicola D; Karakirova, Yordanka

    2006-03-13

    Several types of laboratory glasses such as: "Jena", "Rasotherm", "Thüring" as well as window and windscreen glasses were studied by the method of EPR spectroscopy as possible emergency radiation dosimeters for gamma-ray irradiation. The most appropriate values of modulation amplitude and microwave power were found to obtain best sensitivity for the measured signals. Dose measurements have shown a linear dependence between the EPR signal intensity of radiation created defects in glasses and applied dose in the dose range 50-500 Gy. "Thüring" glass was found to be the most sensitive sample to radiation. The magnitude of window glass absorbed dose was evaluated as the difference between the intensity of its EPR signal recorded after irradiation and the background signal, obtained after thermal relaxation of the former.

  4. Modeling Polarized Solar Radiation from Various Scene Types for Satellite Remote-Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.

    2015-12-01

    To correct the polarization-induced errors in measured reflected solar spectra, the polarization state of the reflected solar light must be known. In this presentation, recent modeling of the polarized solar radiation from the ocean, desert, forest, and clouds is reported. The modeled polarized solar radiation quantities are compared with the PARASOL satellite measurements for various scene types. A novel super-thin cloud optical depth (OD) retrieval method based on polarization measurement is also introduced. This study provides a reliable approach for making the spectral Polarization Distribution Models (PDMs) for satellite inter-calibration applications of NASA's future Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. This study also reports the advance in developing a technique to retrieve super-thin clouds with OD < ~0.3, which are missed by passive satellite sensors like the MODIS. Key words: Reflected solar radiation, polarization, correction of satellite data, retrieval of super-thin clouds.

  5. Review of literature on the testing of point-velocity current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thibodeaux, K.G.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is in the process of evaluating point-velocity current meters. As part of this evaluation process, a review of the literature pertaining to the testing of point-velocity current meters was conducted. A listing of current-meter testing found in the literature was compiled and is grouped according to the type of meter tested and the type of test conducted. Meter types included in the review were vertical- and horizontal-axis mechanical current meters and electromagnetic acoustic electronic current meters. Laser current meters are not included in the review because there are no practical laser meter designs for field velocity measurements. The results of the literature review indicated that there has not been a comprehensive testing of the commonly available current meters since the 1920's.

  6. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  7. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  8. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  9. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  10. Major vegetation types, climatological data, and solar radiation calculations for Colorado's Brush Creek valley

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lambeth, R.; Allwine, K.J.

    1987-04-01

    In this report we present information on the vegetative cover, climate, and solar radiation for the Brush Creek valley. A brief vegetative survey was made on October 3, 1984, to identify the vegetation types in the lowest 8 km of the valley; the reader is cautioned that this included only a small part of the Brush Creek valley. The intent was to identify the principal vegetation types, with no attempt to use available scientific sampling techniques to determine accurate relative frequencies of the vegetation types. Nevertheless, the site survey has allowed us to identify the major species of vegetation, and to make reasonably accurate differentiations of both major vegetation types on valley surfaces (the valley floor, two sidewalls, and ridgetops) and the relative abundance of major vegetation types on each surface.

  11. Turbine meters for liquid measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, D.J.; Allen, C.R.

    1995-12-01

    Liquid turbine meters operate in response to fundamental engineering principles, Operation with a single moving part produces excellent longevity and reliability. Liquid turbine meters display wide rangeability, high accuracy, excellent repeatability, low pressure drop and moderate cost. Liquid turbine meters may be applied to many different fluids with different physical properties and corrosive tendencies. The marriage of liquid turbine meters to electronic instruments allows instantaneous flow calculations and produces the flexibility to display data, store data, transmit data in the most convenient form. Liquid turbine meters should be the first flow measurement instrument considered for liquid measurement applications.

  12. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  13. Advanced metering techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  14. 10 meter airborne observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    Inside an aircraft fuselage there is little room for the mass of all the instrumentation of a ground-based observatory much less a primary objective aperture at the scale of 10 meters. We have proposed a solution that uses a primary objective grating (POG) which matches the considerable length of the aircraft, approximately 10 meters, and conforms to aircraft aerodynamics. Light collected by the POG is diffracted at an angle of grazing exodus inside the aircraft where it is disambiguated by an optical train that fits within to the interior tunnel. Inside the aircraft, light is focused by a parabolic mirror onto a spectrograph slit. The design has a special benefit in that all objects in the field-of-view of the free spectral range of the POG can have their spectra taken as the aircraft changes orientation. We suggest flight planes that will improve integration times, angular resolution and spectral resolution to acquire targets of high stellar magnitudes or alternatively increase the number of sources acquired per flight at the cost of sensitivity.

  15. Radiation Effects of n-type, Low Resistivity, Spiral Silicon Drift Detector Hybrid Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen W.; De Geronimo G.; Carini, G.A.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister, J.W.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Siddons, D.P.; Smith, G.C.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2011-11-15

    We have developed a new thin-window, n-type, low-resistivity, spiral silicon drift detector (SDD) array - to be used as an extraterrestrial X-ray spectrometer (in varying environments) for NASA. To achieve low-energy response, a thin SDD entrance window was produced using a previously developed method. These thin-window devices were also produced on lower resistivity, thinner, n-type, silicon material, effectively ensuring their radiation hardness in anticipation of operation in potentially harsh radiation environments (such as found around the Jupiter system). Using the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility beam line RERS1, we irradiated a set of suitable diodes up to 5 Mrad and the latest iteration of our ASICs up to 12 Mrad. Then we irradiated two hybrid detectors consisting of newly, such-produced in-house (BNL) SDD chips bonded with ASICs with doses of 0.25 Mrad and 1 Mrad. Also we irradiated another hybrid detector consisting of previously produced (by KETEK) on n-type, high-resistivity SDD chip bonded with BNL's ASICs with a dose of 1 Mrad. The measurement results of radiated diodes (up to 5 Mrad), ASICs (up to 12 Mrad) and hybrid detectors (up to 1 Mrad) are presented here.

  16. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P. )

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model {number sign}90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique.

  17. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-01-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29−39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation. PMID:19122806

  18. Spaceflight-relevant types of ionizing radiation and cortical bone: Potential LET effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Travis, Neil D.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Pecaut, Michael J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Willey, Jeffrey S.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2008-12-01

    Extended exposure to microgravity conditions results in significant bone loss. Coupled with radiation exposure, this phenomenon may place astronauts at a greater risk for mission-critical fractures. In a previous study, we identified a profound and prolonged loss of trabecular bone (29-39%) in mice following exposure to an acute, 2 Gy dose of radiation simulating both solar and cosmic sources. However, because skeletal strength depends on trabecular and cortical bone, accurate assessment of strength requires analysis of both bone compartments. The objective of the present study was to examine various properties of cortical bone in mice following exposure to multiple types of spaceflight-relevant radiation. Nine-week old, female C57BL/6 mice were sacrificed 110 days after exposure to a single, whole body, 2 Gy dose of gamma, proton, carbon, or iron radiation. Femora were evaluated with biomechanical testing, microcomputed tomography, quantitative histomorphometry, percent mineral content, and micro-hardness analysis. Compared to non-irradiated controls, there were significant differences compared to carbon or iron radiation for only fracture force, medullary area and mineral content. A greater differential effect based on linear energy transfer (LET) level may be present: high-LET (carbon or iron) particle irradiation was associated with a decline in structural properties (maximum force, fracture force, medullary area, and cortical porosity) and mineral composition compared to low-LET radiation (gamma and proton). Bone loss following irradiation appears to be largely specific to trabecular bone and may indicate unique biological microenvironments and microdosimetry conditions. However, the limited time points examined and non-haversian skeletal structure of the mice employed highlight the need for further investigation.

  19. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  20. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  1. Dependence of the radiative forcing of the climate system on fossil fuel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies are greatly directed towards the reduction of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion to limit warming to 2º C in this century. For example, the Clean Power Plan aims to reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector by 32% of 2005 levels by 2030 by increasing power plant efficiency but also by switching from coal-fired power plants to natural gas-fired power plants. It is important to understand the impact of such fuel switching on climate change. While all fossil fuels emit CO2, they also emit other pollutants with varying effects on climate, health and agriculture. First, The emission of CO2 per joule of energy produced varies significantly between coal, oil and natural gas. Second, the complexity that the co-emitted pollutants add to the perturbations in the climate system necessitates the detangling of radiative forcing for each type of fossil fuel. The historical (1850-2011) net radiative forcing of climate as a function of fuel type (coal, oil, natural gas and biofuel) is reconstructed. The results reveal the significant dependence of the CO2 and the non-CO2 forcing on fuel type. The CO2 forcing per joule of energy is largest for coal. Radiative forcing from the co-emitted pollutants (black carbon, methane, nitrogen oxides, organic carbon, sulfate aerosols) changes the global mean CO2 forcing attributed to coal and oil significantly. For natural gas, the CO2-only radiative forcing from gas is increased by about 60% when the co-emitted pollutants are included.

  2. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  3. PHYSICAL FACTORS AND DOSIMETRY IN THE MARSHALL ISLAND RADIATION EXPOSURES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FALLOUT, *RADIATION HAZARDS, *RADIOCHEMISTRY, DOSE RATE, PERSONNEL, RADIATION, RADIATION MONITORS, DOSAGE , EXPOSURE (PHYSIOLOGY), EXPOSURE METERS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, ENERGY, TIME, GAMMA RAY SPECTROSCOPY, BETA DECAY, PHOTONS.

  4. 900 MHz radiation does not induce micronucleus formation in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-07-01

    The exposure of the population to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation is still increasing, mainly due to mobile communication. Whether low-intensity electromagnetic fields can cause other effects apart from heating has been a subject of debate. One of the effects, which were proposed to be caused by mobile phone radiation, is the occurrence of mitotic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate possible consequences of these mitotic disturbances as manifest genomic damage, i.e. micronucleus induction. Cells were irradiated at a frequency of 900 MHz, which is located in one of the main frequency bands applied for mobile communication. Two cell types were used, HaCaT cells as human cells and A(L) cells (human-hamster hybrid cells), in which mitotic disturbances had been reported to occur. After different post-exposure incubation periods, cells were fixed and micronucleus frequencies were evaluated. Both cell types did not show any genomic damage after exposure. To adapt the protocol for the micronucleus test into the direction of the protocol for mitotic disturbances, the post-exposure incubation period was reduced and exposure time was extended to one cell cycle length. This did not result in any increase of the genomic damage. In conclusion, micronucleus induction was not observed as a consequence of exposure to non-ionising radiation, even though this agent was reported to cause mitotic disturbances under similar experimental conditions.

  5. The impact of vegetation type on the shortwave radiation balance of the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszak, Inge; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Profound changes in vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra have been observed and are predicted in a warmer future climate. Shrub expansion may positively feed back to climate warming by decreasing the shortwave albedo. On the other hand, permafrost protection through soil shading by shrubs has been discussed in literature. Several studies compared the average radiation balance across vegetation zones. However, variation within vegetation zones may be as important as differences between vegetation zones. The lowland tundra ecosystem at the Kytalyk research site (NE Siberia) is dominated by two vegetation types (dwarf shrub (Betula nana) and wet sedge (Eriophorum angustifolium)) organised in patches at a scale of about 10m. We investigated the shortwave radiation balance of both types separately and related it to the 11 year data set of the fluxtower with a mixed footprint. In addition to canopy albedo, we measured canopy transmittance below dwarf shrubs and wet sedges to quantify the often discussed effect of soil shading. Our results show that at our field site, wet sedge vegetation is shading the soil more efficiently than dwarf shrubs due to multi-year standing litter. While we measured an average transmission of 36% of the incoming shortwave radiation below dwarf shrubs, the transmission of wet sedge was 28%. Wet sedge summer albedo was on average 16% higher than dwarf shrub albedo. Additionally, the snow melted 10 days later in the sedge patches, leading to large albedo differences in the second half of May 2014. Our analysis shows, that cloud cover is the second most important control on albedo and transmittance of both vegetation types. Clouds reduced the summer albedo of both vegetation types across all zenith angles. On average, the growing season albedo was about 11% higher on clear sky days as compared to overcast days whereas the transmittance was about 23% lower. As cloud cover is expected to change with climate change, field studies of the cloud

  6. A new measurement method for separating airborne and structureborne noise radiated by aircraft type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical basis for and experimental validation of a measurement method for separating airborne and structure borne noise radiated by aircraft type panels are presented. An extension of the two microphone, cross spectral, acoustic intensity method combined with existing theory of sound radiation of thin shell structures of various designs, is restricted to the frequency range below the coincidence frequency of the structure. Consequently, the method lends itself to low frequency noise problems such as propeller harmonics. Both an aluminum sheet and two built up aircraft panel designs (two aluminum panels with frames and stringers) with and without added damping were measured. Results indicate that the method is quick, reliable, inexpensive, and can be applied to thin shell structures of various designs.

  7. Modest increased sensitivity to radiation oncogenesis in ATM heterozygous versus wild-type mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smilenov, L. B.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Subpopulations that are genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer could have significant public health consequences. Individuals homozygous for null mutations at the ataxia telangiectasia gene are indeed highly radiosensitive, but their numbers are very small. Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes (1-2% of the population) have been associated with somewhat increased radiosensitivity for some end points, but none directly related to carcinogenesis. Here, intralitter comparisons between wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) null mutation indicate that the heterozygous cells are more sensitive to radiation oncogenesis than their normal, litter-matched, counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive human subpopulation.

  8. 28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. LEUPOLD AND STEVENS MIDGET CURRENT METER, WITH FOLDING SCALE AT TOP, AND THREE VARIATIONS OF WES MINIATURE PRICE-TYPE CURRENT METERS BELOW. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  9. Three Axis Acoustic Current Meter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-10

    MECHANICAL DESCRIPTION The ACM-i is housed in an aluminum case constructed of 6061-16 alloy (3000 ’meter working depth) or 7075-T6 alloy (6000 meter working...length 9.25 inches (23.5 cm) maximum diameter Materials: Al uminum housing (6061 alloy for 3000 meter option or 7075 alloy for 6000 meter option...housing through access hatch. 3. Purge unit with dry gas (dichiorodifluorome thane) by Injecting gas through hatch into copper tube running length of

  10. Distinct impact of different types of aerosols on surface solar radiation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Zhou, Lijing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Observations of surface direct solar radiation (DSR) and visibility, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), together with the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) taken from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, were investigated to gain insight into the impact of aerosol pollution on surface solar radiation in China. The surface DSR decreased during 2004-2014 compared with 1993~2003 over eastern China, but no clear reduction was observed in remote regions with cleaner air. Significant correlations of visibility, PM2.5, and regionally averaged AOT with the surface DSR over eastern China indicate that aerosol pollution greatly affects the energy available at the surface. The net loss of surface solar radiation also reduces the surface ground temperature over eastern China. However, the slope of the linear variation of the radiation with respect to atmospheric visibility is distinctly different at different stations, implying that the main aerosol type varies regionally. The largest slope value occurs at Zhengzhou and indicates that the aerosol absorption in central China is the highest, and lower slope values suggest relatively weakly absorbing types of aerosols at other locations. The spatial distribution of the linear slopes agrees well with the geographical distribution of the absorbing aerosols derived from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations and Ozone Monitoring Instrument over China. The regional correlation between a larger slope value and higher absorbance properties of aerosols indicates that the net effects of aerosols on the surface solar energy and corresponding climatic effects are dependent on both aerosol amount and optical properties.

  11. Fuel meter for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Harde, B.

    1987-10-13

    A fuel level meter for vehicles is described including an electrical measuring device comprising: a voltage source and a potentiometer resistor. The resistor comprises two ends connected between the voltage source and a movable contact, connected to a float disposed in a fuel tank, such that the position of the float is dependent on the level of fuel in the tank; a shuntable series resistance with a first side connected to the movable contact and to a first relay switch of a relay and a second side connected both to a first resistor and to the relay switch. The other side of the first resistor is connected to a first side of a rheostat and to an overvoltage protector means; a damping capacitor having one side connected between the relay switch and a second relay switch of the relay operable jointly with the first. The measuring device is connected between a second side of the rheostat and ground; wherein the relay switches are jointly movable between a position wherein a first side of the capacitor and the second side of the shuntable series resistance are both electrically connected to an input terminal of the measuring device such that a current flowing from the movable contact flows through the series resistor and the other side of the capacitor is coupled to a constant voltage, and a second position wherein the series resistance is shunted off, the overvoltage protector means is engaged in parallel with the measuring device, and the capacitor maintains the constant voltage.

  12. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  13. Performance of a flight-type laminar radiator with a Brayton power system. [for space electric power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintula, T. C.; Prok, G. M.; Smith, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    A space-type laminar flow radiator was designed and integrated with a 2- to 15-kilowatt Brayton electrical power generating system. The design, fabrication, and testing of this radiator are presented. Test results include performance under steady state and transient conditions. Included in the transient results is performance in a simulated low earth orbit. Results show that the computer design is conservative. Orbital transients show that a further reduction in radiator area over that determined from steady state conditions is possible. Radiator efficiency was always greater than 83 percent.

  14. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  15. The Metering Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammed H.

    This volume provides a guide to management of utilities metering in educational facilities, especially colleges and universities. Chapter 1 gives an overview of why utility measurement, specifically the metering of energy consumption, is important in facilities management. Chapter 2 defines the basic units of measurement for both electric and…

  16. Teaching Meter: Why and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John J.

    In poetry, the only escape from meter is mastery. An understanding of the physical basis of poetry contributes not only to the literary appreciation and analysis of poetry but also to effective communication and language usage in daily life. The ideal time to begin teaching meter is in early childhood, but many older students need to be…

  17. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  18. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  19. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  20. Effects of radiation type and delivery mode on a radioresistant eukaryote Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Shuryak, Igor; Bryan, Ruth A.; Broitman, Jack; Marino, Stephen A.; Morgenstern, Alfred; Apostolidis, Christos; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Most research on radioresistant fungi, particularly on human pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, involves sparsely-ionizing radiation. Consequently, fungal responses to densely-ionizing radiation, which can be harnessed to treat life-threatening fungal infections, remain incompletely understood. Methods We addressed this issue by quantifying and comparing the effects of densely-ionizing α-particles (delivered either by external beam or by 213Bi-labeled monoclonal antibodies), and sparsely-ionizing 137Cs γ-rays, on Cryptococus neoformans. Results The best-fit linear-quadratic parameters for clonogenic survival were the following: α=0.24×10−2 Gy−1 for γ-rays and 1.07×10−2 Gy−1 for external-beam α-particles, and β=1.44×10−5 Gy−2 for both radiation types. Fungal cell killing by radiolabeled antibodies was consistent with predictions based on the α-particle dose to the cell nucleus and the linear-quadratic parameters for external-beam α-particles. The estimated RBE (for α-particles vs γ-rays) at low doses was 4.47 for the initial portion of the α-particle track, and 7.66 for the Bragg peak. Non-radiological antibody effects accounted for up to 23% of cell death. Conclusions These results quantify the degree of C. neoformans resistance to densely-ionizing radiations, and show how this resistance can be overcome with fungus-specific radiolabeled antibodies. PMID:25800676

  1. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2011-12-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the top (TOA) and at the bottom of atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. In this study we have considered six main types of atmospheric aerosols: desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere. The ΔF averages obtained vary from -148 ± 44 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in Central Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.86 ± 0.51) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system, contributing to the greenhouse gas effect.

  2. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, O. E.; Díaz, J. P.; Expósito, F. J.; Díaz, A. M.; Dubovik, O.; Derimian, Y.; Dubuisson, P.; Roger, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF) and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff) of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA) and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA) modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere) in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65°) in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from -122 ± 37 Wm-2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45) at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and -42 ± 22 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5) at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to -6 ± 3 Wm-2 and -4 ± 2 Wm-2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02) at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions) atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  3. Tissue compliance meter is a more reproducible method of measuring radiation-induced fibrosis than late effects of normal tissue-subjective objective management analytical in patients treated with intracavitary brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation: results of a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Wernicke, A Gabriella; Greenwood, Eleni A; Coplowitz, Shana; Parashar, Bhupesh; Kulidzhanov, Fridon; Christos, Paul J; Fischer, Andrew; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, Kun S Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Identification of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) remains a challenge with Late Effects of Normal Tissue-Subjective Objective Management Analytical (LENT-SOMA). Tissue compliance meter (TCM), a non-invasive applicator, may render a more reproducible tool for measuring RIF. In this study, we prospectively quantify RIF after intracavitary brachytherapy (IB) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with TCM and compare it with LENT-SOMA. Thirty-nine women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages 0-I breast cancer, treated with lumpectomy and intracavitary brachytherapy delivered by accelerated partial breast irradiation (IBAPBI), were evaluated by two raters in a prospective manner pre-IBAPBI and every 6 months post-IBAPBI for development of RIF, using TCM and LENT-SOMA. TCM classification scale grades RIF as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe, corresponding to a change in TCM (ΔTCM) between the IBAPBI and nonirradiated breasts of ≤2.9, 3.0-5.9, 6.0-8.9, ≥9.0 mm, respectively. LENT-SOMA scale employs clinical palpation to grade RIF as 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe. Correlation coefficients-Intraclass (ICC), Pearson (r), and Cohen's kappa (κ)-were employed to assess reliability of TCM and LENT-SOMA. Multivariate and univariate linear models explored the relationship between RIF and anatomical parameters [bra cup size], antihormonal therapy, and dosimetric factors [balloon diameter, skin-to-balloon distance (SBD), V150, and V200]. Median time to follow-up from completion of IBAPBI is 3.6 years (range, 0.8-4.9 years). Median age is 69 years (range, 47-82 years). Median breast cup size is 39D (range, 34B-44DDD). Median balloon size is 41.2 cc (range, 37.6-50.0 cc), and median SBD is 1.4 cm (range, 0.2-5.5 cm). At pre-IBAPBI, TCM measurements demonstrate high interobserver agreement between two raters in all four quadrants of both breasts ICC ≥ 0.997 (95% CI 0.994-1.000). After 36 months, RIF is graded by TCM scale as 0

  4. Calibration of GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    GPS based high accuracy speed meter for vehicles is a special type of GPS speed meter which uses Doppler Demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the speed of a moving target. It is increasingly used as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed measurement, but acknowledged standard calibration methods are still lacking. To solve this problem, this paper presents the set-ups of simulated calibration, field test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical sensor based non-contact speed meter. All the experiments were carried out on particular speed values in the range of (40-180) km/h with the same GPS speed meter. The speed measurement errors of simulated calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1 km/h or +/-0.1%, with uncertainties smaller than 0.02% (k=2). The errors of replay calibration fall in the range of +/-0.1% with uncertainties smaller than 0.10% (k=2). The calibration results justify the effectiveness of the two methods. The relative deviations of the GPS speed meter from the optical sensor based noncontact speed meter fall in the range of +/-0.3%, which validates the use of GPS speed meter as reference instruments. The results of this research can provide technical basis for the establishment of internationally standard calibration methods of GPS speed meters, and thus ensures the legal status of GPS speed meters as reference equipment in the field of traffic speed metrology.

  5. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Carlos A. Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G{sub 1} arrest, increase in sub-G{sub 1} fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios ({+-} SE) of 1.5 ({+-} 0.2) and 1.3 ({+-} 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53.

  6. NOTE: Visible absorption properties of radiation exposed XR type-T radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2004-10-01

    The visible absorption spectra of Gafchromic XR type-T radiochromic film have been investigated to analyse the dosimetry characteristics of the film with visible light densitometers. Common densitometers can use photo-spectrometry, fluorescent light (broad-band visible), helium neon (632 nm), light emitting diode (LED) or other specific bandwidth spectra. The visible absorption spectra of this film when exposed to photon radiation show peaks at 676 nm and 618 nm at 2 Gy absorbed doses which shift to slightly lower wavelengths (662 nm and 612 nm at 8 Gy absorbed dose) at higher doses. This is similar to previous models of Gafchromic film such as MD-55-2 and HS but XR type-T also includes a large absorption at lower visible wavelengths due to 'yellow' dyes placed within the film to aid with visible recognition of the film exposure level. The yellow dye band pass is produced at approximately 520 nm to 550 nm and absorbs wavelengths lower than this value within the visible spectrum. This accounts for the colour change from yellow to brown through the added absorption in the red wavelengths with radiation exposure. The film produces a relatively high dose sensitivity with up to 0.25 OD units per Gy change at 672 nm at 100 kVp x-ray energy. Variations in dose sensitivity can be achieved by varying wavelength analysis.

  7. Research on the calibration of ultraviolet energy meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fangsheng; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a kind of non-lighting radiation with the wavelength range from 100nm to 400nm. Ultraviolet irradiance meters are now widely used in many areas. However, as the development of science and technology, especially in the field of light-curing industry, there are more and more UV energy meters or UV-integrators need to be measured. Because the structure, wavelength band and measured power intensity of UV energy meters are different from traditional UV irradiance meters, it is important for us to take research on the calibration. With reference to JJG879-2002, we SIMT have independently developed the UV energy calibration device and the standard of operation and experimental methods for UV energy calibration in detail. In the calibration process of UV energy meter, many influencing factors will affect the final results, including different UVA-band UV light sources, different spectral response for different brands of UV energy meters, instability and no uniformity of UV light source and temperature. Therefore we need to take all of these factors into consideration to improve accuracy in UV energy calibration.

  8. Spatial phase stepping wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrel, Yves; García-Márquez, Jorge; Fodor, Jozsua; Juncar, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    A new way of evaluating the ratio between a reference wavelength radiation and an unknown wavelength radiation in a two-beam interferometer is proposed here. The advantage of two-beam interferometry is the sinusoidal fringe signal for which precise phase detection algorithms exist. Modern algorithms can cope with different sources of errors, and correct them. We recall the principle of the Michelson-type lambdameter using temporal interference and we introduce the Young-type lambdameter using spatial interference. The Young-type lambdameter is based on the acquisition of the interference pattern from two point sources (e.g. two ends of monomode fibres projected onto a CCD camera). The measurement of an unknown wavelength can be achieved by comparing with a reference wavelength. Accurate interference phase maps can be calculated using spatial phase shifting. In this way, each small group of contiguous pixels acts as a single interferometer, and the whole set of pixels corresponds to many hundreds or thousands of interferometric measurement system units. The analysis of uncertainties shows that resolutions better than 10-7 can be achieved. An advantage of the fibre wavelength metre described here is the measurement velocity that takes only a few seconds.

  9. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on Clostridium botulinum type E under various parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Y.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spores of Clostridium botulinum type E strain Eklund (Eklund) was irradiated with gamma radiation and its recovery was tested on the tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract-agar (TPGYA) containing various levels of NaCl and Na-thioglycollate. The presence of 0.5% or more NaCl in the media decreased the viable counts, while Na-thioglycollate of up to 0.15% did not affect the recovery of both irradiated and non-irradiated spores. Eklund spores were also irradiated under air (21% O/sub 2/), N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/, with or without the additive of one of the following agents (additive/concentration): disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 0.01 M; t-butanol, 0.1 M; NaCl, 0.01 M; catalyze, 10 mg/ml and DL-cysteine, 0.1 mM. Radiation process was most effective in destroying the spores when carried out under air (21% O/sub 2/), followed by N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/. Among the additives tested, EDTA was the most efficient protector followed by t-butanol when irradiation process was carried under N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/ gas environment. Catalase and DL-cysteine sensitized the spores when irradiated under N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/, while NaCl only sensitized under N/sub 2/. Spores kept frozen at -75/sup 0/C for 30 days but thawed prior to irradiation were more sensitive to radiation damage than freshly prepared spores. Radiation resistance of the spores increased when 15% glycerol was added to the phosphate bugger (0.06 M, pH 7.0) and used as suspending media. When the concentration of the spore increased from 10/sup 6//ml to 10/sup 11//ml, the radiosensitivities also increased. Seven strains of C. botulinum type E were screened for plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  11. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  12. The One-Meter Dash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Mattie J.

    1977-01-01

    A game for two teams employs dice, meter sticks, and Cuisenaire rods. The game gives practice in number facts, regrouping, and use of rods; it can also serve as an introduction to the metric system. (SD)

  13. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  14. Computational model of collisional-radiative nonequilibrium plasma in an air-driven type laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2010-05-06

    A thrust power of a gas-driven laser-propulsion system is obtained through interaction with a propellant gas heated by a laser energy. Therefore, understanding the nonequilibrium nature of laser-produced plasma is essential for increasing available thrust force and for improving energy conversion efficiency from a laser to a propellant gas. In this work, a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for air plasma has been developed to study the effects of nonequilibrium atomic and molecular processes on population densities for an air-driven type laser propulsion. Many elementary processes are considered in the number density range of 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 3}<=N<=10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} and the temperature range of 300 K<=T<=40,000 K. We then compute the unsteady nature of pulsively heated air plasma. When the ionization relaxation time is the same order as the time scale of a heating pulse, the effects of unsteady ionization are important for estimating air plasma states. From parametric computations, we determine the appropriate conditions for the collisional-radiative steady state, local thermodynamic equilibrium, and corona equilibrium models in that density and temperature range.

  15. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  16. A compact laparoscope type radiation source for the pin-point cancer treatment using a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, N.; Muramatsu, H.; Ueda, M.; Yanagimoto, C.; Miyazawa, M.; Kajiwara, E.

    2012-02-01

    Focusing a femto-second laser (1 mJ/pulse repetition 1 kHz) on a special tape, a strong radiation consisting of the electron beam of ~ 200 keV and X-rays of ~ 6.4 keV (5 %) has been generated. It has been verified that the radiation source is sufficient to kill the tumor cells and the DNA laddering structure in the in-vivo test is obtained. More test implanting the tumor under the skin of mouse and irradiating the laser-generated radiation, we have shown the radiation has a clear powerful therapeutic capability. For about 80 % of mice irradiated, their tumor disappeared. For further clinical test use, a compact laparoscope-type unit mounted on an articulated arm has been constructed and it can generate the necessary amount of the radiation dose.

  17. Search for Neutrino Radiation from Collapsing Stars and the Sensitivity of Experiments to the Different Types of Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadykin, V. L.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.

    2013-11-01

    The experiments running to search for neutrino radiation from collapsing stars up to now traditionally take one's bearings for the detection of the ˜ ν e p -> e^ + n reaction and, accordingly, for the use of the hadrogenate targets. The observation of neutrino radiation from SN1987A showed that it is important to have in the composition of the targets beside the hadrogen also other nuclei suitable to neutrino radiation detection. In particular the presence of iron nuclei in the LSD provided for the sensational detection of νe flux at 2:52 UT on February 23 1987 when other more powerful detectors with their hadrogenate targets could not respond to this type of neutrino. The sensitivity of present searching experiments to different types of neutrino radiation from collapsing stars is discussed in the paper.

  18. Formation and annealing of radiation defects in tin-doped p-type germanium crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, V. V. Petukh, A. N.; Pokotilo, Ju. M.; Markevich, V. P.; Lastovskii, S. B.

    2012-05-15

    The effect of tin on the formation and annealing of radiation defects in p-type germanium crystals irradiated with 6-MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K is studied. It is shown that acceptor complexes SnV with a hole ionization enthalpy of 0.16 eV are dominant in irradiated Ge:(Sn, Ga) crystals after their heating to a temperature of 300 K. These complexes disappeared as a result of the annealing of irradiated crystals in the temperature range 30-75 Degree-Sign C. Annealing of irradiated crystals at temperatures in the range 110-150 Degree-Sign C brings about the formation of deep-level centers with a donor level at E{sub v} + 0.29 eV; this center is presumably related to a complex consisting of a tin atom and an interstitial gallium atom.

  19. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  20. Increase in nitric oxide and cyclic GMP of rat cerebellum by radio frequency burst-type electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, M; Takayama, K; Okada, J

    1993-01-01

    1. Using rat cerebellum supernatant, the effects of radio frequency (RF) burst-type electromagnetic (EM) field radiation on the production of cyclic GMP were examined under various conditions. The radiation was generated by a generator coil, and set at a 10 MHz radiation frequency, a 50% burst time, a 10 kHz burst rate and a 5 V peak-to-peak generator voltage. 2. When the cerebellum supernatant was incubated with both exogenous L-arginine (nitric oxide (NO) donor) and NADPH, and irradiated by an RF burst-type EM field, the production of cyclic GMP was increased significantly from a level of 21-22 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 to 25-26 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1. By contrast, such an effect was not found when the cerebellum supernatant was irradiated by an RF volley-type EM field. 3. When neither L-arginine nor NADPH were added to the cerebellum supernatant, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 6 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 and the radiation effect was not found. When the cerebellum supernatant was chelated with EDTA, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 7 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 and the radiation effect was not found. 4. Incubation with Methylene Blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, lowered the production of cyclic GMP to a level of 10-12 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1, and the radiation effect did not occur. On incubation with a NO synthase inhibitor, either NG-methyl-L-arginine or N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the production of cyclic GMP was lowered to a level of 10-12 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 or 5-9 nmol min-1 (g tissue)-1 respectively, and the radiation effect was not observed. 5. Using electrochemical NO probes, the production of NO in the cerebellum supernatant was detected. The concentration of NO increased gradually after the onset of the EM field radiation. The radiation effect persisted, and reached a maximum after the cessation of the radiation. 6. In an in vivo study, the arterioles of the frog web were dilated by the radiation

  1. Radiation protection approach to assessing population risk for threshold-type radiobiological effects

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    The potential harm to a population exposed to radiation from a nuclear accident, such as the one that recently occurred at the Chernobyl plant in the Soviet Union, is of concern to many individuals. The average dose to a population is a useful index of harm (IH) only for linear, nonthreshold-type, quantal (i.e., all-or-none) effects. For such radiobiological effects, the expected harm to the population is linearly related to the average dose. However, for nonstochastic effects, it is not. An IH is proposed for threshold-type nonstochastic effects which is based on a form of the Weibull model where, at low to moderate doses, the individual risk at dose X = D/D50 is given by the approximation Risk = ln(2)XV; where D50 is the absorbed radiation dose that produces the specified effect in one-half the population, D is the absorbed radiation dose, and V is a positive parameter. The dose, X, is in units of the D50. Use of this form of the Weibull model is limited to doses such that X is small in comparison to 1. An IH for the population can be obtained by defining a new variable, P = XV, in dimensionless units, because the individual risk is linearly related to P at low and moderate doses. The average value for P (given by (P)) for an exposed population can be used as an IH for the population when the maximum value for P does not exceed 1. Both P and (P) can be regarded as theoretical doses. The average risk for the population in terms of the average dose (P) is given by ln(2)*(P), and the expected cases of nonstochastic effects among N individuals by N*ln(2)*(P). As an example of the application of the average dose (P), the expected cases of temporary sterility in males among the approximately 135,000 people evacuated within 30 km of the Chernobyl plant is calculated to be about 200.

  2. Secure Metering Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundo, Carlo; Cimato, Stelvio; Masucci, Barbara

    The current trend on the Internet suggests that the majority of revenues of web sites come from the advertising potential of the World Wide Web. Advertising is arguably the type of commercial information exchange of the greatest economic importance in the real world. Indeed, advertising is what funds most other forms of information exchange, including radio stations, television stations, cable networks, magazines, and newspapers. According to the figures provided by the Internet Advertising Bureau [24] and Price Waterhouse Coopers [43], advertising revenue results for the first 9 months of 2004 totaled slightly over 7.0 billion dollars.

  3. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  4. A coupled radiation transport-thermal analysis of the radiation shield for an SP-100 type reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barattino, William J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; McDaniel, Patrick J.

    A coupled radiation transport-thermal analysis of the radiation shield for an SP-100 reactor was performed using finite element codes developed at the University of New Mexico and Sandia National Laboratories. For a fast reactor operating at 1.66 MWt, the energy deposited and resulting temperature distribution were determined for a shield consisting of tungsten and lithium hydride pressed into a stainless steel honeycomb matrix. While temperature feedback was shown to have a minor effect on energy deposition, the shielding configuration was found to have a major influence in meeting thermal requirements of the lithium hydride. It was shown that a shield optimized only for radiation protection will fail because of LiH melting. However, with minor modifications in the shield layering and material selection, the thermal integrity of the shield can be preserved. A shield design of graphite, depleted lithium hydride, tungsten, and natural lithium hydride was shown to satisfy neutron and gamma fluence requirements, and maximum temperature limits, and to minimize cracking in the LiH portion of the shield.

  5. MAGIC-type polymer gel for three-dimensional dosimetry: intensity-modulated radiation therapy verification.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Helen; Karlsson, Anna; Bäck, Sven A J; Olsson, Lars E; Haraldsson, Pia; Engström, Per; Nyström, Håkan

    2003-06-01

    A new type of polymer gel dosimeter, which responds well to absorbed dose even when manufactured in the presence of normal levels of oxygen, was recently described by Fong et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 3105-3113 (2001)] and referred to by the acronym MAGIC. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this new type of gel for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification. Gel manufacturing was carried out in room atmosphere under normal levels of oxygen. IMRT inverse treatment planning was performed using the Helios software. The gel was irradiated using a linear accelerator equipped with a dynamic multileaf collimator, and intensity modulation was achieved using sliding window technique. The response to absorbed dose was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared with regard to in-plane isodoses and dose volume histograms. In addition, the spatial and dosimetric accuracy was evaluated using the gamma formalism. Good agreement between calculated and measured data was obtained. In the isocenter plane, the 70% and 90% isodoses acquired using the different methods are mostly within 2 mm, with up to 3 mm disagreement at isolated points. For the planning target volume (PTV), the calculated mean relative dose was 96.8 +/- 2.5% (1 SD) and the measured relative mean dose was 98.6 +/- 2.2%. Corresponding data for an organ at risk was 34.4 +/- 0.9% and 32.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively. The gamma criterion (3 mm spatial/3% dose deviation) was fulfilled for 94% of the pixels in the target region. Discrepancies were found in hot spots the upper and lower parts of the PTV, where the measured dose was up to 11% higher than calculated. This was attributed to sub optimal scatter kernels used in the treatment planning system dose calculations. Our results indicate great potential for IMRT verification using MAGIC-type polymer gel.

  6. LINEAR COUNT-RATE METER

    DOEpatents

    Henry, J.J.

    1961-09-01

    A linear count-rate meter is designed to provide a highly linear output while receiving counting rates from one cycle per second to 100,000 cycles per second. Input pulses enter a linear discriminator and then are fed to a trigger circuit which produces positive pulses of uniform width and amplitude. The trigger circuit is connected to a one-shot multivibrator. The multivibrator output pulses have a selected width. Feedback means are provided for preventing transistor saturation in the multivibrator which improves the rise and decay times of the output pulses. The multivibrator is connected to a diode-switched, constant current metering circuit. A selected constant current is switched to an averaging circuit for each pulse received, and for a time determined by the received pulse width. The average output meter current is proportional to the product of the counting rate, the constant current, and the multivibrator output pulse width.

  7. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liufu; Liang, Hua; Xu, Meng; Yang, Xuanming; Burnette, Byron; Arina, Ainhoa; Li, Xiao-Dong; Mauceri, Helena; Beckett, Michael; Darga, Thomas; Huang, Xiaona; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chen, Zhijian J; Fu, Yang-Xin; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2014-11-20

    Ionizing radiation-mediated tumor regression depends on type I interferon (IFN) and the adaptive immune response, but several pathways control I IFN induction. Here, we demonstrate that adaptor protein STING, but not MyD88, is required for type I IFN-dependent antitumor effects of radiation. In dendritic cells (DCs), STING was required for IFN-? induction in response to irradiated-tumor cells. The cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) mediated sensing of irradiated-tumor cells in DCs. Moreover, STING was essential for radiation-induced adaptive immune responses, which relied on type I IFN signaling on DCs. Exogenous IFN-? treatment rescued the cross-priming by cGAS or STING-deficient DCs. Accordingly, activation of STING by a second messenger cGAMP administration enhanced antitumor immunity induced by radiation. Thus radiation-mediated antitumor immunity in immunogenic tumors requires a functional cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and suggests that cGAMP treatment might provide a new strategy to improve radiotherapy.

  8. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a tumor-bearing mouse model is associated with enhanced Type-2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yacheng; Mei, Zijie; Zhang, Shimin; Yang, Jie; Li, Xin; Yao, Ye; Xie, Conghua

    2016-03-01

    Lung fibrosis may be associated with Type-2 polarized inflammation. Herein, we aim to investigate whether radiation can initiate a Type-2 immune response and contribute to the progression of pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing animals. We developed a tumor-bearing mouse model with Lewis lung cancer to receive either radiation therapy alone or radiation combined with Th1 immunomodulator unmethylated cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN). The Type-2 immune phenotype in tumors and the histological grade of lung fibrosis were evaluated in mice sacrificed three weeks after irradiation. Mouse lung tissues were analyzed for hydroxyproline and the expression of Type-1/Type-2 key transcription factors (T-bet/GATA-3). The concentration of Type-1/Type-2 cytokines in serum was measured by cytometric bead array. Lung fibrosis was observed to be more serious in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice post-irradiation. The fibrosis score in irradiated tumor-bearing mice on Day 21 was 4.33 ± 0.82, which was higher than that of normal mice (2.00 ± 0.63; P < 0.05). Hydroxyproline and GATA-3 expression were increased in the lung tissues of tumor-bearing mice following irradiation. CpG-ODN attenuated fibrosis by markedly decreasing GATA-3 expression. Serum IL-13 and IL-5 were elevated, whereas INF-γ and IL-12 expression were decreased in irradiated tumor-bearing mice. These changes were reversed after CpG-ODN treatment. Thus, Type-2 immunity in tumors appeared to affect the outcome of radiation damage and might be of interest for future studies on developing approaches in which Type-1-related immunotherapy and radiotherapy are used in combination.

  9. Pros and cons of solid state metering

    SciTech Connect

    Via, R.B.

    1995-10-01

    This paper addresses the problems and benefits of microprocessor based metering systems for electric power. The topics of the paper include historical aspects of power metering, mechanical meters, operating environments of power meters, reliability, cost, industry and customer acceptance, service life, and ease of adaptability to new rate structures.

  10. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m∕s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g∕s (0.29 to 2.99 m∕s; Re = 2688 to 26,876).

  11. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland.

  12. The effects of vertical motion on the performance of current meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thibodeaux, K.G.; Futrell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A series of tests to determine the correction coefficients for Price type AA and Price type OAA current meters, when subjected to vertical motion in a towing tank, have been conducted. During these tests, the meters were subjected to vertical travel that ranged from 1.0 to 4.0 ft and vertical rates of travel that ranged from 0.33 to 1.20 ft/sec while being towed through the water at speeds ranging from 0 to 8 ft/sec. The tests show that type AA and type OAA current meters are affected adversely by the rate of vertical motion and the distance of vertical travel. In addition, the tests indicate that when current meters are moved vertically, correction coefficients must be applied to the observed meter velocities to correct for the registration errors that are induced by the vertical motion. The type OAA current meter under-registers and the type AA current meter over-registers in observed meter velocity. These coefficients for the type OAA current meter range from 0.99 to 1.49 and for the type AA current meter range from 0.33 to 1.07. When making current meter measurements from a boat or a cableway, errors in observed current meter velocity will occur when the bobbing of a boat or cableway places the current meter into vertical motion. These errors will be significant when flowing water is < 2 ft/sec and the rate of vertical motion is > 0.3 ft/sec. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Radiation-induced change of optical property of hydroxypropyl cellulose hydrogel containing methacrylate compounds: As a basis for development of a new type of radiation dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinichi; Hiroki, Akihiro; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogels with matrix of a cellulose derivative, hydrogel of hydroxpropyl cellulose (HPC), containing two of methacrylate compounds (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (9G)) were irradiated with 60Co γ-rays. The gels become white with irradiation, and thus, could be candidates of a new type of radiation dosimeter utilized in radiation therapy because the gels become white with irradiation and can be confirmed directly by human eyes even at low doses of 1-2 Gy. Radiation-induced change of optical properties, haze value and UV-vis absorption spectrum, of the irradiated gels was measured. Dose response of the white turbidity appearance was different for different compositions of the methacrylate compounds as well as for different dose rates. The degree of the radiation-induced white turbidity was quantified by measuring haze value, showing linear dose response in low dose region (<2 Gy). We also analyzed the gels with a UV-vis spectrometer and HEMA- and 9G-rich gels gave different spectral shapes, indicating that there are at least two mechanisms leading to the white turbidity. In addition, dose rate dependence was smaller for 9G-rich gels than HEMA-rich gels in the range of 0.015-1.5 Gy/min.

  14. Evaluation of a pulse counting type SOI pixel using synchrotron radiation X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, R.; Arai, Y.; Igarashi, N.; Kumai, R.; Lu, Y.; Miyoshi, T.; Nishimura, R.; Ouyang, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Kishimoto, S.

    2017-03-01

    Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology was used to develop a fine pixelated detector with high performance. The first beam test for a prototype pulse-counting-type SOI chip, CPIXTEG3b, was performed at beamline BL-14A of the Photon Factory, KEK. CPIXTEG3b was designed using double SOI technology for decreasing crosstalk and increasing radiation hardness. It has a 64 × 64 pixel array wherein each pixel size is 50 μm × 50 μm. The sensitivity to incident X-rays was measured for each pixel with an X-ray beam 10 μm in diameter. We used the X-ray energy of 16 keV. Because of its small size, the pixel response was sensitive to the charge-sharing effect. We also considered the point spread function of the sensor. The discriminator of each pixel circuit was calibrated using a pulse generator, and performance was checked using flat-field X-rays.

  15. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  16. Perceptions of Radiation Oncologists and Urologists on Sources and Type of Evidence to Inform Prostate Cancer Treatment Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Leona C.; Delpe, Sophia; Shah, Nilay D.; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y.; Tilburt, Jon C.; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Nguyen, Paul L.; Gross, Cary P.; Yu, James B.; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Sun, Maxine; Ranasinghe, Weranja K.B.; Kim, Simon P.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To perform a national survey of radiation oncologists and urologists about the type of resources used and the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice in localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From a random sample, 1422 physicians were mailed a survey assessing the types of information used and what level of evidence could alter their clinical practice in prostate cancer. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify differences in physician characteristics for each outcome. Results: Survey response rates were similar for radiation oncologists and urologists (44% vs 46%; P=.46). Specialty-specific journals represented the most commonly used resource for informing the clinical practice for radiation oncologists (65%) and urologists (70%). Relative to radiation oncologists, urologists were less likely to report utilizing top-tier medical journals (25% vs 39%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50; P=.01) or cancer journals (22% vs 51%; adjusted OR 0.50; P<.001) but more likely to rely on clinical guidelines (46% vs 38%; adjusted OR 1.6; P=.006). Both radiation oncologists and urologists most commonly reported large randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence to change treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer (85% vs 77%; P=.009). Conclusions: Both specialties rely on their own specialty-specific journals and view randomized, clinical trials as the level of evidence needed to change clinical practice. Our study provides a context on meaningful ways of disseminating evidence for localized prostate cancer.

  17. Holocene carbon dynamics and radiative forcing of three different types of peatlands in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Väliranta, Minna; Lohila, Annalea; Minkkinen, Kari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Korrensalo, Aino

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands contain approximately a third of all soil carbon globally and as they exchange carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) copiously with the atmosphere, changes in peatland carbon budgets have a large impact on the global carbon balance and the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. There has been a growing interest in reconstructing and linking peatland carbon dynamics to past climate variations, because quantitative reconstructions can be used as a basis for future carbon balance predictions. In order to increase our understanding on peatland development and response patterns we quantitatively reconstructed Holocene carbon dynamics of three different peatlands in Finland: a subarctic fen, a boreal peatland complex and a boreal managed pine bog. Several cores from each peatland were investigated. The peatlands showed distinct successional pathways, which were sometimes triggered by fires. Successional stages were partly reflected in carbon accumulation patterns. Sometimes variations in carbon accumulation rates coincided with autogenic changes in peat type and vegetation, but accumulation rates were also related to the large-scale Holocene climate phases. However, Holocene climate changes as such did not seem to result in changes in the peat plant species composition. The mid-Holocene warm and dry climate conditions reduced the carbon accumulation in the subarctic fen and in the fen part of the boreal peatland complex, but when the peatland was in bog phase this effect was not visible. Some bog cores showed a clear increase in carbon accumulation after fen-bog transition, but the pattern was not unanimous. In addition to carbon accumulation, we estimated past CH4 emissions for each peatland respectively by applying different methods and by utilising the established current vegetation-CH4 emission relationship. The reconstructions showed that CH4 emissions always decreased during bog stages, but that the CH4 emissions played a major role in the

  18. Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  19. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  20. Adding chemo after radiation treatment improves survival for adults with a type of brain tumor

    Cancer.gov

    Adults with low-grade gliomas, a form of brain tumor, who received chemotherapy following completion of radiation therapy lived longer than patients who received radiation therapy alone, according to long-term follow-up results from a NIH-supported random

  1. Evidence of Dopant Type-Inversion and Other Radiation Damage Effects of the CDF Silicon Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ballarin, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this document is to study the effect of radiation damage on the silicon sensors. The reflection of the effect of radiation can be observed in two fundamental parameters of the detector: the bias current and the bias voltage. The leakage current directly affects the noise, while the bias voltage is required to collect the maximum signal deposited by the charged particle.

  2. Identification of aerosol types over Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to optical properties and associated radiative forcing.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Srivastava, A K; Singh, A K; Singh, Sachchidanand

    2015-08-01

    The aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) are a mixture of sulfate, dust, black carbon, and other soluble and insoluble components. It is a challenge not only to identify these various aerosol types, but also to assess the optical and radiative implications of these components. In the present study, appropriate thresholds for fine-mode fraction and single-scattering albedo have been used to first identify the aerosol types over IGB. Four major aerosol types may be identified as polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), black carbon-enriched (BCE), and organic carbon-enriched (OCE). Further, the implications of these different types of aerosols on optical properties and radiative forcing have been studied. The aerosol products derived from CIMEL sun/sky radiometer measurements, deployed under Aerosol Robotic Network program of NASA, USA were used from four different sites Karachi, Lahore, Jaipur, and Kanpur, spread over Pakistan and Northern India. PD is the most dominant aerosol type at Karachi and Jaipur, contributing more than 50% of all the aerosol types. OCE, on the other hand, contributes only about 12-15% at all the stations except at Kanpur where its contribution is ∼38%. The spectral dependence of AOD was relatively low for PD aerosol type, with the lowest AE values (<0.5); whereas, large spectral dependence in AOD was observed for the remaining aerosol types, with the highest AE values (>1.0). SSA was found to be the highest for OCE (>0.9) and the lowest for BCE (<0.9) type aerosols, with drastically different spectral variability. The direct aerosol radiative forcing at the surface and in the atmosphere was found to be the maximum at Lahore among all the four stations in the IGB.

  3. Tether radiation in Juno-type and circular-equatorial Jovian orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Torres, A.; Sanmartin, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Wave radiation by a conductor carrying a steady current in both a polar, highly eccentric, low perijove orbit, as in NASA's planned Juno mission, and an equatorial low Jovian orbit (LJO) mission below the intense radiation belts, is considered. Both missions will need electric power generation for scientific instruments and communication systems. Tethers generate power more efficiently than solar panels or radioisotope power systems (RPS). The radiation impedance is required to determine the current in the overall tether circuit. In a cold plasma model, radiation occurs mainly in the Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes, exhibiting a large refraction index. The radiation impedance of insulated tethers is determined for both modes and either mission. Unlike the Earth ionospheric case, the low-density, highly magnetized Jovian plasma makes the electron gyrofrequency much larger than the plasma frequency; this substantially modifies the power spectrum for either mode by increasing the Alfvén velocity. Finally, an estimation of the radiation impedance of bare tethers is considered. In LJO, a spacecraft orbiting in a slow downward spiral under the radiation belts would allow determining magnetic field structure and atmospheric composition for understanding the formation, evolution, and structure of Jupiter. Additionally, if the cathodic contactor is switched off, a tether floats electrically, allowing e-beam emission that generate auroras. On/off switching produces bias/current pulses and signal emission, which might be used for Jovian plasma diagnostics.

  4. Effect of cloud cover and surface type on earth's radiation budget derived from the first year of ERBE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, G. G.; Denn, F. M.; Young, D. F.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Barkstrom, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    One year of ERBE data is analyzed for variations in outgoing LW and absorbed solar flux. Differences in land and ocean radiation budgets as well as differences between clear-sky and total scenes, including clouds, are studied. The variation of monthly average radiative parameters is examined for February 1985 through January 1986 for selected study regions and on zonal and global scales. ERBE results show significant seasonal variations in both outgoing LW and absorbed SW flux, and a pronounced difference between oceanic and continental surfaces. The main factors determining cloud radiative forcing in a given region are solar insolation, cloud amount, cloud type, and surface properties. The strongest effects of clouds are found in the midlatitude storm tracks over the oceans. Over much of the globe, LW warming is balanced by SW cooling. The annual-global average net cloud forcing shows that clouds have a net cooling effect on the earth for the year.

  5. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Government Program Briefing: Smart Metering

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Peterson, K.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted and updated from a memo delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in March 2008. This briefing piece provides an overview of the benefits, costs, and challenges of smart metering.

  7. Reflective-tube absorption meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Bartz, Robert; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    The design and calibration of a proposed in situ spectral absorption meter is evaluated using a laboratory prototype. The design includes a silver coated (second-surface) glass tube, a tungsten light source (stabilized by means of optical feedback), a monochromator, and a solid state detector. The device measures the absorption coefficient plus a portion of the volume scattering function. Theoretical analyses and laboratory experiments which explore the magnitude and variation of the errors due to scattering and internal reflections are described. Similar analyses are performed on the Cary 1 18 Spectrophotometer to allow cross calibration. Algorithms to yield the abscrption coefficient and the zenith-sun diffuse attenuation coefficient are presented and evaluated. Simultaneous measurement of the beam attenuation or backscattering coefficient allows use of algoriThms with much narrower error bands. The various methods of obtaining absorption and diffuse attenuation values are compared. Procedures for using reverse osmosis filtration to produce a clean water calibration standard are described. An absorption spectrum for pure water is obtained. Development of the absorption meter is proceeding along two lines: 1) a two-wavelength side-by-side LED is being fabricated to allow an in situ chlorophyll a absorption meter to be constructed, and 2) scientific projects using a shipboard or laboratory flow.-through pumping system are being planned.

  8. Transcriptional response of wild-type and ataxia telangiectasia lymphoblasts following exposure to equitoxic doses of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Klising-Sireul, Eve; Rigaud, Odile; Ory, Katherine; Ugolin, Nicolas; Lebeau, Jérome; Levalois, Céline; Lectard, Bruno; Chevillard, Sylvie

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were designed to compare the transcriptional response to ionizing radiation (IR) of wild-type (WT) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells. mRNA levels were assessed 2, 4 and 24 h after exposure to equitoxic doses using cDNA microarrays. Data reveal distinct patterns of gene expression between AT and WT cells since IR-responsive genes were mostly cell-type specific, this group representing 87 and 94% of the responding genes in WT and AT cells, respectively. In both cell lines, transcriptional alterations of genes associated with proliferation correlated with the observed cell cycle and growth data. Deregulated genes involved in apoptosis suggest that wild-type cells were more prone to cell death by apoptosis than AT cells. Furthermore, genes associated with the response to oxidative stress were particularly deregulated in wild-type cells whereas alterations of genes related to unexpected pathways including RNA processing, protein synthesis and lipid metabolism were specifically found in irradiated AT cells. These data suggest that under radiation conditions leading to a similar survival of WT and AT cells, the mechanisms triggered after radiation were mainly dependent on ATM status and thus on the intrinsic radiosensitivity.

  9. Analysis of proteome response to the mobile phone radiation in two types of human primary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of mobile phones has widely increased over the past decade. However, in spite of the extensive research, the question of potential health effects of the mobile phone radiation remains unanswered. We have earlier proposed, and applied, proteomics as a tool to study biological effects of the mobile phone radiation, using as a model human endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 900 MHz GSM radiation has caused statistically significant changes in expression of numerous proteins. However, exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 1800 MHz GSM signal had only very small effect on cell proteome, as compared with 900 MHz GSM exposure. In the present study, using as model human primary endothelial cells, we have examined whether exposure to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation can affect cell proteome. Results Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells were exposed for 1 hour to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg. The cells were harvested immediately after the exposure and the protein expression patterns of the sham-exposed and radiation-exposed cells were examined using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis-based proteomics (2DE-DIGE). There were observed numerous differences between the proteomes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (both sham-exposed). These differences are most likely representing physiological differences between endothelia in different vascular beds. However, the exposure of both types of primary endothelial cells to mobile phone radiation did not cause any statistically significant changes in protein expression. Conclusions Exposure of primary human endothelial cells to the mobile phone radiation, 1800 MHz GSM signal for 1 hour at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg, does not affect protein expression, when the proteomes were examined

  10. On the effect of different aerosol types on surface solar radiation levels over the region of Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandri, Georgia; Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Meleti, Charikleia; Balis, Dimitris

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we examine the direct effect of different aerosol types on the surface solar radiation (SSR) levels in the region of Eastern Mediterranean. Simulations with the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model were performed using ground and satellite-based data as input. An IDL tool that "feeds" SBDART with the appropriate input data was developed allowing us to simulate SSR with a time step of 1 hour. Level-2 aerosol optical depth, cloud optical depth, cloud fraction, effective droplet radius, cloud top pressure, precipitable water and surface albedo data from MODIS, as well as ozone total column data from Earth Probe TOMS and OMI satellite sensors, coarse resolution cloud data from the ISCCP and single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and Angström exponent sunphotometric data from the AERONET are used in our radiative transfer simulations. Simulations are performed over selected spots within Eastern Mediterranean for clear, liquid cloud and ice cloud covered skies and for different aerosol types (maritime, dust, anthropogenic, fine-mode natural). The optical properties of aerosols were determined using a combination of satellite, ground-based, model and reanalysis products. The aerosol direct radiative effect is defined as the difference between simulations done with and without the presence of aerosols. This research has been financed by EPAN II and PEP under the national action "Bilateral, multilateral and regional R&T cooperations" (AEROVIS Sino-Greek project).

  11. Implementing Project-based Learning in making a weight meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliawan, W.; Nahar, W. S.; Sebastian, C. E.; Yuliza, E.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an activity, which can be done individually or in groups, that goes on over a period of time and its objective can be a product, presentation, or performance. It can make students develop their skills and become more engaged in learning because they can solve problems that are met in real life through a project. The project was a weight meter using a d.c. deflection-type bridge circuit and a VU meter, which was realized by a group of three students (the first three authors). We were of the 2nd year of undergraduate physics program that are taking the Measurement and Data Processing Techniques course in the period of January to April 2015. We worked together with our lecturer and tutor as our advisers. In making the weight meter, we have done the following roles in PjBL: 1. Planning the project and setting a timeline, 2. Doing research, 3. Creating first draft, 4. Rewriting the project report, and 5. Submitting the project. Under the guidance of timeline, the project has been completed timely. A force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor was employed to convert a body mass to resistance of the bridge circuit and the VU meter was modified to be a display of the weight meter. The weight meter could be used to measure a body mass up to 5 kg.

  12. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gustavious; Wald-Hopkins, Mark David; Obrey, Stephen J.; Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  13. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  14. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-10-21

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  15. How to use your peak flow meter

    MedlinePlus

    ... get your child used to them. Find Your Personal Best To find your personal best peak flow ... peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter Images How to measure peak flow References Durrani SR, ...

  16. Lasing action and extraordinary reduction in long radiative lifetime of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using circular photonic crystal nanocavity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Kung-Shu; Chang, Shu-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chun; Chang, Chih-Chi; Lin, Wei-Hsun; Lin, Shih-Yen; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2015-08-31

    We demonstrated the lasing action and remarkable reduction in long radiative lifetimes of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots using a circular photonic-crystal nano-cavity with high Purcell factors. The associated enhancement in carrier recombination was surprisingly high and could even surpass type-I counterparts in similar conditions. These phenomena reveal that the type-II sample exhibited extremely low nonradiative recombination so that weak radiative transitions were more dominant than expected. The results indicate that type-II nanostructures may be advantageous for applications which require controllable radiative transitions but low nonradiative depletions.

  17. Quantum speed meter based on dissipative coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.

    2017-01-01

    We consider dissipative coupling Fabry-Perot cavity, i.e. its input mirror transmittance depends on position of probe mass. We show that dissipative coupling provide possibility to realize quantum speed meter by natural way, without additional setup for subtraction of position x(t) and delayed position x(t-τ). Quantum speed meter is a quantum non demolition (QND) meter which allow to overcome Standatd Quantum Limit — we show it for speed meter based on dissipative coupling.

  18. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  19. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  20. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  1. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  2. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  3. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements... renewable energy facility must be measured by a standard metering device that— (a) Meets generally...

  4. Effect of ionising radiation treatment on the specific migration characteristics of packaging-food simulant combinations: effect of type and dose of radiation.

    PubMed

    Zygoura, P D; Paleologos, E K; Kontominas, M G

    2011-05-01

    Migration levels of acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) plasticiser from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film into the European Union specified aqueous food simulants (distilled water, 3% w/v acetic acid and 10% v/v ethanol) were monitored as a function of time. Migration testing was carried out at 40°C for 10 days. Determination of the analyte was performed by applying an analytical methodology based on surfactant (Triton X-114) mediated extraction prior to gas chromatographic-flame ionisation detection. PVC cling film used was subjected to ionising treatment with a [(60)Co] source, as well as to electron-beam irradiation at doses equal to 5, 15 and 25 kGy, with the aim to compare the effect of type and dose of radiation on the specific migration behaviour of PVC. Equilibrium concentrations of acetyl tributyl citrate into the aqueous solvents covered the ranges 173-422 µg l(-1) and 296-513 µg l(-1) for gamma- and electron-irradiated PVC, respectively. Hence, e-beam irradiation resulted in significantly higher ATBC migration compared with gamma treatment. The highest extraction efficiency of the 10% ethanol solution was common in both gamma and e-beam treatments; distilled water demonstrated the lowest migration. Gamma-irradiation at intermediate doses up to 5 kGy produced no statistically significant (p > 0.05) effect on ATBC migration into all three aqueous simulants; however, this does not apply for high-energy electrons. Both ionising treatments were similar in that they resulted in statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in plasticiser migrating amounts between non-irradiated and irradiated at doses of 15 and 25 kGy samples. Gamma-radiation did not affect the kinetics of plasticiser migration. On the contrary, electron-beam radiation produced shorter equilibration times for all food-simulating solvents tested at 40°C. The above values regarding ATBC migration into aqueous food simulants are far below the European Union restriction (1 mg kg(-1) body weight

  5. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Radiation from Rocket Exhaust Plumes. Part 1; Inhomogeneous Radiant Heat Transfer from Saturn Type Rocket Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Robert M.; Carlson, Donald J.

    1966-01-01

    A radiant heat transfer computer program has been developed by R-AERO-A to calculate radiation from inhomogeneous gases prevalent in Saturn-type exhaust plumes. The radiating species considered in this computer program are water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbon particles. The infrared spectral absorption characteristics of these species have been determined under NASA contract. Band model parameters have been used to represent the infrared spectral absorption coefficients over 25 cm-I increments. A modified Curtis-Goodson approximation is used in the inhomogeneous heat transfer calculation. This has been shown to give satisfactory results over the temperature and pressure range of interest in Saturn exhaust plumes. Results are shown for the Saturn-type engines for specific flow field assumptions. Some comparison with experimental spectroscopic data will also be presented. The effect of wavelength increment, field of view, and distance increment along the line of sight on the heat transfer will be discussed. Computer techniques for minimum computer time in calculating radiation from a three-dimensional flow field will also be outlined.

  7. GANRA-5 protects both cultured cells and mice from various radiation types by functioning as a free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Pei, H; Chen, W; Hu, W; Zhu, M; Liu, T; Wang, J; Zhou, G

    2014-06-01

    The radio-protective effects of the oxazolone derivative chemical compound 4-(4-methoxy-3-methoxyphenyl-methyl)-2-phenyl- 5(4H)-oxazolone (GANRA-5) against different types of radiation including X-rays, carbon ion beams, microwaves and ultraviolet light (UV) were studied. Cell proliferation/cytotoxicity assay and colony-forming assay were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of GANRA-5. To test its influence on the induction of double-stranded break (DSB) formation and genomic instability, γH2AX focus-forming assay as well as cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was utilized. Our results indicate that GANRA-5 exhibits low toxicity, while providing high radio-protective effects for MRC-5 cells against different types of radiation. We also found that GANRA-5 acts as a free radical scavenger. Our animal studies provided evidence that GANRA-5 significantly increases the survival rate of mice after X-ray irradiation. Analyses of hemogram, visceral index and detection of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the viscera indicate both low toxicity of GANRA-5, combined with its ability to shield radiation risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that GANRA-5 has the potential to be used as a safe and efficient radio-protectant.

  8. Resonant electronic transport through a triple quantum-dot with Λ-type level structure under dual radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Chun; Xing, Yunhui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhongshui

    2014-08-14

    Due to quantum interference, light can transmit through dense atomic media, a phenomenon known as electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We propose that EIT is not limited to light transmission and there is an electronic analog where resonant transparency in charge transport in an opaque structure can be induced by electromagnetic radiation. A triple-quantum-dots system with Λ-type level structure is generally opaque due to the level in the center dot being significantly higher and therefore hopping from the left dot to the center dot is almost forbidden. We demonstrate that an electromagnetically induced electron transparency (EIET) in charge of transport can indeed occur in the Λ-type system. The direct evidence of EIET is that an electron can travel from the left dot to the right dot, while the center dot apparently becomes invisible. We analyze EIET and the related shot noise in both the zero and strong Coulomb blockade regimes. It is found that the EIET (position, height, and symmetry) can be tuned by several controllable parameters of the radiation fields, such as the Rabi frequencies and detuning frequencies. The result offers a transparency/opaque tuning technique in charge transport using interfering radiation fields.

  9. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: metering

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    Time-differentiated metering of electricity consumption and demand is required in both rate-structure experimentation and the implementation of most time-of-use rate designs. Time-differentiated metering takes three major forms: multi-register watthour meters, magnetic-tape recording meters, and remote automatic meter-reading systems. The majority of projects selected magnetic-tape meters for their flexibility with respect to rate structure, load-survey capabilities, and ready availability. The small-scale, experimental nature of the projects reduced the significance of the large difference in per-unit cost and operational/maintenance complexity between this form of metering and the multi-register form. Magnetic-tape meters are not likely candidates for system-wide implementation of time-differentiated metering. Automatic remote-meter-reading systems were not adequately available during the project years; those projects attempting to use these were unable to bring them to full operational status before project termination, due to the many problems of design, quality control, and equipment acquisition encountered. Delays in acquisition and problems of quality control also followed the selection of magnetic-tape meters and multi-register meters by a number of the projects. Though less complex than automatic remote-reading systems, these technologies are still new and more complex than standard watthour metering. Thus, both equipment vendors and utilities encountered numerous problems in getting properly functioning meters to the service entrances on time. A variety of factors contributed to installation delays, including unforeseen space limitations, incompatible wiring, problems of task organization, and customer reluctance.

  10. COMPARISON OF RECORDING CURRENT METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable current-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording current meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the current meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.

  11. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan; Peng, Shengren

    2015-08-01

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM(0n) mode.

  12. Gigawatt-class radiation generated by a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Dapeng Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan; Peng, Shengren

    2015-08-15

    Particle simulation and experimental results are presented about a Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov-type high power millimeter wave generator in this paper. The relativistic electron beam with peak current of 8.4 kA was generated by a pulsed power accelerator working at the voltage of 625 kV, which was guided by an axial magnetic field of 1.05 T and transported through the beam-wave interaction structures. After careful calibration, the microwave power radiated in the far field was as high as about 500 MW, with a frequency of 32.1 GHz and a pulse width of 20 ns. The radiation mode was well controlled to be TM{sub 0n} mode.

  13. His+ reversions caused in Salmonella typhimurium by different types of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, H.; Thomas, W.H.; Fitzek, M.; Kellerer, A.M.

    1988-11-01

    The yield of his+ reversions in the Ames Salmonella tester strain TA2638 has been determined for 60Co gamma rays, 140 kV X rays, 5.4 keV characteristic X rays, 2.2 MeV protons, 3.1 MeV alpha particles, and 18 MeV/U Fe ions. Inactivation studies were performed with the same radiations. For both mutation and inactivation, the maximum effectiveness per unit absorbed dose was obtained for the characteristic X rays, which have a dose averaged linear energy transfer (LET) of roughly 10 keV/micron. The ratio of the effectiveness of this radiation to gamma rays was 2 for inactivation and about 1.4 for the his+ reversion. For both end points the effectiveness decreases substantially at high LET, i.e., for the alpha particles and the Fe ions. The composition of the bottom and the top agar was the one recommended by Maron and Ames for application in chemical mutagenicity tests. The experiments with the less penetrating radiations differed from the usual protocol by utilization of a technique of plating the bacteria on the surface of the top agar. As in an earlier study greatly enhanced yields of mutations, relative to the spontaneous reversion rate, were obtained in these experiments by performing the irradiations 6 h after plating, which differs from the conventional procedure to irradiate the bacteria shortly after plating.

  14. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianyong; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  15. The comparison of element partitioning in two types of thermal treatment facilities and the effects on potential radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Burger, L.L.; Baker, D.A.; Wallo, A. III; Vazquez, G.A.; Beck, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a technical analysis to support the potential development of risk-based, numerical radiological control criteria (RCC) for mixed waste from DOE operations. As part of the technical analysis, potential future radiation doses are being calculated for workers at thermal treatment facilities and members of the public residing near such facilities. This study compared two types of thermal treatment systems: a conventional combustion chamber with excess air, represented by a rotary kiln with afterburner, and an oxygen-deficient pyrolysis unit, represented by a plasma arc furnace. The purpose of the first part of this study is to estimate the partitioning for significant radionuclides and elements in the two types of thermal treatment systems. Excess-air systems are generally found to produce heavy-metal chlorides, oxides, and sulfates; plasma-arc systems tend to produce more volatile free metals. This difference causes a change in source term dominance from halide volatility to free metal volatility. Chemical thermodynamic methodology is used to estimate partitioning in the two treatment systems. The second part of the study examines how the potential radiation dose to workers handling residue materials is affected by partitioning of radionuclides at the different types of facilities.

  16. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printz, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to 1.5 ×1015neq /cm2 corresponding to 3000fb-1 after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20 cm < R < 110 cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolation but simultaneously high breakdown voltages. Therefore a study of the isolation characteristics with four different silicon sensor manufacturers has been executed in order to determine the most suitable p-stop parameters for the harsh radiation environment during HL-LHC. Several p-stop doping concentrations, doping depths and different p-stop pattern have been realized and experiments before and after irradiation with protons and neutrons have been performed and compared to T-CAD simulation studies with Synopsys Sentaurus. The measurements combine the electrical characteristics measured with a semi-automatic probestation with Sr90 signal measurements and analogue readout. Furthermore, some samples have been investigated with the help of a cosmic telescope with high resolution allowing charge collection studies of MIPs penetrating the sensor between two strips.

  17. Environmental projects, volume 10. Environmental assessment: New 34-meter antenna at Apollo site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) is part of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. A detailed description of the GDSCC is presented. At present the Venus Station has an unused 9-meter antenna and a 26-meter (85 ft) antenna known as DSS-13. Construction of a new 34-meter (111.5 ft) antenna at the Venus site is under way to replace the present DSS-13 26-meter antenna. The proposed construction at the Apollo Site of a new, high efficiency, 34-meter, multifrequency beam waveguide-type antenna to replace the aging, 20-year old, DSS-12 34-meter antenna located at the Echo Site is analyzed. This new 34-meter antenna, to be constructed at the Apollo Site and to be known as DSS-18, will be of a design similar to the new DSS-13 34-meter antenna now being constructed at the Venus Site. When the new 34-meter antenna is completed and operational at the Apollo Site (planned for 1993), the old DSS-12 34-meter antenna at the Echo Site will be decommissioned, dismantled, and removed.

  18. Price current-meter standard rating development by the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Schwarz, G.E.; Thibodeaux, K.G.; Turcios, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed new standard rating tables for use with Price type AA and pygmy current meters, which are employed to measure streamflow velocity. Current-meter calibration data, consisting of the rates of rotation of meters at several different constant water velocities, have shown that the original rating tables are no longer representative of the average responsiveness of newly purchased meters or meters in the field. The new rating tables are based on linear regression equations that are weighted to reflect the population mix of current meters in the field and weighted inversely to the variability of the data at each calibration velocity. For calibration velocities of 0.3 m/s and faster, at which most streamflow measurements are made, the new AA-rating predicts the true velocities within 1.5% and the new pygmy-meter rating within 2.0% for more than 95% of the meters. At calibration velocities, the new AA-meter rating is up to 1.4% different from the original rating, and the new pygmy-meter rating is up to 1.6% different.

  19. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  20. Use of flumes in metering discharge at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Schneider, V.R.

    1982-01-01

    Flumes for metering discharge are usually of two general types--critical-flow flumes and supercritical-flow flumes. In this report the principles underlying the design of each are discussed, the most commonly used flumes of each of the two types are described, and discharge ratings for each are presented. Considerations in choosing and fitting the appropriate flume for a given situation are discussed along with construction techniques and operational experiences.

  1. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.

    1992-11-01

    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  2. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by {gamma}-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-05

    Core shell type nanoparticle Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} systems with x=0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the {gamma}-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} source for different time intervals.

  3. Enrichment of magnetic alignment stimulated by γ-radiation in core-shell type nanoparticle Mn-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, P. P.; Tangsali, R. B.; Sonaye, B.; Sugur, S.

    2013-02-01

    Core shell type nanoparticle MnxZn1-xFe2O4 systems with x=0.55, 0.65 & 0.75 were prepared using autocombustion method. The systems were characterized using tools like XRD and IR for structure confirmation. Magnetic parameter measurements like Saturation magnetization and coercivity were obtained from hysteresis loop which exhibited a symmetry shift due to core shell nature of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of particle size between 21.2nm to 25.7nm were found to show 20 percent shrinkage after being radiated by the γ-radiation. This is due to variation in the cation distribution which also affects the cell volume of the cubic cell. Lattice constant reduction observed is reflected in the magnetic properties of the samples. A considerable hike in the saturation magnetization of the samples was observed due to enrichment of magnetic alignment in the magnetic core of the particles. Samples under investigation were irradiated with gamma radiation from Co60 source for different time intervals.

  4. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  5. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, John A.; Krueger, Frederick P.

    1988-09-20

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events.

  6. Dead-time compensation for a logarithmic display rate meter

    DOEpatents

    Larson, J.A.; Krueger, F.P.

    1987-10-05

    An improved circuit is provided for application to a radiation survey meter that uses a detector that is subject to dead time. The circuit compensates for dead time over a wide range of count rates by producing a dead-time pulse for each detected event, a live-time pulse that spans the interval between dead-time pulses, and circuits that average the value of these pulses over time. The logarithm of each of these values is obtained and the logarithms are subtracted to provide a signal that is proportional to a count rate that is corrected for the effects of dead time. The circuit produces a meter indication and is also capable of producing an audible indication of detected events. 5 figs.

  7. Influence of ionizing radiation on oxygen profiles in different types of multicellular spheroids

    SciTech Connect

    Nylen, T.; Acker, H.; Boelling, B.H.; Holterman, G.; Carlsson, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Human glioma (U-118 MG and U-138 MG), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human thyroid carcinoma (HTh 7), and hamster embryonic lung (V79-379A) spheroids were irradiated with either single doses of 16 or 40 Gy or fractionated doses of eight times 5 Gy. Oxygen profiles in the spheroids were measured with microelectrodes at different times following irradiation, and these profiles were then compared with the oxygen profiles measured in parallel cultured nonirradiated spheroids. No significant radiation-induced changes in the oxygen profiles were seen in any of the spheroids within the first few days after irradiation. The glioma spheroids did not show any significant increase in oxygen tension even after longer times; however, they were growth inhibited, and the number of S-phase cells was strongly suppressed. Increases in oxygen tension did occur in the HT-29 and V79-379A spheroids but only appeared more than a week after irradiation, when degeneration had started. Histological changes and decrease in diameter were seen in the spheroids that started to degenerate about 5 days after irradiation. Thus radiation doses in the therapeutic range did not, for the spheroids studied, produce rapid increases in the oxygen tension. When a change occurred, it appeared rather late and was probably a consequence of cell degeneration.

  8. [An investigation of ionizing radiation dose in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W F; Tang, S H; Tan, Q; Liu, Y M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To investigate radioactive source term dose monitoring and estimation results in a manufacturing enterprise of ion-absorbing type rare earth ore and the possible ionizing radiation dose received by its workers. Methods: Ionizing radiation monitoring data of the posts in the control area and supervised area of workplace were collected, and the annual average effective dose directly estimated or estimated using formulas was evaluated and analyzed. Results: In the control area and supervised area of the workplace for this rare earth ore, α surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 0.35 Bq/cm(2) and a minimum value of 0.01 Bq/cm(2); β radioactive surface contamination activity had a maximum value of 18.8 Bq/cm(2) and a minimum value of 0.22 Bq/cm(2). In 14 monitoring points in the workplace, the maximum value of the annual average effective dose of occupational exposure was 1.641 mSv/a, which did not exceed the authorized limit for workers (5 mSv/a) , but exceeded the authorized limit for general personnel (0.25 mSv/a) . The radionuclide specific activity of ionic mixed rare earth oxides was determined to be 0.9. Conclusion: The annual average effective dose of occupational exposure in this enterprise does not exceed the authorized limit for workers, but it exceeds the authorized limit for general personnel. We should pay attention to the focus of the radiation process, especially for public works radiation.

  9. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  10. Improvement of atomic models for NLTE radiative transfer in atmospheres of late type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Thévenin, F.; Pichon, B.; Bigot, L.

    2010-12-01

    We present our first results on NLTE line transfer for Mg I, Ca I and Ca II in atmospheres of late type stars. This work prepares for the analysis of future spectroscopic data of the Gaia mission. To do this, we have updated atomic models of magnesium and calcium. This work on NLTE effects will also be applied to correct the determination of LTE chemical abundances for late type stars.

  11. Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression by sunscreen in Candida albicans-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, QUAN; LI, RUNXIANG; ZHAO, XIAOXIA; LIANG, BIHUA; MA, SHAOYIN; LI, ZHENJIE; ZHU, HUILAN

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression leading to skin cancer has received increased attention in previous years. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoprotection offered by Anthelios sunscreen in a mouse model of Candida albicans-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Anthelios sunscreen was applied to the skin on the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice treated with a sub-erythema dose of solar-simulated radiation. Delayed-type hypersensitivity was induced by immunization with Candida albicans. Changes in the skin thickness of the foot pads were measured, and immunosuppression rates were also evaluated. The expression levels of CD207, CD80 and CD86 in the Langerhans cells were semi-quantitatively detected using Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays. The delayed-type hypersensitivity mouse model was successfully established. The minimal erythema doses of UVA and UVB exposure to the mice were 2,000 and 145 mJ/cm2, respectively. The immunosuppression rates in the sunscreen group and non-sunscreen group were 24.39 and 65.85%, respectively (P<0.01). The results of the Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of CD207 (P<0.01), CD80 (P<0.05) and CD86 (P<0.01) were higher in the sunscreen group, compared with those in the non-sunscreen group. UV exposure reduced Candida albicans antigen-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity. Anthelios sunscreen was found to protect the skin from immunosuppression through the activation of epidermal Langerhans cells. PMID:27175551

  12. Effects on the ocean carbon cycle from solar radiation management types of geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvset, Siv; Tjiputra, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Climate engineering is often brought up in the climate mitigation and adaptation discussions. Such action can be viewed as an additional method for reducing the impacts of global warming. However, much more research is required in order to assess both the feasibility and the safety of such methods. We present results from the Norwegian Earth System model (NorESM) for a future RCP8.5 scenario where solar radiation management in the form of stratospheric sulfur injection has been performed in order to limit the global warming. Since the CO2 emissions continue in this future, the impact climate engineering has on the global and regional ocean carbon sink is a key part of this research. We show that while global surface acidification is not significantly enhanced under climate engineering, there are significant changes in the ocean carbon cycle driven by changes in circulation and stratification, and changes in biological production.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation-based feasibility study of a dose-area product meter built into a collimator for diagnostic X-ray.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Park, MinSeok; Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Jeong, Hoiwoun; Kim, Jungmin

    2014-12-01

    According to the International Electro-technical Commission, manufacturers of X-ray equipment should indicate the number of radiation doses to which a patient can be exposed. Dose-area product (DAP) meters are readily available devices that provide dose indices. Collimators are the most commonly employed radiation beam restrictors in X-ray equipment. DAP meters are attached to the lower surface of a collimator. A DAP meter consists of a chamber and electronics. This separation makes it difficult for operators to maintain the accuracy of a DAP meter. Developing a comprehensive system that has a DAP meter in place of a mirror in the collimator would be effective for measuring, recording the dose and maintaining the quality of the DAP meter. This study was conducted through experimental measurements and a simulation. A DAP meter built into a collimator was found to be feasible when its reading was multiplied by a correction factor.

  14. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  15. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  16. Field experience with gas turbine meters

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    This paper discusses a company's experience and problems with turbine meters in a large offshore system. With the increased cost and decreasing reserves of natural gas, greater demands will be placed on gas measurement. Turbine meters have lent themselves well to the task and will continue to find more applications in the natural gas industry.

  17. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Montgomery, Sadie A.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Parker, Steven A.

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  18. Radiation Information from Other Agencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA does not license nuclear power plants or regulate the non-ionizing radiation from cell phones, smart meters or power lines. This page provides links to the state and Federal agencies that regulate these matters.

  19. Summary of types of radiation belt electron precipitation observed by BARREL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    The Balloon Array for Relativistic Radiation belt Electron Loss (BARREL) was able to infer precipitation of radiation belt electrons on multiple time scales and due to multiple loss mechanisms. One storm will be specifically highlighted which occurred on 26 January 2013 when a solar wind shock hit the Earth. Although MeV electrons were observed to be lost due to an EMIC wave event [Zhang et al in prep], and multiple periods of electron loss during substorms were observed [Rae et al submitted JGR, Mann et al in prep], we will consider an event period where loss associated with multiple time scales, and thus possibly different loss mechanisms was observed from 1000 - 1200 UT on 26 January 2013. At about 1005 UT on 26 January 2013 an injection of radiation belt electrons followed by drift echoes for energies of ˜80 - 400 keV. BARREL observed X-rays with energies less than 180 keV associated with multiple temporal structures during the drift echo event period. The Van Allen Probes were at similar L-values but upwards of 2 hours away in MLT. Upper band chorus and ULF waves were observed during the event period. Throughout the beginning of the event period, microbursts were clearly observed. During this time lower band chorus waves as well as time domain structures were observed at Van Allen Probe A located upwards of 2 hours away in MLT. This large difference in MLT meant that neither potential loss mechanism was able to be clearly associated with the microbursts. As the lower band chorus and time domain structures were observed to recede, the microbursts were also observed to subside. ULF time scale modulation of the X-rays was also observed throughout most of the event period. We will examine if the ULF waves are the cause of the precipitation themselves, or are modulating the loss of particles from a secondary loss mechanism [Brito et al 2015 JGR, Rae et al Submitted JGR]. Although the 100s ms and ULF time scales are clearly observed, there is an ˜20 minute

  20. [Research on Spectrum Radiation Characteristics of a New Type Infrared/ Ultraviolet Dual Color Decoy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-sheng; Dai, Meng-yan; Liu, Hai-feng; Xie, Chang-you; Zhang, Tong; Fang, Guo-feng

    2015-07-01

    The advantage of traditional MTV infrared decoys which are mainly consist of magnesium, Teflon and VITON is that it emits high radiant energy, so it is an effective countermeasure to traditional seekers which seek the target by heat source. The spectral radiant intensity which generated from high temperature combustion of MTV infrared decoys in near infrared region and ultraviolet band is very high, and that in Mid-IR region is relative lower, however the radiant intensity of real jet fighter in ultraviolet band is low and the infrared radiant intensity ratio of Mid-IR to near IR band is greater than 1. Thus, the traditional MTV infrared decoys are hardly able to counter the seekers equipped with dual color combined guidance system. Based on the spectral matching principle, we designed and prepared a new infrared/ultraviolet dual color decoy which is mainly consist of oxidant (wt% 45-75), fuel (wt% 10-25), energetic binder (wt% 25-50) and additives. We conducted theoretical calculations on combustion products of the reagent combinations using CEA (Chemic equilibrium & Application) software and initially determined the content of each component of the decoy formulation on the basis of the calculations results, then investigated the infrared radiation characteristics of decoys employing SR5000 spectrum radiometer and remote sensing interferometer spectrometer Tensor37 and analyzed the possible reasons for test results difference of the two systems separately from the test principle and calculation method, the testing environment, stability of testing results and other aspects. We studied the ultraviolet radiation characteristics of decoys using S2000 fiber optical spectrometer and the test results were consistent with the fighter ultraviolet radiant intensity which gained from theoretical calculation. We researched on the temperature characteristics of decoys by Imager IR 8325 mid-infrared thermal imager and it turned out that the dual color decoy is similar to the

  1. Burton-Miller-type singular boundary method for acoustic radiation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo-Jia; Chen, Wen; Gu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes the singular boundary method (SBM) in conjunction with Burton and Miller's formulation for acoustic radiation and scattering. The SBM is a strong-form collocation boundary discretization technique using the singular fundamental solutions, which is mathematically simple, easy-to-program, meshless and introduces the concept of source intensity factors (SIFs) to eliminate the singularities of the fundamental solutions. Therefore, it avoids singular numerical integrals in the boundary element method (BEM) and circumvents the troublesome placement of the fictitious boundary in the method of fundamental solutions (MFS). In the present method, we derive the SIFs of exterior Helmholtz equation by means of the SIFs of exterior Laplace equation owing to the same order of singularities between the Laplace and Helmholtz fundamental solutions. In conjunction with the Burton-Miller formulation, the SBM enhances the quality of the solution, particularly in the vicinity of the corresponding interior eigenfrequencies. Numerical illustrations demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the present scheme on some benchmark examples under 2D and 3D unbounded domains in comparison with the analytical solutions, the boundary element solutions and Dirichlet-to-Neumann finite element solutions.

  2. A Statistical Study of Solar Type-III Bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation Onsets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    19821. Solar flares often eject energetic particles into the solar wind . These streaming particles can be detected by satellite par- ticle detectors...The stream moving through the solar wind creates a bump-on-tail type electron distribution. Because fast particles arrive before the slow particles in...These antennas are designated I he S and Z atitennas, respectlivey. The experiment is designed to study the coronal magnetic tield and solar wind

  3. Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Radiation Filters and Couples' Fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Sapra, Katherine J.; Maisog, José; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2014-01-01

    Concern has arisen about benzophenone (BP) ultraviolet (UV) radiation filters, given their use in sunscreen and personal-care products and their reported estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity. We recruited 501 couples who were discontinuing use of contraceptives in order to become pregnant for the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment (LIFE) Study (Michigan and Texas, 2005–2009). Couples provided urine specimens and completed daily journals until they either achieved pregnancy or had tried for 12 months. Women used fertility monitors to time sexual intercourse and digital pregnancy tests. Urinary concentrations of 5 UV filters (ng/mL) were determined using triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry: 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (also called BP-1); 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (BP-2); 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3); 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-8); and 4-hydroxybenzophenone. Fecundability odds ratios were estimated for each UV filter (dichotomized at the 75th percentile) and adjusted for age, creatinine concentration, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), cotinine concentration, season, and site, while accounting for time off contraception. Separate models were fitted for each UV filter and partner; final models included partners' concentrations. Male partners' concentrations of BP-2 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were associated with reduced fecundity in adjusted models (fecundability odds ratio (FOR) = 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95) and FOR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.00), respectively). In models adjusting for both partners' concentrations, male BP-2 concentration remained associated with reduced fecundity (FOR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.97). These data suggest that male exposure to select UV filters may diminish couples' fecundity, resulting in a longer time to pregnancy. PMID:25395025

  4. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gustavious; Wald-Hopkins, Mark David; Obrey, Stephen J.; Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  5. Positional characteristics of meter-decameter wavelength bursts associated with hard X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Gergely, T. E.; Kane, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated and grouped type III bursts have been observed in temporal association with impulsive hard X-ray bursts in the 26-154 keV range, down to frequencies as low as 30 MHz and out to a distance of 3.1 solar radii from the disk center. The bursts occurred in regions whose electron density may have been as much as 20 times higher than that of the Newkirk-Saito model. The present observations indicate that electron acceleration/injection occurs over a region covering a wide range of magnetic field lines. It is noted that, of the two gradual hard X-ray bursts observed in association with type IV bursts, one was accompanied by a type II event, while the other was not, although both exhibited the same characteristics. It is suggested that the gradual burst associated with a type IV only involved electrons which are trapped in the plasmoid which produces the meter-decameter emission, while another fraction of the population is trapped in the low-lying loops which produce the hard X-ray and centimeter radiation.

  6. Midinfrared Photoluminescence up to 290 K Reveals Radiative Mechanisms and Substrate Doping-Type Effects of InAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiren; Zhuang, Qiandong; Alradhi, H; Jin, Zh M; Zhu, Liangqing; Chen, Xin; Shao, Jun

    2017-03-08

    Photoluminescence (PL) as a conventional yet powerful optical spectroscopy may provide crucial insight into the mechanism of carrier recombination and bandedge structure in semiconductors. In this study, mid-infrared PL measurements on vertically aligned InAs nanowires (NWs) are realized for the first time in a wide temperature range of up to 290 K, by which the radiative recombinations are clarified in the NWs grown on n- and p-type Si substrates, respectively. A dominant PL feature is identified to be from the type-II optical transition across the interfaces between the zinc-blend (ZB) and the wurtzite (WZ) InAs, a lower-energy feature at low temperatures is ascribed to impurity-related transition, and a higher-energy feature at high temperatures originates in the interband transition of the WZ InAs being activated by thermal-induced electron transfer. The optical properties of the ZB-on-WZ and WZ-on-ZB interfaces are asymmetric, and stronger nonradiative recombination and weaker carrier-phonon interaction show up in the NWs on p-type substrate in which built-in electric field forms and leads to carrier assembling around the WZ-on-ZB interface. The results indicate that wide temperature-range infrared PL analysis can serve as efficient vehicle for clarifying optical properties and bandedge processes of the crystal-phase interfaces in vertically aligned InAs NWs.

  7. Atomistic modeling and experimental studies of radiation damage in monazite-type LaPO4 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yaqi; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Neumeier, Stefan; Deissmann, Guido; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Gale, Julian D.

    2017-02-01

    We simulated the threshold displacement energies (Ed), the related displacement and defect formation probabilities, and the energy barriers in LaPO4 monazite-type ceramics. The obtained Ed values for La, P, O primary knock-on atoms (PKA) are 56 eV, 75 eV and 8 eV, respectively. We found that these energies can be correlated with the energy barriers that separate the defect from the initial states. The Ed values are about twice the values of energy barriers, which is explained through an efficient dissipation of the PKA kinetic energy in the considered system. The computed Ed were used in simulations of the extent of radiation damage in La0.2Gd0.8PO4 solid solution, investigated experimentally. We found that this lanthanide phosphate fully amorphises in the ion beam experiments for fluences higher than ∼1013 ions/cm2.

  8. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B.; Lively, P.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D.; Trautt, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses studies conducted to determine the element type and size that best represents a 20-meter solar sail under ground-test load conditions, the performance of test/Analysis correlation by using Static Shape Optimization Method for Q4 sail, and system dynamic. TRIA3 elements better represent wrinkle patterns than do QUAD3 elements Baseline, ten-inch elements are small enough to accurately represent sail shape, and baseline TRIA3 mesh requires a reasonable computation time of 8 min. 21 sec. In the test/analysis correlation by using Static shape optimization method for Q4 sail, ten parameters were chosen and varied during optimization. 300 sail models were created with random parameters. A response surfaces for each targets which were created based on the varied parameters. Parameters were optimized based on response surface. Deflection shape comparison for 0 and 22.5 degrees yielded a 4.3% and 2.1% error respectively. For the system dynamic study testing was done on the booms without the sails attached. The nominal boom properties produced a good correlation to test data the frequencies were within 10%. Boom dominated analysis frequencies and modes compared well with the test results.

  9. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, J J

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000/sup 0/F (427 and 538/sup 0/C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators.

  10. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  11. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter.

    PubMed

    Malusek, A; Helmrot, E; Sandborg, M; Grindborg, J-E; Carlsson, G Alm

    2014-12-07

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ± 7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than ± 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA's recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC's limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  12. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meter prover identifier; (ii) Type of test or inspection performed; (iii) Test date (month/year); (iv... to perform them as required by this section. (5) A meter prover that fails the periodic test and...), and the type of test or inspection as follows: (i) V for external visual inspection; and (ii) P...

  13. 49 CFR 173.5a - Oilfield service vehicles, mechanical displacement meter provers, and roadway striping vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... meter prover identifier; (ii) Type of test or inspection performed; (iii) Test date (month/year); (iv... to perform them as required by this section. (5) A meter prover that fails the periodic test and...), and the type of test or inspection as follows: (i) V for external visual inspection; and (ii) P...

  14. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  15. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  16. Advanced smoke meter development survey and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.; Penney, C. M.; Stanforth, C. M.; Shaffernocker, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    Ideal smoke meter characteristics are determined to provide a basis for evaluation of candidate systems. Five promising techniques are analyzed in detail to evaluate compilance with the practical smoke meter requirements. Four of the smoke measurement concepts are optical methods: Modulated Transmission (MODTRAN), Cross Beam Absorption Counter (CBAC), Laser Induced Incandescence (LIN), and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). A rapid response filter instrument called a Taper Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) is also evaluated. For each technique, the theoretical principles are described, the expected performance is determined, and the advantages and disadvantages are discussed The expected performance is evaluated against each of the smoke meter specifications, and the key questions for further study are given. The most promising smoke meter technique analyzed was MODTRAN, which is a variation on a direct transmission measurement. The soot-laden gas is passed through a transmission cell, and the gas pressure is modulated by a speaker.

  17. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  18. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters. PMID:22163551

  19. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  20. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  1. Outgoing longwave radiation anomalies analysis associated with different types of seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Pan; Shen, Xuhui

    2017-03-01

    The paper has developed and proposed a statistical analysis method based on the Robust Satellite data analysis technique to detect seismic anomalies within the NOAA OLR dataset based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis. The proposed methods has been applied to statistical analyze about 3376 earthquake cases from September 01, 2007 to May 23, 2015. For statistical purposes, all these events have been divided into different types on the basis of the seismic parameters, including Southern or Northern Hemisphere earthquakes, earthquakes at different magnitude levels, earthquakes at different depth levels. The results show that the intensity of the anomalies increased with the magnitude increasing; anomalies are more easily observed during shallow earthquakes than the deep ones; more obvious anomalies could be detected for the earthquakes occurring in the Northern Hemisphere and the anomalies significant increases near the epicenter one day before and on the day of the earthquake. A similar anomaly shows that there are anomalies near the epicenters before earthquakes and the anomalies have some relation with the earthquake preparation on all seismic activity. All these statistical results can help create a better understanding of the preparation process of the earthquakes.

  2. Flow measurement of liquid hydrocarbons with positive displacement meters: the correction for slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berrocal, Agustín; Montalvo, Cristina; Blázquez, Juan; Balbás, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    In the oil industry, the economical and fiscal impact of the measurements accuracy on the custody transfer operations implies fulfilling strict requirements of legal metrology. In this work, we focus on the positive displacement meters (PD meters) for refined liquid hydrocarbons. The state of the art of the lack of accuracy due to slippage flow in these meters is revised. The slippage flow due to the pressure drop across the device has been calculated analytically by applying the Navier-Stokes equation. No friction with any wall of the slippage channel has been neglected and a more accurate formula than the one found in the literature has been obtained. PD meters are calibrated against a bidirectional prover in order to obtain their meter factor which allows correction of their indications. Instead of the analytical model, an empirical one is proposed to explain the variation of the meter factor of the PD meters with flow rate and temperature for a certain hydrocarbon. The empirical model is based on the historical calibration data, of 9 years on average, of 25 m with four types of refined hydrocarbon. This model has been statistically validated by linear least-squares fitting. By using the model parameters, we can obtain the meter factor corresponding to different conditions of temperature and flow rate from the conditions in which the devices were calibrated. The flow parameter is such that a 10% flow rate variation implies a meter factor variation lower than 0.01%. A rule of thumb value for the temperature parameter is 0.005% per degree Celsius. The model residuals allow surveillance of the device drift and quantifying its contribution to the meter factor uncertainty. The observed drift is 0.09% at 95% confidence level in the analyzed population of meters.

  3. The 34-meter antenna-subreflector translations to maximize RF gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katow, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The extension of the 26 meter antenna to 34 meter diameter decreased the F/D ratio. This F/D change resulted in unacceptable gain losses due to the hyperboloid's lateral deflections. A three direction translating mounting device was added to the hyperboloid. This device was controlled by a microprocessor to minimize the offsets of the phase centers in the cassegrain RF system and also compensated for boresight directions. The use of the radiation program to predict the gain losses from displacements computed by a structural computing program using an analytical model of the 34 meter reflector structure is discussed. Field test results showed accurate predictions for the Y and Z hyperboloid translations. In the X direction, the prediction value was low. However, the computed gain losses vs primary foci offsets by the radiation program were verified by field tests.

  4. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmashkin, A. A.; Dubrovskii, V. A.; Zabenkov, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  5. Blood group typing based on recording the elastic scattering of laser radiation using the method of digital imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dolmashkin, A A; Dubrovskii, V A; Zabenkov, I V

    2012-05-31

    The possibility is demonstrated to determine the human blood group by recording the scattering of laser radiation with the help of the digital imaging method. It is experimentally shown that the action of a standing ultrasound wave leads to acceleration of the agglutination reaction of red blood cells, to formation of larger immune complexes of red blood cells, and, as a consequence, to acceleration of their sedimentation. In the absence of agglutination of red blood cells the ultrasound does not enhance the relevant processes. This difference in the results of ultrasound action on the mixture of blood and serum allows a method of blood typing to be offered. Theoretical modelling of the technique of the practical blood typing, carried out on the basis of the elastic light scattering theory, agrees well with the experimental results, which made it possible to plan further improvement of the proposed method. The studies of specific features of sedimentation of red blood cells and their immune complexes were aimed at the optimisation of the sample preparation, i.e., at the search for such experimental conditions that provide the maximal resolution of the method and the device for registering the reaction of red blood cells agglutination. The results of the study may be used in designing the instrumentation for blood group assessment in humans.

  6. Ultrasonic meters measure gas pipeline flow

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    New ultrasonic meters from Stork Ultrasonic Technologies, Houston are improving pipeline gas flow measurements, custody transfers, process gas flow measurements, and flare gas applications. The meters are easy to install, extremely accurate, and all feature realtime measurements. This meter (Gassonic 400) is designed for use in 8-in. to 64-in. gas pipelines and features a dual transducer device which uses the absolute digital travel time method of pulse transmission. Wide band piezoceramic transducers are used in this bi-directional, single bounce system which includes pulse verification and high-speed electronic processing by a central processing unit. Measuring values of this meter are obtained by direct digital measurement of travel time of each individual ultrasonic pulse which covers a pre-determined distance between two transducers inserted in the pipe wall. These transducers cause negligible flow restriction and absolute digital reference and excellent repeatability is possible without adjustment or re-calibration. Dozens of measurements can be processed so that average output values are updated every second during use. It is a field-programmable meter for variations in site parameters, presentation of service diagnostics, user selected velocity or quantity outputs, and has standard analog and digital interfaces. Also, it is suitable for swirl measurement or compensation. Since it relies on a reflection method, the ultrasonic meter allows easy, one-sided insertion and it is suitable for hot-tapping. This instrument is especially useful in gas blending stations, compressor control, leak detection, salt dome storage applications, pipeline balancing, and additive injection systems.

  7. Different small, acid-soluble proteins of the alpha/beta type have interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Setlow, P.

    1987-08-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which carry deletion mutations in one gene (sspA) or two genes (sspA and sspB) which code for major alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) are known to be much more sensitive to heat and UV radiation than wild-type spores. This heat- and UV-sensitive phenotype was cured completely or in part by introduction into these mutant strains of one or more copies of the sspA or sspB genes themselves; multiple copies of the B. subtilis sspD gene, which codes for a minor alpha/beta-type SASP; or multiple copies of the SASP-C gene, which codes for a major alpha/beta-type SASP of Bacillus megaterium. These findings suggest that alpha/beta-type SASP play interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of bacterial spores.

  8. Different small, acid-soluble proteins of the alpha/beta type have interchangeable roles in the heat and uv (ultraviolet) radiation resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Setlow, P.

    1987-08-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which carry deletion mutations in one gene (sspA) or two genes (sspA and sspB) which code for major alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) are known to be much more sensitive to heat and UV radiation than wild-type spores. This heat- and UV-sensitive phenotype was cured completely or in part by introduction into these mutant strains of (i) one or more copies of the sspA or sspB genes themselves; (ii) multiple copies of the B. subtilis sspD gene, which codes for a minor alpha/beta-type SASP; or (iii) multiple copies of the SASP-C genes, which codes for a major alpha/beta-type SASP of Bacillus megaterium. These findings suggest that alpha-beta-type SASP play interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of bacterial spores.

  9. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele.

    PubMed

    Hopyan, Talar; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Dennis, Maureen

    2009-07-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm.

  10. Perception of strong-meter and weak-meter rhythms in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    HOPYAN, TALAR; SCHELLENBERG, E. GLENN; DENNIS, MAUREEN

    2011-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) are often associated with dysrhythmic movement. We studied rhythm discrimination in 21 children with SBM and in 21 age-matched controls, with the research question being whether both groups showed a strong-meter advantage whereby rhythm discrimination is better for rhythms with a strong-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred on the beat, than those with a weak-meter, in which onsets of longer intervals occurred off the beat. Compared to controls, the SBM group was less able to discriminate strong-meter rhythms, although they performed comparably in discriminating weak-meter rhythms. The attenuated strong-meter advantage in children with SBM shows that their rhythm deficits occur at the level of both perception and action, and may represent a central processing disruption of the brain mechanisms for rhythm. PMID:19573270

  11. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associated with a type III solar radio noise event

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, T.J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C.S.; LaBelle, J.; Treumann, R.A.; Inan, U.S.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) by solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected on the AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometrical considerations relating to wave propagnation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the type III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, if a different, more immediate, triggering process than that implied by Calvert is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequencies comparable to those of the AKR by parametric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the Wu and Lee cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Use of Coriolis meters in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, T.; Pawlas, G.

    1995-12-31

    Coriolis mass flowmeters provide a solution for measuring the mass flow rate of gases directly. Recent calibration data on compressed air shows that the factory water calibration is also valid on air. In addition, a Coriolis meter is fundamentally linear resulting in an accurate measurement over a wide flow range. Data are presented based on testing performed on Micro Motion 25 mm, 50 mm, and 75 mm Coriolis mass flowmeters on compressed air. Test pressures ranging between 1.7 bar (25 psia) and 100 bar (1450 psia) and mass flow rates ranging between 100:1 to 10:1, depending on the meter size. All calibration points fell with {plus_minus}2%, with a significant portion of the data within {plus_minus}5%. Data are also presented for a 6 mm meter on natural gas at 100 bar; all data are within {plus_minus}0.5%. Repeatability data are presented for a 9 mm meter calibrated on 100 bar air for calibration run times between 10 and 60 seconds. Meter repeatability improved approximately 10 times to {plus_minus}0.15% when the calibration time was 60 seconds.

  13. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung

    2010-06-01

    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  14. 20 Meter Solar Sail Analysis and Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taleghani, B. K.; Lively, P. S.; Banik, J.; Murphy, D. M.; Trautt, T. A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes finite element analyses and correlation studies to predict deformations and vibration modes/frequencies of a 20-meter solar sail system developed by ATK Space Systems. Under the programmatic leadership of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's In-Space Propulsion activity, the 20-meter solar sail program objectives were to verify the design, to assess structural responses of the sail system, to implement lessons learned from a previous 10-meter quadrant system analysis and test program, and to mature solar sail technology to a technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. For this 20 meter sail system, static and ground vibration tests were conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 100 meter diameter vacuum chamber at Plum Brook station. Prior to testing, a preliminary analysis was performed to evaluate test conditions and to determine sensor and actuator locations. After testing was completed, an analysis of each test configuration was performed. Post-test model refinements included updated properties to account for the mass of sensors, wiring, and other components used for testing. This paper describes the development of finite element models (FEM) for sail membranes and masts in each of four quadrants at both the component and system levels, as well as an optimization procedure for the static test/analyses correlation.

  15. Magnetic fluid flow meter for gases

    SciTech Connect

    Popa, N.C.; Potencz, I.; Vekas, L.

    1994-03-01

    The paper presents the constructive details and functioning principle of an electronic volumetric flow meter for gases, which exploits the properties of magnetic fluids and has no moving mechanical components. It is a bidirectional flow meter, operating both in static and in moving conditions. The flow meter has a sensing unit, which consists of two sensors, one for differential pressure and an other for acceleration or inclination angle and of a tubular measuring element, as well as an electronic measuring system. Details are given on the hydrodynamic-electronic correction mechanism, which eliminates the Influences of inclinations and accelerations on the volumic flow signal, followed by a description of the main features of the electronic system. The experiments performed showed the possibility of metering even very small gas volumes, such as 0.1 cm{sup 3} at a flow rate of 50 cm{sup 3} /min. The metering at higher flow rate values, up to 100 m{sup 3}/h, needed only the insert of the measuring element corresponding to the requested How rate domain.

  16. Age as a risk factor for the disruption of cognitive performance by exposure to the types of radiation encounted on exploratory class missions to other planets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to the types of radiation encountered in space (particles of high energy and charge [HZE particles]) produces changes in neurocognitive performance similar to those observed in the aged organism. As such, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure to ...

  17. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  18. Coincident bursts of auroral kilometric radiation and VLF emissions associted with a type 3 solar radio noise event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Singh, S.; Wu, C. S.; Labelle, J.; Treumann, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines an isolated magnetospheric VLF/radio noise event that is highly suggestive of the triggering of terrestrial auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) bu solar type III radio emission and of a close relation between AKR and broadband hiss. The solar type III burst was measured on polar HF riometers and was coincident with local dayside VLF/LF noise emission bursts at South Pole station. It was also coincident with AKR bursts detected onthe AMPTE/IRM satellite, at the same magnetic local time as South Pole. On the basis of the close association of AKR and VLF bursts, and from geometric considerations relating to wave propagation, it is likely that the AKR source was on the dayside and on field lines near South Pole station. The general level of geomagnetic activity was very low. However, an isolated magnetic impulse event (MIE) accompanied by a riometer absorption pulse was in progress when all of the VLF/radio noise bursts occurred. The very close association of the typew III burst at HF with the AKR is consistent with external stimulation of the AKR, is different, more immediate,triggering process than that implied by Calvert (1981) is invoked. It is suggested here that some of the HF solar radiant energy may decay into waves with frequences comparable to those of the AKR by paraetric excitation or some other process, thus providing the few background photons required for the generation of AKR by the WU and Lee (1979) cyclotron maser instability. The AKR, perhaps by modifying the magnetospheric electron velocity distribution, might have produced the observed VLF emissions. Alternatively, the VLF emissions may have arisen from the same anisotropic and unstable electron distribution function responsible for the AKR.

  19. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  20. Interaction of motor proteins of various types at melanosome redistribution in melanocytes under action of UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Kudryashov, Alexey A.

    2004-05-01

    In the report the mathematical model of melanosome transport along filaments in intact and UV-irradiated melanocytes is submitted. Processes at three levels are considered: dynamics of the single motor, transport of melanosome by ensemble of motors, and melanosomes distribution along microtubules. A single motor is considered as <> modeling of transitions between internal states described by chemical kinetics equations allows to determine "force-velocity" dependence for motor. The ensemble of motors is described by system of equations for average motor velocities, and transported melanosome moves with average velocity, which in turn is determined by sum of force generated by each elastic-coupled motor (self-consistence problem). Distribution of melanosomes along a microtubule is described by system of equations for bidirectional motion of attached melanosome under coordinated action of "plus-end" and "minus-end" motors and free diffusion of unattached melanosomes. Influence of UV-radiation is resulted in change of number of each type motors simultaneously linked to one melanosome. It induces redistribution of melanosomes between centre and periphery of melanocyte.

  1. BEAM QUALITY CORRECTION FACTORS FOR KAP METERS FOR LIGHTLY AND HEAVILY FILTERED X-RAY BEAMS.

    PubMed

    Herrnsdorf, L; Petersson, H

    2016-06-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP) meters have a pronounced energy dependence when measuring air KAP for lightly filtered X-ray beams (RQR). Today, it is also common with more heavily filtered beams. In this work, the energy dependence for lightly as well as heavily filtered beams (RQC) was investigated for several KAP meter models. The relative energy dependence of the readings of an external and an internal KAP meter was determined relative to an ionisation chamber, which had been calibrated at the primary standards laboratory. As a complement to the measurements, the sensitivity of a KAP meter for various X-ray beam qualities was modelled using Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport and absorption. The result showed a variation in relative energy dependence of up to 30 % for KAP meters for RQC beam qualities compared with RQR qualities. A reduced sensitivity of KAP meters for heavily filtered beams in comparison with lightly filtered ones was found, and it is important that the beam-specific radiation quality correction factors are applied to correct the registered KAP values.

  2. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... them from spreading. About half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The ...

  3. An evaluation of descent strategies for TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Groce, J. L.; Coote, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the effects on system throughput and fleet fuel usage of arrival aircraft utilizing three 4D RNAV descent strategies (cost optimal, clean-idle Mach/CAS and constant descent angle Mach/CAS), both individually and in combination, in an advanced air traffic control metering environment. Results are presented for all mixtures of arrival traffic consisting of three Boeing commercial jet types and for all combinations of the three descent strategies for a typical en route metering airport arrival distribution.

  4. Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.

    PubMed

    Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

    2014-12-01

    Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration.

  5. A study of neutron and gamma radiation effects on transmission of various types of glasses, optical coatings, cemented optics and fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Akhtar, S. M.; Ashraf, Mohammad; Khan, Shaukat Hameed

    2007-08-01

    A study of radiation effects on various types of glasses, dielectric optical coatings, cemented optics and fiber was undertaken with a view to select them for extreme radiation environments. Samples were exposed to different radiation doses in the Pakistan Research Reactor-I (PARR-I) for neutron and Cobalt 60 source for gamma irradiation. Transmissions were measured before and after irradiation. The dielectric coatings were subjected to additional tests (adhesion, abrasion and humidity, etc.) as per MIL-M-13508C and MIL-C-675C. All 15 glasses studied showed varying amounts of transmission loss as expected, with negligible degradation for three types. Recovery of transmissions with time/ageing was also studied, with more or less complete recovery with temperature annealing. A faster bleaching of darkened/brown glasses was achieved by using UV lamps or UV laser. The dielectric coatings (HR, AR) and one of the two commercial optical cements showed excellent resistance to neutrons and gamma radiations, and could be good candidates for the fabrication and utilization of optical components in extreme radiation environments. The data allowed several Chinese glasses to be studied for the first time.

  6. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Based on Combined A-Train Observations: Towards All-sky Estimates and Attribution to Aerosol Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Russell, P.; Vaughan, M.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, C.; Rogers, R.; Burton, S.; Livingston, J.; Torres, O.; Remer, L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) measurements for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. We present results using one year of data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (2009). We discuss some of the challenges that exist in extending our clear-sky results to all-sky conditions. On the basis of comparisons to suborbital measurements, we present some of the limitations of the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals in the presence of adjacent or underlying clouds. Strategies for meeting these challenges are discussed. We also discuss a methodology for using the multi-sensor aerosol retrievals for aerosol type classification based on advanced clustering techniques. The combination of research results permits conclusions regarding the attribution of aerosol radiative forcing to aerosol type.

  7. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes using the unprecedented capability of the planned Ares V launch vehicle, to place a 8 meter monolithic space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point. This new capability enables a new design pardigm -- simplicity. The six to eight meter class telescope with a massive high Technical Readiness Level ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror has been determined feasible. The proposed design, structural analysis, spacecraft design and shroud integration, thermal analysis, propulsion system, guidance navigation and pointing control assumptions about the avionics, and power systems, operational lifetime, and the idea of in-space servicing are reviewed.

  8. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  9. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  10. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  11. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  12. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  13. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  14. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters...

  15. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  16. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  17. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  18. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  19. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  20. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  1. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a) Each meter and each regulator must be installed so as to minimize anticipated stresses upon...

  2. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters....

  3. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  4. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure. (a) A meter may not be used at a pressure that is more than 67 percent of the manufacturer's...

  5. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  6. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System....

  7. Feeling music: integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in "feeling" musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, 'duple' (march-like rhythms) and 'triple' (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%-85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%-90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses.

  8. Investigation on Online Multiphase Flow Meter in oilfield Based on Open Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L. Y.; Wang, W. C.; Li, Y. X.; Zhang, J.; Dong, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    Flow metering of multiphase pipeline is an urgently problem needed to be solved in oilfield producing in China. Based on the principle of multiphase oil and gas flow in the open channel, four liquid metering models(Falling Model I, Falling Model II, Open Channel Model and Element Resistance Model) and one gas model were obtained to calculate the gas and liquid flow rate, in which the water cut was measured by the differential pressure. And then a new type of multiphase meter system was developed based on these models and neural networks were developed to improve the estimating results of gas and liquid flow rate with the new metering system. At last a lot of experiments of multiphase metering were finished in lab and field. According to the experiments, the results of the metering system show that the liquid flow rate error was no more than 10%, and gas flow rate error was no more than 15%, which can meet the demand of the field flow rate measurement. Furthermore the relationship between liquid and gas flow rate and characteristic signals was found out through the experiments so as to deepening the study on multiphase flow metering technology.

  9. Comparison of current meters used for stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is field and laboratory testing the performance of several current meters used throughout the world for stream gaging. Meters tested include horizontal-axis current meters from Germany, the United Kingdom, and the People's Republic of China, and vertical-axis and electromagnetic current meters from the United States. Summarized are laboratory test results for meter repeatability, linearity, and response to oblique flow angles and preliminary field testing results. All current meters tested were found to under- and over-register velocities; errors usually increased as the velocity and angle of the flow increased. Repeatability and linearity of all meters tested were good. In the field tests, horizontal-axis meters, except for the two meters from the People's Republic of China, registered higher velocity than did the vertical-axis meters.

  10. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  11. Performance of planter meters for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Components and technology offerings to improve planter performance continue to increase. In particular, new row-meter parts allow units to improve what is called singulation (e.g. reducing skips and doubles) assuming the vacuum pressure is properly set. To help understand the value of all this new t...

  12. Modernization of the DFA Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dried Fruit Association (DFA) Dried Fruit Moisture Tester has been the standard technique for determining moisture in dried fruit for more than 50 years. This method of testing moisture is recognized world wide and is AOAC approved. The meter applies the results of conductivity measurements and ...

  13. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  14. The PCC assay can be used to predict radiosensitivity in biopsy cultures irradiated with different types of radiation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Nakano, Takashi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers for radiosensitivity using the relationship between cell killing and the yield of excess chromatin fragments detected with the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique. This method was applied to primary cultured cells obtained from biopsies from patients. Six primary culture biopsies were obtained from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix before starting radiotherapy. The cultures were irradiated with two different LET carbon-ion beams (LET = 13 keV/microm, 77.1+/-2.8 keV/microm) and 200 kV X-rays. The carbon-ion beams were produced by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). PCC was performed using the polyethylene glycol-mediated cell fusion technique. The yield of excess chromatin fragments were measured by counting the number of unrejoined chromatin fragments detected with the PCC technique after a 24-h post-irradiation incubation period. Obtained results indicated that cultures which were more sensitive to killing were also more susceptible to the induction of excess chromatin fragments. Furthermore there was a good correlation between cell killing and excess chromatin fragments among the 6 cell cultures examined. There is also evidence that the induction of excess chromatin fragments increased with increasing LET as well as cell-killing effect in the same cell culture. The data reported here support the idea that the yield of excess chromatin fragments detected with the PCC technique might be useful for predicting the radiosensitivity of cells contained in tumor tissue, and to predict responses to different radiation types.

  15. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  16. Moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Williams, G

    1999-12-01

    Moisture is known to affect the stability of some metered dose inhalers (MDIs). Hydrofluoroalkanes such as tetrafluoroethane (134a) and heptafluoropropane (227) are known to have higher affinity for moisture than the currently used chlorofluorocarbon propellents. An initial study was conducted to determine the water vapor transmission rates of various elastomers that may be used as gaskets in MDIs. A further study was conducted to measure the moisture ingress rates of various chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs. The data indicate that moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs is influenced by the elastomeric nature of the gaskets used and the type of hydrofluoroalkane formulation and storage conditions used.

  17. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these instructions, the builder can verify the

  18. Low Flow Vortex Shedding Flow Meter for Hypergolics/all Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thinh, Ngo Dinh

    1991-01-01

    A family of vortex shedding flow meters, for measurement of hypergol flows, was designed and fabricated. The test loops to evaluate the flow meters for water flow, as well as Freon -113 flow which simulates the hypergolic fluids, were modified and constructed to utilize a pump system which has an output capacity of 200 gpm. Test runs were conducted on the small 1/2 inch model with Freon 113 and on the larger models with water. Results showed that the linearity between the frequency of the vortices and the flow rate of the fluids was very close to that of the turbine flow meter. It is suggested that the vortex shedding flow meter is a possible replacement for the existing turbine type.

  19. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  20. Comparative radiation dose mapping of single fruit type and mixed tropical fruit boxes for export from Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quarantine treatment protocols to disinfest fresh agricultural commodities of quarantine pests are traditionally developed for and applied to single commodities. Recently, generic radiation treatments were approved in the USA to control insect pests irrespective of commodity. Approved generic doses ...

  1. Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer: Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Radiation Therapy for Bile Duct Cancer Radiation therapy uses ... of radiation for bile duct cancer. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) This type of radiation therapy uses ...

  2. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  3. Comparison of a few recording current meters in San Francisco Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A team of research scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey uses San Francisco Bay, California, as an outdoor laboratory to study complicated interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes which take place in an estuarine environment. A current meter comparison study was conceived because of the need to select a suitable current meter to meet field requirements for current measurements in the Bay. The study took place in south San Francisco Bay, California, in the spring of 1977. An instrument tower which was designed to support instruments free from the conventional mooring line motions was constructed and emplaced in south San Francisco Bay. During a period of two months, four types of recording current meters have been used in the tests. The four types were: (1) Aanderaa, (2) tethered shroud-impeller, (3) drag-inclinometer, and (4) electromagnetic current meters. With the exception of the electromagnetic current meter, one of each type was mounted on the instrument tower, and one of each type was deployed on moorings near the instrument tower. In addition, a wind anemometer and a recording tide gauge were also installed on the tower. This paper discusses the characteristics of each instrument and the accuracy that each instrument can provide when used in an estuarine environment. We pay special attention to our experiences in the field operation with respect to handling of the instruments and to our experiences working up the raw data in the post-deployment data analysis.

  4. Spatial Correlations and Distributions in Energetic Electron Production by Meter-Scale Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Scherrer, Z.; Weber, K.; LeCaptain, K.; Ostgaard, N.; Grøndahl; Kochkin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic radiation produced by meter-scale sparks implies the existence of a large population of energetic electrons. These electrons are believed to be produced by negative streamers in the high-field region as the spark develops. Detectors placed in the high-field region can directly detect these energetic electrons and the x-rays they produce, but the data is difficult to interpret as radiation production varies strongly from one spark to the next and may vary strongly with position within a single spark. We overcome this difficulty by collecting data from sparks with multiple detectors present to measure both intra- and inter-spark variability. Specifically, we present radiation intensity distributions over many sparks and many detector positions, together with correlations between detectors within sparks and how such correlations vary with detector separation. These statistics shed light on the scale of energetic radiation production by streamers and how and where such radiation is produced in lab sparks.

  5. Development of high power UV irradiance meter calibration device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ming; Gao, Jianqiang; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, many industries have more requirements for UV light applications, such as machinery manufacturing, aircraft manufacturing using high power UV light for detection, IT industry using high power UV light for curing component assembly, building materials, ink, paint and other industries using high power UV light for material aging test etc. In these industries, there are many measuring instruments for high power UV irradiance which are need to traceability. But these instruments are mostly imported instruments, these imported UV radiation meter are large range, wide wavelength range and high accuracy. They have exceeded our existing calibration capability. Expand the measuring range and improve the measurement accuracy of UV irradiance calibration device is a pressing matter of the moment. The newly developed high power UV irradiance calibration device is mainly composed of high power UV light, UV filter, condenser, UV light guide, optical alignment system, standard cavity absolute radiometer. The calibration device is using optical alignment system to form uniform light radiation field. The standard is standard cavity absolute radiometer, which can through the electrical substitution method, by means of adjusting and measuring the applied DC electric power at the receiver on a heating wire, which is equivalent to the thermo-electromotive force generated by the light radiation power, to achieve absolute optical radiation measurement. This method is the commonly used effective method for accurate measurement of light irradiation. The measuring range of calibration device is (0.2 200) mW/cm2, and the uncertainty of measurement results can reached 2.5% (k=2).

  6. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  7. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Chen, Long; Doerr, Chris; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Nielson, Torben; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Swanson, Eric; Fujimoto, James G

    2016-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications.

  8. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  9. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  11. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  12. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  13. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAO; POTSAID, BENJAMIN; CHEN, LONG; DOERR, CHRIS; LEE, HSIANG-CHIEH; NIELSON, TORBEN; JAYARAMAN, VIJAYSEKHAR; CABLE, ALEX E.; SWANSON, ERIC; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  14. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  15. An approach to metering and network modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Clements, K.A. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Stovall, J.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of the static state of an electric power network has become a standard function in real-time monitoring and control. Its purpose is to use the network model and process the metering data in order to determine an accurate and reliable estimate of the system state in the real-time environment. In the models usually used it is assumed that the network parameters and topology are free of errors and the measurement system provides unbiased data having a known distribution. The network and metering models however, contain errors which frequently result in either non-convergent behavior of the state estimator or exceedingly large residuals, reducing the level of confidence in the results. This paper describes an approach minimizing the above uncertainties by analyzing the data which are routinely collected at the power system control center. The approach will improve the reliability of the real-time data-base while reducing the state estimator installation and maintenance effort.

  16. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  17. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  18. 49 CFR 325.23 - Type of measurement systems which may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters (ANSI S1.4-1971), approved April 27, 1971, issued by..., New York, New York, 10018. (a) A Type 1 sound level meter; (b) A Type 2 sound level meter; or (c) A Type S sound level meter which has— (1) A weighing frequency response; (2) Fast dynamic...

  19. Development of a wavelength-separated type scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter to compensate for the Cerenkov radiation effect

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Nagase, Naomi; Matsuura, Taeko; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    The scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter consists of a miniature scintillator mounted on the tip of an optical fiber. The scintillator of the current SOF dosimeter is a 1-mm diameter hemisphere. For a scintillation dosimeter coupled with an optical fiber, measurement accuracy is influenced by signals due to Cerenkov radiation in the optical fiber. We have implemented a spectral filtering technique for compensating for the Cerenkov radiation effect specifically for our plastic scintillator-based dosimeter, using a wavelength-separated counting method. A dichroic mirror was used for separating input light signals. Individual signal counting was performed for high- and low-wavelength light signals. To confirm the accuracy, measurements with various amounts of Cerenkov radiation were performed by changing the incident direction while keeping the Ir-192 source-to-dosimeter distance constant, resulting in a fluctuation of <5%. Optical fiber bending was also addressed; no bending effect was observed for our wavelength-separated SOF dosimeter. PMID:25618136

  20. Development of a wavelength-separated type scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter to compensate for the Cerenkov radiation effect.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masayori; Nagase, Naomi; Matsuura, Taeko; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-03-01

    The scintillator with optical fiber (SOF) dosimeter consists of a miniature scintillator mounted on the tip of an optical fiber. The scintillator of the current SOF dosimeter is a 1-mm diameter hemisphere. For a scintillation dosimeter coupled with an optical fiber, measurement accuracy is influenced by signals due to Cerenkov radiation in the optical fiber. We have implemented a spectral filtering technique for compensating for the Cerenkov radiation effect specifically for our plastic scintillator-based dosimeter, using a wavelength-separated counting method. A dichroic mirror was used for separating input light signals. Individual signal counting was performed for high- and low-wavelength light signals. To confirm the accuracy, measurements with various amounts of Cerenkov radiation were performed by changing the incident direction while keeping the Ir-192 source-to-dosimeter distance constant, resulting in a fluctuation of <5%. Optical fiber bending was also addressed; no bending effect was observed for our wavelength-separated SOF dosimeter.

  1. Gravitational wave radiation by LIGO-type detectors and its reciprocity relation with the detector's fundamental quantum limited sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Belinda; Ma, Yiqiu; Miao, Haixing; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-01-01

    We relate the radiation of gravitational waves (GW) by a light interferometer with cavity arms (such as LIGO) to its quantum limited sensitivity as a detector of GW's, thereby demonstrating a reciprocity relation between the interferometer's function as a detector and emitter. We derive the pairwise interactions among the cavity optical field, the cavity end mirror, and the gravitational perturbation from the action principle. We quantize these degrees of freedom to calculate the GW's generated by a quantum object. We find that the rate of gravitational wave generation is related to the so-called quantum Cramer Rao bound of the detector, which is a general result from linear measurement theory that gives the fundamental limit to a detector's sensitivity. We show that increasing the maximal sensitivity for the interferometer also increases its GW radiation. This finding may point towards a new paradigm for improving detector sensitivity by maximizing GW radiator.

  2. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  3. Silica optical fibers with high oxygen excess in the core: a new type of radiation-resistant fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashaykin, Pavel F.; Tomashuk, Alexander L.; Salgansky, Mikhail Y.; Abramov, Alexey N.; Iskhakova, Lyudmila D.; Lobanov, Nikolay S.; Nishchev, Konstantin N.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2015-05-01

    The technology, initial properties, and the value of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of light in the optical communication spectral range ~1.1-1.7 μm are discussed of the novel MCVD-produced undoped-silica-core F-dopedsilica- cladding fibers, of which the core is synthesized in high O2 excess (HOE) conditions (HOE-fibers). The RIA mechanisms are analyzed and compared in the HOE-fibers and in the F-doped-silica-core fibers previously commonly considered as the most radiation-resistant. The measured RIA values in the HOE-fibers and the literature data on the RIA in the commercial radiation-resistant F-doped-silica-core fibers of Fujikura are compared at λ=1.31 and 1.55 μm. Based on this consideration, the HOE-fibers are argued to be potentially superior to the F-doped-silica-core fibers as to radiation resistance especially at long wavelengths (in particular, at λ~1.55 μm). It is also argued that the fiber drawing tension reduction can further lower RIA in the HOE-fibers. A direct experimental comparison of RIA under γ-radiation from a 60Co-source at a dose rate of 8.7 Gy/s up to a dose of 94 kGy is carried out in two HOE-fibers and a commercial radiation-resistant fiber of European make. RIA in the HOE-fibers is found to be many times lower than that in the commercial fiber throughout the optical communication spectral range ~1.1-1.7 μm.

  4. Susceptibility to Radiation Induced Apoptosis and Senescence in p53 Wild Type and p53 Mutant Breast Tumor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and vitamin D3 analogs such as EB 1089 potentiate the response to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells. The current...Appended Page Proofs ………………………………………………………… 5 Introduction 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and vitamin D3 analogs such as EB 1089...analogs and ionizing radiation are the following: 1. The vitamin D analog, EB 1089 ( and by extension, vitamin D3 ), converts an accelerated

  5. 47 CFR 15.109 - Radiated emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.109... from unintentional radiators at a distance of 3 meters shall not exceed the following values: Frequency... systems used as unintentional radiators or other unintentional radiators that are designed to...

  6. 47 CFR 15.109 - Radiated emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.109... from unintentional radiators at a distance of 3 meters shall not exceed the following values: Frequency... systems used as unintentional radiators or other unintentional radiators that are designed to...

  7. 47 CFR 15.109 - Radiated emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.109... from unintentional radiators at a distance of 3 meters shall not exceed the following values: Frequency... systems used as unintentional radiators or other unintentional radiators that are designed to...

  8. 47 CFR 15.109 - Radiated emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.109... from unintentional radiators at a distance of 3 meters shall not exceed the following values: Frequency... systems used as unintentional radiators or other unintentional radiators that are designed to...

  9. 47 CFR 15.109 - Radiated emission limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.109... from unintentional radiators at a distance of 3 meters shall not exceed the following values: Frequency... systems used as unintentional radiators or other unintentional radiators that are designed to...

  10. CD-ROM and Metering--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Victor

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the need for security and metering features for CD-ROM products. Topics covered include user productivity issues, pricing problems, integrated information resources, advantages of CD-ROM distribution systems, unauthorized use, content encryption, and multiple simultaneous meters. (MES)

  11. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    three types of retail rates (a flat rate, a time-of-use rate, and real-time pricing) from these wholesale price profiles, I examine bill savings from PV generation for the ten wholesale market scenarios under net metering and an alternative to net metering where hourly excess PV generation is compensated at the wholesale price. Most generally, I challenge the common assertion that PV compensation is likely to stay constant (or rise) due to constant (or rising) retail rates, and find that future electricity market scenarios can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, in concert with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV.

  12. KGK-2-type detector of gamma-radiation power for diagnosis of nuclear reactor radiation fields within the range from 1 µGy/s to 100 Gy/s

    SciTech Connect

    Koshelev, A. S. Dovbysh, L. Ye.; Khoruzhy, V. Kh.; Chuklyaev, S. V.

    2015-12-15

    The construction of the KGK-2-type detector of γ-radiation power is briefly described. The diagnostic possibilities of the detector are shown by the example of results of the dose rate measurement in the energy start-ups of the BR-K1 and BR-1M reactors implemented in the mode of generating fission pulses on delayed neutrons. The possibilities of using the KGK-2 detector for postpulse γ diagnostics are demonstrated by the example of results of measurements in the fission pulse on prompt neutrons of the BR-1M reactor.

  13. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J

    2007-04-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  14. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  15. Effects of Combined Treatment with Ionizing Radiation and the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib in BRCA Mutant and Wild Type Patient-Derived Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Pinjiang; Pitcher, Bethany; Gallinger, Steven; Bristow, Robert G.; Hedley, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The BRCA2 gene product plays an important role in DNA double strand break repair. Therefore, we asked whether radiation sensitivity of pancreatic cancers developing in individuals with germline BRCA2 mutations can be enhanced by agents that inhibit poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Methods We compared the sensitivity of two patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts, expressing a truncated or wild type BRCA 2, to ionizing radiation alone or in combination with olaparib (AZD-2281). Animals were treated with either a single dose of 12Gy, 7 days of olaparib or 7 days of olaparib followed by a single dose of 12Gy. Response was assessed by tumour growth delay and the activation of damage response pathways. Results The BRCA2 mutated and wild type tumours showed similar radiation sensitivity, and treatment with olaparib did not further sensitize either model when compared to IR alone. Conclusions While PARP inhibition has been shown to be effective in BRCA-mutated breast and ovarian cancers, it is less well established in pancreatic cancer patients. Our results show no radiosensitization in a germline BRCA 2 mutant and suggest that combining PARP inhibition and IR may not be beneficial in BRCA 2 related pancreatic tumors. PMID:28033382

  16. Cell Type-dependent Gene Transcription Profile in Three Dimensional Human Skin Tissue Model Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Medical Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Freiin von Neubeck, Claere H.; Shankaran, Harish; Karin, Norman J.; Kauer, Paula M.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Robinson, Robert J.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2012-04-17

    The concern over possible health risks from exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation has been driven largely by the increase in medical exposures, the routine implementation of X-ray backscatter devices for airport security screening, and, most recently, the nuclear incident in Japan. Due to a paucity of direct epidemiological data at very low doses, cancer risk must be estimated from high dose exposure scenarios. However, there is increasing evidence that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events and may have different mechanisms of cancer induction. We have examined the radiation induced temporal response of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) human skin tissue model using microarray-based transcriptional profiling. Our data shows that exposure to 100 mGy of X-rays is sufficient to affect gene transcription. Cell type specific analysis showed significant changes in gene expression with the levels of > 1400 genes altered in the dermis and > 400 genes regulated in the epidermis. The two cell types rarely exhibited overlapping responses at the mRNA level. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements validated the microarray data in both regulation direction and value. Key pathways identified relate to cell cycle regulation, immune responses, hypoxia, reactive oxygen signaling, and DNA damage repair. We discuss in particular the role of proliferation and emphasizing how the disregulation of cellular signaling in normal tissue may impact progression towards radiation induced secondary diseases.

  17. Characteristics of Myeloid Differentiation and Maturation Pathway Derived from Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Exposed to Different Linear Energy Transfer Radiation Types

    PubMed Central

    Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34+ cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34+ cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D0 = 0.65) than to X-rays (D0 = 1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a+ erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34+CD38− primitive cell fraction and the CD13+CD14+/−CD15− fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface

  18. Characteristics of myeloid differentiation and maturation pathway derived from human hematopoietic stem cells exposed to different linear energy transfer radiation types.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34(+) cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34(+) cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D(0) = 0.65) than to X-rays (D(0) = 1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a(+) erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34(+)CD38(-) primitive cell fraction and the CD13(+)CD14(+/-)CD15(-) fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface

  19. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  20. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  1. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  2. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  3. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  9. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  10. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  12. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  13. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  14. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  15. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a chemical... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  16. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  17. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  18. Multicore photonic crystal fiber force meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimlinger, M.; Colalillo, A.; Coompson, J.; Wynne, R.

    2011-04-01

    A silica based three core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) force meter with fast response times (<30μs) for low wind speed detection is presented. Results are provided for PCF structures containing cores with varied lattice spacing. Force meters with high spatial resolution (sample regions <10cm) specially outfitted for extreme environmental conditions are of interest to both industry and basic research institutions. The featured PCF force meter exhibited sensitivities that agreed with theoretical predictions that are useful for the detection of minimum displacements for wind speeds <30m/s. The results of this investigation are relevant to civil engineering applications including urban sensing technologies that involve air quality monitoring. The deflection of the PCF detection interface was measured as a function of the fiber deflection or the applied force (e.g. wind speed). The three core PCF has a core diameter of 3.9μm, outer diameter of 132.5μm and 7.56μm core-core spacing. A 4cm length of the PCF is attached to the surface of a thin metal beam. One end of the PCF section is fusion spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF) at the fiber input. The remaining fiber end is coupled to a CCD camera with a lens at the PCF output. The applied force deflects the supported PCF such that the intensity distribution of the optical field for the multiple cores changes as a function of displacement. Experimental results from static deflection measurements are in agreement with coupled-mode theory and simple beam deflection theory models.

  19. Plume temperature emitted from metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Church, T; Lewis, D; Meakin, B

    2011-02-28

    The temperature of the drug cloud emitted from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) may result in patient discomfort and inconsistent or non-existent dose delivery to the lungs. The effects of variations in formulation (drug, propellant, co-solvent content) and device hardware (metering volume, actuator orifice diameter, add-on devices) upon the temperature of pMDI plumes, expressed as replicate mean minimum values (MMPT), collected into a pharmacopoeial dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA), have been investigated. Ten commercially available and two development products, including chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) suspensions and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solutions or suspensions, were examined together with a number of drug products in late stage development and a variety of HFA 134a placebo pMDIs. Plume temperatures were observed to be lowest in the proximity of the product's actuator mouthpiece where rapid flashing and evaporation of the formulation's propellant and volatile excipients cause cooling. The ability to control plume temperature by judicious choice of formulation co-solvent content, metering volume and the actuator orifice diameter is identified. An ethanol based HFA 134a formulation delivered through a fine orifice is inherently warmer than one with 100% HFA 134a vehicle delivered through a coarse actuator orifice. Of the 10 commercial products evaluated, MMPTs ranged from -54 to +4°C and followed the formulation class rank order, HFA suspensions

  20. Design Plans for an Inexpensive Tail Flick Analgesia Meter

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Aaron; Butcher, Greg Q.; Messina, Troy C.

    2011-01-01

    While the pedagogical benefits of incorporating inquiry driven labs into an undergraduate curriculum are well established, often the prohibitive costs of providing equipment for such labs limits the types of experiences that can be offered. For example, the lab portion of Advanced Neuroscience at Centenary College of Louisiana consists of a semester-long research project developed by the students. Frequently, these junior- and senior-level students generate interesting research questions that must be culled or scaled back simply due to a lack of appropriate equipment. In the most recent iteration of the class, the students wanted to examine analgesia using the tail flick test, a measure of spinal nociception. In this test a rodent subject is restrained; its tail is exposed to a heat source; and the latency to flick its tail away from the noxious stimuli is recorded. As commercial devices were far beyond the lab budget, we sought to develop an inexpensive tail flick analgesia meter that was easy to use and generated reliable data. The prototype device was tested by students in the above-mentioned class and was found to consistently produce reliable data in agreement with the literature. Here we present plans for a tail flick analgesia meter that can be constructed for $50–75, roughly 100 times cheaper than commercial devices. PMID:23626497

  1. Sodium cromoglycate: spincaps or metered dose aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Robson, R A; Taylor, B J; Taylor, B

    1981-01-01

    1 Sodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder inhalation (20 mg/dose) via the Spinhaler was compared with a metered dose aerosol (2 mg/dose) in an eight week double dummy double blind crossover trial in 29 asthmatic children. 2 The powder formulation was associated with significantly less symptoms (night wheeze, night cough, day wheeze, day cough, activity) and bronchodilator intake; and significantly greater weight gain than aerosol therapy. There were no significant differences in morning or evening peak flow measurements on the two treatments. 3 The powder may be more effectively inhaled than the aerosol or the dose of the aerosol may not be large enough. PMID:6789851

  2. Ion Drift Meter for Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.; Lippincott, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The ion drift meter for Dynamics Explorer B is discussed. It measures two mutually perpendicular angles of arrival of thermal ions with respect to the sensor look directions. These angles lie in the vertical and horizontal planes and may be thought of as pitch and yaw in the conventional aerodynamic sense. The components of the ion drift velocity along vertical and horizontal axes through the spacecraft body are derived to first order from knowledge of the spacecraft velocity vector and more accurately with additional knowledge of the component of ion drift along the sensor look direction.

  3. Curl-meter of Electrical Fields In The Ground.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, S. M.; Maibuk, Z.-Ju. Ja.; Nikiforova, N. N.

    A special instrument U curl-meter was designed and manufactured in the Institute of Physics of the Earth of RAS for measuring of variable electric fields during alternation of stressedly-deformed state in rock mass. The instrument consist the four-electrode unit and a circuit of analogue signal processing for separation of E U circulations or according to the StokesSs theorem, Curl E in absence of indirect sources. Four electrodes are laied out in rocks on angles of square and they are affixed by ring-type circuit to uninverting inputs of precision operational amplifiers. First input is connected to electrode N1, the second one is connected to N2 and so on. The independent inputs are grounded to a arbitrary point (the fifth electrode is SzeroT). The transmission factors of the circuit are set by resistors accurate to within 0.25 %. First and third, and also second and fourth outputs of the amplifiers are connected to the grad EX and grad EY calculation circuit (deduction circuits). So, if the vector components have different signs of both two EX values and two values EY, the gradient calculation circuit generates signal extremums. If in this case the signs inside pairs are identical , that means that the signal not- ring-type and it is absent on output (difference of the equal values with equal signs). The signals from outputs of the gradient calculations act into adding device for calculation of Curl E (circulation). Curl-meter differs by high security from clutters and from cues on any of inputs rather of "zero point" (ground) reacting only on a ring-type current, thus it is essential (on the order) the noise level and drift of operational amplifiers is moderated. Curl-meter works in a complex of measuring devices on Obninsk seismological polygon for study of behavior of superlow frequency of tectonic genesis electromagnetic emission. Through four inputs (electrode spacing 7x7 2, resistance between welding rods 0.8 - 1.1 kOm), manufactured from fine- dyspersated

  4. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  5. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  6. Metering Gas Strut for Separating Rocket Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A proposed gas strut system would separate a liquid-fueled second rocket stage from a solid-fueled first stage using an array of pre-charged struts. The strut would be a piston-and-cylinder mechanism containing a compressed gas. Adiabatic expansion of the gas would drive the extension of the strut. The strut is designed to produce a force-versus-time profile, chosen to prevent agitation of the liquid fuel, in which the force would increase from an initial low value to a peak value, then decay toward the end of the stroke. The strut would include a piston chamber and a storage chamber. The piston chamber would initially contain gas at a low pressure to provide the initial low separation force. The storage chamber would contain gas at a higher pressure. The piston would include a longitudinal metering rod containing an array of small holes, sized to restrict the flow gas between the chambers, that would initially not be exposed to the interior of the piston chamber. During subsequent expansion, the piston motion would open more of the metering holes between the storage and piston chambers, thereby increasing the flow of gas into the piston chamber to produce the desired buildup of force.

  7. Three-meter balloon-borne telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, William F.; Fazio, G. G.; Harper, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Three-Meter Balloon-Borne Telescope is planned as a general purpose facility for making far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical observations from the stratosphere. It will operate throughout the spectral range 30 microns to 1 millimeter which is largely obscurred from the ground. The design is an f/13.5 Cassegrain telescope with an f/1.33 3-meter primary mirror supported with a 3-axis gimbal and stabilization system. The overall structure is 8.0 m high by 5.5 m in width by 4.0 m in depth and weighs 2000 kg. This low weight is achieved through the use of an ultra lightweight primary mirror of composite construction. Pointing and stabilization are achieved with television monitoring of the star field, flex-pivot bearing supports, gyroscopes, and magnetically levitated reaction wheels. Two instruments will be carried on each flight; generally a photometric camera and a spectrometer. A 64-element bolometer array photometric camera operating from 30 to 300 microns is planned as part of the facility. Additional instruments will be derived from KAO and other development programs.

  8. An approach to metering and network modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Clements, K.A.; Kafka, R.J.; Stovall, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    Estimation of the static state of an electric power network has become a standard function in real-time monitoring and control. Its purpose is to use the network model and process the metering data in order to determine an accurate and reliable estimate of the system state in the real-time environment. In the models usually used it is assumed that the network parameters and topology are free of errors and the measurement system provides unbiased data having a known distribution. The network and metering models however, contain errors which frequently result in either non-convergent behavior of the state estimator or exceedingly large residual, reducing the level of confidence in the results. This paper describes an approach minimizing the above uncertainties by analyzing the data which are routinely collected at the power system control center. The approach while improve the reliability of the real-time data-base while reducing the state estimator installation and maintenance effort. 5 refs.

  9. An approach to metering and network modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Clements, K.A. ); Kafka, R.J. ); Stovall, J.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of the static state of an electric power network has become a standard function in real-time monitoring and control. Its purpose is to use the network model and process the metering data in order to determine an accurate and reliable estimate of the system state in the real-time environment. In the models usually used it is assumed that the network parameters and topology are free of errors and the measurement system provides unbiased data having a known distribution. The network and metering models however, contain errors which frequently result in either non-convergent behavior of the state estimator or exceedingly large residual, reducing the level of confidence in the results. This paper describes an approach minimizing the above uncertainties by analyzing the data which are routinely collected at the power system control center. The approach while improve the reliability of the real-time data-base while reducing the state estimator installation and maintenance effort. 5 refs.

  10. Contrasting feature in the repopulation of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P and P----F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.

    1986-11-01

    The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients.

  11. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  12. [Radiation carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Yoshio

    2013-11-01

    Misrepair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation is a potential cause of carcinogenesis following exposure to radiation. Radiation exposure increases the incidence of the same types of mutations that occur spontaneously in a given population. A high incidence of DNA double-strand breaks is characteristic of damage by ionizing radiation compared with those induced by other environmental mutagens. In China, residents living in areas with high level background radiation(6mSv/y) had a significantly higher frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes compared to that for the residents living in the control areas(2mSv/y). Radiation-associated increases in risk were seen for most sites. Gender-averaged excess absolute risk rates estimated at age 70, after exposure at age 30, differ in the sites, and the risks of gastric cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and lung cancer were highly increased, in that order. Latent periods for the development of leukemia and thyroid cancer after radiation exposure at ages younger than 18 were shorter compared to those for other solid cancers.

  13. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  14. Use of Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    sizing devices such as optical particle counters. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Puffers Metered dose inhalers PSL Biostimulants Bacillus subtilis 16...simulants for pathogenic Bacillus anthracis spores. For PSLs or spore aerosols with geometric mean sizes of approximately 1 µm, the geometric standard...24 4.4 Bacillus Spore Aerosols: Variability Considerations and Effects of Actuator Type and Storage Time

  15. Helium-neon laser preirradiation induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157.

    PubMed

    Kohli, R; Gupta, P K; Dube, A

    2000-02-01

    We have observed that preirradiation with a helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) induces protection against UVC radiation in wild-type E. coli strain K12AB1157. The magnitude of protection was found to depend on the helium-neon laser irradiance, exposure time, and period of incubation between helium-neon laser exposure and subsequent UVC irradiation. The optimum values for dose, irradiance and interval between the two exposures were found to be 7 kJ/m(2), 100 W/m(2) and 1 h, respectively. The possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the helium-neon laser-induced protection is also discussed.

  16. Hydroacoustic Current Meters for the Measurement of Discharge in Shallow Rivers and Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, S.E.; Fisher, G.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is evaluating the use of hydroacoustic current meters for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers and streams. The USGS historically has made discharge measurements in shallow rivers using mechanical, impellor-type current meters attached to a wading rod. The evaluation project has focused on three categories of hydroacoustic meters: an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) called a Flowtracker3, an acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp), and bottom-tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs). The USGS role in this project includes providing USGS discharge-computation methods and algorithms to instrument manufacturers and evaluating instruments in the laboratory and field. An ADV (Flowtracker) designed for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers, has been tested in a USGS tow tank and was found to meet USGS calibration standards for mechanical, impellor-type current meters. The Flowtracker was field tested by USGS offices in five states; the tests were conducted by comparing discharge measurements made with the ADV to discharge measurements made with mechanical, impellor-type current meters. In general, the comparisons of Flowtracker performance to mechanical-meter results were favorable. An acoustic Doppler velocity profiler (BoogieDopp) is being evaluated for making discharge measurements in shallow rivers. The Boogiedopp will measure vertical velocity profiles at stationary positions across a channel, and the velocity profiles will be used to compute discharge. Discharge-computation software based on USGS methods and algorithms is under development for the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler. The USGS will evaluate bottom-tracking ADCPs from two manufacturers for making discharge measurements in shallow water. The bottom-tracking feature allows ADCPs to compute discharge from a moving platform as the platform moves across the channel.

  17. Type of interventional pain procedure, body weight, and presence of spinal pathology are determinants of the level of radiation exposure for fluoroscopically guided pain procedures.

    PubMed

    Hanu-Cernat, Dalvina E; Duarte, Rui; Raphael, Jon H; Mutagi, Hirachand; Kapur, Sandeep; Senthil, Latha

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years new technology has led to the development of a bewildering array of imaging procedures. Yet, conventional radiography remains one of the most used tools to diagnose and to aid procedural interventions. Fluoroscopy guidance facilitates targeted drug delivery or radiofrequency directly to the area of pathology, a benefit that has to be balanced against the risks of radiation exposure. In this prospective observational survey of routine practice, dose area product (DAP) and screening time (ST) were recorded in 127 consecutive patients undergoing fluoroscopically guided spinal procedures along with other probable measures of potentially greater radiation exposure such as weight, type of spinal pathology, the ease of recognition of the anatomical landmarks, and the radiographic quality of the image in terms of contrast and graininess. The mean ST was 34±27 seconds (range, 3 to 218 seconds), the mean DAP was 1.18±1.08 Gy cm(2) (range, 0.023 to 6.82 seconds). A correlation between weight and DAP was confirmed (r=0.230, P<0.05, Spearman's correlation coefficient). Patients with spinal pathology (n=33) had higher radiation exposure than those without (DAP median=0.85, U=978.00, P<0.005, r=-0.28, Mann-Whitney test). The DAP values obtained compare favourably with the recommended doses for radiographs and other procedures, although they generally exceed the values for a chest X-ray.

  18. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23119038

  19. Feeling Music: Integration of Auditory and Tactile Inputs in Musical Meter Perception

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear, but also “feel” music. To explore the contribution of tactile information in “feeling” musical rhythm, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, ‘duple’ (march-like rhythms) and ‘triple’ (waltz-like rhythms) presented in three conditions: 1) Unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone), 2) Various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts, and 3) Simultaneously presented bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70%–85%) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70%–90%) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60% when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90%). Performance drops dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10%), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60%), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. We believe that these results are the first demonstration of cross-modal sensory grouping between any two senses. PMID:23716252

  20. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from smart utility meters in GB; part I) laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Azadeh; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Maslanyj, Myron; Mann, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory measurements of electric fields have been carried out around examples of smart meter devices used in Great Britain. The aim was to quantify exposure of people to radiofrequency signals emitted from smart meter devices operating at 2.4 GHz, and then to compare this with international (ICNIRP) health-related guidelines and with exposures from other telecommunication sources such as mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. The angular distribution of the electric fields from a sample of 39 smart meter devices was measured in a controlled laboratory environment. The angular direction where the power density was greatest was identified and the equivalent isotropically radiated power was determined in the same direction. Finally, measurements were carried out as a function of distance at the angles where maximum field strengths were recorded around each device. The maximum equivalent power density measured during transmission around smart meter devices at 0.5 m and beyond was 15 mWm(-2) , with an estimation of maximum duty factor of only 1%. One outlier device had a maximum power density of 91 mWm(-2) . All power density measurements reported in this study were well below the 10 W m(-2) ICNIRP reference level for the general public. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017;38:280-294. © 2017 Crown copyright. BIOELECTROMAGNETICS © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Five meter diameter conical furlable antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, J. W.; Freeland, R. E.; Moore, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was made to demonstrate that a 5-meter-diameter, furlable, conical reflector antenna utilizing a line source feed can be fabricated utilizing composite materials and to prove that the antenna can function mechanically and electrically as prototype flight hardware. The design, analysis, and testing of the antenna are described. An RF efficiency of 55% at 8.5 GHz and a surface error of 0.64 mm rms were chosen as basic design requirements. Actual test measurements yielded an efficiency of 53% (49.77 dB gain) and a surface error of 0.61 mm rms. Atmospherically induced corrosion of the reflector mesh resulted in the RF performance degradation. An assessment of the antenna as compared to the current state of the art technology was made. This assessment included cost, surface accuracy and RF performance, structural and mechanical characteristics, and possible applications.

  2. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  3. Floating patterns of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B L; Cochran, K R

    1997-01-01

    As long as metered dose inhalers have existed, patients have sought a reliable method to determine if a given canister was still potent. Concerning beta agonists, the answer to this question may be lifesaving. Issues of compliance have made dating canisters or counting doses impractical. Likewise, previous claims of floating characteristics are unreliable. In tap water, we float-tested 13 commonly used inhalers three times each, observing variations as they were incrementally actuated, emptying their contents. One essential pattern was observed. Almost all prescription-size canisters sink when full; all float by the time one-third of their contents is gone. Orientation of prescription-size canisters changes in a distinct pattern especially near 90% depletion. Sample-size canisters showed some variance. Results suggest that the pharmaceutical industry should include individual floating characteristics as part of the package insert as they provide a reproducible means of gauging contents.

  4. Operating time meter for tape recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzburg, M.; Dyuffel, O.

    1985-03-01

    As an alternative to standard tape counters for popular tape recorders, a photo-electric device for measuring operating time so as to give a precise reading of expended and available operating time. The device consists of two optical components in a slotted cylinder attached to the rubberized free-wheeling tension wheel. The first, third and fourth discharge circuits have a calculation coefficient of 10, the second, of 6. Technical features are diagrammed and described. The three components include the mechanical tension wheel and the plate on which the light- and photodiodes are mounted, the basic meter plate and light diode indicators and related components. If quality parts are properly mounted, no calibration is required. Features of mechanical tape regulation permitting smooth monitoring of tape movement may make the photoelectric device described unnecessary.

  5. Commissioning subsystems of the 10 meter prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prins, Nathan; Fricke, Tobin; Mow-Lowry, Conor; Hanke, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    The best attempts at detecting the elusive gravitational waves are with L-shaped interferometers. Over the summer of 2014, I helped install subsystems of the 10 meter prototype, a gravitational wave interferometer designed to reach the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL), at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics in Hannover, Germany through the University of Florida's International REU. While there, the frequency reference cavity was aligned and the mode matching the cavity began. We also worked on installing and testing the intensity stabilization servo, which consisted of an out-of-vacuum photodiode for each the in-loop and out-of-loop sensing that were being connected to the LIGO Control and Data System.

  6. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  7. Induction of donor-type chimerism in murine recipients of bone marrow allografts by different radiation regimens currently used in treatment of leukemia patients

    SciTech Connect

    Salomon, O.; Lapidot, T.; Terenzi, A.; Lubin, I.; Rabi, I.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-11-01

    Three radiation protocols currently used in treatment of leukemia patients before bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were investigated in a murine model (C57BL/6----C3H/HeJ) for BM allograft rejection. These include (a) a single dose of total body irradiation (8.5 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.2 Gy/min), (b) fractionated TBI 12 Gy administered in six fractions, 2 Gy twice a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min, and (c) hyperfractionated TBI (14.4 Gy administered in 12 fractions, 1.2 Gy three times a day in 3 days, delivered at a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/min). Donor-type chimerism 6 to 8 weeks after BMT and hematologic reconstitution on day 12 after BMT found in these groups were compared with results obtained in mice conditioned with 8 Gy TBI delivered at a dose rate of 0.67 Gy/min, routinely used in this murine model. The results in both parameters showed a marked advantage for the single dose 8.5 Gy TBI over all the other treatments. This advantage was found to be equivalent to three- to fourfold increment in the BM inoculum when compared with hyperfractionated radiation, which afforded the least favorable conditions for development of donor-type chimerism. The fractionated radiation protocol was equivalent in its efficacy to results obtained in mice irradiated by single-dose 8 Gy TBI, both of which afforded a smaller but not significant advantage over the hyperfractionated protocol. This model was also used to test the effect of radiation dose rate on the development of donor-type chimerism. A significant enhancement was found after an increase in dose rate from 0.1 to 0.7 Gy/min. Further enhancement could be achieved when the dose rate was increased to 1.3 Gy/min, but survival at this high dose rate was reduced.

  8. Floquet modes-based asymptotic analysis of scattering from FSS-type reflectarray/transmitarray for near-zone-focused radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Hsi-Tseng; Tuan, Shih-Chung

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the asymptotic formulation of ray fields in the decomposition of electromagnetic (EM) scattering mechanisms from a one-dimensional, semi-infinite, and periodic array when it is illuminated by a line source. This technique can be applied to analyze the passive FSS (frequency selective surface)-type periodic structures with identical elements, or the reflectarray- and transmitarray-type antennas that are phased to radiate EM fields focused in the near zone of the array aperture. The solutions are built up based on the Floquet mode expansion of the scattering fields and are obtained by asymptotically evaluating the resulted integrals to express the fields in terms of reflected/transmitted and edge diffracted fields as previously addressed in the framework of uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. The theoretical investigations over the scattering mechanisms and propagation phenomena are performed. Numerical examinations are presented to demonstrate the utilization of these solutions.

  9. Automated semi-spherical irradiance meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cabello-Ruiz, R.; Varona, J.

    2011-09-01

    In this semi-spherical meter, a single detector is used to realize all measurements, which is located on the extreme of a rectangular ring (assumed as joined two mobile branches in order to compensate the weights), describing half-meridians from 0° up to 170°. The illumination source under test is located at the center of the mobile support, which can rotate 360° horizontally. The two combined movements allow us to obtain a semi-spherical geometry. The number of measurement points is determined by the two step-motors located under the mobile support of the luminary and on one of the two fixed arms, which support the mobile rectangular ring, respectively. The mechanical arrangement has the enough rigidity to support the precision required for the acquisition stage, based on a dsPIC. The main advantages of this arrange are: Its low costs (using recyclable materials only such as "electronic waste"), a reliable detection based on a single photo-detector, with an integrated amplification stage, and the mechanical design. The received power by the detector is useful to obtain the irradiance profile of the lighting sources under test. The semi-spherical geometry of the meter makes it useful for the analysis of directive and non directive sources, in accordance with the angle described by the mobile ring. In this work, special attention is given to LED lamps due to its impact in several sceneries of the daily life. A comparison between the irradiance patterns of two LED lamps is also given.

  10. How Reliable Are ATP Bioluminescence Meters in Assessing Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Omidbakhsh, Navid; Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kenny, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Meters based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence measurements in relative light units (RLU) are often used to rapidly assess the level of cleanliness of environmental surfaces in healthcare and other settings. Can such ATP measurements be adversely affected by factors such as soil and cleaner-disinfectant chemistry? Objective This study tested a number of leading ATP meters for their sensitivity, linearity of the measurements, correlation of the readings to the actual microbial contamination, and the potential disinfectant chemicals’ interference in their readings. Methods First, solutions of pure ATP in various concentrations were used to construct a standard curve and determine linearity and sensitivity. Serial dilutions of a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus, as a representative nosocomial pathogen, were then used to determine if a given meter’s ATP readings correlated with the actual CFUs. Next, various types of disinfectant chemistries were tested for their potential to interfere with the standard ATP readings. Results All four ATP meters tested herein demonstrated acceptable linearity and repeatability in their readings. However, there were significant differences in their sensitivity to detect the levels of viable microorganisms on experimentally contaminated surfaces. Further, most disinfectant chemistries tested here quenched the ATP readings variably in different ATP meters evaluated. Conclusions Apart from their limited sensitivity in detecting low levels of microbial contamination, the ATP meters tested were also prone to interference by different disinfectant chemistries. PMID:24940751

  11. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (< 1%). Limited measurements identified pulses from the meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  12. [Ecological and biological characteristics of Drosophila melanogaster features depending on the dose of electromagnetic radiation of various types].

    PubMed

    Babkina, V V; Chernova, G V; Allenova, E A; Endebera, O P; Naumkina, E N

    2013-01-01

    Biological effects of exposure to red light (lambda = 660 +/- 10 nm) on the viability and morphophysiological characteristics of Drosophila melanogaster have been studied. The ability of this physical agent to modify these features is shown. The degree of expression and impact of biological effects depend on the dose, functional and genetic status of the organism. The study of the life expectancy of the exposed to EHF and white light D. melanogaster has revealed that expression of the features depends on the radiation doses, genotype, sex, the nature of the position of wings and lighting conditions. It has been found that the dark mode (24 h-night) is more favorable than the artificial lighting. Individuals with the left wing at the top are more sensitive to the external factors.

  13. Quantitative Metabolomic Analysis of Urinary Citrulline and Calcitroic Acid in Mice after Exposure to Various Types of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Maryam; Chauthe, Siddheshwar; Strawn, Steven J.; Weber, Waylon M.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2016-01-01

    With the safety of existing nuclear power plants being brought into question after the Fukushima disaster and the increased level of concern over terrorism-sponsored use of improvised nuclear devices, it is more crucial to develop well-defined radiation injury markers in easily accessible biofluids to help emergency-responders with injury assessment during patient triage. Here, we focused on utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to identify and quantitate the unique changes in the urinary excretion of two metabolite markers, calcitroic acid and citrulline, in mice induced by different forms of irradiation; X-ray irradiation at a low dose rate (LDR) of 3.0 mGy/min and a high dose rate (HDR) of 1.1 Gy/min, and internal exposure to Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Strontium-90 (90Sr). The multiple reaction monitoring analysis showed that, while exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr induced a statistically significant and persistent decrease, similar doses of X-ray beam at the HDR had the opposite effect, and the LDR had no effect on the urinary levels of these two metabolites. This suggests that the source of exposure and the dose rate strongly modulate the in vivo metabolomic injury responses, which may have utility in clinical biodosimetry assays for the assessment of exposure in an affected population. This study complements our previous investigations into the metabolomic profile of urine from mice internally exposed to 90Sr and 137Cs and to X-ray beam radiation. PMID:27213362

  14. Measuring peak expiratory flow in general practice: comparison of mini Wright peak flow meter and turbine spirometer.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K P; Mullee, M A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare measurements of the peak expiratory flow rate taken by the mini Wright peak flow meter and the turbine spirometer. DESIGN--Pragmatic study with randomised order of use of recording instruments. Phase 1 compared a peak expiratory flow type expiration recorded by the mini Wright peak flow meter with an expiration to forced vital capacity recorded by the turbine spirometer. Phase 2 compared peak expiratory flow type expirations recorded by both meters. Reproducibility was assessed separately. SETTING--Routine surgeries at Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton. SUBJECTS--212 Patients aged 4 to 78 presenting with asthma or obstructive airways disease. Each patient contributed only once to each phase (105 in phase 1, 107 in phase 2), but some entered both phases on separate occasions. Reproducibility was tested on a further 31 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--95% Limits of agreement between measurements on the two meters. RESULTS--208 (98%) Of the readings taken by the mini Wright meter were higher than the corresponding readings taken by the turbine spirometer, but the 95% limits of agreement (mean difference (2 SD] were wide (1 to 173 l/min). Differences due to errors in reproducibility were not sufficient to predict this level of disagreement. Analysis by age, sex, order of use, and the type of expiration did not detect any significant differences. CONCLUSIONS--The two methods of measuring peak expiratory flow rate were not comparable. The mini Wright meter is likely to remain the preferred instrument in general practice. PMID:2142611

  15. Cloud radiative forcing sensitivity to Arctic synoptic regimes, surface type, cloud phase and cloud properties during the Fall 2014 Arctic Radiation, IceBridge and Sea-Ice Experiment (ARISE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor; LeBanc, Samuel; Schmidt, Sebastian; Song, Shi; Bucholtz, Anthony; Reid, Elizabeth; Anderson, Bruce; Corr, Chelsea; Smith, William L.; Kato, Seiji; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Hofton, Michelle; Moore, Richard; Winstead, Edward; Thornhill, Lee K.

    2015-04-01

    Surface cloud radiative forcing (CRF) estimates in the Arctic cover a wide range of values when comparing various datasets (e.g. MERRA, CERES), and show high bias when compared to in-situ ground-based flux measurement stations (e.g. in Greenland) [Wenshan and Zender, 2014]. These high variations and biases result from an intricate relationship between the prevailing synoptic regimes, surface types (open ocean versus sea-ice), and cloud properties [e.g. Barton et al., 2012; Bennartz et al., 2013]. To date, analyses are focused on large-scale or inter-annual comparisons [e.g. Barton et al., 2012; Taylor et al., 2014], or on several specific ground-based sites [Shupe et al., 2004; Sedlar et al., 2012]. Nevertheless, smaller scale CRF variations related to the sharp changes in sea-ice cover, cloud type and synoptic regimes in autumn are still not well understood. Here, we are focusing on assessing the CRF sensitivity to a composite variable matrix of atmospheric stability regimes, cloud profiles and properties and surface type changes during the NASA ARISE campaign conducted in the Fall of 2014 during the Arctic sea-ice minimum in the Beaufort Sea. We are interested in answering the following questions: (1) what are the combinations of distinct synoptic regimes, surface types, and cloud properties that result in the lowest or highest simulated CRF values over the Arctic Beaufort Sea during the autumn 2014 sea-ice growth period?, and (2) can we relate these simulated extremes to the observations made during the ARISE campaign? We are using the libRadtran radiative transfer modeling package to calculate the CRF sensitivity matrix, with daily gridded atmospheric profiles input from MERRA re-analysis, cloud fields and properties from CALIPSO, MODIS, AVHRR, daily variations in sea-ice margins from AMSR-2, and complementary airborne measurements collected on the C-130 during the campaign. In performing sensitivity analysis, we examine CRF extremes sorted by atmospheric

  16. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Jordan W.

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  17. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  18. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Earni, Shankar

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  19. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.J.; Ferguson, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method and system enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  20. A new 70-meter antenna quadripod with reduced RF blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucchissi, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    The new subreflector mount (quadripod) for the 64-meter to 70-meter antenna extension project was the result of many trial designs aimed at reducing radio frequency spherical and plane wave blockage and minimizing structural weight while satisfying strength and natural frequency requirements. An optimum design emerged which has a gain improvement of 0.32 dB over the present 64-meter design. Some of the trial designs made and the final optimum configuration selected are described.

  1. Design of a radiance meter with predicted size of source and distance effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Romero, J. G.; Solorio-Leyva, J. C.; Hurtado-Ramos, J. B.

    2016-10-01

    In a previous work, we described the theoretical fundamentals for the design of radiance meters. There, we observed that the length between the first and the second aperture of the instrument plays an important role in the performance of the meter. Such a length is a parameter related with the instrument response to variations of the size of the source and of the distance between the instrument and the source. Such dependences are not predicted by the theory of geometrical optics, normally used in the instrument design. Even the approximation of wave optics gives a partial understanding of the propagation of optical radiation. A more general treatment, based in the theory of partial coherence, gives a better description of the propagation.

  2. Near-field testing of the 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, Neill; Cencich, Tom; Osborn, Jim; Osmanski, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents the technical results from near-field testing of the General Dynamics 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna at the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace facility. A 5-meter square side of the tetrahedral served as the perimeter of the antenna, and a mesh surface and extensive surface contouring cord network was used to create a parabolic aperture shape to within an rms accuracy of 30 mils or better. Pattern measurements were made with offset feed systems radiating at frequencies of 7.73, 11.60, 2.27, and 4.26 (all in GHz). This report discusses the method of collecting the data, system measurement accuracy, the test data compiled, and diagostics and isolation of causes of pattern results. The technique of using near-field phase for measuring surface mechanical tolerances is included. Detailed far field antenna patterns and their implications are provided for all tests conducted.

  3. Near-field testing of the 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, Neill; Cencich, Tom; Osborn, Jim; Osmanski, J. T.

    1986-08-01

    This report documents the technical results from near-field testing of the General Dynamics 5-meter model of the tetrahedral truss antenna at the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace facility. A 5-meter square side of the tetrahedral served as the perimeter of the antenna, and a mesh surface and extensive surface contouring cord network was used to create a parabolic aperture shape to within an rms accuracy of 30 mils or better. Pattern measurements were made with offset feed systems radiating at frequencies of 7.73, 11.60, 2.27, and 4.26 (all in GHz). This report discusses the method of collecting the data, system measurement accuracy, the test data compiled, and diagostics and isolation of causes of pattern results. The technique of using near-field phase for measuring surface mechanical tolerances is included. Detailed far field antenna patterns and their implications are provided for all tests conducted.

  4. Power meter for optical efficiency measurements of laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Rogers, Robert S.; Boac, Donald S.; Duong, Nam D.

    1987-01-01

    A power meter was constructed to measure the power being deposited in transient laser-induced plasmas (LIP). The design rejects the radiation scattered from the laser beam by the LIP and that transmitted past the LIP. The power meter is constructed from a small metal-capped flask placed in an evacuated chamber. The steady-state heat production in the flask is determined from measurements of the temperature gradient on a thermal resistance connecting the top of the flask with a heat sink. The design worked well and should be applicable to a wide variety of situations if the dimensions of the system are adjusted to compensate for power levels substantially different from those used here.

  5. Assessing liner performance using on-farm milk meters.

    PubMed

    Penry, J F; Leonardi, S; Upton, J; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify and compare the interactive effects of liner compression, milking vacuum level, and pulsation settings on average milk flow rates for liners representing the range of liner compression of commercial liners. A secondary objective was to evaluate a methodology for assessing liner performance that can be applied on commercial dairy farms. Eight different liner types were assessed using 9 different combinations of milking system vacuum and pulsation settings applied to a herd of 80 cows with vacuum and pulsation conditions changed daily for 36d using a central composite experimental design. Liner response surfaces were created for explanatory variables milking system vacuum (Vsystem) and pulsator ratio (PR) and response variable average milk flow rate (AMF=total yield/total cups-on time) expressed as a fraction of the within-cow average flow rate for all treatments (average milk flow rate fraction, AMFf). Response surfaces were also created for between-liner comparisons for standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio (fraction of pulsation cycle during which milk is flowing). The highest AMFf was observed at the highest levels of Vsystem, PR, and overpressure. All liners showed an increase in AMF as milking conditions were changed from low to high standardized conditions of claw vacuum and milk ratio. Differences in AMF between liners were smallest at the most gentle milking conditions (low Vsystem and low milk ratio), and these between-liner differences in AMF increased as liner overpressure increased. Differences were noted with vacuum drop between Vsystem and claw vacuum depending on the liner venting system, with short milk tube vented liners having the greater vacuum drop than mouthpiece chamber vented liners. The accuracy of liner performance assessment in commercial parlors fitted with milk meters can be improved by using a central composite experimental design with a repeated center point treatment

  6. Shallow (2-meter) temperature surveys in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado 2m Survey Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54” outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m

  7. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BRIDGE AND SUBSTRUCTURE (with graduated meter pole); VIEW TO NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Auwaiakeakua Bridge, Spanning Auwaiakekua Gulch at Mamalahoa Highway, Waikoloa, Hawaii County, HI

  9. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Paris, Robert D.; Feldman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  10. Wavelength meter having single mode fiber optics multiplexed inputs

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Paris, R.D.; Feldman, M.

    1993-02-23

    A wavelength meter having a single mode fiber optics input is disclosed. The single mode fiber enables a plurality of laser beams to be multiplexed to form a multiplexed input to the wavelength meter. The wavelength meter can provide a determination of the wavelength of any one or all of the plurality of laser beams by suitable processing. Another aspect of the present invention is that one of the laser beams could be a known reference laser having a predetermined wavelength. Hence, the improved wavelength meter can provide an on-line calibration capability with the reference laser input as one of the plurality of laser beams.

  11. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  12. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  13. Fine Collimator Grids Using Silicon Metering Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhard, Carol

    1998-01-01

    The project Fine Collimator Grids Using Silicon Metering Structure was managed by Dr. Carol Eberhard of the Electromagnetic Systems & Technology Department (Space & Technology Division) of TRW who also wrote this final report. The KOH chemical etching of the silicon wafers was primarily done by Dr. Simon Prussin of the Electrical Engineering Department of UCLA at the laboratory on campus. Moshe Sergant of the Superconductor Electronics Technology Department (Electronics Systems & Technology Division) of TRW and Dr. Prussin were instrumental in developing the low temperature silicon etching processes. Moshe Sergant and George G. Pinneo of the Microelectronics Production Department (Electronics Systems & Technology Division) of TRW were instrumental in developing the processes for filling the slots etched in the silicon wafers with metal-filled materials. Their work was carried out in the laboratories at the Space Park facility. Moshe Sergant is also responsible for the impressive array of Scanning Electron Microscope images with which the various processes were monitored. Many others also contributed their time and expertise to the project. I wish to thank them all.

  14. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  15. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T

    2010-12-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  16. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems

    PubMed Central

    Darby, Scott G.; Moore, Matthew R.; Friedlander, Troy A.; Schaffer, David K.; Reiserer, Ron S.; Wikswo, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central cam shaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanoliters of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL/min to above 1.0 µL/min. At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices. PMID:20959938

  17. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  18. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  19. Development of an Airborne Visibility Meter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-15

    universal algorithm. The nephelometer was field tested at AFGL’s Weather Test Facility*at Otis AFB: high correlations were observed with transmissometers and...for the AVM vs background 59 spectral radiance (at 0. 86 micron) in the field -of- view for three environmental haze situations, 4.4 Radiation...sample volume induces very strong signals in the electronics. Thusthe dual capability requires the AVM to have an extremely largp response dynamic range

  20. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    PubMed

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  1. Attenuation of an ultrasonic beam by suspended particles and range of acoustic flow meters in sewer networks.

    PubMed

    Larrarte, Frédérique; François, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasonic flow meters are commonly used in wastewater management. Under certain circumstances, a reduction in the flow meter range may occur and cause significant error in the flow rate measurement. Attenuation due to suspended particles is one of the phenomena capable of reducing the flow meter range. The present paper examines attenuation resulting from re-suspended pond sediment over a wide range of concentration values. It appears that a formula established for sand suspensions provides a good estimate of ultrasound attenuation for these types of particles as well. Experiments conducted for wastewater under particle concentrations commonly encountered in sewer networks demonstrate that the attenuation by particles only contributes to a negligible extent towards intensity decay, in accordance with theoretical predictions. We also theoretically determine herein the operating conditions under which the range of an ultrasonic flow meter would be significantly reduced due to particle attenuation.

  2. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  3. Multiple Low-Dose Radiation Prevents Type 2 Diabetes-Induced Renal Damage through Attenuation of Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance and Subsequent Renal Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Minglong; Lu, Xuemian; Cong, Weitao; Xing, Xiao; Tan, Yi; Li, Yunqian; Li, Xiaokun; Jin, Litai; Wang, Xiaojie; Dong, Juancong; Jin, Shunzi; Zhang, Chi; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are the key pathogeneses of renal damage in type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence shows that whole-body low dose radiation (LDR) plays a critical role in attenuating insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Objective The aims of the present study were to investigate whether LDR can prevent type 2 diabetes-induced renal damage and the underlying mechanisms. Methods Mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% of calories from fat) for 12 weeks to induce obesity followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) to develop a type 2 diabetic mouse model. The mice were exposed to LDR at different doses (25, 50 and 75 mGy) for 4 or 8 weeks along with HFD treatment. At each time-point, the kidney weight, renal function, blood glucose level and insulin resistance were examined. The pathological changes, renal lipid profiles, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis were also measured. Results HFD/STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice exhibited severe pathological changes in the kidney and renal dysfunction. Exposure of the mice to LDR for 4 weeks, especially at 50 and 75 mGy, significantly improved lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and protein kinase B activation, meanwhile, attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress in the diabetic kidney. The LDR-induced anti-oxidative effect was associated with up-regulation of renal nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) expression and function. However, the above beneficial effects were weakened once LDR treatment was extended to 8 weeks. Conclusion These results suggest that LDR exposure significantly prevented type 2 diabetes-induced kidney injury characterized by renal dysfunction and pathological changes. The protective mechanisms of LDR are complicated but may be mainly attributed to the attenuation of dyslipidemia and the subsequent lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance

  4. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Excitation of convective motions and surface hydrodynamic soliton-type waves in liquid crystals by a Gaussian laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopyan, R. S.; Alaverdyan, R. B.; Arakelyan, A. G.; Nersisyan, S. Ts; Chilingaryan, Yu S.

    2004-03-01

    The possibility of exciting convective motions with a toroidal symmetry in a disordered liquid-crystal cell with an open surface, which is locally heated by a Gaussian laser beam, is demonstrated experimentally. A perturbation of the free surface of the liquid crystal and a convective hydrodynamic motion are determined by temperature gradients. It is shown that a radial distribution of the director of a nematic liquid crystal appears in the convection region. Under certain experimental conditions, soliton-type hydrodynamic orientation waves are observed at the free surface of a nematic liquid crystal. It is found experimentally that the velocity of these waves is determined solely by the liquid-crystal parameters and is independent of the incident laser-radiation power.

  5. A link between vascular damage and cognitive deficits after whole-brain radiation therapy for cancer: A clue to other types of dementia?

    PubMed

    Yamada, Maki K

    Whole brain radiation therapy for the treatment of tumors can sometimes cause cognitive impairment. Memory deficits were noted in up to 50% of treated patients over a short period of several months. In addition, an increased rate of dementia in young patients has been noted over the longer term, i.e. years. A deficit in neurogenesis after irradiation has been postulated to be the main cause of cognitive decline in patients, but recent data on irradiation therapy for limited parts of the brain appear to indicate other possibilities. Irradiation can directly damage various types of cells other than neuronal stem cells. However, this paper will focus on injury to brain vasculature leading to cognitive decline since vessels represent a better therapeutic target for drug development than other cells in the brain because of the blood-brain barrier.

  6. Development of a swallowing frequency meter using a laryngeal microphone.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Okuno, K; Kotani, Y; Okazaki, H; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2012-06-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs is suspected when decreased swallowing frequency is seen in the elderly. However, swallowing frequency has not been examined in elderly people during daily life. We developed a swallowing frequency meter containing a laryngeal microphone that does not restrict the subject's ability to perform daily activities. In this study, the utility of the meter was assessed. Experiment 1: The ability of the meter to detect swallowing was examined. The subject was instructed to swallow saliva or foods at a voluntarily pace. During these procedures, swallowing events were simultaneously recorded by the meter, self-enumeration and videofluorography. As a result, all of the swallowing events identified by the meter coincided with the swallowing events identified by self-enumeration and videofluorography. Experiment 2: Swallowing sounds display various patterns both between and within individuals. Therefore, we examined the concordance rate between the number of swallowing events counted by the meter and that counted by self-enumeration in 15 subjects over a longer period than in experiment 1. The concordance rates calculated by two examiners between the meter and self-enumeration were 96·8 ± 4·5% and 98·9 ± 3·3% at rest and 95·2 ± 4·5% and 96·1 ± 4·1% during meals, respectively. Our findings indicate that this meter is useful for measuring the frequency of swallowing during daily situations.

  7. 69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. (Credit JTL) View beneath marble meter bench showing hydraulic lines leading to water valve hydraulic control cylinders from control handles in bench; strings and pulleys activate meters. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  8. Feasibility of Mossbauer survey meter for hydrocarbon and mineral reserves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a Mossbauer survey meter for geophysical prospecting was investigated. Various critical requirements that will have to be met by the source and absorber crystals in such an instrument were identified. It was concluded that a survey meter based on (Rh-103 resonance (40 kev) yields Rh-103) isomeric transition is feasible and should be developed.

  9. Torque meter aids study of hysteresis motor rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M.

    1967-01-01

    Torque meter, simulating hysteresis motor operation, allows rotor ring performance characteristics to be analyzed. The meter determines hysteresis motor torque and actual stresses of the ring due to its mechanical situation and rotation, aids in the study of asymmetries or defects in motor rings, and measures rotational hysteresis.

  10. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  11. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  12. Microwave Moisture Meter for Granular and Particulate Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter operating at a single frequency for instantaneous and nondestructive determination of moisture content of granular and particulate materials was developed, calibrated and tested with different kinds of grain and seed. The meter operates at a single microwave freq...

  13. Microwave Moisture Meter for Nodestructive and Instantaneous Peanut Grading Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for the grading of peanuts. The meter allows rapid and nondestructive determination of kernel moisture content from measurements on unshelled peanut pods. T...

  14. Multiphase pumps and flow meters avoid platform construction

    SciTech Connect

    Elde, J.

    1999-02-01

    One of the newest wrinkles in efficiency in BP`s Eastern Trough Area Project (ETAP) is the system for moving multiphase oil, water and gas fluids from the Machar satellite field to the Marnock Central Processing Facility (CPF). Using water-turbine-driven multiphase pumps and multiphase flow meters, the system moves fluid with no need for a production platform. In addition, BP has designed the installation so it reduces and controls water coning, thereby increasing recoverable reserves. Both subsea multiphase booster stations (SMUBS) and meters grew out of extensive development work and experience at Framo Engineering AS (Framo) in multiphase meters and multiphase pump systems for subsea installation. Multiphase meter development began in 1990 and the first subsea multiphase meters were installed in the East Spar Project in Australia in 1996. By September 1998, the meters had been operating successfully for more than 1 year. A single multiphase meter installed in Marathon`s West Brae Project has also successfully operated for more than 1 year. Subsea meters for ETAP were installed and began operating in July 1998.

  15. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.122 Smoke meter... zero control shall be adjusted under conditions of “no smoke” to give a recorder or data...

  16. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  17. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    PubMed

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here.

  18. Digital Phase Meter for a Laser Heterodyne Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loya, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Phase Meter is based on a modified phase-locked loop. When phase alignment between the reference input and the phase-shifted metrological input is achieved, the loop locks and the phase shift of the digital phase shifter equals the phase difference that one seeks to measure. This digital phase meter is being developed for incorporation into a laser heterodyne interferometer in a metrological apparatus, but could also be adapted to other uses. Relative to prior phase meters of similar capability, including digital ones, this digital phase meter is smaller, less complex, and less expensive. The phase meter has been constructed and tested in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  19. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland–Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. PMID:26330393

  20. Ultrasonic velocity meter used in stream gaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fayard, L.D.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Many streams and canals in Florida are affected by tides or control structures and experience very low flow velocities at times. For example, the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida is affected by tides for about 140 miles upstream from its mouth and many canals in the Miami area of southeastern Florida are controlled by manmade structures and other elements that cause a variable backwater effect and very low flow velocities. For these conditions, it becomes necessary to obtain a continuous index of mean velocity as well as stage in order to compute discharge. Point-velocity sensing systems have been used to relate point velocity to mean velocity but their usefulness commonly is limited because of the lack of an exact relation. The ultrasonic velocity meter (UVM) provides an alternative approach to measuring a velocity index that can be related to mean velocity; one that provides an integrated velocity at a prescribed elevation across a stream. Six stations in the tidal-affected lower St. Johns River basin are presently equipped with UVM's. Measuring sections are as narrow as 100 feet and as wide as 900 feet. Multiple acoustic paths are used to measure wide sections in a straight reach of river; crossing paths are used to measure sections in a bend of the river. Because of low velocity and variable backwater conditions, flow also is measured with UVM's in 11 canals in the Miami area that drain into The Everglades. At some of the canal sites transducers have been permanently mounted and a 'portable' UVM module is used to obtain instantaneous velocity readings.

  1. Extended sources radiation and laplace type integral representation: Application to wave propagation above and within layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, P. J. T.

    1983-11-01

    In has been shown that the sound field reflected by the plane boundary of a layered ground can always be described by a specularly reflected wave, and layer potentials. Despite its generality, this representation is not quite suitable for numerical computation. Dealing with a very simple case, Weyl, and later on Ingard and Thomasson, proposed a representation of the solution in which the layer potential terms are replaced by the sum of surface wave and a Laplace type integral. Such an integral is very convenient for numerical purposes. In this paper, it is shown that this kind of representation can be obtained for a very wide class of sound propagation problems above or within layered media: a half-space bounded by a locally reacting surface, a finite layer of porous medium, a porous medium with depth-varying porosity, a thin elastic plate; wave propagation in shallow water with an impedance bottom. Many other applications could be developed.

  2. Determination of the occurrence of gold in an unoxidized Carlin-type ore sample using synchrotron radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Bagby, W.C.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of the so-called invisible gold in two unoxidized Carlin-type gold samples from Nevada has been determined using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. A bedded sample from the East ore zone of the Carlin deposit and a breccia sample from Horse Canyon were analyzed. Preliminary results show that gold is found only in the Horse Canyon breccia sample. Experimental details including other X-ray line and diffraction peak interferences, standards used, and minimum detection limits (MDLs) are discussed. Gold, with a MDL range of 0.8 to 3 ppm, was not detected in euhedral pyrite crystals except in the interior porous portion of one grain. Gold was detected in some parts of the matrix. The phase which contains gold has not yet been identified. The highest content of gold so far analyzed is about 40 ppm. There are interesting implications of these new findings. ?? 1987.

  3. The utility of blood glucose meters in biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Jennifer; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2005-06-01

    Most methods used to measure glucose concentrations in biotechnological settings are labour-intensive and/or expensive. With this in mind we have investigated the possibility of employing blood glucose meters, the use of which has the benefit of being fast, convenient and inexpensive, for this purpose. Accu-Chek Advantage (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) and Precision QID (Medisense, Abbott Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, U.S.A.) meters were tested using glucose samples of known concentration, at pH 7.5 and 4.8. The Accu-Chek Advantage meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. This meter showed a linear response for glucose concentrations between 0.50 and 6.0 g/litre, and the effect of pH was small. The Precision QID meter uses strips containing the enzyme glucose oxidase and is more sensitive to pH. The displayed glucose concentrations at low pH values were consistently lower than at higher pH values. At both pH values the response curve reached a plateau, which limited the effective range of this meter to a range of 0.30-2.5 g/litre. Unlike the Precision QID meter, the Accu-Chek Advantage meter also responded to xylose and arabinose. A synergistic effect of combining sugars was observed when a mixture of sugars consisting of glucose and arabinose, or glucose and xylose, was applied: the displayed concentrations were consistently higher than was expected on the basis of the individual calibration curves. The use of glucose meters is a fast and convenient alternative to existing methods and may be of particular use for screening purposes where a high degree of accuracy is not crucial. The choice of meter should depend on the application, and in this respect the pH, expected concentration range and the presence of other sugars are among the factors that should be considered.

  4. An Improved Platform Levelling System for Airborne Gravity Meters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled Lacoste and Romberg type relative gravity meters to improve in accuracy to the point where other non-sensor related sources of error serve to limit the overall accuracy of the system. One of these sources of error is derived from the inability of the platform, in which the sensor is mounted, to keep the sensor perfectly level during survey flight. Off level errors occur when the aircraft is unable to maintain straight and level flight along a survey line. The levelling platform of a typical Lacoste and Romberg type dynamic gravity meter utilizes a complex feedback loop involving both accelerometers and gyroscopes with an output connected to torque motors mounted to the platform to sense an off level situation and correct for it. The current system is limited by an inability of the platform to distinguish between an acceleration of the platform due to a change in heading, altitude or speed of the aircraft and a true change in the local gravity vertical. Both of these situations cause the platform to tilt in reponse however the aircraft acceleration creates an error in the gravity measurement. These off level errors can be corrected for to a limited degree depending on the algorithm used and the size and duration of the causal acceleration. High precision GPS now provides accurate real time position information which can be used to determine if an accleration is a real level change or due to an anomalous acceleration. The correct implementation of the GPS position can significantly improve the accuracy of the platform levelling including keeping the platform level during course reversals or drape flying during a survey. This can typically improve the quality of the gravity data before any processing corrections. The enhanced platform also reduces the time taken to stabilize the platform at the beginning of a survey line therefore improving the efficiency of the data collection. This paper discusses the method and

  5. Determination of the occurrence of gold in an unoxidized Carlin-type ore sample using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Bagby, W.C.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of the so-called invisible gold in two unoxidized Carlin-type gold samples from Nevada have been determined using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis at the National Sychrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The samples were a bedded sample from the east ore zone of the Carlin deposit and a breccia sample from Horse Canyon. Preliminary results show that gold is found only in the Horse Canyon breccia sample. Experimental details including other x-ray line and diffraction peak interferences, standards used, and minimum detection limits (MDLs) are discussed. Gold was not detected in euhedral pyrite crystals except in the interior porous portion of one grain with MDLs of 0.8 to 3 ppM. Gold was detected in some parts of the matrix. The phase which contains gold has not yet been identified. The highest content of gold so far analyzed is about 40 ppM. Implications of these new findings are discussed. 2 figs.

  6. Near-field Testing of the 15-meter Model of the Hoop Column Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, J.; Kefauver, N.; Cencich, T.; Osborn, J.; Osmanski, J.

    1986-01-01

    The technical results from near-field testing of the 15-meter model of the hoop column antenna at the Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace facility are documented. The antenna consists of a deployable central column and a 15 meter hoop, stiffened by cables into a structure with a high tolerance repeatable surface and offset feed location. The surface has been configured to have four offset parabolic apertures, each about 6 meters in diameter, and is made of gold plated molybdenum wire mesh. Pattern measurements were made with feed systems radiating at frequencies of 7.73, 11.60, 2.27, 2.225, and 4.26 (all in GHz). This report (Volume 1) covers the testing from an overall viewpoint and contains information of generalized interest for testing large antennas. This volume discusses the deployment of the antenna in the Martin Facility and the measurements to determine mechanical stability and trueness of the reflector surface, gives the test program outline, and gives a synopsis of antenna electromagnetic performance. Three techniques for measuring surface mechanical tolerances were used (theodolites, metric cameras, and near-field phase), but only the near-field phase approach is included. The report also includes an error analysis. A detailed listing of the antenna patterns are provided for the 2.225 Ghz feed in Volume 3 of this report, and for all other feeds in Volume 2.

  7. Study on determining the photometric parameters for a white LED using a light meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Alina E.; Dobre, Robert A.; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the experiments performed in order to determine the most suitable measuring mode which could be used to notably increase the accuracy of the photometric parameters determination for a white LED using a light meter with multiple measurement modes for various classic light sources like tungsten (incandescent), fluorescent, mercury and sodium based. Light meters are used for measuring the illuminance, which is a photometric parameter and its determination is based on the properties of human sight sense. Knowing how the sensitivity of the eye varies with the wavelength, the spectral response of the sensor and the spectral composition of the radiation emitted by a certain light source, a correction curve can be applied over the sensed values and obtain an accurate measurement. Nowadays many light meters can contain multiple calibration curves for typical light sources, but not for LEDs, especially for white ones. Since multiple measurements can be done using each correction curve, the authors conducted experiments to determine how to combine the aforementioned results to obtain a good estimate for the illuminance of white LEDs.

  8. An investigation, over the range of conditions occurring in radiation processing plants, of the performance of routine dosimeters of the type based on polymethyl methacrylate, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barett, J. H.; Sharpe, P. H. G.; Stuart, I. P.

    1981-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (Perspex) in the form of thin strips is used as a dosimeter in the 5 to 50kGy range. Two distinct types of systems were developed, both of which depend on a radiation induced change in optical absorption as the means of assessing absorbed dose. Perspex HX(+) is, in principle, the simpler of the systems. Polymerization of a monomer without additives is initiated by benzoyl peroxide and is continued until a specified (low) amount of residual monomer remains. On irradiation degradation products of the polymer build up in the matrix and optical density measurement in the 300 to 320 nm region allows their concentration to be determined. Red 4034 Perspex typifies the second type of system although other formulations were developed. Dye molecules are incorporated into the polymer during manufacture and on irradiation polymer radicals react with dye molecules to produce optical absorption in the visible region of the spectrum (600 to 650 nm in the case of Red 4034).

  9. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  10. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  11. X-ray study with synchrotron radiation of cerium and praseodymium monopnictides with the NaCl-type structure at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirotani, Ichimin; Hayashi, Junichi; Yamanashi, Keigo; Hirano, Kouji; Adachi, Takafumi; Ishimatsu, Naoki; Shimomura, Osamu; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2003-06-01

    By use of synchrotron radiation, powder X-ray diffraction studies for cerium and praseodymium monopnictides [CeX and PrX (X=P, As, Sb and Bi)] with the NaCl-type structure have been carried out up to 40 GPa at room temperature. We have investigated in detail the pressure ( P) vs. cell volume ( V) relationship for CeP, CeAs and CeSb. The phase transition from the NaCl-type (B1) to the CsCl-type (B2) structure is observed at around 25 GPa for CeP and 21 GPa for CeAs. The transition pressures of both compounds are about 6 GPa higher than the results previously reported. Sevan et al. have predicted that a second isostructural B2-B2 transition for CeSb occurs at around 25.2 GPa with a volume collapse of 4%. However, we cannot find the volume collapse for CeSb at least up to 35 GPa. First-order phase transitions with the crystallographic change for PrX (X=P, As and Sb) are found at 26 GPa for PrP, 27 GPa for PrAs, 13 GPa for PrSb. The structure of the high-pressure phase of these compounds is tetragonal (distorted CsCl-type, P4/mmm). For PrBi, anomalous behavior in the X-ray diffraction pattern is observed around 4 GPa. This may be due to a pressure-induced intermediate phase. The structural phase transition in PrBi occurs at about 14 GPa. The high-pressure phases of PrBi consists of coexisting of tetragonal (distorted CsCl-type, P4/mmm) and cubic (CsCl-type, Pm3m) modifications at about 14 GPa. The bulk modulus of CeX and PrX (X=P, As, Sb and Bi) is obtained from the P- V curve fitted by the Birch equation of state. The relationship between bulk modulus and cell volume for these compounds is studied.

  12. Predicting Radiation Characteristics from Antenna Physical Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-10

    EIRP ..... effective isotropic radiated power (Watts) Ama .. ..... maximum theoretical effective area (square meters) Imax ..... maximum theoretical...4.7a)271- ý- (jPR) 2 ÷(JOR) 3_1 Eo=- Id---! 32sin (e) 1 1 + ) 2 + R 3 je-j (4 .7b)4n (jPRa) (j OR) (jm DR HR=H =E,4O (4.7c) At far-field distances...directivity EIRP.....effective isotropic radiated power (Watts) A,. ..... maximum theoretical effective area (square meters) Imax ..... maximum

  13. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  14. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-08-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  15. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  16. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  17. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Jordan W.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  18. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  19. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  20. Evaluating differential nuclear DNA yield rates and osteocyte numbers among human bone tissue types: A synchrotron radiation micro-CT approach.

    PubMed

    Andronowski, Janna M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Pratt, Isaac V; Davoren, Jon M; Cooper, David M L

    2017-05-01

    Molecular human identification has conventionally focused on DNA sampling from dense, weight-bearing cortical bone tissue, typically from femora or tibiae. A comparison of skeletal elements from three contemporary individuals demonstrated that elements with high quantities of cancellous bone yielded nuclear DNA at the highest rates, suggesting that preferentially sampling cortical bone may be suboptimal (Mundorff & Davoren, 2014). Despite these findings, the reason for the differential DNA yields between cortical and cancellous bone tissues remains unknown. The primary goal of this work is to ascertain whether differences in bone microstructure can be used to explain differential nuclear DNA yield among bone tissue types observed by Mundorff and Davoren (2014), with a focus on osteocytes and the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of their associated lacunae. Osteocytes and other bone cells are recognized to house DNA in bone tissue, thus examining the density of their lacunae may explain why nuclear DNA yield rates differ among bone tissue types. Lacunae were visualized and quantified using synchrotron radiation-based micro-Computed Tomographic imaging (SR micro-CT). Volumes of interest (VOIs) from cortical and cancellous bone tissues (n=129) were comparatively analyzed from the three skeletons sampled for Mundorff and Davoren's (2014) study. Analyses tested the primary hypothesis that the abundance and density of osteocytes (inferred from their lacunar spaces) vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types. Results demonstrated that osteocyte lacunar abundance and density vary between cortical and cancellous bone tissue types, with cortical bone VOIs containing a higher lacunar abundance and density. We found that the osteocyte lacunar density values are independent of nuclear DNA yield, suggesting an alternative explanation for the higher nuclear DNA yields from bones with greater quantities of cancellous bone tissue. The use of SR micro-CT allowed for