Science.gov

Sample records for radiation monitoring instrument

  1. Response of radiation monitoring instruments to normalized risk quantities of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Carriker, A.W.

    1992-03-01

    Radiation survey instruments can be useful to emergency personnel responding to transportation and other accidents only if the personnel have some knowledge of the instrument`s ability to detect the radionuclides potentially present. A methodology for evaluating the response of survey instruments was developed and applied to the civil defense CDV-700 and CDV-715 instruments. The response of these instruments, to about 350 radionuclides, was evaluated relative to a fixed hazard represented by exposure pathways associated with transportation accidents. In addition to the response of the instruments to each radionuclide, the tabulation includes: the half-life, types of radiations emitted, and the maximum activity potentially present within a Type A transportation package. Although this work was directed towards civil defense instruments, the methodology could be extended to evaluate other survey instruments.

  2. Response of radiation monitoring instruments to normalized risk quantities of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F. ); Carriker, A.W. . Research and Special Programs Administration)

    1992-03-01

    Radiation survey instruments can be useful to emergency personnel responding to transportation and other accidents only if the personnel have some knowledge of the instrument's ability to detect the radionuclides potentially present. A methodology for evaluating the response of survey instruments was developed and applied to the civil defense CDV-700 and CDV-715 instruments. The response of these instruments, to about 350 radionuclides, was evaluated relative to a fixed hazard represented by exposure pathways associated with transportation accidents. In addition to the response of the instruments to each radionuclide, the tabulation includes: the half-life, types of radiations emitted, and the maximum activity potentially present within a Type A transportation package. Although this work was directed towards civil defense instruments, the methodology could be extended to evaluate other survey instruments.

  3. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  4. Two Radiative/Thermochemical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Janoff, Dwight D.; Shelley, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of absorption and emission complement thermal measurements. Two laboratory instruments for research in combustion and pyrolysis equipped for radiative as well as thermal measurements. One instrument essentially differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) modified to detect radiation emitted by flames. Provides means to evaluate limits of flammability of materials exhibiting exothermic reactions in DSC's. Other instrument used to determine pyrolysis properties of specimens exposed to various gases by measurement of infrared absorption spectra of pyrolysis products.

  5. Audible radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  6. Audible radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  7. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  8. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  9. Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

  10. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  11. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  12. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  13. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  14. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  15. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  16. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.

  17. Radiation monitoring at Belle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žontar, D.; Belle SVD Monitoring Group

    2003-03-01

    High beam currents at the KEK B factory lead to high radiation background (order of 100 krad/y, consisting mostly of spent electrons/positrons) around the interaction point where the silicon vertex detector is located. In order to monitor the background conditions close to the interaction point a radiation monitoring system has been developed and installed. It is based on 16 monitoring modules containing RadFET chip (containing 4 sensors) for measurement of total accumulated dose and PIN diodes for measurement of instantaneous dose rate.

  18. The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veefkind, Pepijn; Kleipool, Quintus; Aben, Ilse; Levelt, Pieternel

    2015-04-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P), scheduled for launch in 2016, is the first of the sentinels dedicated to monitoring of the atmospheric composition. The main application areas of the mission are air quality, climate and the ozone layer. The single payload of the S5P mission is TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). TROPOMI is a nadir viewing shortwave spectrometer that will measure in the UV-visible wavelength range (270-500 nm), the near infrared (710-770 nm) and the shortwave infrared (2314-2382 nm). TROPOMI will have an unprecedented spatial resolution of about 7x7 km2 at nadir. The spatial resolution is combined with a wide swath to allow for daily global coverage. The high spatial resolution serves two goals: (1) emissions sources can be detected with more accuracy and (2) the number of cloud-free ground pixels will increase substantially. The TROPOMI/S5P geophysical (Level 2) data products include nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone (total column, tropospheric column & profile), methane, sulphur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosol and cloud parameters. In this contribution we will present the TROPOMI instrument performance and the new science opportunities that it will enable.

  19. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  20. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  1. Safeguards instrument to monitor spent reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E. J.; Holt, D. M.; Stump, C.

    1981-10-01

    A hand held instrument for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water filled storage ponds has been developed. This instrument provides sufficient precise qualitative and quantitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, and is believed to be of potential use to nuclear fuel managers and to operators of spent fuel storage facilities, both at reactor and away from reactor, and to operators of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Because the Cerenkov radiation glow can barely be seen by the unaided eye under darkened conditions, a night vision device is incorporated to aid the operator in locating the fuel assembly to be measured. Beam splitting optics placed in front of the image intensifier and a preset aperture select a predetermined portion of the observed scene for measurement of the light intensity using a photomultiplier (PM) tube and digital readout. The PM tube gain is adjusted by use of an internal optical reference source, providing long term repeatability and instrument to instrument consistency. Interchangeable lenses accommodate various viewing and measuring conditions.

  2. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  3. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOEpatents

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  4. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  5. Ozone Monitoring Instrument geolocation verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, M.; Dobber, M. R.; Dirksen, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; van den Oord, G. H. J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2008-08-01

    Verification of the geolocation assigned to individual ground pixels as measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite was performed by comparing geophysical Earth surface details as observed in OMI false color images with the high-resolution continental outline vector map as provided by the Interactive Data Language (IDL) software tool from ITT Visual Information Solutions. The OMI false color images are generated from the OMI visible channel by integration over 20-nm-wide spectral bands of the Earth radiance intensity around 484 nm, 420 nm, and 360 nm wavelength per ground pixel. Proportional to the integrated intensity, we assign color values composed of CRT standard red, green, and blue to the OMI ground pixels. Earth surface details studied are mostly high-contrast coast lines where arid land or desert meets deep blue ocean. The IDL high-resolution vector map is based on the 1993 CIA World Database II Map with a 1-km accuracy. Our results indicate that the average OMI geolocation offset over the years 2005-2006 is 0.79 km in latitude and 0.29 km in longitude, with a standard deviation of 1.64 km in latitude and 2.04 km in longitude, respectively. Relative to the OMI nadir pixel size, one obtains mean displacements of ˜6.1% in latitude and ˜1.2% in longitude, with standard deviations of 12.6% and 7.9%, respectively. We conclude that the geolocation assigned to individual OMI ground pixels is sufficiently accurate to support scientific studies of atmospheric features as observed in OMI level 2 satellite data products, such as air quality issues on urban scales or volcanic eruptions and its plumes, that occur on spatial scales comparable to or smaller than OMI nadir pixels.

  6. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  7. Radiation monitor reporting requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, W.F.

    1993-12-10

    Within High-Level Waste Management (HLWM), CAMs and VAMPs are currently considered Class B equipment, therefore, alarm conditions associated with the CAMs and VAMPs result in an Unusual Occurrence or Off-Normal notification and subsequent occurrence reporting. Recent equipment difficulties associated with Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs) and Victoreen Area Radiation Monitors (VAMPs) have resulted in a significant number of notification reports. These notification have the potential to decrease operator sensitivity to the significance of specific CAM and VAMP failures. Additionally, the reports are extremely costly and are not appropriate as a means for tracking and trending equipment performance. This report provides a technical basis for a change in Waste Management occurrence reporting categorization for specific CAM and VAMP failure modes.

  8. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  9. Optical Instrumentation for Bioprocess Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Hung; Kostov, Yordan

    In this chapter the optical sensors for oxygen, pH, carbondioxide and optical density (OD) which are essential for bioprocess monitoring are introduced, their measurement principles are explained and their realization and applications are shown. In addition sensors for ethanol and GFP are presented. With the exception of the optical density sensor all others employ certain fluorophores that are sensitive to the designated parameter. These fluorophores along with their optical properties, the sensing mechanisms and their mathematical formulations are described. An important part of this chapter covers the development of the optoelectronic hardware for low cost systems that are able to measure the fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence intensity ratio. The employment of these probes in the bioprocess monitoring is demonstrated in different fermentation examples.

  10. Water quality monitor (EMPAX instrument)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Clark, Ben; Thornton, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The impetus of the Viking Mission to Mars led to the first miniaturization of a X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS). Two units were flown on the Viking Mission and successfully operated for two years analyzing the elemental composition of the Martian soil. Under a Bureau of Mines/NASA Technology Utilization project, this XRFS design was utilized to produce a battery powered, portable unit for elemental analysis of geological samples. This paper will detail design improvements and additional sampling capabilities that were incorporated into a second generation portable XRFS that was funded by the EPA/NASA Technology Utilization project. The unit, Environment Monitoring with Portable Analysis by X-ray (EMPAX), was developed specifically for quantitative determination of the need of EPA and and any industry affected by environmental concerns, the EMPAX fulfills a critical need to provide on-site, real-time analysis of toxic metal contamination. A patent was issued on EMPAX, but a commercial manufacturer is still being sought.

  11. The LISA Pathfinder Radiation Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, P. J.; Araujo, H.; Sumner, T.; Boatella, C.; Lobo, A.; Chmeissani, M.; Puigdengoles, C.; Hajdas, W.

    2006-11-29

    We present the concept, design and testing of the radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) will cause charging of the LISA Pathfinder test masses producing unwanted disturbances which could be significant during a large solar eruption. A radiation monitor on board LISA Pathfinder, using silicon PIN diodes as particle detectors, will measure the particle flux responsible for charging. It will also be able to record spectral information to identify solar energetic particle events. The design of the monitor was supported by Monte Carlo simulations which allow detailed predictions of the radiation monitor performance. We present these predictions as well as the results of high-energy proton tests carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The tests show good agreement with our simulations and confirm the capability of the radiation monitor to perform well in the space environment, meeting all science requirements.

  12. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  13. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  14. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  15. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  16. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  17. Autonomous Radiation Monitoring of Small Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, Lorenzo; Hornback, Donald Eric

    2010-01-01

    Small private vessels are one avenue by which nuclear materials may be smuggled across international borders. While one can contemplate using the terrestrial approach of radiation portal monitors on the navigable waterways that lead to many ports, these systems are ill-suited to the problem. They require vehicles to pass at slow speeds between two closely-spaced radiation sensors, relying on the uniformity of vehicle sizes to space the detectors, and on proximity to link an individual vehicle to its radiation signature. In contrast to roadways where lanes segregate vehicles, and motion is well controlled by inspection booths; channels, inlets, and rivers present chaotic traffic patterns populated by vessels of all sizes. We have developed a unique solution to this problem based on our portal-less portal monitor instrument that is designed to handle free-flowing traffic on roadways with up to five-traffic lanes. The instrument uses a combination of visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to acquire and link radiation images to individual vehicles. It was recently tested in a maritime setting. In this paper we present the instrument, how it functions, and the results of the recent tests.

  18. Monitoring Earth's Shortwave Reflectance: GEO Instrument Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brageot, Emily; Mercury, Michael; Green, Robert; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Gerwe, David

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a GEO instrument concept dedicated to monitoring the Earth's global spectral reflectance with a high revisit rate. Based on our measurement goals, the ideal instrument needs to be highly sensitive (SNR greater than 100) and to achieve global coverage with spectral sampling (less than or equal to 10nm) and spatial sampling (less than or equal to 1km) over a large bandwidth (380-2510 nm) with a revisit time (greater than or equal to greater than or equal to 3x/day) sufficient to fully measure the spectral-radiometric-spatial evolution of clouds and confounding factor during daytime. After a brief study of existing instruments and their capabilities, we choose to use a GEO constellation of up to 6 satellites as a platform for this instrument concept in order to achieve the revisit time requirement with a single launch. We derive the main parameters of the instrument and show the above requirements can be fulfilled while retaining an instrument architecture as compact as possible by controlling the telescope aperture size and using a passively cooled detector.

  19. Instruments for monitoring intensive care unit sedation

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Genís

    2000-01-01

    Although many promising objective methods (measuring systems) are available, there are no truly validated instruments for monitoring intensive care unit (ICU) sedation. Auditory evoked potentials can be used only for research in patients with a deep level of sedation. Other measuring systems require further development and validation to be useful in the ICU. Continuing research will provide an objective system to improve the monitoring and controlling of this essential treatment for ICU patients. Subjective methods (scoring systems) that are based on clinical observation have proven their usefulness in guiding sedative therapy. The Glasgow Coma Score modified by Cook and Palma (GCSC) achieves good face validity and reliability, which assures its clinical utility for routine practice and research. Other scales, in particular the Ramsay Scale, can be recommended preferably for clinical use. An accurate use of available instruments can improve the sedative treatment that we deliver to our patients. PMID:11094504

  20. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  1. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  2. Measuring space radiation with ADIS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.; McKibben, R. B.; Merk, J.

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of radiation in space, cosmic rays and Solar energetic particles, date back to the dawn of space flight. Solid state detectors, the basis of most modern high energy charged particle instruments, first flew in space in the 1960's. Modern particle spectrometers, such as ACE/CRIS, ACE/SIS and Ulysses/HET, can measure the elemental and isotopic composition of ions through the iron peak. This is achieved by using position sensing detectors (PSD's) arranged into hodoscopes to measure particle trajectories through the instrument, allowing for pathlength corrections to energy loss measurements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensor (ADIS) technique measures particle angle of incidence using a simple system of detectors inclined to the instrument axis. It achieves elemental resolution well beyond iron, and isotopic resolution for moderate mass elements without the complexity of position sensing detectors. An ADIS instrument was selected to fly as the High Energy Particle Sensor (HEPS) on NPOESS, but was de-scoped with the rest of the space weather suite. Another ADIS instrument, the Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS), is being developed for GOES-R. UNH has built and tested a engineering unit of the EHIS. Applications for manned dosimetery on the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) are also being explored. The basic ADIS technique is explained and accelerator data for heavy ions shown.

  3. Performance of portable radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhower, E.; Welch, L.; Wiblin, C.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines alleged and documented deficiencies in the performance and the calibration of existing portable radiation survey instruments. This report also examines a limited number of reported overexposures and excessive exposures attributed to instrumentation or calibration problems. The high failure rates in performance testing of a limited number of instruments indicate further testing is needed to demonstrate which instruments are acceptable and for what application. Further, the adequacy of calibration is not demonstrated at this time as many calibrations are performed by nonaccredited calibration laboratories. A review of the regulatory requirements and practices of the NRC and Agreement States regarding the use of existing performance standards such as ANSI N42-17A-1988 and the use of accredited calibration laboratories demonstrates that (1) the regulatory programs do not require compliance with existing industry standards; and (2) instruments are generally not required to be calibrated by accredited laboratories. Options are recommended that might encourage the use of industry performance standards and calibration techniques.

  4. A systolic radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpancer, I.; Kinsner, W.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes a data acquisition system for radiation monitoring which significantly improves performance over conventional systems by providing higher throughput, elimination of data skew, easier and inexpensive isolation, improved system accuracy, and compact implementation. The novel systolic data acquisition system, including systolic converter, processor and networking was developed to alleviate drawbacks of various conventional data acquisition systems used in radiation monitoring. The system is based on a systolic conversion, processing and networking method amenable to highly integrated vector architecture. The method employs systolic rules which can be developed for a selected problem. The rules for the radiation monitoring problem have been developed so as to apply not only locally but also globally to the systolic network. A form of the network has been implemented and is operational in a nuclear reactor site. Other forms are being implemented and tested for other data skew sensitive problems.

  5. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  6. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  7. Valve Health Monitoring System Utilizing Smart Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-01-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, body temperature torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commission's requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 enclosures are used to house the base-station

  8. The L3 radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlen, S.; Goldstein, J.; Marin, A.; Xu, J.; Zhou, B.; Capell, M.; Wu, S.

    1996-02-01

    A radiation monitoring system for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider is described. This system was installed in the L3 detector in April 1993. It provides information on the instantaneous and integrated radiation dose in the vicinity of the L3 silicon microvertex detector and time expansion chamber, and since April 1994 it has also provided trigger signals for the LEP beam dump in the case of large instantaneous dose rates in the L3 central tracking region.

  9. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and...

  10. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and...

  11. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and...

  12. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and...

  13. 10 CFR 39.33 - Radiation detection instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation detection instruments. 39.33 Section 39.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.33 Radiation detection instruments. (a) The licensee shall keep a calibrated and...

  14. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  15. Electron Beam Instrumentation Techniques Using Coherent Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. X.

    1997-05-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators, and Compton backscattering X-ray sources. A short bunch length is needed to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, or accurate timing. Meanwhile, much progress has been made on photoinjectors and different magnetic and RF bunching schemes to produce very short bunches. Measurement of those short bunches becomes essential to develop, characterize, and operate such demanding machines. Conventionally, bunch duration of short electron bunches is measured by transverse RF deflecting cavities or streak camera. With such devices it becomes very challenging to measure bunch length down to a few hundred femtoseconds. Many frequency domain techniques have been recently developed, based on a relation between bunch profile and coherent radiation spectrum. These techniques provide excellent performance for short bunches. In this paper, coherent radiation and its applications to bunch length measurement will be discussed. A strategy for bunch length control at Jefferson Lab will be presented, which includes a noninvasive coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) monitor, a zero-phasing technique used to calibrate the CSR detector, and phase transfer measurement used to correct RF phase drifts.

  16. Valve health monitoring system utilizing smart instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Scott L.; Drouant, George J.

    2006-05-01

    The valve monitoring system is a stand alone unit with network capabilities for integration into a higher level health management system. The system is designed for aiding in failure predictions of high-geared ball valves and linearly actuated valves. It performs data tracking and archiving for identifying degraded performance. The data collection types are: cryogenic cycles, total cycles, inlet temperature, outlet temperature, body temperature, torsional strain, linear bonnet strain, preload position, total travel, and total directional changes. Events are recorded and time stamped in accordance with the IRIG B True Time. The monitoring system is designed for use in a Class 1 Division II explosive environment. The basic configuration consists of several instrumentation sensor units and a base station. The sensor units are self contained microprocessor controlled and remotely mountable in three by three by two inches. Each unit is potted in a fire retardant substance without any cavities and limited to low operating power for maintaining safe operation in a hydrogen environment. The units are temperature monitored to safeguard against operation outside temperature limitations. Each contains 902-928 MHz band digital transmitters which meet Federal Communication Commissions requirements and are limited to a 35 foot transmission radius for preserving data security. The base-station controller correlates related data from the sensor units and generates data event logs on a compact flash memory module for database uploading. The entries are also broadcast over an Ethernet network. Nitrogen purged National Electrical Manufactures Association (NEMA) Class 4 Enclosures are used to house the base-station.

  17. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  18. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could capture, analyze, and communicate

  19. Sampled data spectroscopy (SDS): A new technology for radiation instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-01-01

    A new instrumentation architecture for radiation spectroscopy is in the early stages of development at Savannah River. Based upon the same digital sampling techniques used in sonar and radar, sampled data spectroscopy (SDS) has produced Na(I)/PMT spectra with resolution comparable to conventional PHA systems. This work has laid the foundation for extending SDS techniques to solid state detector applications as well. Two-dimensional SDS processes raw, unintegrated detector output pulses to produce both energy and shape information that is used to construct a conventional energy spectrum. System advantages include zero electronic deadtime to support very high count rates, elimination of pulse pile-up peaks, high noise immunity, and digital system stability and reliability. Small size and low power requirements make 2-D SDS anideal technology for portable instrumentation and remote monitoring applications. Applications of potential interest at Savannah River include on-the-spot spill analysis, real-time waste stream monitoring, and personnel and area monitoring below background levels. A three-dimensional sampled data architecture is also being developed. Relying on image analysis and enhancement techniques, 3-D SDS identifies spectral peaks without determining the energy of any individual detector pulses. These techniques also open up a new avenue of exploration for reducing or removing Compton effects from the spectra of single detector systems. The intended application for this technique is waste characterization where lower energy isotopes are often obscured by the Compton scattering from dominant isotopes such as Csl37.

  20. Sampled data spectroscopy (SDS): A new technology for radiation instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    A new instrumentation architecture for radiation spectroscopy is in the early stages of development at Savannah River. Based upon the same digital sampling techniques used in sonar and radar, sampled data spectroscopy (SDS) has produced Na(I)/PMT spectra with resolution comparable to conventional PHA systems. This work has laid the foundation for extending SDS techniques to solid state detector applications as well. Two-dimensional SDS processes raw, unintegrated detector output pulses to produce both energy and shape information that is used to construct a conventional energy spectrum. System advantages include zero electronic deadtime to support very high count rates, elimination of pulse pile-up peaks, high noise immunity, and digital system stability and reliability. Small size and low power requirements make 2-D SDS anideal technology for portable instrumentation and remote monitoring applications. Applications of potential interest at Savannah River include on-the-spot spill analysis, real-time waste stream monitoring, and personnel and area monitoring below background levels. A three-dimensional sampled data architecture is also being developed. Relying on image analysis and enhancement techniques, 3-D SDS identifies spectral peaks without determining the energy of any individual detector pulses. These techniques also open up a new avenue of exploration for reducing or removing Compton effects from the spectra of single detector systems. The intended application for this technique is waste characterization where lower energy isotopes are often obscured by the Compton scattering from dominant isotopes such as Csl37.

  1. Straddle carrier radiation portal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O. Dennis

    2005-05-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation"s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  2. Straddle Carrier Radiation Portal Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.; Mullen, O Dennis

    2005-08-01

    U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is the primary enforcement agency protecting the nation’s ports of entry. CBP is enhancing its capability to interdict the illicit import of nuclear and radiological materials and devices that may be used by terrorists. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is providing scientific and technical support to CBP in their goal to enable rapid deployment of nuclear and radiation detection systems at U. S. ports of entry to monitor 100% of the incoming international traffic and cargo while not adversely impacting the operations or throughput of the ports. The U.S. ports of entry include the following vectors: land border crossings, seaports, airports, rail crossings, and mail and express consignment courier facilities. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) determined that a screening solution was needed for Seaport cargo containers being transported by Straddle Carriers (straddle carriers). A stationary Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) for Straddle Carriers (SCRPM) is needed so that cargo containers can be scanned while in transit under a Straddle Carrier. The Straddle Carrier Portal operational impacts were minimized by conducting a time-motion study at the Port, and adaptation of a Remotely Operated RPM (RO-RPM) booth concept that uses logical lighting schemes for traffic control, cameras, Optical Character Recognition, and wireless technology.

  3. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product...

  4. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product...

  5. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product...

  6. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product...

  7. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product...

  8. Radiation effects on science instruments in Grand Tour type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The extent of the radiation effects problem is delineated, along with the status of protective designs for 15 representative science instruments. Designs for protecting science instruments from radiation damage is discussed for the various instruments to be employed in the Grand Tour type missions. A literature search effort was undertaken to collect science instrument components damage/interference effects data on the various sensitive components such as Si detectors, vidicon tubes, etc. A small experimental effort is underway to provide verification of the radiation effects predictions.

  9. Personal monitoring of UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Joachim; Knuschke, Peter

    1994-06-01

    Personal monitoring of till-radiation (UVR) is important fo find out both overexposure and underexposure to UVR. At present polysulfone films seem to be most suitable for these purposes. They allow a reliable measurement of till-exposure to wavelengths between 250 and 330 nm if a number of influencing factors is respected. These are described in detail in a technical report of the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE). Own investigations with polysulphone films have shown that these polymers can help as well to detect an overexposure to UVR at workplaces as an UVR-deficiency of people living in an old peoples home. It could be demonstrated that this till-deficiency well correlates to the deficiency of serum 25(OH)D3 levels of these people. Furthermore after optimization of a new phototherapeutic equipment in uniformity of UV-exposure round patients body by polysulphone film dosimeters it got useable in therapy.

  10. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  11. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  12. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  14. 10 CFR 34.25 - Radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... material is present to make the radiation surveys required by this part and by 10 CFR part 20 of this... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation survey instruments. 34.25 Section 34.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS...

  15. Computer-controlled radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-09-27

    A computer-controlled radiation monitoring system was designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Multiuser Tandem Laboratory (10 MV tandem accelerator from High Voltage Engineering Corporation). The system continuously monitors the photon and neutron radiation environment associated with the facility and automatically suspends accelerator operation if preset radiation levels are exceeded. The system has proved reliable real-time radiation monitoring over the past five years, and has been a valuable tool for maintaining personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable.

  16. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds in BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. J.; Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Petersen, B. A.; Pulliam, T.

    2005-10-01

    The BABAR experiment has been using two polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposition (pCVD) diamonds for radiation monitoring for nearly 2 years. In July 2005, an additional 12 diamond based radiation sensors will be installed inside the BABAR detector. These diamonds will take over the function of 12 silicon PIN-diodes that are currently used in the radiation protection and monitoring system. We describe our highly successful experience with using pCVD diamond radiation sensors in a high energy physics experiment. We also detail our findings of persistent signal currents and magnetically suppressed erratic dark currents in pCVD diamond based radiation sensors.

  17. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  18. Solar calibration results from two earth radiation budget experiment nonscanner instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, M. R.; Lee, R. B., III; Barkstrom, B. R.; Cooper, J. E.; Cess, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) makes use of three sets of two independent, but complementary, flight instruments. The two instruments in each set include a three-channel narrow field-of-view scanning instrument (scanner) and a five-channel wide field-of-view staring instrument (nonscanner). The ERBE nonscanner instruments are designed for the conduction of broad spectral and spatial measurements of the earth's reflected solar and emitted radiation and the determination of the incident solar flux. The nonscanner solar calibration process is considered along with the solar calibration results. A description of the data processing algorithms is also provided, taking into account the earth viewing channels and the solar monitor.

  19. Active Radiation Monitoring on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelfer, T.; Semones, E.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.; Riman, F.; Flanders, J.; Golightly, M.; Smith, G.

    The space radiation environment in and around the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being monitored by a variety of active and passive radiation measurement systems. There are currently three permanent NASA active radiation monitoring systems onboard the ISS. The first instrument is the ISS Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (ISS TEPC) that was activated November 9, 2000. The next instrument brought online was the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) that was activated April 21, 2001. The last instrument to be activated was the Extra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (EV-CPDS) that was turned on April 26, 2002. These three instruments provide the Space Radiation Analysis Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center with real-time radiation environment data, as well as detailed science data that is downloaded on a regular basis. The real-time data is used primarily for flight operations support in the Mission Control Center - Houston. The detailed science data is currently used in support of crew radiation dosemetry efforts, to validate the radiation environment model at the ISS orbit, and to validate shield distribution and interaction models for the ISS. We plan to present data collected by the ISS TEPC, IV-CPDS, and EV-CPDS for the Expedition 3 (August 10, 2001 - December 17, 2001) and Expedition 4 (December 5, 2001 - June 11, 2002)) time periods. Our preliminary measurement results will be presented in terms of environment variables such as orbital altitude and space weather, and shielding variables such as location inside the ISS and orientation of the ISS complex. In addition, the measured radiation dose will be divided into contributions from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and trapped particles.

  20. 10 CFR 34.65 - Records of radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instruments. 34.65 Section 34.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.65 Records of...

  1. 10 CFR 34.65 - Records of radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instruments. 34.65 Section 34.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.65 Records of...

  2. 10 CFR 34.65 - Records of radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instruments. 34.65 Section 34.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.65 Records of...

  3. 10 CFR 34.65 - Records of radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instruments. 34.65 Section 34.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.65 Records of...

  4. 10 CFR 34.65 - Records of radiation survey instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instruments. 34.65 Section 34.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.65 Records of...

  5. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  6. High power beam profile monitor with optical transition radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Denard, J.C.; Piot, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-06-01

    A simple monitor has been built to measure the profile of the high power beam (800 kW) delivered by the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab. The monitor uses the optical part of the forward transition radiation emitted from a thin carbon foil. The small beam size to be measured, about 100 {mu}m, is challenging not only for the power density involved but also for the resolution the instrument must achieve. An important part of the beam instrumentation community believes the radiation being emitted into a cone of characteristic angle 1/{gamma} is originated from a region of transverse dimension roughly {lambda}{gamma}; thus the apparent size of the source of transition radiation would become very large for highly relativistic particles. This monitor measures 100 {mu}m beam sizes that are much smaller than the 3.2 mm {lambda}{gamma} limit; it confirms the statement of Rule and Fiorito that optical transition radiation can be used to image small beams at high energy. The present paper describes the instrument and its performance. The authors tested the foil in, up to 180 {mu}A of CW beam without causing noticeable beam loss, even at 800 MeV, the lowest CEBAF energy.

  7. LISA PathFinder radiation monitor proton irradiation test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, I.; Diaz-Aguiló, M.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Hollington, D.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.

    2012-06-01

    The design of the Radiation Monitor in the LISA Technology Package on board LISA Pathnder is based on two silicon PIN diodes, placed parallel to each other in a telescopic configuration. One of them is able to record spectral information of the particle hitting the diode. A test campaign for the flight model Radiation Monitor was done in the Paul Scherrer Institute Proton Irradiation Facility in September 2010. Its purpose was to check correct functionality of the Radiation Monitor under real high energy proton fluxes. Here we present the results of the experiments done and their assessment by means of a simulated flight model geometry using GEANT4 toolkit. No deviation from nominal RM performance was detected, which means the instrument is fully ready for flight.

  8. Long working distance autocollimating and microscope monitoring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing-guo; Liu, Guo-dong; Gong, Na; Chen, Feng-dong; Zhuang, Zhi-tao

    2013-01-01

    In the laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment, the high accuracy target field coordinate system should be found to monitor the target by all kinds of physics diagnose instrument. Before the testing target is shot, the coordinate system should be transferred to the testing target, and recurrent the coordinate system before each shooting. In order to solve this problem, two set microscope optics vision instruments are designed which has autocollimating and target position monitoring functions, and its working distance is 3.8 meters,and its optic resolution is 8 micron. Firstly, the optical coordinate axis of the two instruments is adjusted orthogonally by each other, then the ICF range coordinate is transferred to a testing target by a sensor, and ensure testing target located at the center of ICF range coordinate. The instrument has already been used in Shen Guang III device, and also can be used for object monitoring and tracing in a kind of field.

  9. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety. PMID:21144039

  10. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    SciTech Connect

    D. BARR; ET AL

    2000-05-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  11. CLOUDCLOUD : general-purpose instrument monitoring and data managing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, António; Amorim, António; Tomé, António

    2016-04-01

    An effective experiment is dependent on the ability to store and deliver data and information to all participant parties regardless of their degree of involvement in the specific parts that make the experiment a whole. Having fast, efficient and ubiquitous access to data will increase visibility and discussion, such that the outcome will have already been reviewed several times, strengthening the conclusions. The CLOUD project aims at providing users with a general purpose data acquisition, management and instrument monitoring platform that is fast, easy to use, lightweight and accessible to all participants of an experiment. This work is now implemented in the CLOUD experiment at CERN and will be fully integrated with the experiment as of 2016. Despite being used in an experiment of the scale of CLOUD, this software can also be used in any size of experiment or monitoring station, from single computers to large networks of computers to monitor any sort of instrument output without influencing the individual instrument's DAQ. Instrument data and meta data is stored and accessed via a specially designed database architecture and any type of instrument output is accepted using our continuously growing parsing application. Multiple databases can be used to separate different data taking periods or a single database can be used if for instance an experiment is continuous. A simple web-based application gives the user total control over the monitored instruments and their data, allowing data visualization and download, upload of processed data and the ability to edit existing instruments or add new instruments to the experiment. When in a network, new computers are immediately recognized and added to the system and are able to monitor instruments connected to them. Automatic computer integration is achieved by a locally running python-based parsing agent that communicates with a main server application guaranteeing that all instruments assigned to that computer are

  12. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  13. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  14. a Novel Instrument to Monitor Lanslides Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasuto, A.; Mantovani, M.; Schenato, L.; Scherneck, H.

    2013-12-01

    Landslides are more widespread than any other geological event and have high ranking among the natural disasters in terms of casualties and economical damages. Deforestation and constructions of new settlements and infrastructures, as direct consequences of population growth, and the increasing frequency of extreme meteorological events, due to the global climatic changing, could lead to a more severe impact of landslides on human life and activities in the next future. Risk reduction generally comes through countermeasures, both structural and non-structural, that directly act on the developing process or tend to reduce the effects on the fabric of the city and of the environment. Nevertheless countermeasures have often shown their flimsiness especially if they are carried out on disruptions hard to stabilize for their dimensions, kinematics and morpho-evolutive conditions. In these cases there are basically two options: the relocation of the element at risk or the surveillance of the evolution of the instability process by means of a monitoring system. Monitoring therefore represents a powerful tool in both the surveillance of the territory and the management of the emergencies coming from geo-hydrological hazard. In this study we propose the development and testbedding of a novel, low-cost wireless smart sensor network for remote monitoring of land surface deformations. The purpose is to create a flexible and scalable monitoring system in order to overcome some of the limitations of the existing devices and to strongly reduce the costs. The system consists in a master station that works as a control and measuring unit, and a series of sensors (motes) placed over the unstable areas. The master station transmits a microwave signal and receives the response from each mote measuring their relative position and inferring any deformation occurred between successive interrogations. Moreover the motes can work as bridges so that even those that are not directly visible

  15. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments. [Powered by capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.

  16. Instrument Packages for the Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beamna, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system and radhard ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a cold temperature surface operational version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower tem-perature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package.

  17. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.; McNamara, N.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1990. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  19. Digital configurable instrument for emulation of signals from radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A.

    2014-01-15

    The paper presents a digital instrument characterized by a specially designed architecture that is able to emulate in real time signals from a generic radiation detection system. The instrument is not a pulse generator of recorded shapes but a synthesizer of random pulses compliant to programmable statistics for height and starting time of events. Completely programmable procedures for emulation of noise, disturbances, and reference level variation are implemented.

  20. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  1. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  2. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    DOEpatents

    Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  3. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  4. Radiation monitoring container device (16-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaoka, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this experiment, layers of radiation detectors and biological specimens, bacterial spores (Bacillus subtillis), shrimp eggs (Altemia salina), and maize seeds (Zea mays) are sandwiched together in the Radiation Monitoring Container. The detectors, sheets of plastic materials, record the nuclear track of cosmic radiation. The dosimeter package contains conventional detectors made of materials such as lithium fluoride or magnesium-silica-terbium. The thermoluminescent materials (TLD) will, when moderately heated, emit luminescent photons linearly depending upon the dose of radiation received. The experiment, enclosed in a box-like container, is mounted on the aft end cone of the Spacelab, the area where the shielding is somewhat less than other locations.

  5. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  6. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  7. 4. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on east wall of the equipment room on the east side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 3. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on north wall of the equipment room on the east side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 5. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior view of instrumentation, controls, and monitoring equipment on north and east walls of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Radiation Monitoring for the Masses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric; Sorom, Rich; Wiles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, many commercial vendors have produced applications and equipment targeted at the average member of the public in order to enable them to make radiation measurements themselves at little to no cost. The authors have evaluated a small selection of these items in order to validate their performance when exposed to a calibrated 137Cs dose rate irradiator. The products fall into two primary categories: the first using the CMOS from the camera on ubiquitous smartphones and the second using an accessory that performs the radiation measurement. Presented here are the performance data of a selection and recommendations on how to interpret the produced values. PMID:26606063

  11. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  12. Radiation monitoring system for X-FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, D.; Mukherjee, B.; Simrock, S.; Jabłoński, G.; Napieralski, A.; Grecki, M.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation produced during the operation of linear accelerators poses a potential threat to electronic devices installed in the accelerator tunnel. Therefore, a distributed radiation monitoring system was installed at five various spots in the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) tunnel. The presented system allows us to measure radiation produced during the operation of a linear accelerator driving FLASH in real time. The system is composed of two modules: radiation-sensitive sensors and a radiation-tolerant readout system constructed with the application of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The neutron dosimeter was constructed using an innovative application of a static random access memory (SRAM), whereas a well-known radiation-sensitive RadFET was used for gamma quantification.

  13. EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI): Validation Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinksma, E. J.; McPeters, R.; deHaan, J. F.; Levelt, P. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    OMI is an advanced hyperspectral instrument that measures backscattered radiation in the UV and visible. It will be flown as part of the EOS Aura mission and provide data on atmospheric chemistry that is highly synergistic with other Aura instruments HIRDLS, MLS, and TES. OMI is designed to measure total ozone, aerosols, cloud information, and UV irradiances, continuing the TOMS series of global mapped products but with higher spatial resolution. In addition its hyperspectral capability enables measurements of trace gases such as SO2, NO2, HCHO, BrO, and OClO. A plan for validation of the various OM1 products is now being formulated. Validation of the total column and UVB products will rely heavily on existing networks of instruments, like NDSC. NASA and its European partners are planning aircraft missions for the validation of Aura instruments. New instruments and techniques (DOAS systems for example) will need to be developed, both ground and aircraft based. Lidar systems are needed for validation of the vertical distributions of ozone, aerosols, NO2 and possibly SO2. The validation emphasis will be on the retrieval of these products under polluted conditions. This is challenging because they often depend on the tropospheric profiles of the product in question, and because of large spatial variations in the troposphere. Most existing ground stations are located in, and equipped for, pristine environments. This is also true for almost all NDSC stations. OMI validation will need ground based sites in polluted environments and specially developed instruments, complementing the existing instrumentation.

  14. Instrumented Shoes for Real-Time Activity Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Moufawad El Achkar, Christopher; Lenoble-Hoskovec, Constanze; Major, Kristof; Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Büla, Christophe; Aminian, Kamiar

    2016-01-01

    Activity monitoring in daily life is gaining momentum as a health assessment tool, especially in older adults and at-risk populations. Several research-based and commercial systems have been proposed with varying performances in classification accuracy. Configurations with many sensors are generally accurate but cumbersome, whereas single sensors tend to have lower accuracies. To this end, we propose an instrumented shoes system capable of accurate activity classification and gait analysis that contains sensors located entirely at the level of the shoes. One challenge in daily activity monitoring is providing punctual and subject-tailored feedback to improve mobility. Therefore, the instrumented shoe system was equipped with a Bluetooth® module to transmit data to a smartphone and perform detailed activity profiling of the monitored subjects. The potential applications of such a system are numerous in mobility and fall risk-assessment as well as in fall prevention. PMID:27332298

  15. New instruments for plant area and personnel monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R. B.; Hawthorne, A. R.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Schuresko, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advances in portable monitoring instruments and simple luminescence techniques for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are reported. A small, derivative ultra-violet absorption spectrometer is suitable for multipollutant real-time monitoring of several mono- and bicyclic aromatic vapors. A non-compound selective fluorescence spill spotter and lightpipe luminoscope are active instruments for measuring general surface and skin contamination, respectively. A small passive integrating filter paper exposure device that responds to PNA vapors such a pyrene is a very promising and recent development. Synchronous luminescence and room temperature phosphoresence are two attractive and simple to use analytical methodologies for the rapid assaying of major PNA compounds. Their potential for analyzing the cyclohexane extract of particulate matter, or incorporation into a device for the continuous monitoring of select PNAs in aerosols in near-real-time, are discussed.

  16. Solar radiation monitoring for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-based and satellite-based ionizing radiation monitoring systems are considered as alternative methods for ensuring safe radiation levels for high-altitude aircraft. It is found that ground-based methods are of limited accuracy due to insensitivity to solar particles of energies between the riometer upper cutoff of about 50 MeV and the neutron monitor threshold of about 450 MeV. This energy range is demonstrated to be essential for atmospheric radiation monitoring at high altitude, and must be covered by satellite measurement. On the basis of presently available data, the accuracy to which the incident solar particle flux must be measured by satellite-borne detectors is examined and recommendations are made to establish minimum requirements.

  17. Solar radiation monitoring for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-10-01

    Ground-based and satellite-based ionizing radiation monitoring systems are considered as alternative methods for ensuring safe radiation levels for high-altitude aircraft. It is found that ground-based methods are of limited accuracy due to insensitivity to solar particles of energies between the riometer upper cutoff of about 50 MeV and the neutron monitor threshold of about 450 MeV. This energy range is demonstrated to be essential for atmospheric radiation monitoring at high altitude, and must be covered by satellite measurement. On the basis of presently available data, the accuracy to which the incident solar particle flux must be measured by satellite-borne detectors is examined and recommendations are made to establish minimum requirements.

  18. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a Particle Radiation Monitor II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, C. E.; Ford, P. G.; Bautz, M. W.; ODell, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  19. Monitoring of Observation Errors from Satellite Ozone Instruments in Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Winslow, Nathan; Rood, Richard B.; Pawson, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Ozone distributions derived from the Solar Backscatter UltraViolet/2 (SBUV/2) instruments and the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (EP TOMS) have been assimilated in near-real time at the NASA/Goddard Data Assimilation Office since January 2000. Observed-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals are the differences between the incoming ozone data and the co-located short-term model forecast. They are routinely produced and monitored in the assimilation process. Using examples from the NOAA-14 and NOAA-16 SBUV/2 and the EP-TOMS instruments, it is demonstrated that the monitoring of time series of O-F residual statistics is an effective method of identifying time-dependent changes in the observation-error characteristics of ozone. In addition, the data assimilation system was used to assist the validation of updated calibration coefficients for the NOAA-14 SBUV/2 instrument. This assimilation-based monitoring work will be extended to ozone data from instruments on new satellites: Envisat EOS, Aqua, and EOS Aura.

  20. Development of a small radiation flux monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Leysen, W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniaturized radiation flux monitor by means of Cherenkov light. The idea is to use the intensity of Cherenkov light as a measurement for the radiation flux. An initial test is performed with an extrinsic dielectric object which is coupled with an optical fibre. These test show that the Cherenkov radiation in the fibre itself was too high compared with the captured extrinsic light. Further test to use intrinsic Cherenkov fibre optic sensors are planned in the near future and the envisaged measurement set up is explained. (authors)

  1. DEBIE - first standard in-situ debris monitoring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuitunen, J.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Svedhem, H.; Leese, M.; Mannermaa, H.; Kaipiainen, M.; Sipinen, V.

    2001-10-01

    Objects larger than a few centimetres can be tracked with radar or with optical telescopes. The population of smaller particles can only be investigated by the analysis of retrieved spacecraft and passive detectors or by in-situ monitors in orbit. Patria Finavitec together with UniSpace Kent have developed the DEBIE (DEBris In-orbit Evaluator) instrument to determine the parameters of sub-millimetre sized space debris and micrometeoroids in-situ by their impact with a detecting surface. The main goal has been to develop an economical and low-resource instrument, easy to integrate into any spacecraft, while providing reliable real-time data for space debris modelling.

  2. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  3. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  4. Instrumentation for remote sensing solar radiation from light aircraft.

    PubMed

    Howard, J A; Barton, I J

    1973-10-01

    The paper outlines the instrumentation needed to study, from a light aircraft, the solar radiation reflected by ground surfaces and the incoming solar radiation. A global shortwave radiometer was mounted on the roof of the aircraft and a specially designed mount was used to support a downward pointing 70-mm aerial camera, a downward pointing narrow-beam pyranometer, and, sometimes, a downward pointing global shortwave pyranometer. Calibration factors were determined for the three pyranometers by comparison with a standard Angstrom compensation pyrheliometer. Results have indicated trends in the albedos of major plant communities and have shown that the calculated albedo values vary according to whether the downward pointing instrument is narrow-beam or global. Comparisons were also made with albedos measured on the ground.

  5. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    PubMed

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests. PMID:24387467

  6. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M.; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  7. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument.

    PubMed

    Aranguren, G; Monje, P M; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  8. Ultrasonic wave-based structural health monitoring embedded instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Aranguren, G.; Monje, P. M.; Cokonaj, Valerijan; Barrera, Eduardo; Ruiz, Mariano

    2013-12-15

    Piezoelectric sensors and actuators are the bridge between electronic and mechanical systems in structures. This type of sensor is a key element in the integrity monitoring of aeronautic structures, bridges, pressure vessels, wind turbine blades, and gas pipelines. In this paper, an all-in-one system for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on ultrasonic waves is presented, called Phased Array Monitoring for Enhanced Life Assessment. This integrated instrument is able to generate excitation signals that are sent through piezoelectric actuators, acquire the received signals in the piezoelectric sensors, and carry out signal processing to check the health of structures. To accomplish this task, the instrument uses a piezoelectric phased-array transducer that performs the actuation and sensing of the signals. The flexibility and strength of the instrument allow the user to develop and implement a substantial part of the SHM technique using Lamb waves. The entire system is controlled using configuration software and has been validated through functional, electrical loading, mechanical loading, and thermal loading resistance tests.

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  10. Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

  11. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  12. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  13. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  14. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  15. 10 CFR 35.2061 - Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. 35... § 35.2061 Records of radiation survey instrument calibrations. A licensee shall maintain a record of radiation survey instrument calibrations required by § 35.61 for 3 years. The record must include the...

  16. Instrumentation, Monitoring and NDE for New Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Good, Morris S.; Waltar, Alan E.

    2007-07-28

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has been proposed as a viable system in which to close the fuel cycle in a manner consistent with markedly expanding the global role of nuclear power while significantly reducing proliferation risks. A key part of this system relies on the development of actinide transmutation, which can only be effectively accomplished in a fast-spectrum reactor. The fundamental physics for fast reactors is well established. However, to achieve higher standards of safety and reliability, operate with longer intervals between outages, and achieve high operating capacity factors, new instrumentation and on-line monitoring capabilities will be required--during both fabrication and operation. Since the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor – II (EBR-II) reactors were operational in the USA, there have been major advances in instrumentation, not the least being the move to digital systems. Some specific capabilities have been developed outside the USA, but new or at least re-established capabilities will be required. In many cases the only available information is in reports and papers. New and improved sensors and instrumentation will be required. Advanced instrumentation has been developed for high-temperature/high-flux conditions in some cases, but most of the original researchers and manufacturers are retired or no longer in business.

  17. Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melody M.; Pellis, Neal; Jeevarajan, Anthony S.; Taylor, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An optoelectronic instrument monitors the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium in a perfused rotating-wall-vessel bioreactor. The instrument is designed to satisfy the following requirements: It should be able to measure the pH of the medium continuously with an accuracy of 0.1 in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. It should be noninvasive. Any material in contact with the culture medium should be sterilizable as well as nontoxic to the cells to be grown in the medium. The biofilm that inevitably grows on any surface in contact with the medium should not affect the accuracy of the pH measurement. It should be possible to obtain accurate measurements after only one calibration performed prior to a bioreactor cell run. The instrument should be small and lightweight. The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the culture medium flows as it is circulated through the bioreactor. The cuvette is sandwiched between light source on one side and a photodetector on the other side. The light source comprises a red and a green light-emitting diode (LED) that are repeatedly flashed in alternation with a cycle time of 5 s. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red LEDs are processed electronically to obtain a quantity proportional to the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium.

  18. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  19. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  20. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A.

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  1. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  2. Smart radiation monitor for airport baggage screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osovizky, Alon; Ginzburg, Dimitry; Marcus, Eli; Yehuda-Zada, Yaacov; Ghelman, Max; Vax, Eran; Bronfenmacher, Vladislav; Mazor, Tzachi; Cohen, Yosef

    2011-05-01

    This work presents specially designed radiation monitoring system for baggage screening at airports and border crossing points for the presence of radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Border monitoring equipment plays a key role in combating illicit trafficking. The conveyor monitor is designed to meet the detection level determined by the standard for Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). The obtained sensitivity results of the system and an analytical analysis of the implemented algorithms contributing to the detection performances are presented. The system consists of highly sensitive gamma and neutron detectors, electronic data-processing unit, computer interface and unique algorithms. The system's electronic unit interfaces with the conveyor control system using two signals, an input signal for the conveyor operation status and an output signal for stopping the conveyor in case of alarm. This interface and the implemented algorithm reduce the number of false alarms and improve the detection level by considering the background variation. Further significant improvement in the detection level is achieved by implementing an advanced algorithm based on the detector reading profile versus time. The online computer software provides the user with friendly interface for retrieving the archived data and analyzing the history of alarms.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  5. A historical fluence analysis of the radiation environment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and implications for continued radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePasquale, J. M.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    2006-06-01

    Now in operation for over 6 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has sampled a variety of space environments. Its highly elliptical orbit, with a 63.5 hr period, regularly takes the spacecraft through the Earth's radiation belts, the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath and into the solar wind. Additionally, the CXO has weathered several severe solar storms during its time in orbit. Given the vulnerability of Chandra's Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) to radiation damage from low energy protons, proper radiation management has been a prime concern of the Chandra team. A comprehensive approach utilizing scheduled radiation safing, in addition to both on-board autonomous radiation monitoring and manual intervention, has proved successful at managing further radiation damage. However, the future of autonomous radiation monitoring on-board the CXO faces a new challenge as the multi-layer insulation (MLI) on its radiation monitor, the Electron, Proton, Helium Instrument (EPHIN), continues to degrade, leading to elevated temperatures. Operating at higher temperatures, the data from some EPHIN channels can become noisy and unreliable for radiation monitoring. This paper explores the full implication of the loss of EPHIN to CXO radiation monitoring by evaluating the fluences the CXO experienced during 40 autonomous radiation safing events from 2000 through 2005 in various hypothetical scenarios which include the use of EPHIN in limited to no capacity as a radiation monitor. We also consider the possibility of replacing EPHIN with Chandra's High Resolution Camera (HRC) for radiation monitoring.

  6. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  7. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  8. Aquarius: An Instrument to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S .E.; Colomb, R.; Yueh, S.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument that is being developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, global water cycle, and climate. Aquarius is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, which is a partnership between the U.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and Argentina (CONAE). The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large-scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  9. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Lichti, G. G.; Diehl, R.; Greiner, J.; Kienlin, A. von; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kippen, R. M.

    2009-05-25

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched on June 11, 2008 carries two experiments onboard--the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). The primary mission of the GBM instrument is to support the LAT in observing {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs) by providing low-energy measurements with high temporal and spectral resolution as well as rapid burst locations over a large field-of-view ({>=}8 sr). The GBM will complement the LAT measurements by observing GRBs in the energy range 8 keV to 40 MeV, the region of the spectral turnover in most GRBs. The GBM detector signals are processed by the onboard digital processing unit (DPU). We describe some of the hardware features of the DPU and its expected limitations during intense triggers.

  10. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  11. Radiation environment monitoring for manned missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V. V.; Petrov, V. M.

    In this paper a radiation monitoring system for manned Mars missions is described, based on the most recent requirements on crew radiation safety. A comparison is shown between the radiation monitoring systems for Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft, with similarities and differences pointed out and discussed. An operational and technological sketch of the chosen problem solving approach is also given.

  12. [Automated system of radiation monitoring in Moscow region].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A A; Zubkov, Iu N; Prokazova, L M; Sobolev, A I

    2006-01-01

    The authors consider one trend in activities of "Radon"--Center of Radiation and Ecologic Control. The article covers foundation reasons and longstanding function results of operative radiation monitoring system for large industrial city. Features of construction and functioning of the system are shown. Devices for operative radiation monitoring are subjected to comparative analysis. Prospective trends of the system development are described.

  13. An efficient network for interconnecting remote monitoring instruments and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Gainer, K.E.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1994-08-01

    Remote monitoring instrumentation must be connected with computers and other instruments. The cost and intrusiveness of installing cables in new and existing plants presents problems for the facility and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The authors have tested a network that could accomplish this interconnection using mass-produced commercial components developed for use in industrial applications. Unlike components in the hardware of most networks, the components--manufactured and distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia--lend themselves to small and low-powered applications. The heart of the network is a chip with three microprocessors and proprietary network software contained in Read Only Memory. In addition to all nonuser levels of protocol, the software also contains message authentication capabilities. This chip can be interfaced to a variety of transmission media, for example, RS-485 lines, fiber topic cables, rf waves, and standard ac power lines. The use of power lines as the transmission medium in a facility could significantly reduce cabling costs.

  14. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  15. Measuring Aerosol Optical Properties with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Torres, O.; Syniuk, A.; Decae, R.; deLeeuw, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is the Dutch-Finnish contribution to the NASA EOS-Aura mission scheduled for launch in January 2004. OM1 is an imaging spectrometer that will measure the back-scattered Solar radiance between 270 an 500 nm. With its relatively high spatial resolution (13x24 sq km at nadir) and daily global coverage. OM1 will make a major contribution to our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and to climate research. OM1 will provide data continuity with the TOMS instruments. One of the pleasant surprises of the TOMS data record was its information on aerosol properties. First, only the absorbing aerosol index, which is sensitive to elevated lay- ers of aerosols such as desert dust and smoke aerosols, was derived. Recently these methods were further improved to yield aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over land and ocean for 19 years of TOMS data (1979-1992,1997-2002), making it one of the longest and most valuable time series for aerosols presently available. Such long time series are essential to quantify the effect of aerosols on the Earth& climate. The OM1 instrument is better suited to measure aerosols than the TOMS instruments because of the smaller footprint, and better spectral coverage. The better capabilities of OMI will enable us to provide an improved aerosol product, but the knowledge will also be used for further analysis of the aerosol record from TOMS. The OM1 aerosol product that is currently being developed for OM1 combines the TOMS experience and the multi-spectral techniques that are used in the visible and near infrared. The challenge for this new product is to provide aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo from the near ultraviolet to the visible (330-500 nm) over land and ocean. In this presentation the methods for deriving the OM1 aerosol product will be presented. Part of these methods developed for OM1 can already be applied to TOMS data and results of such analysis will be shown.

  16. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  17. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  18. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  19. Cosmic ray dose monitoring using RadFET sensors of the Rosetta instruments SESAME and COSIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, Peter; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Seidensticker, Klaus J.; Thiel, Klaus; Fischer, Henning; Hilchenbach, Martin; Henkel, Hartmut; Koch, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    On its more than 10 years journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta carried RadFET ionising dose monitors in the central electronics of the orbiter instrument COSIMA and the lander instrument SESAME. The readings of the dosimeters were corrected for the temperature of the devices during measurements. Because the sensitivity of RadFETs depends on the energy of impinging charged particles, a mean efficiency factor for the prevalent proton radiation was determined by applying nine efficiency models to proton energy spectra of Rosetta's radiation environment. The resulting dose profiles show linear increases of the accumulated dose with time, mainly caused by galactic cosmic radiation, and the arrival of two solar particle events in 2005. The accumulated dose (in Silicon) during 3909 days in space from 2004-03-02 to 2014-11-14 was 3.2 ± 0.6 Gy in case of COSIMA and 1.9 ± 0.4 Gy for SESAME. The deviation of the two measurements is mainly due to the solar particle event in September 2005, which had a 5.3 ± 1.0 times stronger impact on the COSIMA RadFET. Measured dose levels are one order of magnitude lower than those expected before launch for not being exceeded on the 90% confidence level, which is mainly due to the low solar activity during the mission so far.

  20. ISS space radiation environment as observed by radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Petrov, V.; Panasyuk, Michail; Nechaev, Oleg; Lishnevskiy, Andrey; Volkov, Aleksey

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) has worked on board of the International Space Station (ISS) Service Module practically continuously beginning from August 2001. Data of dose rate on board the ISS observed by the RMS beginning from August 2001 up to January 2008 are presented. The dose rate values measured by four detectors disposed in different places of the Service Module are compared. The measurements were carried out under a wide variety of solar and geomagnetic activity conditions during decreasing phase of the 23-th solar cycle. Solar proton events doses measured by RMS are presented. It was noted a high difference of the dose values measured in various places of the ISS Service Module. The dose values caused by the large solar particle events including October 2003 and January 2005 events are presented. In particular, the maximum solar particle event dose during the full-considered period of the ISS flight was fixed in the October 2003 events.

  1. Uveka: a UV exposure monitoring system using autonomous instruments network for Reunion Island citizens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sébastien, Nicolas; Cros, Sylvain; Lallemand, Caroline; Kurzrock, Frederik; Schmutz, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Reunion Island is a French oversea territory located in the Indian Ocean. This tropical Island has about 840,000 inhabitants and is visited every year by more than 400,000 tourists. On average, 340 sunny days occurs on this island in a whole year. Beyond these advantageous conditions, exposure of the population to ultraviolet radiation constitutes a public health issue. The number of hospitalisations for skin cancer increased by 50% between 2005 and 2010. Health insurance reimbursements due to ophthalmic anomalies caused by the sun is about two million Euros. Among the prevention measures recommended by public health policies, access to information on UV radiation is one of the basic needs. Reuniwatt, supported by the Regional Council of La Reunion, is currently developing the project Uveka. Uveka is a solution permitting to provide in real-time and in short-term forecast (several hours), the UV radiation maps of the Reunion Island. Accessible via web interface and smartphone application, Uveka informs the citizens about the UV exposure rate and its risk according to its individual characteristics (skin phototype, past exposure to sun etc.). The present work describes this initiative through the presentation of the UV radiation monitoring system and the data processing chain toward the end-users. The UV radiation monitoring system of Uveka is a network of low cost UV sensors. Each instrument is equipped with a solar panel and a battery. Moreover, the sensor is able to communicate using the 3G telecommunication network. Then, the instrument can be installed without AC power or access to a wired communication network. This feature eliminates a site selection constraint. Indeed, with more than 200 microclimates and a strong cloud cover spatial variability, building a representative measurement site network in this island with a limited number of instruments is a real challenge. In addition to these UV radiation measurements, the mapping of the surface solar radiation

  2. Monitoring Disasters by Use of Instrumented Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Dunagan, Steven E.; Brass, James A.; Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Buechel, Sally W.; Stoneburner, Jay; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop data-acquisition, data-processing, and data-communication systems for monitoring disasters over large geographic areas by use of uninhabited aerial systems (UAS) robotic aircraft that are typically piloted by remote control. As integral parts of advanced, comprehensive disaster- management programs, these systems would provide (1) real-time data that would be used to coordinate responses to current disasters and (2) recorded data that would be used to model disasters for the purpose of mitigating the effects of future disasters and planning responses to them. The basic idea is to equip UAS with sensors (e.g., conventional video cameras and/or multispectral imaging instruments) and to fly them over disaster areas, where they could transmit data by radio to command centers. Transmission could occur along direct line-of-sight paths and/or along over-the-horizon paths by relay via spacecraft in orbit around the Earth. The initial focus is on demonstrating systems for monitoring wildfires; other disasters to which these developments are expected to be applicable include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, leaks of toxic chemicals, and military attacks. The figure depicts a typical system for monitoring a wildfire. In this case, instruments aboard a UAS would generate calibrated thermal-infrared digital image data of terrain affected by a wildfire. The data would be sent by radio via satellite to a data-archive server and image-processing computers. In the image-processing computers, the data would be rapidly geo-rectified for processing by one or more of a large variety of geographic-information- system (GIS) and/or image-analysis software packages. After processing by this software, the data would be both stored in the archive and distributed through standard Internet connections to a disaster-mitigation center, an investigator, and/or command center at the scene of the fire. Ground assets (in this case

  3. Analysis of the TMI-2 dome radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M B; Mueller, G M; Jernigan, W C

    1985-08-01

    Questions have been raised regarding the accuracy of the in-containment radiation readings from the LOCA qualified, dome radiation monitor, HP-R-214 during the March 28, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. This report discusses the accuracy of the readings, gives the results of examining the radiation monitor itself, and estimates the radiation environment inside containment during the accident.

  4. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  5. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  6. In-orbit performance of the ozone monitoring instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Johan; Voors, Robert; Dirksen, Ruud; Dobber, Marcel

    2005-10-01

    In July 2004 Nasa's AURA satellite was launched carrying the Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument and since then it is producing high quality trace gas measurements of a.o. ozone and NO2. The OMI is a non-scanning nadir viewing spectrograph with a wavelength coverage of 270 to 500 nm and a spectral resolution of 0.4 to 0.7 nm. It has a large spatial field-of-view of 114 degrees perpendicular to the flight direction and uses the resulting swath of 2600 km to measure the complete globe in a single day with ground pixels of nominally 13 km × 24 km. After a brief instrument overview, this paper discusses a number of in-flight performance issues, such as the wavelength calibration and the stray light correction. OMI's wavelength calibration is based on fitting the sun's Fraunhofer structures, both on sun irradiance spectra and Earth radiance spectra. For the latter the cloud structures impact the wavelength results via inhomogeneous illumination of the spectrometer slit. This is explained together with the basics of a correction algorithm. OMI has a carousel with three on-board sun diffusers. Measurements with the quartz volume diffuser will be used to show remaining diffuser features in the data. The measured irradiances are compared to the results obtained by convolving the high-resolution solar reference spectrum with the accurately calibrated spectral slit functions. In the in-flight measurement data in the wavelength range below 300 nm spatial stray light features are observed, resulting from clouds observed at wavelengths above 300 nm. These features are shown together with an explanation of the means to analyze the in-orbit stray light performance.

  7. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  8. Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument level 1b data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobber, M.; Kleipool, Q.; Dirksen, R.; Levelt, P.; Jaross, G.; Taylor, S.; Kelly, T.; Flynn, L.; Leppelmeier, G.; Rozemeijer, N.

    2008-08-01

    The validation of the collection 2 level 1b radiance and irradiance data measured with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is investigated and described. A number of improvements from collection 2 data to collection 3 data are identified and presented. It is shown that with these improvements in the calibration and in the data processing the accuracy of the geophysically calibrated level 1b radiance and irradiance is improved in the collection 3 data. It is shown that the OMI level 1b irradiance product can be reproduced from a high-resolution solar reference spectrum convolved with the OMI spectral slit functions within 3% for the Fraunhofer structure and within 0.5% for the offset. The agreement of the OMI level 1b irradiance data product with other available literature irradiance spectra is within 4%. The viewing angle dependence of the irradiance and the irradiance goniometry are discussed, and improvements in the collection 3 data are described. The in-orbit radiometric degradation since launch is shown to be smaller than 0.5% above 310 nm and increases to about 1.2% at 270 nm. It is shown how the viewing angle dependence of the radiance is improved in the collection 3 data. The calculation of the surface albedo from OMI measurement data is discussed, and first results are presented. The OMI surface albedo values are compared to literature values from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). Finally, improvements in the spectral and spatial stray light corrections from collection 2 data to collection 3 data are presented and discussed.

  9. Radiation field formation and monitoring beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    This brief review comprises the main features of radiation field formation due to galactic (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) beyond LEO in the inner Solar system. We also consider the similarities and differences of radiation environment models applicable to the Moon and the Mars missions, the main requirements for radiation monitoring, warning and forecasting techniques for deep space missions. Existing modulation models for GCR provide a possibility to estimate easily the GCR contribution to the radiation field in the interplanetary space, at the lunar or Martian surfaces; the situation with SCR contribution is much more complicated. For space weather purposes, time profiles of the 10-30 MeV protons, unfortunately, are often complicated by several factors, especially by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). In particular, the particle-trapping region around the shock may or may not be the region with the highest SEP intensity, depending on whether shock acceleration continues or diminishes with distance. At distances beyond 1 AU there can be interaction or merging of different transient shocks, and the corotating shocks begin to play a role, possibly by re-accelerating some of the SEPs from transient shocks. Also, the source locations, angular distribution and radial gradient of SEP intensity are very important. In a mission to Mars, for example, the radial distance will vary according to the spacecraft trajectory chosen. The flux of SEPs is expected to vary as a power law with radial distance from the Sun, and a power-law exponent of -3 would be expected from magnetic flux tube geometry. Since the radial distance to Mars is ˜ 1.5 AU, then the flux at the orbit of Mars would be expected to be about 1/3 of the flux at 1.0 AU along the same spiral path. A consideration of these expected variations suggests that the proton prediction problem for Mars is not dramatically different from the Earth. Autonomous sensors on board the spacecraft

  10. Radiation field formation and monitoring beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miroshnichenko, L. I.

    This brief review comprises the main features of radiation field formation due to galactic (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (SCR) beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) in the inner Solar system. We also consider the similarities and differences of radiation environment models applicable to the Moon and Mars missions, the main requirements for radiation monitoring, warning, and forecasting techniques for deep space missions. Existing modulation models for GCR provide a possibility to estimate easily the GCR contribution to the radiation field in the interplanetary space, at the Lunar or Martian surfaces. The situation with SCR contribution is much more complicated. For space weather purposes, time profiles of the 10-30 MeV protons in the most of solar proton events (SPE), unfortunately, are often complicated by several factors, especially by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). In particular, the particle-trapping region around the shock may or may not be the region with the highest intensity of solar energetic particles (SEP), depending on whether shock acceleration continues or diminishes with distance. At distances beyond 1 AU there can be interaction or merging of different transient shocks, and the corotating shocks begin to play a role, possibly by re-accelerating some of the SEPs from transient shocks. Also, the source locations, angular distribution and radial gradient of SEP intensity are very important. In a mission to Mars, for example, the radial distance will vary according to the spacecraft trajectory chosen. The flux of SEPs is expected to vary as a power law with radial distance from the Sun, and a power-law exponent of -3 would be expected from magnetic flux tube geometry. Since the radial distance to Mars is ˜1.5 AU, then the flux at the orbit of Mars would be expected to be about 1/3 of the flux at 1.0 AU along the same spiral path in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). A consideration of these expected variations suggests that

  11. Observations over Hurricanes from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Yang, K.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    There is an apparent inconsistency between the total column ozone derived from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and aircraft observations within the eye region of tropical cyclones. The higher spectral resolution, coverage, and sampling of the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) on NASA s Aura satellite as compared with TOMS allows for improved ozone retrievals by including estimates of cloud pressure derived simultaneously using the effects of rotational Raman scattering. The retrieved cloud pressures from OM1 are more appropriate than the climatological cloud-top pressures based on infrared measurements used in the TOMS and initial OM1 algorithms. We find that total ozone within the eye of hurricane Katrina is significantly overestimated when we use climatological cloud pressures. Using OMI-retrieved cloud pressures, total ozone in the eye is similar to that in the surrounding area. The corrected total ozone is in better agreement with aircraft measurements that imply relatively small or negligible amounts of stratospheric intrusion into the eye region of tropical cyclones.

  12. Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars: Space Radiation Data, Modeling and Instrumentation Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Barghouty, A. F.; Bhattacharya, M.; Lin, Zi-Wei

    2005-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President Bush announced the Vision for Space Exploration, a program for long-term human and robotic exploration of the solar system which will include a return of humans to the moon not later than 2020, followed by human missions to Mars. Since this announcement, NASA has been developing plans and mission architectures for these human missions as well as robotic precursor missions. Among the critical needs for research and development in support of this Vision are investigations on the ionizing radiation environment and development of instrumentation to guide NASA in managing the radiation exposure of the crew during the manned missions. For mission planning, models are needed for a reference worst-case solar energetic particle event and a reference worst-case galactic cosmic ray environment. During Lunar missions it will be necessary to carefully manage the radiation exposure of the crew in real time because of the variability of the radiation environment due to solar activity. In particular, prompt warnings will be needed when large solar energetic particle events occur. Accurate predictions will also be needed of the particle flux and flux history at the moon to support critical mission management decisions. A new generation of dosimeters and radiation monitors will also be needed to accompany the crew. These instruments must return data in real time so that they can be used in the critical decisions that must be made if a large solar energetic particle event occurs. This is especially true if it occurs during a lunar excursion. A substantial radiation exposure on extended lunar missions and Mars missions comes from galactic cosmic rays. This exposure must be mitigated by radiation shielding and other measures. During Mars missions the galactic cosmic ray exposure occurs primarily during the cruse phase between the Earth and Mars. This is especially true for opposition class missions. These missions would typically last -430 days with only

  13. Reprocessing MSU/AMSU/SSU long-term satellite instruments for climate monitoring and reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, C.

    2009-12-01

    Climate monitoring requires generation of long-term satellite data products using satellite retrieval algorithms. Alternatively, satellite radiance data can be assimilated into numerical climate models to generate comprehensive reanalysis data products for climate monitoring and research. However, calibration and data consistency have been a major issue in producing reliable satellite and reanalysis climate products. Many long-term satellite climate products and earlier-generation reanalyses suffer from spurious climate jumps and variability induced by satellite transition and calibration-related instrument changes. Future satellite and reanalysis climate products require satellite data to be well calibrated so that instrument-related time-varying intersatellite biases are removed before they are used for climate analysis and data assimilation. Instrument characteristics such as frequency response functions are also required to be well described for accurately simulating radiances by radiative transfer models in reanalyses. For these purposes, NOAA/NESDIS is reprocessing and recalibrating radiance data from the NOAA and DMSP polar-orbiting satellite series. The instruments being investigated include MSU/AMSU/ATMS, SSU, HIRS, AVHRR, and SSM/I, etc. Recently, the NESDIS MSU/AMSU/SSU reprocessing effort has been funded by the NOAA Scientific Data Stewardship Program. In this presentation, we will review the current status on the NESDIS recalibration/reprocessing of the 30-year MSU/AMSU radiance data using simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) method. We present results of the merged MSU/AMSU long-term atmospheric temperature climate data records derived from the recalibration. We also present preliminary results on bias correction and reprocessing of the SSU long-term time series using the SNO method.

  14. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Obleitner, F.; Bichler, C.; Foelsche, U.; Pietsch, H.; Rieder, H. E.; Weihs, P.; Geyer, F.; Haiden, T.; Schöner, W.

    2015-10-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  15. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  17. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  18. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: I. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Using the explicit form of the functions to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure in the finite range of frequencies v 1≤ v≤ v 2 are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60-600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T=2.72548 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and σ, and the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the CMB radiation are obtained using the mean amplitude T amp=3.358 mK. It is shown that the Doppler shift leads to a renormalization of the radiation density constant a, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ, and the corresponding constants for the thermodynamic functions. The expressions for new astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant, and number density of CMB photons are obtained. The radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation for the monopole and dipole spectra at redshift z≈1089 are calculated.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....1011(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500 parts per...) through (b)(6) of this section. (1) Monitoring method. Monitoring shall comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR... 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....1011(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500 parts per...) through (b)(6) of this section. (1) Monitoring method. Monitoring shall comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR... 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....1011(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500 parts per...) through (b)(6) of this section. (1) Monitoring method. Monitoring shall comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR... 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1011(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500 parts per...) through (b)(6) of this section. (1) Monitoring method. Monitoring shall comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR... 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1004 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....1011(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500 parts per...) through (b)(6) of this section. (1) Monitoring method. Monitoring shall comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR... 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except the instrument response factor criteria in section...

  4. Color gamma camera system for radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhiping; Deng, Jingkang; Wang, Yanfeng

    2000-11-01

    Radiation monitoring systems are desired in many places where radioactive materials are utilized. In this paper, a color gamma camera system developed in Tsinghua University (P.C. China) is reported. The system consist of a compact X - (gamma) ray detector system, a single hole collimator, the scanning mechanism and computer system. The MLEM method is implemented for image reconstruction, which enables one to generate images of high resolution with relatively big aperture. With the associated software, several scanning modes, which work with different speeds and resolutions, are provided and can be selected in the operations. In addition, the system can detect radioactive sources emitting rays of different energies and display them with color images. Experiments were made using Am-241 (59.5 KeV) and Na-22 (511 KeV) to test the performance of the system. The results are presented which show that the resolution of this system can be as high as 1.5 degrees. Furthermore, simulations using Matlab were made to examine the capability of imaging point sources with a small number of counts and imaging distributed sources. Promising results were obtained and are reported. Discussions about camera design and further improvements are given at the end.

  5. A New Active Space Radiation Instruments for the International Space Station, A-DREAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Shingo

    For future space experiments in the International Space Station (ISS) or other satellites, radiation detectors, A-DREAMS (Active Dosimeter for Radiation Environment and Astronautic Monitoring in Space), using single or multiple silicon semi-conductor detectors have been developed. The first version of the detectors were produced and calibrated with particle accelerators. National Institute of Radiological Sciences has a medical heavy ion accelerator (HIMAC) for cancer therapy and a cyclotron accelerator. The detector was irradiated with high energy heavy ions and protons in HIMAC and the cyclotron and calibrated the energy resolution and linearity for deposited energies of these particles. We are planned to be going to use the new instrument in an international project, the new MATROSHKA experiment which is directed by members in the Institute of Bio-Medical Problem (IBMP) in Russia and German Space Center (DLR) in Germany. In the project, the dose distribution in human torso phantom will be investigated for several months in the ISS. For the project, a new type of the instruments is under development in NIRS and the current situation will be reported in this paper.

  6. Holographic instrumentation for monitoring crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Lal, Ravindra B.; Batra, Ashok K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement requirements and candidates for measuring crystal growth in space are described, emphasizing holographic instrumentation. Existing instrumentation planned for the IML-1 Spaceflight is described along with advanced concepts for future application which incorporate diode lasers, fiber optics, and holographic optical elements. Particle image displacement velocimetry in crystal growth chambers is described.

  7. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  8. Development and Validation of a Parental Monitoring Instrument: Measuring How Parents Monitor Adolescents' Activities and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…

  9. Development of a Distributed In Situ Instrument for Snowpack Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalka, C.; Frolik, J.; Walker, M. J.; Moeser, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by micro-stations, each of which can be deployed independently to characterize spatially distributed variables, such as snow water equivalent (SWE). Snowcloud is a novel WSN-based system featuring application specific technologies specialized for studying variations in snowpack in harsh alpine environments. The Snowcloud WSN system makes use of low-cost, very portable hardware architectures. Unlike fixed based data acquisition systems, Snowcloud can be easily repositioned to gather intensive information about specific locations, and the low cost allows more data points to be monitored. Power consumption in Snowcloud is regulated by a network software protocol that optimizes both radio and sensor actuation, extending operating life. Snowcloud also exploits a multi-tiered architecture to provide data reliability despite traditional volatility of WSN nodes. This includes in-network data replication, and an on-site "smart" network gateway allowing remote data retrieval over cell- or radio-modem while buffering data on local massive storage in case of modem failure. Snowcloud complements information about snowpack depth and SWE currently collected from fixed-base systems, such as the 750 SNOTEL sites that form the primary network for water supply forecasting in the western United States, and data collected manually from snow courses. Snowcloud is particularly useful for temporary seasonal deployment in steep alpine environments or areas with landcover (such as forested areas) that inhibits acquisition of snowpack information by fixed-base stations, manual surveys and satellites. The highly portable framework of Snowcloud creates an ideal utility for augmenting manual measurements in areas that have established snow courses and in areas that are excessively difficult or dangerous to measure manually. Snowcloud is also useful for enhancing SWE approximations at basin scales. SWE is highly variable spatially and temporally and

  10. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  11. Real-time seismic monitoring of instrumented hospital buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; McCarthy, William S.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the U.S. Geological Survey's National Strong Motion Project has recently installed sophisticated seismic monitoring systems to monitor the structural health of two hospital buildings at the Memphis VA Medical Center in Tennessee. The monitoring systems in the Bed Tower and Spinal Cord Injury buildings combine sensing technologies with an on-site computer to capture and analyze seismic performance of buildings in near-real time.

  12. LISA-PF radiation monitor performance during the evolution of SEP events for the monitoring of test-mass charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Ao, X.; Fabi, M.; Laurenza, M.; Li, G.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at energies >100 MeV/n charge and induce spurious forces on free-floating test masses on board interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space. LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF), the technology testing mission for eLISA/NGO, will carry radiation monitors for on board test-mass charging monitoring. We present here the results of a simulation of radiation monitor performance during the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events of different intensity. This simulation was carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo package by taking into account for the first time both energy and spatial distributions of solar protons for the SEP events of 23 February 1956, 15 November 1960 and 7 May 1978. Input data for the Monte Carlo simulations was inferred from neutron monitor measurements. Conversely, for the SEP event of 13 December 2006 observed by the PAMELA experiment in space, we used the proton pitch angle distribution (PAD) computed from the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (PATH) code. We plan to adopt this approach at the time of LISA-PF data analysis in order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor observations and test-mass charging. The results of this work can be extended to the future space interferometers and other space missions carrying instruments for SEP detection.

  13. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  14. Sequential probability ratio controllers for safeguards radiation monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.L.; Nixon, K.V.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential hypothesis tests applied to nuclear safeguards accounting methods make the methods more sensitive to detecting diversion. The sequential tests also improve transient signal detection in safeguards radiation monitors. This paper describes three microprocessor control units with sequential probability-ratio tests for detecting transient increases in radiation intensity. The control units are designed for three specific applications: low-intensity monitoring with Poisson probability ratios, higher intensity gamma-ray monitoring where fixed counting intervals are shortened by sequential testing, and monitoring moving traffic where the sequential technique responds to variable-duration signals. The fixed-interval controller shortens a customary 50-s monitoring time to an average of 18 s, making the monitoring delay less bothersome. The controller for monitoring moving vehicles benefits from the sequential technique by maintaining more than half its sensitivity when the normal passage speed doubles.

  15. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  16. 14. CLOSEUP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA FACING SKY. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6175, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor: Concept, Design and Space Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, Yulia; Irshad, Ranah; Griffin, Doug; Araujo, Henrique; Mitchell, Edward; Turchetta, Renato; Woodward, Simon; Velagapudi, Bindu; Menicucci, Alessandra; Daly, Eamonn

    2015-04-01

    The high energy plasma population, i.e. inside the radiation belts and within solar energetic particle events, is extremely damaging to satellite electronics and human health. Therefore monitoring, understanding of the physics behind and prediction of space radiation strength is a crucial aspect of space weather research and applications. In addition, the availability of good quality housekeeping data on the ionizing radiation environment in and around spacecraft systems is recognised as highly desirable for the efficient design and operation of spacecraft. Yet the engineering and economic costs of integrating such sensors into flight systems are a serious barrier to their widespread adoption. In light of this, the Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor (HMRM) has been developed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council and Imperial College London within the framework of an ESA technology development contract. The device is significantly smaller and lighter than current space technology with modest power requirements (1W) meaning that it has negligible impact on the spacecraft's overall resources. Furthermore, its simple electrical and data interfaces result in minimal integration costs. The HMRM is designed as a real-time radiation monitor with provides additional scientific data sets, such as reconstructed particle spectra of high-energy plasma population. The instrument energy coverage of 35 keV - 6 MeV for electrons and 600 keV - 500 MeV for protons makes the HMRM an ideal instrument to monitor and study the radiation environment of near-Earth space and to be widely used for space weather monitoring and research.

  18. Summary Report on Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D. F.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  19. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION MONITOR FOR NSLS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect

    PINAYEV, I.; SHAFTAN, T.

    2005-11-04

    NSLS booster diagnostics consisted of tune measurement system, system for turn-by-turn measurement on the electron beam, and beam intensity monitor, which is not absolutely calibrated. We present design and implementation of synchrotron light monitor for the booster, which expands diagnostics capabilities. The system allows to measure an orbit, beam sizes and coupling of the electron beam along the ramp.

  20. Instrumentation for Monitoring around Marine Renewable Energy Converters: Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Polagye, B. L.; Copping, A. E.; Brown-Saracino, J.; Suryan, R.; Kramer, S.; Smith, C.

    2014-01-14

    To better understand the state of instrumentation and capabilities for monitoring around marine energy converters, the U.S. Department of Energy directed Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center at the University of Washington to convene an invitation-only workshop of experts from around the world to address instrumentation needs.

  1. Testing carbon sequestration site monitor instruments using a controlled carbon dioxide release facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, Seth D.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Keith, Charlie J.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Carlsten, John L.; Spangler, Lee H.

    2008-02-01

    Two laser-based instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring have been developed and tested at a controlled carbon dioxide (CO2) release facility. The first instrument uses a temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0027-2.0042 μm spectral region that contains three CO2 absorption lines and is used for aboveground atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements. The second instrument also uses a temperature tunable DFB diode laser capable of accessing the 2.0032-2.0055 μm spectral region that contains five CO2 absorption lines for underground CO2 soil gas concentration measurements. The performance of these instruments for carbon sequestration site monitoring was studied using a newly developed controlled CO2 release facility. A 0.3 ton CO2/day injection experiment was performed from 3-10 August 2007. The aboveground differential absorption instrument measured an average atmospheric CO2 concentration of 618 parts per million (ppm) over the CO2 injection site compared with an average background atmospheric CO2 concentration of 448 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring. The underground differential absorption instrument measured a CO2 soil gas concentration of 100,000 ppm during the CO2 injection, a factor of 25 greater than the measured background CO2 soil gas concentration of 4000 ppm demonstrating this instrument's capability for carbon sequestration site monitoring

  2. Instrumentation of urban hydrology monitoring sites in Southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardee, Jack

    1979-01-01

    An instrumentation system developed and built in laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va., has been used since 1974 to collect synchronized rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data from urban basins. A number of field modifications were made to adapt the system to local hydrologic conditions and for collection of data on about 350 rainstorms at four sites in south Florida. The instrumentation system measures rainfall at three sites, records two pressure or water-level readings for flow computations, and collects and refrigerates up to 24 water samples and rainfall-quality samples. Rainfall and runoff data are recorded every 36 seconds on a six-channel analog recorder so that all variables are time-synchronous. Flow in the storm sewer is computed from pressure measurements in a U-shaped venturi-type constriction or, when the constriction is not used, from water levels. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. The radiation-tolerant x-ray monitor.

    PubMed

    Gott, Yu V; Stepanenko, M M

    2008-10-01

    A vacuum photoelectric detector (monitor) (VPD) designed for plasma tomography, megnetohydrodynamics monitoring, and imaging with the help of thermal x-ray radiation on the ITER facility is described. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that VPD has high sensitivity to thermal x rays and low sensitivity to hard gamma rays and neutrons. The results of tests of a prototype of this monitor on a (60)Co source of gamma rays, on nuclear reactor and its calibration using radiation from an x-ray tube, and tests of its serviceability on the T-10 facility are presented.

  4. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF) are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group) recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS) disorders (ROM patient group). The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales). Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6) and 37.7 years (SD=12.0) for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients. PMID:23171272

  5. Instrument and spacecraft faults associated with nuclear radiation in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trainos, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given which surveys the variety of faults and failures which have occurred in space due both to the effects of single, energetic nuclear particles, as well as effects due to the accumulated ionizing dose or the fluence of nuclear particles. The review covers a variety of problems with sensors, electronics, instruments and spacecraft from several countries.

  6. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Beauchamp, Brock R.; Mauger, G. Joseph; Nelson, Karl E.; Mercer, Michael B.; Pletcher, David C.; Riot, Vincent J.; Schek, James L.; Knapp, David A.

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  7. Three Canted Radiator Panels to Provide Adequate Cooling for Instruments on Slewing Spacecraft in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Certain free-flying spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) or payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) are required to slew to point the telescopes at targets. Instrument detectors and electronics require cooling. Traditionally a planar thermal radiator is used. The temperature of such a radiator varies significantly when the spacecraft slews because its view factors to space vary significantly. Also for payloads on the ISS, solar impingement on the radiator is possible. These thermal adversities could lead to inadequate cooling for the instrument. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes three canted radiator panels to mitigate this problem. It increases the overall radiator view factor to cold space and reduces the overall solar or albedo flux absorbed per unit area of the radiator.

  8. Air Quality Observations from Space: Results from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Expected Results from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Boersma, F. F.; van der A, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Kleipool, Q.; Krotkov, N. A.; Aben, I.; de Vries, J.; Ingmann, P.; Tamminen, J.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Levelt, P.

    2011-12-01

    Air quality is one of the largest societal challenges, especially in large urbanized and industrialized regions of the world. Reduced air quality has adverse health effects, and also results in reduced crop yields. In addition, there are strong links between air quality and climate change. Traditionally, air quality has been monitored by ground-based networks. In the previous decade the observation capabilities have been extended with measurements from space, most notable from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-1/2). Whereas the satellite instruments do not provide concentrations at the surface level, they provide unique global information on the spatial distribution and transport of pollutants. Over the last decade the quality of the satellite data for tropospheric species like nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols have matured rapidly. Several data products now contribute to the monitoring and forecasting of air quality through data assimilation techniques, most notably as developed in the EU GEMS and MACC (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/) projects. Apart from directly contributing through data assimilation, satellite data is also used for the top-down quantification of emission sources and understanding of atmospheric processes, thus improving chemistry transport models. The OMI instrument, which was launched in July 2004, was the first instrument that combined daily global coverage with high spatial resolution of 13x24 km2 at nadir. The OMI data have attracted many new users and has resulted in several new applications. The TROPOMI instrument, planned for launch in late 2014, will be the first in a series of European satellite sensors dedicated for monitoring atmospheric composition changes in the timeframe 2015-2030. The TROPOMI instrument has a heritage to both OMI and SCIAMACHY. With a

  9. Investigation of stability of precise geodetic instruments used in displacements monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Marek; Odziemczyk, Waldemar

    2014-05-01

    Stability of the geometry of the geodetic instrument in displacements monitoring systems is particular important. It is important to provide the robust reference system for position determination during control measurements. In measuring systems the fundamental role perform motorized tacheometers. In order to provide a high reliability and accuracy of the measurements results the testing of instruments and measuring techniques must be perform. In this paper results of laboratory and field investigations using precise tacheometers TDA5005 as well as TCRP1201+ are presented. The temperature influence on changes of geometry stability of the instruments were examined. In this paper we propose methods to avoid the negative impact on results of the displacement monitoring.

  10. NOX/NOY MONITORING USING MODIFIED/UNMODIFIED COMMERCIAL INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three systems were used for monitoring oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2, Noy, at the Cornelia Fort Airpark site in the 1999 Southern Oxidant Study near Nashville, TN during the months of June and July. Of the three systems, one was an unmodified ultraviolet differential optical abs...

  11. Remote instrumentation and safeguards monitoring for the star project

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H M; Labiak, W; Spiridon, A

    2000-06-15

    A part of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) is the development of the Small Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) for deployment in countries that do not have a nuclear industry. STARs would have an output of from 100 to 150 MW electric, would be fueled in the country of manufacture, and after 15 to 20 years of operation the reactor core would be returned to the country of manufacture for refueling. A candidate STAR design can be found in (Greenspan, 2000). This paper describes the design of the control and monitoring system that might be used. There are two unique features to this system. One is that the monitored information will be transmitted to a remote site for two purposes, safeguards, and allowing experts a great distance away direct access to view the reactor's operating parameters. The second feature is safeguards sensors will be designed into the system and there will monitoring of the safeguards aspects of the system for tampering. Any safeguards anomalies will be sent to the remote site as alarms. Encrypted satellite communications will be used to transmit the data. These features allow the STAR to be operated by a small staff and will reduce the costs of safeguards monitoring by reducing the number of plant visits by inspectors.

  12. New generation of radiacs: small computerized multipurpose radiation monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Umbarger, C.J.; Bjarke, G.O.; Erkkila, B.H.; Trujillo, F.; Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Health Division at Los Alamos has developed a multipurpose radiation monitoring device that is computer-controlled, light weight (3 lb), includes multiple radiation detectors running simultaneously, and is simple to use. This multipurpose radiac is generic in nature and can use any of the standard radiation detectors such as NaI, /sup 3/He, LET proportional gas counters, solid state surface barrier detectors, etc. LCD displays indicate the various radiation parameters in both alphanumeric and graphics format. Internal batteries allow 100 hours of use.

  13. Aerosol Characterization and New Instrumentation for Better Understanding Snow Radiative Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beres, N. D.

    2015-12-01

    Snow albedo is determined by snowpack thickness and grain size, but also affected by contamination with light-absorbing, microscopic (e.g., mineral dust, combustion aerosols, bio-aerosols) and macroscopic (e.g., microalgae, plant debris, sand, organisms) compounds. Most currently available instruments for measuring snow albedo utilize the natural, downward flux of solar radiation and the reflected upward flux. This reliance on solar radiation (and, thus, large zenith angles and clear-sky conditions) leads to severe constraints, preventing characterization of detailed diurnal snow albedo cycles. Here, we describe instrumentation and methodologies to address these limitations with the development and deployment of new snow radiation sensors for measuring surface spectral and in-snow radiative properties. This novel instrumentation will be tested at the CRREL/UCSB Eastern Sierra (CUES) Snow Study Site at Mammoth Mountain, which is extensively instrumented for characterizing snow properties including snow albedo and surface morphology. However, it has been lacking instrumentation for the characterization of aerosols that can be deposited on the snow surface through dry and wet deposition. Currently, we are installing aerosol instrumentation at the CUES site, which are also described. This includes instruments for the multi-wavelength measurement of aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and for the characterization of aerosol size distribution. Knowledge of aerosol concentration and physical and optical properties will allow for the study of aerosol deposition and modification of snow albedo and for establishing an aerosol climatology for the CUES site.

  14. Science Objectives of EOS-Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levelt, P. F.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chance, K. V.; Leppelmeier, G. W.; Maelkki, A.; Bhartia, Pawan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    OMI is a UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter spectrograph, which provides near global coverage in one day with a spatial resolution of 13 x 24 sq km. OMI is a new instrument, with a heritage from the European satellite instruments GOME, GOMOS and SCIAMACHY. OMI's unique capabilities for measuring important trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage, in conjunction with the other Aura instruments, will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. OMI will measure solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm and a spectral sampling of about 2-3 per FWHM. From these observations, total columns of O3, NO2, BrO and SO2 will be derived from the back-scattered solar radiance using differential absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The TOMS total ozone record will also be continued by employing the well established TOMS algorithm. Because of the high accuracy and spatial resolution of the measurements, a good estimate of tropospheric amounts of ozone and NO2 are expected. Ozone profiles will be derived using the optimal estimation method. The spectral aerosol optical depth will be determined from measurements between 340 and 500 nm. This will provide information on aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution and aerosol type. This wavelength range makes it possible to retrieve aerosol information over both land and sea. OMI observations will also allow retrievals of cloud coverage and cloud heights. From these products, the UV-B flux at the surface can then be derived with high spatial resolution.

  15. Environmental radiation protection: philosophy, monitoring and standards.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Augustin

    2004-01-01

    The Euratom Treaty confers important powers to the European Commission with regard to monitoring and assessment of levels of radioactivity in the environment and discharges with effluents (Articles 35-37 of the Euratom Treaty). Current developments in the area relate to harmonised reporting of environmental data and to harmonisation of effluent monitoring data. Both developments relate to the requirement under the new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for a realistic assessment of population exposure. Guidance to this effect is being prepared by the Article 31 Group of Experts. In the context of Article 36 intercomparison exercises for radionuclides measurements in environmental samples are organised. New challenges for environmental monitoring result from the requirement under the BSS to regulate also industries processing NORM materials. Also the international move towards extending the scope of environmental radioactivity to the protection of biota opens new perspectives.

  16. Solid state microdosimeter for radiation monitoring in spacecraft and avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.R.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Reed, R.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Stassinopoulos, E.G. )

    1994-12-01

    An instrument is described which is designed to characterize the complex radiation environments inside spacecraft and airplanes in terms of the risk of SEEs in the present and planned microelectronic systems and in terms of the risk to flight crews and passengers.

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) size, weight and power reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswander, T.; Bergen, Z.; Hancock, J.; Hansen, S.; Shumway, A.; Stauder, J.; Williams, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) has been designed to meet stringent Landsat heritage requirements with reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). The instrument design provides Earth resource monitoring through the use of two long-wave infrared bands that measure the land surface temperatures. These bands are especially valuable for monitoring water resources and water use. Instrument subsystems, including electronics, cryocooler, thermal management, optical telescope assembly, focal plane module, in-flight calibrator, and scene select mirror were studied and conceptually designed to reduce overall THERMI SWaP. Reductions in SWaP make it possible for THERMI to fit on a small satellite bus with room available for an additional optical instrument. Since mission cost historically correlates well with mass and power on-orbit, it is expected that significant cost savings will result from the predicted SWaP reductions.

  19. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robin L; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-15

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing. PMID:27046341

  20. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  1. [Instrumental radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation dosimetry: general principals and modern methodology].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Kudriashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    The modern experimental radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry approach has been considered. The main principles of specific absorbed rate measurement are analyzed for electromagnetic field biological effect assessment. The general methodology of specific absorbed rate automated dosimetry system applied to establish the compliance of radiation sources with the safety standard requirements (maximum permissible levels and base restrictions) is described.

  2. The atmospheric monitoring system of the JEM-EUSO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The JEM-EUSO telescope will detect Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from space, detecting the UV Fluorescence Light produced by Extensive Air Showers (EAS) induced by the interaction of the cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere. The capability to reconstruct the properties of the primary cosmic ray depends on the accurate measurement of the atmospheric conditions in the region of EAS development. The Atmospheric Monitoring (AM) system of JEM-EUSO will host a LIDAR, operating in the UV band, and an Infrared camera to monitor the cloud cover in the JEM-EUSO Field of View, in order to be sensitive to clouds with an optical depth τ ≥ 0.15 and to measure the cloud top altitude with an accuracy of 500 m and an altitude resolution of 500 m.

  3. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  4. Pomino: An Improved Satellite NO2 Product for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Martin, R.; Boersma, K. F.; Sneep, M.; Stammes, P.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Wang, P.; Van Roozendael, M.; Clemer, K.; Irie, H.

    2014-12-01

    Tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellite instruments are useful to infer NOx pollution, NOx emissions and atmospheric chemistry. Current satellite products are subject to limitations in assumptions of aerosol optical effects, surface reflectance anisotropy, vertical profiles of NO2, and/or cloud optical properties. Here we develop an improved Peking University Ozone Monitoring Instrument NO2 product (POMINO) for China, complementing the popular DONIMO v2 product. POMINO explicitly accounts for aerosol optical effects, angular dependence of surface reflectance, and dynamically varying atmospheric profiles of air pressure, air temperature and NO2 at a high horizontal resolution (50 km). Prior to the NO2 retrieval, we retrieve cloud top pressure and cloud fraction using consistent assumptions about the states of the atmosphere and surface. For our NO2 and cloud retrievals, we adopt from KNMI (via www.temis.nl) the SCDs of tropospheric NO2 (DOMINO v2) and O2-O2 dimer (OMCLDO2 v1.1.1.3), the TOA reflectance, and some other ancillary information. We develop the AMFv6 code for radiative transfer calculation, based on LIDORT v3.6. Radiative transfer is calculated explicitly for each satellite pixel with no need to use a look-up table. The calculation of AMFv6 is parallelized and is sufficiently fast so that one day of retrieval with global coverage would only take about three hours using 16 CPU cores. POMINO is consistent with MAX-DOAS NO2 data in China, with a R2of 0.96 as compared to the value at 0.72 for DOMINO v2. The improved consistency is related to explicit pixel-by-pixel radiative transfer calculation (instead of using a look-up table), consistent treatments of all parameters in retrieving clouds and NO2, explicit consideration of aerosol optical effects (rather than adjusting 'effective' clouds to implicitly account for aerosols), and consideration of surface reflectance anisotropy. Additional analyses are being conducted on the daily, seasonal and

  5. Solar particle event analysis using the standard radiation environment monitors: applying the neutron monitor's experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Gerontidou, M.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Nieminen, P.; Glover, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is a particle detector developed by the European Space Agency for satellite applications with the main purpose to provide radiation hazard alarms to the host spacecraft. SREM units have been constructed within a radiation hardening concept and therefore are able to register extreme solar particle events (SPEs). Large SPEs are registered at Earth, by ground based detectors as neutron monitors, in the form of Ground Level Enhancements of solar cosmic rays. In this work, a feasibility study of a possible radiation alert, deduced by SREM measurements was implemented for the event of 20 January 2005. Taking advantage of the neutron monitor's experience, the steps of the GLE alert algorithm were put into practice on SREM measurements. The outcome was that SREM units did register the outgoing SPE on-time and that these could serve as indicators of radiation hazards, leading to successful alerts.

  6. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Edwards, A. J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Petersen, B. A.

    2006-01-01

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  7. First Results from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes REPT instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoxie, V. C.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) on board the twin Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft is a high performance solid-state detector telescope capable of measuring high energy electrons (~2 to > 20 MeV) and protons (~20 to > 100 MeV). The REPT is designed to make these measurements with very little background over a broad range of L shells with < 30% energy resolution. Detailed pitch angle distributions are obtained by dividing each spin into 36 sectors. We report here on the initial measurements of electron and proton spectra and their evolution during geomagnetic quiet and disturbed time periods. Results on pitch angle distributions and their dynamics are also presented. These measurements will help constrain the various proposed physical mechanisms of particle acceleration and loss in the Earth's radiation belts.

  8. Monitoring of radiation fields in a waste tank model: Virtual radiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Florida (UF) has developed a coupled radiation computation and three-dimensional modeling simulation code package. This package combines the Deneb Robotics` IGRIP three-dimensional solid modeling robotic simulation code with the UF developed VRF (Virtual Radiation Field) Monte Carlo based radiation computation code. The code package allows simulated radiation dose monitors to be placed anywhere on simulated robotic equipment to record the radiation doses which would be sustained when carrying out tasks in radiation environments. Comparison with measured values in the Hanford Waste Tank C-106 shows excellent results. The code shows promise of serving as a major tool in the design and operation of robotic equipment in radiation environments to ensure freedom from radiation caused failure.

  9. Measurements of Radiation Exposure on Commercial Aircraft with the LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Stauffer, C. A.; Dachev, T. P.; Brucker, G. J.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a compact radiation monitor/dosimeter, the LIULIN-3M, and on extended measurements conducted on the ground and on commercial aircraft on domestic and international flights.

  10. Monitoring pavement response and performance using in-situ instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.H.; Bilyeu, J.; Hugo, F.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effectiveness of in-situ instrumentation on diagnosing the pavement layer conditions under full-scale accelerated traffic loading. The test section is an in-service pavement (US281) in Jacksboro, Texas. Multi-Depth Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometers (MDDs) are used to measure both permanent deformations and transient deflections, caused by accelerated traffic loading and Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) tests. Four different FWD loads of 25, 40, 52, and 67 kN were applied in close proximity to the MDDs at various traffic loading intervals to determine pavement conditions. It was found that the majority of rutting occurred in the newly recycled asphalt mix. The aged ({gt}40 years) underlying base and subgrade layers contributed less than 30% to overall rutting. Only the top recycled Asphalt layer underwent notable deterioration due to traffic loading. Up to 1.5 million axle repetitions, the test pad responded to FWD load almost linearly, not only over the whole pavement system but also within individual layers. However, under higher FWD loads, the percentage of total deflection contributed by the subgrade increased.

  11. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  12. Validation of ozone monitoring instrument ultraviolet index against ground-based UV index in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muyimbwa, Dennis; Dahlback, Arne; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Chen, Yi-Chun; Stamnes, Jakob J; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge

    2015-10-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) overpass solar ultraviolet (UV) indices have been validated against the ground-based UV indices derived from Norwegian Institute for Air Research UV measurements in Kampala (0.31° N, 32.58° E, 1200 m), Uganda for the period between 2005 and 2014. An excessive use of old cars, which would imply a high loading of absorbing aerosols, could cause the OMI retrieval algorithm to overestimate the surface UV irradiances. The UV index values were found to follow a seasonal pattern with maximum values in March and October. Under all-sky conditions, the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to overestimate the UV index values with a mean bias of about 28%. When only days with radiation modification factor greater than or equal to 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% were considered, the mean bias between ground-based and OMI overpass UV index values was reduced to 8%, 5%, 3%, and 1%, respectively. The overestimation of the UV index by the OMI retrieval algorithm was found to be mainly due to clouds and aerosols.

  13. Study of deuteron spectra under radiation belt with PAMELA instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koldobskiy, S. A.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A. M.; Karelin, A. V.; Koldashov, S. V.; Krutkov, S. Y.; Kvashnin, A. A.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Leonov, A. A.; Malakhov, V. V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A. G.; Menn, W.; Merge', M.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Sarkar, R.; Scotti, V.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y. I.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of proton and deuteron fluxes of albedo radiation in the Earth vicinity, obtained in the PAMELA experiment. PAMELA is an international experiment meant to study cosmic rays. PAMELA is carried out on board the satellite Resurs-DK1. High-precision equipment of the experiment allows registration and identification of cosmic ray particles of different varieties in a wide energy range. The albedo deuteron spectrum and albedo deuteron-to-proton fluxes ratio in the energy range 70 - 600 MeV/nucleon at altitude of 350 - 600 km for different geomagnetic latitudes is presented.

  14. [Organization of monitoring of electromagnetic radiation in the urban environment].

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, S I; Dvoeglazova, S V; Koz'min, V A; Kochkin, D E; Begishev, M R

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe new current approaches to monitoring the environment, including the sources of electromagnetic radiation and noise. Electronic maps of the area under study are shown to be made, by constructing the isolines or distributing the actual levels of controlled factors. These current approaches to electromagnetic and acoustic monitoring make it possible to automate a process of measurements, to analyze the established situation, and to simplify the risk controlling methodology.

  15. iMonDB: Mass Spectrometry Quality Control through Instrument Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Wout; Willems, Hanny; Kelchtermans, Pieter; Martens, Lennart; Laukens, Kris; Valkenborg, Dirk

    2015-05-01

    Over the past few years, awareness has risen that for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics methods to mature into everyday analytical and clinical practices, extensive quality assessment is mandatory. A currently overlooked source of qualitative information originates from the mass spectrometer itself. Apart from the actual mass spectral data, raw-data objects also contain parameter settings and sensory information about the mass instrument. This information gives a detailed account of the operation of the instrument, which eventually can be related to observations in mass spectral data. The advantage of instrument information at the lowest level is the high sensitivity to detect emerging defects in a timely fashion. To this end, we introduce the Instrument MONitoring DataBase (iMonDB), which allows us to automatically extract, store, and manage the instrument parameters from raw-data objects into a highly efficient database structure. This enables us to monitor the instrument parameters over a considerable time period. Time course information about the instrument performance is necessary to define the normal range of operation and to detect anomalies that may correlate with instrument failure. The proposed tools foster an additional handle on quality control and are released as open source under the permissive Apache 2.0 license. The tools can be downloaded from https://bitbucket.org/proteinspector/imondb.

  16. Microphysics and Radiative Properties of Cirrus: Instrumentation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John

    2002-01-01

    Work under this grant has involved further development of a new aircraft instrument (the cloudscope) for real time characterization of atmospheric particulates together with field observations of such particulates, both in the form of ice and also as nuclei responsible for nucleation of both ice and water cloud particles. Part of the work involving assessment of the frequency of ice crystal shapes has been carried out in collaboration with the Meteorological Service of Canada; part of the work in a field program with the NCAR C-130. Part of the work has been interpreted in terms of laboratory simulation of ice crystal growth under a wide variety of conditions carried out under a grant from Physical Meteorology Program, National Science Foundation.

  17. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.E.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  18. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Green, J. Andrew; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark F.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Sossong, Michael J.

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  19. Generation of a reference radiation pattern of string instruments using automatic excitation and acoustic centering.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Noam R; Behler, Gottfried; Vorländer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Radiation patterns of musical instruments are important for the understanding of music perception in concert halls, and may be used to improve the plausibility of virtual acoustic systems. Many attempts have been performed to measure the spatial response of musical instruments using surrounding spherical microphone arrays with a limited number of microphones. This work presents a high-resolution spatial sampling of the radiation pattern of an electrically excited violin, and addresses technical problems that arise due to mechanical reasons of the excitation apparatus using acoustic centering.

  20. Generation of a reference radiation pattern of string instruments using automatic excitation and acoustic centering.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Noam R; Behler, Gottfried; Vorländer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Radiation patterns of musical instruments are important for the understanding of music perception in concert halls, and may be used to improve the plausibility of virtual acoustic systems. Many attempts have been performed to measure the spatial response of musical instruments using surrounding spherical microphone arrays with a limited number of microphones. This work presents a high-resolution spatial sampling of the radiation pattern of an electrically excited violin, and addresses technical problems that arise due to mechanical reasons of the excitation apparatus using acoustic centering. PMID:26627818

  1. The Calibration and Characterization of Earth Remote Sensing and Environmental Monitoring Instruments. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Barnes, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The use of remote sensing instruments on orbiting satellite platforms in the study of Earth Science and environmental monitoring was officially inaugurated with the April 1, 1960 launch of the Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) [1]. The first TIROS accommodated two television cameras and operated for only 78 days. However, the TIROS program, in providing in excess of 22,000 pictures of the Earth, achieved its primary goal of providing Earth images from a satellite platform to aid in identifying and monitoring meteorological processes. This marked the beginning of what is now over four decades of Earth observations from satellite platforms. reflected and emitted radiation from the Earth using instruments on satellite platforms. These measurements are input to climate models, and the model results are analyzed in an effort to detect short and long-term changes and trends in the Earth's climate and environment, to identify the cause of those changes, and to predict or influence future changes. Examples of short-term climate change events include the periodic appearance of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific Ocean [2] and the spectacular eruption of Mount Pinatubo on the Philippine island of Luzon in 1991. Examples of long term climate change events, which are more subtle to detect, include the destruction of coral reefs, the disappearance of glaciers, and global warming. Climatic variability can be both large and small scale and can be caused by natural or anthropogenic processes. The periodic El Nino event is an example of a natural process which induces significant climatic variability over a wide range of the Earth. A classic example of a large scale anthropogenic influence on climate is the well-documented rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide occurring since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution [3]. An example of the study of a small-scale anthropogenic influence in climate variability is the Atlanta Land

  2. High Temperature Logging and Monitoring Instruments to Explore and Drill Deep into Hot Oceanic Crust.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P. A.; Ragnar, A.; Jean-Luc, D.; Jan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Drilling an entire section of the oceanic crust and through the Moho has been a goal of the scientific community for more than half of a century. On the basis of ODP and IODP experience and data, this will require instruments and strategies working at temperature far above 200°C (reached, for example, at the bottom of DSDP/ODP Hole 504B), and possibly beyond 300°C. Concerning logging and monitoring instruments, progress were made over the past ten years in the context of the HiTI ("High Temperature Instruments") project funded by the european community for deep drilling in hot Icelandic geothermal holes where supercritical conditions and a highly corrosive environment are expected at depth (with temperatures above 374 °C and pressures exceeding 22 MPa). For example, a slickline tool (memory tool) tolerating up to 400°C and wireline tools up to 300°C were developed and tested in Icelandic high-temperature geothermal fields. The temperature limitation of logging tools was defined to comply with the present limitation in wireline cables (320°C). As part of this new set of downhole tools, temperature, pressure, fluid flow and casing collar location might be measured up to 400°C from a single multisensor tool. Natural gamma radiation spectrum, borehole wall ultrasonic images signal, and fiber optic cables (using distributed temperature sensing methods) were also developed for wireline deployment up to 300°C and tested in the field. A wireline, dual laterolog electrical resistivity tool was also developed but could not be field tested as part of HiTI. This new set of tools constitutes a basis for the deep exploration of the oceanic crust in the future. In addition, new strategies including the real-time integration of drilling parameters with modeling of the thermo-mechanical status of the borehole could be developed, using time-lapse logging of temperature (for heat flow determination) and borehole wall images (for hole stability and in-situ stress determination

  3. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation.

  4. Sweating the small stuff: pitfalls in the use of radiation detection instruments.

    PubMed

    Prekeges, Jennifer Lynne

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear medicine technologists use nonimaging radiation detection instruments on a daily basis and routinely assess their performance in several ways. These instruments are simple to operate compared with imaging instruments but are also susceptible to misuse. After reviewing the theoretic basis for common mistakes and the importance of routine quality control, this continuing education article discusses pitfalls in the operation of dose calibrators, survey meters, scintillation detectors, and semiconductors. The article also reviews quality control procedures and ways in which these can be performed incorrectly. The goal of the article is to help technologists to spot and correct problems before they lead to errant results. PMID:24627414

  5. Upgrade of the ALICE TPC FEE online radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RØed, K.; Alme, J.; Askeland, E.; David, E.; Gunji, T.; Helstrup, H.; Kiss, T.; Lippmann, C.; Rehman, A.; Röhrich, D.; Ullaland, K.; Velure, A.; Zhao, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the radiation monitoring system on the Readout Control Unit (RCU) of the the ALICE TPC Front End Electronics. In Run 1, Single Event Upsets (SEUs) in the configuration memory of an SRAM based FPGA were counted, and the results from different run periods with stable beam conditions are presented. For Run 2, a new RCU, the RCU2, has been designed in order to achieve higher data readout rates and increase radiation tolerance. The RCU2 also includes a new radiation monitor solution with increased sensitivity, which is based on counting the number of SEUs in dedicated SRAM memories. The paper presents this new solution together with the results from the targeted irradiation campaigns.

  6. Status of the ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Anastasiadis, A.; Bühler, P.; Daglis, I.; Daly, E.; Desorgher, L.; Evans, H.; Hajdas, W.; Lyons, J.; Marinov, D.; Nieminen, P.; Sandberg, I.; Siegl, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Zadeh, A.

    The ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) is thus far succesfully flying and producing radiation data on Proba-1, INTEGRAL, Rosetta, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck missions, with the environments covering LEO, MEO, highly elliptical orbit, L2, and the in-terplanetary space. This presentation will outline the main SREM results to date from these various missions, and will give an overview of the present efforts taken to process the SREM data from raw particle count rates to proton and electron fluxes. Interfaces to various envi-ronment modelling activities and other higher level products are also discussed. Lessons learnt from the SREM programme will be summarised with the aim of facilitating future radiation monitor development and data processing / utilisation efforts.

  7. New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

    2010-07-01

    We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

  8. On-board predicting algorithm of radiation exposure for the International Space Station radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, V. V.

    2008-02-01

    Radiation monitoring system (RMS) has worked on-board the International Space Station (ISS) practically continuously beginning from August 2001. In June 2005, the RMS software was updated. New RMS software detects radiation environment worsening due to solar proton events and informs the crew about this. The algorithm of the on-board radiation environment predict is a part of the new software. This algorithm reveals dose rate increments on high-latitude parts of ISS orbit and calculates estimations of time intervals and dose rate values for ulterior crossings of high-latitude areas. A brief description of the on-board radiation exposure-predict algorithm is presented.

  9. Lightguide-coupled sensor for in-situ radiation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.E.; Berthold, J.W.

    1995-06-01

    The authors are developing a multi-point radiation monitoring system for long-term, continuous monitoring of radiation levels in the vadose zone of radioactive waste sites. The system is based on gamma detection with a lightguide-coupled scintillator built into a probe buried in the ground. The lightguide transmits the visible light pulses produced by the scintillator to the surface where detection and signal multiplexing take place. The system is to be capable of monitoring large numbers of such passive probes which are to be permanently installed throughout the waste site. The authors have recently completed tests of a prototype single-probe system. In this paper, they report on the development and testing of the single-probe system.

  10. Lightguide-coupled sensor for in-situ radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Stuart E.; Berthold, John W., III

    1995-09-01

    Under contract to the Morgantown (WV) Energy Technology Center for the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), US Department of Energy, we are developing a multipoint radiation monitoring system for long-term, continuous monitoring of radiation levels in the vadose zone of radioactive waste sites. The system is based on gamma detection with lightguide-coupled scintillator built into a probe buried in the ground. The lightguide transmits the visible light pulses produced by the scintillator to the surface where detection and signal multiplexing take place. The system is to be capable of monitoring large numbers of such passive probes which are to be permanently installed throughout the waste site. We have recently completed tests of a prototype single-probe system. In this paper, we report on the development and testing of the single-probe system.

  11. Characteristics of the earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Cess, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors, active cavity pyrheliometers, have been developed to measure every two weeks the total optical solar irradiance from the earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 spacecraft platforms. In the unfiltered 0.2-50-micron wavelength broadband region, the monitors were used to obtain 1365 W/sq m as the mean value for the solar irradiance, with measurement precisions and accuracies approaching 0.1 and 0.2 percent, respectively. The design and characteristics of the solar monitors are presented along with the data reduction model. For the October 1984 through July 1985 period, the resulting ERBS and NOAA-9 solar irradiance values are intercompared.

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  13. IN SITU PRECISE ANGLE MONITORING ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION MONOCHROMATOR BY USE OF PENCIL BEAM INTERFEROMETER.

    SciTech Connect

    QIAN,S.TAKACS,P.DONG,Q.HULBERT,S.

    2003-08-25

    Monochromator is a very important and precise instrument used in beam lines at synchrotron radiation facilities. We need to know if there is actual thermal distortion on gratings resulting in the degradation of the monochromator resolution. We need to know the characteristics of the grating rotation. It is possible to make a simple but precise in-situ distortion monitoring and rotation angle test of the grating by use of a precise pencil beam angle monitor. We have made preliminary measurements on a monochrometer grating of an undulator beam line X1B at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We monitored a small amount of angle variation on the grating. We detected 1.7 {micro}rad backlash (P-V) of the grating controlling system.

  14. Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination From Intakes of Radionuclides Part I: Field Tests and Monte Carlo Simulations.

    PubMed

    Anigstein, Robert; Erdman, Michael C; Ansari, Armin

    2016-06-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in the dispersion of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure photon radiation from radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for further assessments. Computer simulations and experimental measurements are required for these instruments to be used for assessing intakes of radionuclides. Count rates from calibrated sources of Co, Cs, and Am were measured on three instruments: a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal, a thyroid probe using a 5.08 × 5.08-cm NaI(Tl) crystal, and a portal monitor incorporating two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9-cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators. Computer models of the instruments and of the calibration sources were constructed, using engineering drawings and other data provided by the manufacturers. Count rates on the instruments were simulated using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. The computer simulations were within 16% of the measured count rates for all 20 measurements without using empirical radionuclide-dependent scaling factors, as reported by others. The weighted root-mean-square deviations (differences between measured and simulated count rates, added in quadrature and weighted by the variance of the difference) were 10.9% for the survey meter, 4.2% for the thyroid probe, and 0.9% for the portal monitor. These results validate earlier MCNPX models of these instruments that were used to develop calibration factors that enable these instruments to be used for assessing intakes and committed doses from several gamma-emitting radionuclides. PMID:27115229

  15. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion.

  16. X-ray instrumentation for analysis of fluorescent and scattered radiation (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslattes, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Application of high resolution instrumentation to the study of the near-threshold behavior of fluorescent and scattered radiation along with such properties as polarization and angular distribution has proven fertile. This article reviews some alternative strategies for improving the efficiency with which such secondary spectra can be registered.

  17. RADIATION-RESISTANT FIBER OPTIC STRAIN SENSORS FOR SNS TARGET INSTRUMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Bryan, Jeff; Riemer, Bernie; Sangrey, Robert L; Wendel, Mark W; Liu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of stresses and strains in the mercury tar-get vessel of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is important to understand the structural dynamics of the target. This work reports the development of radiation-resistant fiber optic strain sensors for the SNS target in-strumentation.

  18. Development of Curricula for Nuclear Radiation Protection, Nuclear Instrumentation, and Nuclear Materials Processing Technologies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Daniel M.

    A study was conducted to assist two-year postsecondary educational institutions in providing technical specialty courses for preparing nuclear technicians. As a result of project activities, curricula have been developed for five categories of nuclear technicians and operators: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and…

  19. Optical Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Biodosimetry and Monitoring of Radiation Injury to the Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Thrall, Karla D.; Peterson, James M.

    2012-08-01

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation in a densely populated area, timely assessment and triage of the general population for the radiation exposure is critical. In particular, a significant number of the victims may sustain cutaneous radiation injury, which increases the mortality and worsens the overall prognosis of the victims suffered from combined thermal/mechanical and radiation trauma. Diagnosis of the cutaneous radiation injury is challenging, and established methods largely rely on visual manifestations, presence of the skin contamination, and a high degree of recall by the victim. Availability of a high throughput non-invasive in vivo biodosimetry tool for assessment of the radiation exposure of the skin is of particular importance for the timely diagnosis of the cutaneous injury. In the reported investigation, we have tested the potential of an optical reflectance spectroscopy for the evaluation of the radiation injury to the skin. This is technically attractive because optical spectroscopy relies on well-established and routinely used for various applications instrumentation, one example being pulse oximetry which uses selected wavelengths for the quantification of the blood oxygenation. Our method relies on a broad spectral region ranging from the locally absorbed, shallow-penetrating ultraviolet and visible (250 to 800 nm) to more deeply penetrating near-Infrared (800 – 1600 nm) light for the monitoring of multiple physiological changes in the skin upon irradiation. Chemometrics is a multivariate methodology that allows the information from entire spectral region to be used to generate predictive regression models. In this report we demonstrate that simple spectroscopic method, such as the optical reflectance spectroscopy, in combination with multivariate data analysis, offers the promise of rapid and non-invasive in vivo diagnosis and monitoring of the cutaneous radiation exposure, and is able accurately predict

  20. Radiation monitoring policy at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.; Heinzelman, K.; Perdue, G.

    1998-02-04

    When the accelerator first began operation it was decided that, until we had the necessary dosimetry data to decide otherwise, we would badge the entire worker and experimental population. Each person was issued a dosimetry badge that contained 4 TLD elements. Badges were processed on a monthly basis. After three years of analyzing a total of 65,000 TLD elements, the decision was made to modify the radiation monitoring policy at the ALS. Only those individuals in the workforce that have any potential for exposure, no matter how small, would be badged. Subsequently, DOE conducted an independent review of the ALS radiation monitoring and dosimetry program. This review concluded that the ALS program, if expanded as proposed, would be adequate under the 10 CFR 835 Rule to establish radiation exposures to an acceptable level of confidence. The review team recommended the ALS provide more comprehensive documentation on the basis for its radiation protection and monitoring program. This document describes the technical justification for that program.

  1. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service shall be monitored pursuant to § 65.111(b) and (c). (vi) Compressors... with Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of appendix A of 40...

  2. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service shall be monitored pursuant to § 65.111(b) and (c). (vi) Compressors... with Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of appendix A of 40...

  3. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service shall be monitored pursuant to § 65.111(b) and (c). (vi) Compressors... with Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of appendix A of 40...

  4. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service shall be monitored pursuant to § 65.111(b) and (c). (vi) Compressors... with Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of appendix A of 40...

  5. 40 CFR 65.104 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... relief devices in gas/vapor service shall be monitored pursuant to § 65.111(b) and (c). (vi) Compressors... with Method 21 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of appendix A of 40...

  6. Inconsistency in Chinese solar radiation data caused by instrument replacement: Quantification based on pan evaporation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hanbo; Li, Zhe; Li, Mingliang; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation determines our climate and hydrological cycle, and it has been widely measured by pyrometers at meteorological stations. In the early 1990s, a large-scale instrument replacement occurred across China, leading to inconsistent solar radiation observations. Fortunately, China has consistent pan evaporation (Epan) observations from Chinese micropans (with a diameter of 20 cm) from the 1950s to 2001. This study parameterized the PenPan-20 model for estimating Epan from these pans using a Bayesian approach. Furthermore, based on the PenPan-20 model, a shift in the solar radiation data (~1.4 ± 0.5 MJ/(d m2) or 16 ± 7 W/m2) in the early 1990s was revealed; this change was likely due to the large-scale retrofitting of new instruments and irregular calibration operations.

  7. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used to measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ at depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes, measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics. This paper presents a description and the results of the field tests. The results were used to characterize the lower detection limits, precision and bias of the system, which allowed the DOE to judge the monitoring system`s ability to meet its long-term post-closure radiation monitoring needs. Based on the test results, the monitoring system has been redesigned for fabrication and testing in a potential Phase III of this program. If the DOE feels that this system can meet its needs and chooses to continue into Phase III of this program, this redesigned full scale prototype system will be built and tested for a period of approximately a year. Such a system can be used at a variety of radioactively contaminated sites.

  8. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  9. Instrumentation for controlling and monitoring environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced Instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (EC/LSS) have been developed at Life Systems, Inc. The difference in specific EC/LSS instrumentation requirements and hardware during the transition from exploratory development to flight production stages are discussed. Details of prior control and monitor instrumentation designs are reviewed and an advanced design presented. The latter features a minicomputer-based approach having the flexibility to meet process hardware test programs and the capability to be refined to include the control dynamics and fault diagnostics needed in future flight systems where long duration, reliable operation requires in-flight hardware maintenance. The emphasis is on lower EC/LSS hardware life cycle costs by simplicity in instrumentation and using it to save crew time during flight operation.

  10. Arctic Observing Experiment - An Assessment of Instruments Used to Monitor the Polar Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigor, I. G.; Johnson, J.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Nghiem, S. V.; Hall, D. K.; Woods, J. E.; Valentic, T. A.; Henderson, G. R.; Marshall, C.; Gallage, C.; Zook, J.; Davis, Z.

    2014-12-01

    To understand and predict weather and climate require an accurate observing network that measures the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. Measuring these parameters autonomously in the polar regions is especially challenging. To assess the accuracy of polar measurement networks, we established the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) test site in March 2013 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation and Meteorology (ARM) site in Barrow, Alaska. We deployed a myriad of data loggers and autonomous buoys, which represent most of the instruments that are commonly deployed by the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) to measure temperature, air pressure and wind. Estimates of temperature over this area have also been analyzed from satellites (e.g., using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ice-surface temperature (IST)) product, and can complement data from in-situ sensors and provide consistent measurements under clear-sky conditions. Preliminary results reveal that some of the buoys are susceptible to solar heating, icing can block barometers for short periods, and frosting may insulate air temperature sensors and freeze-lock anemometers. Some of these issues may be addressed by simply painting the buoys white to reduce solar heating of the buoys, and using better temperature shields and barometer ports. Nevertheless, frosting of ultrasonic and mechanical anemometers remains a significant challenge. These results will be useful to initiate a protocol to obtain accurate and consistent measurements from the IABP, the Arctic Observing Network (AON), the International Program for Antarctic Buoys, and the Southern Ocean Observing System to monitor polar environments.

  11. Instrumentation, monitoring and hydrology of an experimental small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Roosevelt, Antonio; Marioti, Juliana; Wallender, Wesley; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2010-05-01

    Long-term watershed studies are critical in designing intervention procedures for proper resources planning and management. The objective of this paper is to describe one of these watershed studies. Instrumentation, monitoring activities and generated data base in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed, a sub-catchment of the São Francisco basin, in Brazil is discussed. The basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and, is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols and several types of land use and crop cover can be observed in the basin. A socioeconomic survey undertaken showed the existence of both small and large scale farming enterprises. Irrigation is needed to prevent yield loss due to insufficient rain. Water usage conflicts are already occurring. The basin was instrumented to study the watershed behavior in detail and to assess the risk of water scarcity in the next twenty years by modeling using the observed data for validation. Evaluations of irrigation efficiencies, leaf area index (LAI) and root depth of crops and natural vegetation, small reservoirs evaporation and infiltration and water table depth are being carried out. The analysis of the results of the first two years showed that air temperature varied from 18 °C in July to 25 °C in October 2008, while the relative humidity varied from 84% in February to 47% in August of 2008. Wind speed was between, from 18 m/s, in November 2008, to 7.0 m/s, in February 2009, and solar radiation from 450 W/m, in October 2008, to 258 W/m in February 2009. There was no precipitation in the basin during May, June and July 2008. The greatest precipitation observed in the basin was equal to 190 mm, in January 2009. The average monthly river discharge measure in a point closed to the middle length of the river varied from 16 L/s to 138 L/s. Water table depth varied from 6.3 m to 11.8 m. LAI varied

  12. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  13. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Belooussov, Andrei V.

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  14. 78 FR 64030 - Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses AGENCY: Nuclear... monitoring and calculating occupational radiation doses. On December 4, 2007 (72 FR 68043), the NRC...

  15. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  16. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    PubMed

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.

  17. Potential of the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor for the monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanter, L.; Aben, I.; Tol, P.; Krijger, J. M.; Hollstein, A.; Köhler, P.; Damm, A.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Landgraf, J.

    2015-03-01

    Global monitoring of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is improving our knowledge about the photosynthetic functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The feasibility of SIF retrievals from spaceborne atmospheric spectrometers has been demonstrated by a number of studies in the last years. In this work, we investigate the potential of the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) onboard the Sentinel-5 Precursor satellite mission for SIF retrieval. TROPOMI will sample the 675-775 nm spectral window with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of 7 km × 7 km. We use an extensive set of simulated TROPOMI data in order to assess the uncertainty of single SIF retrievals and subsequent spatio-temporal composites. Our results illustrate the enormous improvement in SIF monitoring achievable with TROPOMI with respect to comparable spectrometers currently in-flight, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument. We find that TROPOMI can reduce global uncertainties in SIF mapping by more than a factor of 2 with respect to GOME-2, which comes together with an approximately 5-fold improvement in spatial sampling. Finally, we discuss the potential of TROPOMI to map other important vegetation parameters at a global scale with moderate spatial resolution and short revisit time. Those include leaf photosynthetic pigments and proxies for canopy structure, which will complement SIF retrievals for a self-contained description of vegetation condition and functioning.

  18. Ozone Monitoring Instrument flight-model on-ground calibration from a scientific point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobber, M.; Dirksen, R.; Levelt, P.; van den Oord, B.; Jaross, G.; Kowalewski, M.; Mount, G.; Heath, D.; Hilsenrath, E.; de Vries, J.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 the on-ground calibration of the flight-model of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), scheduled for launch in January 2004 on the EOS-AURA satellite, was performed by the industrial contractor in close cooperation with the Principal Investigator team from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) and the scientific Calibration Working Group with members from The Netherlands, Finland, and the United States. OMI will observe the Earth in nadir with a field of view of 114 degrees, providing a daily Earth coverage. The instrument observes the sun once per day via one of three on-board diffusers, and once per week and month via one of the other two diffusers, respectively, to monitor the diffuser degradation. The instrument is equipped with an internal white light source for detector calibration purposes. This presentation will focus on the measurements, analyses and preliminary results of the on-ground calibration from a scientific perspective, which are particularly important for meeting the scientific objectives of the OMI instrument. The OMI instrument is operated in flight at close to vacuum pressure and at temperatures of the CCD detectors and the instrument optical bench of 266 K and 265 K, respectively. Special attention is therefor given to the methods for obtaining a flight-representative on-ground calibration of the instrument. The OMI instrument has a large observational swath field of view of 114 degrees and a high spectral resolution. For this reason the on-ground calibration of the swath angle dependence of the radiometric calibration and the calibration description of spectral instrument features are discussed in the presentation. The spectral instrument features are important in view of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) retrieval technique used for the OMI instrument. They originate from the innovative polarisation scrambling device in the Earth mode and from the three on-board diffusers in the sun mode

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  2. 47 CFR 1.549 - Requests for extension of authority to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requests for extension of authority to operate without required monitors, indicating instruments, and EBS Attention Signal devices. 1.549 Section 1.549... required monitors, indicating instruments, and EBS Attention Signal devices. See § 73.3549....

  3. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  4. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  5. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  6. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  7. An instrument to monitor physiological and environmental parameters associated with heat stress on an ambulatory subject.

    PubMed

    Cassels, B M

    1991-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and construction of an instrument for use on an ambulatory subject which monitors selected physiological and environmental parameters that are a reflection of the degree of physiological strain associated with heat stress. The resulting instrument is rugged, reliable, and uses existing practical technology for in-the-field ambulatory monitoring, and provides minimal restriction to subject movement. The physiological parameters monitored (heart rate and skin temperature) were selected following examination of systemic, skin, and psychoneurotic heat disorders, with the environmental parameters (wind velocity, ambient temperature and relative humidity) based on existing heat stress indices' correlation with physiological parameters. A microprocessor is utilized for data acquisition, mathematical computation and long term storage, and software for downloading the data to a large mainframe computer is provided. Following calibration of the transduction circuits, the instrument was assembled and tested. Improvements are required to obtain the reliability originally envisaged. Additional field trials would see the collection of data to establish criteria to determine the values of the parameters monitored enabling prediction of the onset of heat stress in hot, humid environments.

  8. Smart measurement system for an environmental radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wanno; Kim, Hee-Reyoung; Chung, Kun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Han; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A smart measurement system for an on-line gamma monitoring has been developed to overcome the problems of a conventional system which cannot automatically restore the previous-lost data of several posts by a radio telemetry. It is similar to the conventional system except for a new electronic circuit board and an integrated operation program. The new electronic circuit board is able to store the radiation data with a time tag of 6 or more months if the recording interval time is 10 s. The operation program automatically sends the time correction command to the six monitoring posts for a daily synchronization between the monitoring posts and the central control computer as a Korean mean time. The previous-lost radiation data for 6 or more months could be restored by using two components with the functions of a time tag and a daily synchronization without any additional equipment. It was tested for more than 1 year, from which the test results, the data collection rate was dramatically improved without any tedious manual work, which was almost about 100% for 1 year. The smart measurement system has been applied for an effective gamma monitoring around the nuclear facilities at KAERI since it was developed and tested in 2003.

  9. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  10. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  11. Automated systems to monitor space radiation effect on photosynthetic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, D.; di Costa, F.; Faraloni, C.; Fasolo, F.; Pace, E.; Perosino, M.; Torzillo, G.; Touloupakis, E.; Zanini, A.; Giardi, M. T.

    We developed automated biodevices to obtain, automatically, measures about the space radiation effect on living photosynthetic organisms, which can be used as biomass and oxygen-producing system on shuttles or ISS. Vitality measurements were performed by optical devices (fluorimeters) measuring fluorescence emission. Fluorescence methodology is a well known applied technique for studying photosynthetic activity, and in particular the oxygen-evolving process of photosynthetic organisms. Different strains of unicellular green algae are properly immobilized on agar growth medium and kept under survial light. The biodevices are characterised by the sensibility and selectivity of the biological component response, together with easy use, versatility, miniature size and low cost. We performed experiments in some facilities, in order to understand separately the effect of radiation of different LET, on the biochemical activity (gamma rays at Joint Research Centre -Varese, Italy; fast neutrons at CERF -- SPS beam at CERN -Geneva, Switzerland). The exposure to different radiation beams of the automatic devices, allowed us to test them under stress condition. In one year, these instrument are expected to be sent to space, inside a spacecraft, in order to study the effect of ionising cosmic radiation during an ESA flight.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-03-14

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  13. Automated Identification of Volcanic Plumes using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, V. J. B.; Oommen, T.; Carn, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are a global phenomenon which are increasingly impacting human populations due to factors such as the extension of population centres into areas of higher risk, expansion of agricultural sectors to accommodate increased production or the increasing impact of volcanic plumes on air travel. In areas where extensive monitoring is present these impacts can be moderated by ground based monitoring and alert systems, however many volcanoes have little or no monitoring capabilities. In many of these regions volcanic alerts are generated by local communities with limited resources or formal communication systems, however additional eruption alerts can result from chance encounters with passing aircraft. In contrast satellite based remote sensing instruments possess the capability to provide near global daily monitoring, facilitating automated volcanic eruption detection. One such system generates eruption alerts through the detection of thermal anomalies, known as MODVOLC, and is currently operational utilising moderate resolution MODIS satellite data. Within this work we outline a method to distinguish SO2 eruptions from background levels recorded by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) through the identification and classification of volcanic activity over a 5 year period. The incorporation of this data into a logistic regression model facilitated the classification of volcanic events with an overall accuracy of 80% whilst consistently identifying plumes with a mass of 400 tons or higher. The implementation of the developed model could facilitate the near real time identification of new and ongoing volcanic activity on a global scale.

  14. The Engineering Radiation Monitor for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsten, J. O.; Maurer, R. H.; Peplowski, P. N.; Holmes-Siedle, A. G.; Herrmann, C. C.; Mauk, B. H.

    2013-11-01

    An Engineering Radiation Monitor (ERM) has been developed as a supplementary spacecraft subsystem for NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission. The ERM will monitor total dose and deep dielectric charging at each RBSP spacecraft in real time. Configured to take the place of spacecraft balance mass, the ERM contains an array of eight dosimeters and two buried conductive plates. The dosimeters are mounted under covers of varying shielding thickness to obtain a dose-depth curve and characterize the electron and proton contributions to total dose. A 3-min readout cadence coupled with an initial sensitivity of ˜0.01 krad should enable dynamic measurements of dose rate throughout the 9-hr RBSP orbit. The dosimeters are Radiation-sensing Field Effect Transistors (RadFETs) and operate at zero bias to preserve their response even when powered off. The range of the RadFETs extends above 1000 krad to avoid saturation over the expected duration of the mission. Two large-area (˜10 cm2) charge monitor plates set behind different thickness covers will measure the dynamic currents of weakly-penetrating electrons that can be potentially hazardous to sensitive electronic components within the spacecraft. The charge monitors can handle large events without saturating (˜3000 fA/cm2) and provide sufficient sensitivity (˜0.1 fA/cm2) to gauge quiescent conditions. High time-resolution (5 s) monitoring allows detection of rapid changes in flux and enables correlation of spacecraft anomalies with local space weather conditions. Although primarily intended as an engineering subsystem to monitor spacecraft radiation levels, real-time data from the ERM may also prove useful or interesting to a larger community.

  15. Design of a instrumentation module for monitoring ingestive behavior in laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Juan M; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward S

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and objective tools for monitoring of ingestive behavior (MIB) is one of the most important needs facing studies of obesity and eating disorders. This paper presents the design of an instrumentation module for non-invasive monitoring of food ingestion in laboratory studies. The system can capture signals from a variety of sensors that characterize ingestion process (such as acoustical and other swallowing sensors, strain sensor for chewing detection and self-report buttons). In addition to the sensors, the data collection system integrates time-synchronous video footage that can be used for annotation of subject's activity. Both data and video are simultaneously and synchronously acquired and stored by a LabVIEW-based interface specifically developed for this application. This instrumentation module improves a previously developed system by eliminating the post-processing stage of data synchronization and by reducing the risks of operator's error.

  16. An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sternberg, R.W.; Johnson, R.V.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument system has been constructed that can monitor and sample suspended sediment distributions in the benthic boundary layer. It consists of miniature nephelometers and suspended sediment samplers placed within one meter of the seabed. The system is capable of continuously monitoring suspended sediment profiles at eight levels between 14 and 100 cm above the seabed and collecting suspended sediment samples at four levels (20, 50, 70 and 100 cm) at three times during a deployment period. The suspended sediment system is designed to fit onto the instrumented tripod GEOPROBE which contains four electromagnetic current meters, pressure sensor, bottom stereo camera, two temperature sensors, transmissometer, and a Savonius rotor current meter. Sensor operation, data recording, and sediment sampling events are synchronized. Thus detailed measurements of the near-bottom flow conditions are made concurrently with suspended sediment measurements. The combined system has been used in sediment transporting environments within San Francisco Bay, California, and Puget Sound, Washington. ?? 1986.

  17. Assessment of Satellite Surface Radiation Products in Highland Regions with Tibet Instrumental Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Kun; Koike, Toshio; Stackhouse, Paul; Mikovitz, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    This study presents results of comparisons between instrumental radiation data in the elevated Tibetan Plateau and two global satellite products: the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment - Surface Radiation Budget (GEWEX-SRB) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project - Flux Data (ISCCP-FD). In general, shortwave radiation (SW) is estimated better by ISCCP-FD while longwave radiation (LW) is estimated better by GEWEX-SRB, but all the radiation components in both products are under-estimated. Severe and systematic errors were found in monthly-mean SRB SW (on plateau-average, -48 W/sq m for downward SW and -18 W/sq m for upward SW) and FD LW (on plateau-average, -37 W/sq m for downward LW and -62 W/sq m for upward LW) for radiation. Errors in monthly-mean diurnal variations are even larger than the monthly mean errors. Though the LW errors can be reduced about 10 W/sq m after a correction for altitude difference between the site and SRB and FD grids, these errors are still higher than that for other regions. The large errors in SRB SW was mainly due to a processing mistake for elevation effect, but the errors in SRB LW was mainly due to significant errors in input data. We suggest reprocessing satellite surface radiation budget data, at least for highland areas like Tibet.

  18. Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLand, Matthew T.; Shettle, Eric P.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Kowalewski, Matthew G.

    2010-01-01

    Backscattered ultraviolet (BUV) instruments designed for measuring stratospheric ozone profiles have proven to be robust tools for observing polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). These measurements are available for more than 30 years, and have been used to demonstrate the existence of long-term variations in PMC occurrence frequency and brightness. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS Aura satellite provides new and improved capabilities for PMC characterization. OMI uses smaller pixels than previous BUV instruments, which increases its ability to identify PMCs and discern more spatial structure, and its wide cross-track viewing swath provides full polar coverage up to 90 latitude every day in both hemispheres. This cross-track coverage allows the evolution of PMC regions to be followed over several consecutive orbits. Localized PMC variations determined from OMI measurements are consistent with coincident SBUV/2 measurements. Nine seasons of PMC observations from OMI are now available, and clearly demonstrate the advantages of these measurements for PMC analysis.

  19. Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project: Feasibility test of real-time radiation monitoring during removal of surface contamination from concrete floors

    SciTech Connect

    Leino, R.; Corle, S.

    1995-10-01

    This feasibility test was conducted to determine if real-time radiation-monitoring instruments could be mounted on decontamination machines during remediation activities to provide useful and immediate feedback to equipment operators. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored this field test under the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to identify a more efficient method to remove radiological contamination from concrete floor surfaces. This test demonstrated that project durations and costs may be reduced by combining radiation-monitoring equipment with decontamination machines. The test also demonstrated that a microprocessor-based instrument such as a radiation monitor can withstand the type of vibration that is characteristic of floor scabblers with no apparent damage. Combining radiation-monitoring equipment with a decontamination machine reduces the time and costs required to decontaminate concrete surfaces. These time and cost savings result from the reduction in the number of interim radiological surveys that must be conducted to complete remediation. Real-time radiation monitoring allows equipment operators to accurately monitor contamination during the decontamination process without support from radiological technicians, which also reduces the project duration and costs. The DOE Grand Junction Projects Office recommends more extensive and rigorous testing of this real-time radiation monitoring to include a variety of surfaces and decontamination machines. As opportunities arise, additional testing will be conducted under GJPORAP.

  20. The implementation of cosmic radiation monitoring in routine flight operation of IBERIA airline of Spain: 1 y of experience of in-flight permanent monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vergara, J C Sáez; Román, R Dominguez-Mompell

    2009-10-01

    Since 2000 IBERIA and CIEMAT have been collaborating in experimental measurements of onboard radiation doses received by the crew of IBERIA commercial flights. As part of the IBERIA radiation protection program for aircrew members, a monitoring system for routine aircrew dosimetry has been implemented based on the conclusions from the experimental work and the code EPCARD 3.2. The system feeds the computer code with the predicted flight plans and registers the route dose in the corresponding file for each aircrew member. The radiation protection program also includes a validation of the computed doses with experimental tissue equivalent proportional counter measurements, which in 2008 had been extended with the permanent installation and continuous operation of MDU-Liulin Si spectrometers in eight A-340-300 aircraft. It is expected that these instruments would provide experimental data on the radiation received for 4500 flights per year, which is of special value to detect unpredictable solar particle events.

  1. Instrument Cross-Comparisons and Automated Quality Control of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Hughes, G.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) instrument network, several different systems often measure the same quantity at the same site. For example, several ARM instruments measure time-series profiles of the atmosphere that were previously available only from balloon-borne radiosonde systems. These instruments include the Radar Wind Profilers (RWP) with Radio-Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), the Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MWRP), and the Raman Lidar (RL). ARM researchers have described methods for direct cross-comparison of time-series profiles (Coulter and Lesht 1996; Turner et al. 1996) and we have extended this concept to the development of methods for automated quality control (QC) of ARM datastreams.

  2. Evaluating the design of an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument with systen simulations. Part 1: Instantaneous estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, Larry; Ardanuy, Philip; Hucek, Richard; Abel, Peter; Jacobowitz, Herbert

    1993-01-01

    A set of system simulations has been performed to evaluate candidate scanner designs for an Earth Radiation Budget Instrument (ERBI) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) of the late 1990s. Five different instruments are considered: (1) the Active Cavity Array (ACA), (2) the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System-Instrument (CERES-I), (3) the Conically Scanning Radiometer (CSR), (4) the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment Cross-Track Scanner (ERBE), and (5) the Nimbus-7 Biaxial Scanner (N7). Errors in instantaneous, top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) satellite flux estimates are assumed to arise from two measurement problems: the sampling of space over a given geographic domain, and sampling in angle about a given spatial location. When angular sampling errors vanish due to the application of correct angular dependence models (ADMs) during inversion, the accuracy of each scanner design is determined by the instrument's ability to map the TOA radiance field in a uniform manner. In this regard, the instruments containing a cross-track scanning component (CERES-I and ERBE) do best. As errors in ADMs are encountered, cross-track instruments incur angular sampling errors more rapidly than biaxial instruments (N7, ACA, and CSR) and eventually overtake the biaxial designs in their total error amounts. A latitude bias (north-south error gradient) in the ADM error of cross-track instruments also exists. This would be objectionable when ADM errors are systematic over large areas of the globe. For instantaneous errors, however, cross-track scanners outperform biaxial or conical scanners for 2.5 deg latitude x 2.5 deg longitude target areas, providing that the ADM error is less than or equal to 30%. A key issue is the amount of systematic ADM error (departures from the mean models) that is present at the 2.5 deg resolution of the ERBE target areas. If this error is less than 30%, then the CERES-I, ERBE, and CSR, in order of increasing error, provide the most accurate instantaneous

  3. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Optical Sensors for Monitoring Gamma and Neutron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Clark D.

    2011-01-01

    For safety and efficiency, nuclear reactors must be carefully monitored to provide feedback that enables the fission rate to be held at a constant target level via adjustments in the position of neutron-absorbing rods and moderating coolant flow rates. For automated reactor control, the monitoring system should provide calibrated analog or digital output. The sensors must survive and produce reliable output with minimal drift for at least one to two years, for replacement only during refueling. Small sensor size is preferred to enable more sensors to be placed in the core for more detailed characterization of the local fission rate and fuel consumption, since local deviations from the norm tend to amplify themselves. Currently, reactors are monitored by local power range meters (LPRMs) based on the neutron flux or gamma thermometers based on the gamma flux. LPRMs tend to be bulky, while gamma thermometers are subject to unwanted drift. Both electronic reactor sensors are plagued by electrical noise induced by ionizing radiation near the reactor core. A fiber optic sensor system was developed that is capable of tracking thermal neutron fluence and gamma flux in order to monitor nuclear reactor fission rates. The system provides near-real-time feedback from small- profile probes that are not sensitive to electromagnetic noise. The key novel feature is the practical design of fiber optic radiation sensors. The use of an actinoid element to monitor neutron flux in fiber optic EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensors is a new use of material. The materials and structure used in the sensor construction can be adjusted to result in a sensor that is sensitive to just thermal, gamma, or neutron stimulus, or any combination of the three. The tested design showed low sensitivity to thermal and gamma stimuli and high sensitivity to neutrons, with a fast response time.

  5. Performance of the HIRS/2 instrument on TIROS-N. [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the TIROS-N satellite as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow radiation channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7 K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic features, operating characteristics and performance of the instrument in test are described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 is given and some observations on system quality are made.

  6. Near Two-Decade Instrument Performance for Hydrological Monitoring at the Prototype Hanford Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, C. E.; Clayton, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain radioactive waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety, may not be exhumed. The Hanford Prototype Barrier was constructed in 1994 using mostly natural materials to demonstrate its long-term performance. The barrier is expected to perform for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion and minimizing erosion. Extensive instrumentation is used to monitor the hydrological regime above, within, below, and around the barrier. Specifically, natural precipitation and irrigation are measured with rain gauges, runoff water with a runoff flume, soil water content within the barrier at 12 stations with a neutron probe, a capacitance probe, and time-domain-reflectometry probes, and soil water pressure with gypsum blocks and heat-dissipation-units. Drainage through the barrier and the side slopes is measured with 12 water collection vaults, respectively, for 12 zones. Each drainage vault is equipped with a dosing siphon, a dose counter, a pressure transducer to measure the water level, and a tipping bucket to measure the inflow. During the near two-decade monitoring period, some of the instruments stopped functioning, while others still function normally till present. This presentation will summarize the performance of these instruments. Recommendations for future barrier monitoring will be given.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  8. Interpretation of TEPC Measurements in Space Flights for Radiation Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    For the proper interpretation of radiation data measured in space, the results of integrated radiation transport models were compared with the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measurements. TEPC is a simple, time-dependent approach to radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Qave(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Qave(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. The deviation of y from LET is caused by energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. The response distribution functions of the wall-less and walled TEPCs were calculated from Monte-Carlo track simulations. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with the walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. Good agreement was found for Qave(y) between the model and measured spectra from past NASA missions. The Qave(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Qave(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Qave(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis

  9. Responses of selected neutron monitors to cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yajima, Kazuaki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, which is generally evaluated by numerical simulations, should be verified by measurements. From the perspective of radiological protection, the most contributing radiation component at aviation altitude is neutrons. Measurements of cosmic neutrons, however, are difficult in a civilian aircraft because of the limitations of space and electricity; a small, battery-operated dosimeter is required whereas larger-size instruments are generally used to detect neutrons with a broad range of energy. We thus examined the applicability of relatively new transportable neutron monitors for use in an aircraft. They are (1) a conventional rem meter with a polyethylene moderator (NCN1), (2) an extended energy-range rem meter with a tungsten-powder mixed moderator (WENDI-II), and (3) a recoil-proton scintillation rem meter (PRESCILA). These monitors were installed onto the racks of a business jet aircraft that flew two times near Japan. Observed data were compared to model calculations using a PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA). Excellent agreement between measured and calculated values was found for the WENDI-II. The NCN1 showed approximately half of predicted values, which were lower than those expected from its response function. The observations made with PRESCILA showed much higher than expected values; which is attributable to the presence of cosmic-ray protons and muons. These results indicate that careful attention must be paid to the dosimetric properties of a detector employed for verification of cosmic neutron dose.

  10. Responses of selected neutron monitors to cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yajima, Kazuaki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, which is generally evaluated by numerical simulations, should be verified by measurements. From the perspective of radiological protection, the most contributing radiation component at aviation altitude is neutrons. Measurements of cosmic neutrons, however, are difficult in a civilian aircraft because of the limitations of space and electricity; a small, battery-operated dosimeter is required whereas larger-size instruments are generally used to detect neutrons with a broad range of energy. We thus examined the applicability of relatively new transportable neutron monitors for use in an aircraft. They are (1) a conventional rem meter with a polyethylene moderator (NCN1), (2) an extended energy-range rem meter with a tungsten-powder mixed moderator (WENDI-II), and (3) a recoil-proton scintillation rem meter (PRESCILA). These monitors were installed onto the racks of a business jet aircraft that flew two times near Japan. Observed data were compared to model calculations using a PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA). Excellent agreement between measured and calculated values was found for the WENDI-II. The NCN1 showed approximately half of predicted values, which were lower than those expected from its response function. The observations made with PRESCILA showed much higher than expected values; which is attributable to the presence of cosmic-ray protons and muons. These results indicate that careful attention must be paid to the dosimetric properties of a detector employed for verification of cosmic neutron dose. PMID:19430218

  11. New monitoring by thermogravimetry for radiation degradation of EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguski, J.; Przybytniak, G.; Łyczko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The radiation ageing of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA) as the jacket of cable applied in nuclear power plant was carried out by gamma rays irradiation, and the degradation was monitored by a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The EVA decomposition rate in air by the isothermal at 400 °C decreased with increase of dose and also with decrease of the dose rate. The behavior of EVA jacket of cable indicated that the decomposition rate at 400 °C was reduced with increase of oxidation. The elongation at break by tensile test for the radiation aged EVA was closely related to the decomposition rate at 400 °C; therefore, the TGA might be applied for a diagnostic technique of the cable degradation.

  12. Use of high-performance instrumentation in blast furnace computer monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lueckers, J.; Ramelot, D.; Desplanques, C.; Dodet, C. )

    1993-01-01

    Computerized monitoring and control systems are part of the tools commonly in use to improve the stability of the blast furnace operation and to minimize the hot metal cost. The rapidly increasing power of these systems is used to execute growing numbers of specific monitoring and management tasks. More and more sophisticated mathematical models that better describe the complexity of the phenomena involved in the blast furnace process are being run on-line. This evolution, has two very practical consequences: (1) improved software tools are required to ease the use of all the models and functions implemented in the computer systems. In particular, the massive amount of data available has to be converted into a practical diagnostic tool for the operator. Expert systems recently have been shown to provide the basis for a solution to this problem. (2) more and better instrumentation has to be implemented in order to supply the data required by the models. The integrity of these data is a major issue. As the sensors have to operate under extreme hostile environmental conditions, their performances have to be closely monitored. The only practical solution to this problem is a computer monitoring with automatic drift and failure diagnostics (maintenance assistant). Extensive research and development efforts have resulted in instrumentation systems and software tools that are well adapted to the assessment of the measurement quality and are currently in commercial operation on several blast furnaces around the world.

  13. ANSI and IEC standards for, and evaluation of, radiation detection instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2008-01-01

    During the last quarter of 2002, an effort was started to develop performance requirements for radiation instrumentation used for the detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material. Coordinated by the US National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), a team was formed to establish writing committees for the development of these requirements as American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards. The core of the new area was developed as ANSI N42, Homeland Security Instruments. A series of standards were developed followed by testing and evaluation (T&E) protocols that would be used for specific testing. Four US National Laboratories provided T&E support and work commenced to test instruments provided by manufacturers at no cost. During this time, discussions began regarding the formation of a new work group within the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This new work group would be located within technical committee (TC) 45 which addresses nuclear instrumentation. This new work group, 15B, also began developing international standards to address the same instrument types. Following development of ANSI standards, the testing and evaluation process began, running for two distinct rounds. The results of the work was consolidated by NIST and released back to individual companies as well as the user community in a controlled manner. This document will provide details regarding the standards and their basis and status, as well as some information regarding the T&E process used in the USA.

  14. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  15. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  16. Radiation Monitoring at FGUP Atomflot and the Polyarninski Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerville, J.; Griffith, A. G.; Moskowitz, P. D.; BNL; Endregard, M.; Sidhu, R. S.; Sundling, C-V.; Walderhaug, T.; Egorkin, A.; Kisselev, V.; Yanovskaya, N.; Tchernaenko, L.

    2003-02-26

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between military establishments of the Russian Federation, United States and Norway to reduce potential environmental threats from military installations and activities in the Arctic and enhancing the environmental security of all three countries. The goal of this project is to enhance the ability to effectively and safely perform radiological monitoring of objects at selected facilities for dismantlement of nuclear submarines and handling and disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological monitoring is needed to protect workers at the sites engaged in dismantlement of nuclear submarines, the local public and the environment. This is to be accomplished by supply of radiation monitoring equipment and the installation of centralized radiological surveillance, the PICASSO Environmental Monitoring system developed by Institute for Energy Technology, Halden, Norway. The first site selected for th e installation of PICASSO will be at the FGUP Atomflot spent nuclear fuel pad site and liquid radioactive waste treatment facility. This will be followed by an installation of PICASSO at the Mobile Processing Facility at Polyarninski Shipyard. The implementation of the PICASSO system will be integrated with the other AMEC projects at both sites. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most Russian Navy sites handling spent nuclear fuel. Dosimeters have been supplied by the US and with funds from Norway. This equipment will be used at the Polyarninski Shipyard.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope on-line telemetry archive for monitoring scientific instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miebach, Manfred P.

    2002-12-01

    A major milestone in an effort to update the aging Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ground system was completed when HST operations were switched to a new ground system, a project called "Vision 2000 Control Center System CCS)", at the time of the third Servicing Mission in December 1999. A major CCS subsystem is the Space Telescope Engineering Data Store, the design of which is based on modern Data Warehousing technology. In fact, the Data Warehouse (DW) as implemented in the CCS Ground System that operates and monitors the Hubble Space Telescope represents, the first use of a commercial Data Warehouse to manage engineering data. By the end of February 2002, the process of populating the Data Warehouse with HST historical telemetry data had been completed, providing access to HST engineering data for a period of over 12 years with a current data volume of 2.8 Terabytes. This paper describes hands-on experience from an end user perspective, using the CCS system capabilities, including the Data Warehouse as an HST engineering telemetry archive. The Engineering Team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is using HST telemetry extensively for monitoring the Scientific Instruments, in particular for · Spacecraft anomaly resolutions · Scientific Instrument trending · Improvements of Instrument operational efficiency The overall idea is to maximize science output of the space observatory. Furthermore, the CCS provides a powerful feature to build, save, and recall real-time display pages customized to specific subsystems and operational scenarios. Engineering teams are using the real-time monitoring capabilities intensively during Servicing Missions and real time commanding to handle anomaly situations, while the Flight Operations Team (FOT) monitors the spacecraft around the clock.

  18. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    PubMed

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  19. Novel Technique for Monitoring the Performance of the LAT Instrument on Board the GLAST Satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Paneque, D.; Borgland, A.; Bovier, A.; Bloom, E.; Edmonds, Y.; Funk, S.; Godfrey, G.; Rando, R.; Wai, L.; Wang, P.

    2007-06-13

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is an observatory designed to perform gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. GLAST will be launched at the end of 2007, opening a new and important window on a wide variety of high energy astrophysical phenomena . The main instrument of GLAST is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which provides break-through high-energy measurements using techniques typically used in particle detectors for collider experiments. The LAT consists of 16 identical towers in a four-by-four grid, each one containing a pair conversion tracker and a hodoscopic crystal calorimeter, all covered by a segmented plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield. The scientific return of the instrument depends very much on how accurately we know its performance, and how well we can monitor it and correct potential problems promptly. We report on a novel technique that we are developing to help in the characterization and monitoring of LAT by using the power of classification trees to pinpoint in a short time potential problems in the recorded data. The same technique could also be used to evaluate the effect on the overall LAT performance produced by potential instrumental problems.

  20. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  1. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: III. Galactic far-infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    Using the three-component spectral model describing the FIRAS average continuum spectra, the exact analytical expressions for thermodynamic and radiative functions of Galactic far-infrared radiation are obtained. The COBE FIRAS instrument data in the 0.15-2.88 THz frequency interval at the mean temperatures of T1 = 17.72 K, T2 = 14 K and T3 = 6.73 K are used for calculating the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, total emissivity, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume and pressure for the warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components of the Galactic continuum spectra. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann law for warm, intermediate-temperature and very cold components is constructed. The temperature dependence of each component is determined by the formula IS-B(T) = σ‧T6. This result is important when we construct the cosmological models of radiative transfer that can be applied inside the Galaxy. Within the framework of the three-component spectral model, the total number of photons in our Galaxy and the total radiation power (total luminosity) emitted from a surface of the Galaxy are calculated. Their values are NGtotal = 1.3780 × 1068 and IGtotal(T) = 1.0482 × 1036 W. Other radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Galactic far-infrared radiation (photon gas) of the Galaxy are calculated. The expressions for astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant and number density of the Galactic far-infrared photons are obtained. We assume that the obtained analytical expressions for thermodynamic and radiative functions may be useful for describing the continuum spectra of the far-infrared radiation for other galaxies.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality MonitoringInstrumentation and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyun; Deen, M. Jamal; Kumar, Shiva; Selvaganapathy, P. Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring. PMID:25230309

  3. Advanced earthquake monitoring system for U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs medical buildings--instrumentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Banga, Krishna; Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Leith, William S.; Reza, Shahneam; Cheng, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In collaboration with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP; http://nsmp.wr.usgs.gov/) of the U.S. Geological Survey has been installing sophisticated seismic systems that will monitor the structural integrity of 28 VA hospital buildings located in seismically active regions of the conterminous United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico during earthquake shaking. These advanced monitoring systems, which combine the use of sensitive accelerometers and real-time computer calculations, are designed to determine the structural health of each hospital building rapidly after an event, helping the VA to ensure the safety of patients and staff. This report presents the instrumentation component of this project by providing details of each hospital building, including a summary of its structural, geotechnical, and seismic hazard information, as well as instrumentation objectives and design. The structural-health monitoring component of the project, including data retrieval and processing, damage detection and localization, automated alerting system, and finally data dissemination, will be presented in a separate report.

  4. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  5. Radiation monitoring of the GEM muon detectors at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, L.; Iaydjiev, P.; Mitev, G.; Vankov, I.

    2016-09-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of future High Luminosity (HL) LHC, determines a significant increasing of the radiation background around the CMS subdetectors, and especially in the higher pseudorapidity region. Under such heavy conditions, the RPC (used in muon trigger) most probably could not operate effectively. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment in that region and test at CMS will start in 2016. A monitoring system to control the absorbed radiation dose by the GEM under test is developed. Two types of sensors are used in it: RadFETs for total absorbed dose and p-i-n diodes for particle (proton and neutron) detection. The basic detector unit, called RADMON, contains two sensors of each type and can be installed at each GEM detector. The system has a modular structure, permitting to increase easily the number of controlled RADMONs: one module controls up to 12 RADMONs, organized in three group of four and communicates outside by RS 485 and CANBUS interfaces.

  6. Monitoring precipitation and lightning via changes in atmospheric gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M.B.; Domondon, A.; Tsuchiya, S.; Tomiyama, G.

    2003-08-26

    Atmospheric {gamma}-radiation has been measured since 1999 and recently at three elevations 220m from the first site to ascertain position dependency and optimal elevation for observing {gamma}-rays from radon and radon-progeny found in precipitation. Radiation from time-independent and diurnal components was minimized in order to ascertain the reliability, accuracy and practicality of determining precipitation rates from correlated {gamma}-rates. Data taken with 4-12.9cm3 NaI detectors at elevations above ground of 9.91, 14.2, 15.7, and 21.4 m were fit with a model assuming a surface and/or volume deposition of radon progeny on/in water droplets during precipitation which predicts {gamma} -ray rates proportional to the 2/5 and/or 3/5 power of rain rates, respectively. With mostly surface deposition and age corrections for radon progeny, the correlation coefficients improved with elevation and reached a maximum at 0.95 around 20m. Atmospheric {gamma} radiation enables monitoring precipitation rates to 0.3 mm/h with time resolution limited only by counting statistics. High {gamma}-ray rates, decreasing with 40-minute half-life following lightning may be indirectly due to ions accelerated in electric field.

  7. Comparison of ultraviolet absorbance, chemiluminescence, and DOAS instruments for ambient ozone monitoring.

    PubMed

    Williams, E J; Fehsenfeld, F C; Jobson, B T; Kuster, W C; Goldan, P D; Stutz, J; McClenny, W A

    2006-09-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of ozone measurements made by monitors that determine ozone concentrations in ambient air by UV absorption. These monitors are typically used to measure ozone for the purpose of establishing local compliance to air-quality standards. The study was predicated by the concern that commercially available UV absorbance O3 monitors may be subject to interference from volatile organic carbon (VOC) species that absorb light at 254 nm. To test for these and other effects, we compared simultaneous O3 measurements made by a commercial UV O3 monitor with an O3-NO chemiluminescence instrument, which is not subject to interference by VOC compounds. The comparisons were carried out in the summers of 1999 and 2000 at urban/industrial sites in Nashville and Houston, and in 2004 aboard a ship in the Gulf of Maine. In the two urban areas, we also compared the 03 measurements from these two methods with O3 measurements made by a long-path differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS). Our tests indicate that, with well-maintained monitors, there are no significant interferences even in areas with significant ambient concentrations of potentially interfering VOCs. PMID:17007137

  8. Miniature Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter dosimeter for active personal radiation monitoring of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson Huber, Aubrey

    The accurate measurement of spaceflight crew radiation exposure is of utmost importance. If onboard instrumentation shows that the pre-determined limit for radiation exposure has been met or exceeded during a mission, that mission can be greatly affected by the implementation of precautionary measures, or, in more extreme cases, the crew's health being negatively affected. Large active regional monitors determine real-time radiation risks of the crew during spaceflight, while small passive personal badges detect individual astronaut total exposure levels upon their return to Earth. At present, there are no personal active radiation dosimeters that can assess the continuous radiation risk to individual astronauts during spaceflight. Personal active radiation devices would be ideal for current operations in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as upcoming extravehicular activities on the Moon, Mars, or other planetary bodies. This project focused on the miniaturization of the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) presently being utilized on the International Space Station (ISS) and Space Shuttle, enabling them to become personal crew dosimeters. The miniaturized TEPC prototype design has dimensions of 7.6 x 10.1 x 2.54 cm (3 x 4 x 1 in). It is composed of a 3 x 4 array of 1.27 cm (0.5 in) spherical detectors for measurements equivalent to a 4.39 cm (1.73 in) spherical detector, with an additional standalone sphere of diameter 1.27 cm (0.5 in) for taking measurements in high-flux environments. The detector simulates a tissue-equivalent diameter of 2 microns, is sensitive to lineal energies of 0.3 -- 1000 keV/micron, and can measure charged particles and neutrons ranging from 0.01 -- 100 mGy/hr.

  9. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water ({approximately}40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D&D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  11. CMS Run-2 Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement using novel detector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Espinosa, Alejandro; CMS Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The higher energy and luminosity for Run 2 at the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for beam radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixel luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. The full pixel data is also read out at a lower rate to reconstruct charged particle tracks for monitoring and beam spot determination. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC, produced in 130 nm CMOS technology, for excellent time resolution. A new beam-halo monitor exploits Cerenkov light production in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and excellent time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems include dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Detector performance results from the 2015 LHC Run II will be presented.

  12. The 'Weekend Effect' in Tropospheric NO2 Seen from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, E.; Wenig, M.; Celarier, E.; Gleason, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument has gathered daily global data on NO2 and other atmospheric trace gases since its launch on the EOS Aura satellite in 2004. The large accumulated data set makes it possible to monitor changes of both meteorological and anthropogenic origin in tropospheric NOz amounts. In particular, averages on time scales on the order of a year show a distinct 'weekend effect' in NO2 variation, with smaller NO2 amounts seen on Saturday and/or Sunday than on the remaining weekdays. Using the OMI NO2 Standard Product (SP), we examine this effect in relation to geopolitical boundaries and investigate implications for identifying sources. We also use the SP data to find evidence for other short-term anthropogenic changes in NO2 emissions over heavily polluted regions including the United States, Europe and China.

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Volume 15, No. 1. Progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the first quarter of 1995.

  14. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, April--June 1997. Volume 17, Number 2

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the second quarter of 1997.

  15. Design and qualification of the SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.; Soli, George A.; Zamani, Nasser; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Single-Event Upset/Total Dose (SEU/TD) Radiation Monitor chip. The Radiation Monitor is scheduled to fly on the Mid-Course Space Experiment Satellite (MSX). The Radiation Monitor chip consists of a custom-designed 4-bit SRAM for heavy ion detection and three MOSFET's for monitoring total dose. In addition the Radiation Monitor chip was tested along with three diagnostic chips: the processor monitor and the reliability and fault chips. These chips revealed the quality of the CMOS fabrication process. The SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip had an initial functional yield of 94.6 percent. Forty-three (43) SEU SRAM's and 14 Total Dose MOSFET's passed the hermeticity and final electrical tests and were delivered to LL.

  16. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results.

    PubMed

    Dachev, T P; Semkova, J V; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk, Yu N; Dimitrov, P G; Koleva, R T; Malchev, St; Bankov, N G; Shurshakov, V A; Benghin, V V; Yarmanova, E N; Ivanova, O A; Häder, D-P; Lebert, M; Schuster, M T; Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O; Cubancak, J; Nikolaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented.

  17. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results.

    PubMed

    Dachev, T P; Semkova, J V; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk, Yu N; Dimitrov, P G; Koleva, R T; Malchev, St; Bankov, N G; Shurshakov, V A; Benghin, V V; Yarmanova, E N; Ivanova, O A; Häder, D-P; Lebert, M; Schuster, M T; Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O; Cubancak, J; Nikolaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented. PMID:26177624

  18. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at NBS/NIST From 1960 Through 2000

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    The program for monitoring the environment in and about the site of the National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, at its Gaithersburg, Maryland location began in 1960. The program includes measurements of radiation fields at the fence line of the site and of radionuclides in samples of soil, water, and biota taken within and around the site. A variety of instruments and equipment, processes and procedures, and measurement devices has been employed. To date, no measurement from the routine program has exhibited any result that could be attributed to any effluent or other effect of the radiological work conducted at the site; that includes the NIST Research Reactor, the now defunct Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) and other accelerators, radiochemistry, and sealed source operations. PMID:27500047

  19. Solar Origin of Solar Particle Events Detected by the Standard Radiation Environment Monitor of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, K.; Sandberg, I.; Anastasiadis, A.; Daglis, I. A.; Panagopoulos, I.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Papaioannou, A.; Gerontidou, M.; Nieminen, P.; Glover, A.

    2010-07-01

    Solar Particle Events (SPEs) of the 23rd Solar Cycle detected by the ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) onboard the INTEGRAL satellite have been studied in order to find their connection to solar sources. X-ray, optical and radio data of solar flares that were observed by several space-based instruments during the aforementioned solar cycle have been selected. The data were reduced and thoroughly analyzed in order to establish the corresponding solar origin of the selected SPEs. The extensive scientific analysis has produced clear correlations with X class solar flares for the events of the October-November 2003, January 2005 and December 2006 periods while for the events that occurred during September 2005, correlations with X class flares are possible but not straightforward due to the complexity of the registered solar particle fluxes.

  20. Modular Architecture for the Measurement of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaune, Paul; Turner, Kathryn; Holland, S. Douglas; Carson, William R.; Riman, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    A modular architecture has been conceived for the design of radiation-monitoring instruments used aboard spacecraft and in planetary-exploration settings. This architecture reflects lessons learned from experience with prior radiation-monitoring instruments. A prototype instrument that embodies the architecture has been developed as part of the Mars Advanced Radiation Acquisition (MARA) project. The architecture is also applicable on Earth for radiation-monitoring instruments in research of energetic electrically charged particles and instruments monitoring radiation for purposes of safety, military defense, and detection of hidden nuclear devices and materials.

  1. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of colored indicator lights and colored print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm color scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the color blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing setups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  2. Intelligent mirror monitor and controller for synchrotron radiation beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.L.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    A microprocessor-based, stand-alone mirror monitor and control system has been developed for synchrotron radiation beam lines. The operational requirements for mirror position and tilt angle, including the parameters for controlling the number of steps, direction, speed and acceleration of the driving motors, may be programmed into EPROMS. The instruction sequence to carry out critical motions will be stored in a program buffer. A manual control knob is also provided to fine tune the mirror position if desired. A synchronization scheme for the height and tilt motions maintains a fixed mirror angle during insertion. Absolute height and tilt angle are displayed. Electronic (or programmable) tilt angle limits are provided to protect against damage from misalignment of high power beams such as focussed wiggler beams. A description of mirror drives with a schematic diagram is presented. Although the controller is made for mirror movers, it can be used in other applications where multiple stepping motors perform complex synchronized motions.

  3. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.

    PubMed

    Tinker, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  4. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals

    DOEpatents

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  5. Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance.

  6. Revising the slant column density retrieval of nitrogen dioxide observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, S.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L. N.; Celarier, E. A.; Swartz, W. H.; Bucsela, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Nitrogen dioxide retrievals from the Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) have been used extensively over the past decade, particularly in the study of tropospheric air quality. Recent comparisons of OMI NO2 with independent data sets and models suggested that the OMI values of slant column density (SCD) and stratospheric vertical column density (VCD) in both the NASA OMNO2 and Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute DOMINO products are too large, by around 10-40%. We describe a substantially revised spectral fitting algorithm, optimized for the OMI visible light spectrometer channel. The most important changes comprise a flexible adjustment of the instrumental wavelength shifts combined with iterative removal of the ring spectral features; the multistep removal of instrumental noise; iterative, sequential estimates of SCDs of the trace gases in the 402-465 nm range. These changes reduce OMI SCD(NO2) by 10-35%, bringing them much closer to SCDs retrieved from independent measurements and models. The revised SCDs, submitted to the stratosphere-troposphere separation algorithm, give tropospheric VCDs ˜10-15% smaller in polluted regions, and up to ˜30% smaller in unpolluted areas. Although the revised algorithm has been optimized specifically for the OMI NO2 retrieval, our approach could be more broadly applicable.

  7. Monitoring atmospheric turbulence profiles with high vertical resolution using PML/PBL instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blary, F.; Ziad, A.; Borgnino, J.; Fantéï-Caujolle, Y.; Aristidi, Eric; Lantéri, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) have been proposed for the next generation of telescopes. In order to be efficient, correction using WFAO require knowledge of atmospheric turbulence parameters. The structure constant of index-of-refraction fluctuations (C2 N ) being one of them. Indirect methods implemented in instruments as SCIDAR, MASS, SLODAR, CO-SLIDAR and MOSP have been proposed to measure C2 N (h) pro le through different layers of the atmosphere. A new monitor called the Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) is presented. In this instrument, C2 N (h) pro les are retrieved from the transverse covariance via minimization of a maximum likelihood criterion under positivity constraint using an iterative gradient method. An other approach using a regularization method (RM) is also studied. Instrument errors are mainly related to the detection of the Moon limb position and are mostly due to photon noise. Numerical simulations have been used to evaluate the error on the extracted pro le and its propagation from the detection to the inverse technique.

  8. First Results of Total Ozone from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) using the DOAS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; de Haan, J. F.; Bhartia, P. K.; Yang, K.; Brinksma, E. J.; Kroon, M.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is one of four instruments on the NASA EOS-Aura satellite, that was successfully launched on July 15, 2004. OMI is an imaging spectrometer in the ultraviolet and visible part of the spectrum (270 to 500 nm) and was contributed to the Aura mission by The Netherlands and Finland. With its unprecedented spatial resolution of 13x24 km2 at nadir and daily global coverage, OMI promises highly interesting scientific results and will make a major contribution to our understanding of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry and climate change. In this contribution we intend to present the first results of the OMI total ozone product derived using the DOAS technique. This product is one of two OMI total ozone products, the other product is based on the TOMS method. The DOAS implementation for OMI includes state-of-the-art features, such as improved methods for accounting for rotational Raman scattering and atmospheric temperature changes. These new features use the full spectral capabilities of the OMI instrument to derive the total ozone column. We anticipate to present global maps of ozone as well as results of initial validation with ground based observations. Also, we will compare with other satellite data products, such as derived from SCIAMACHY and TOMS. First comparisons between the two OMI total ozone products, derived using the DOAS and TOMS methods, will be presented. We intend to show (potential) users of the total ozone products the benefits of OMI's spatial resolution and daily global coverage.

  9. Multitemporal Monitoring of the Air Quality in Bulgaria by Satellite Based Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo; Borisova, Denitsa

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the effect on climate changes on the population and environment caused by air pollutants at local and regional scale by pollution concentrations higher than allowed is undisputable. Main sources of gas releases are due to anthropogenic emissions caused by the economic and domestic activities of the inhabitants, and to less extent having natural origin. Complementary to pollutants emissions the local weather parameters such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, clouds, atmospheric water vapor, and wind direction control the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. It should be noted that intrinsic property of the air pollution is its "transboundary-ness" and this is why the air quality (AQ) is not affecting the population of one single country only. This why the exchange of information concerning AQ at EU level is subject to well established legislation and one of EU flagship initiatives for standardization in data exchange, namely INSPIRE, has to cope with. It should be noted that although good reporting mechanism with regard to AQ is already established between EU member states national networks suffer from a serious disadvantage - they don't form a regular grid which is a prerequisite for verification of pollutants transport modeling. Alternative sources of information for AQ are the satellite observations (i.e. OMI, TOMS instruments) providing daily data for ones of the major contributors to air pollution such as O3, NOX and SO2. Those data form regular grids and are processed the same day of the acquisition so they could be used in verification of the outputs generated by numerical modeling of the AQ and pollution transfer. In this research we present results on multitemporal monitoring of several regional "hot spots" responsible for greenhouse gases emissions in Bulgaria with emphasis on satellite-based instruments. Other output from this study is a method for validation of the AQ forecasts and also providing feedback to the service that prepares

  10. Instrumental networks for monitoring short-period tectonic motions in seismic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    For some years the monitoring of crustal movements in seismic zones has consisted mainly of periodic resurvey measurements using triangulation, trilateration, leveling, and gravity measurements. The frequency of remeasurements has been limited by the costs. Some fixed instruments have contributed also, such as creepmeters, tidegages, and devices for measuring tilts in lake levels. A number of inexpensive, shallow-borehole tiltmeters were installed recently in the U.S.A., but so far the noise level due to local ground motions appears to be fairly high for many instruments. Volumetric strainmeters are being used in several countries. 700 meter long laser strainmeters and a superconducting gravimeter have been in operation for several years at one site in California. Other simpler strainmeters and tiltmeters exist at a number of locations in seismic zones. Recently there has been increased interest both in trying to obtain frequent observations with fixed instruments and in reducing the noise level. Long-baseline liquid tiltmeters, deep-borehole tiltmeters, superconducting gravimeters, multi-wavelength laser distance-measuring devices, and laser strainmeters are capable of improved accuracy. However, they are more expensive than most previously used instruments. An additional future possibility is to use signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites to monitor networks of points. The accuracy would be limited almost completely by uncertainty in the water-vapor corrections along the various satellite-to-ground propagation paths. It seems possible that 1 cm accuracy for detecting baseline changes with very low false alarm rates can be achieved by using water-vapor radiometers at many of the sites, provided that sufficient accuracy can be achieved with the radiometers. Highly mobile instruments are being constructed in the U.S.A. which will use the spread-spectrum GPS signals as noise sources for long baseline radio interferometry. Initial tests using the

  11. Geoazur's contribution in instrumentation to monitor seismic activity of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, B.; Hello, Y.; Anglade, A.; Desprez, O.; Ogé, A.; Charvis, P.; Deschamps, A.; Galve, A.; Nolet, G.; Sukhovich, A.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic activity in the earth is mainly located near the tectonic plate boundaries, in the deep ocean (expansion centers) or near their margins (subduction zones). Travel times and waveforms of recorded seismograms can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional wave speed distribution in the earth with seismic tomography or to image specific boundaries in the deep earth. Because of the lack of permanent sea-bottom seismometers these observation are conducted over short period of time using portable ocean bottom seismometers. Geaozur has a long experience and strong skills in designing and deploying Ocean Bottom Seismometers all over the world. We have developed two types of ocean bottom instruments. The "Hippocampe" for long deployment and "Lady bug" for aftershock monitoring or for fast overlaps during wide angle experiments. Early warning systems for tsunamis and earthquakes have been developed in recent years but these need real time data transmission and direct control of the instrument. We have developed a permanent real time Broad Band instrument installed in the Mediterranean Sea and connected to the Antares Neutrinos telescope. This instrument offers all the advantages of a very heavy and costly installation, such as the ability to do real-time seismology on the seafloor. Such real-time seafloor monitoring is especially important for seismic hazard. Major earthquakes cause human and economic losses directly related to the strong motion of the ground or by induced phenomena such as tsunamis and landslides. Fiber optical cables provide a high-capacity lightweight alternative to traditional copper cables. Three-component sensors analyze permanently the noise signal and detect the events to record. Major events can force the network to transmit data with almost zero lag time. The optical link also allows us to retrieve events at a later date. However, OBSs alone can never provide the density and long term, homogeneous data coverage needed for local and global

  12. Method for monitoring irradiated fuel using Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-05-21

    A method is provided for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in a water-filled storage pond wherein the intensity of the Cerenkov radiation emitted from the water in the vicinity of the nuclear fuel is measured. This intensity is then compared with the expected intensity for nuclear fuel having a corresponding degree of irradiation exposure and time period after removal from a reactor core. Where the nuclear fuel inventory is located in an assembly having fuel pins or rods with intervening voids, the Cerenkov light intensity measurement is taken at selected bright sports corresponding to the water-filled interstices of the assembly in the water storage, the water-filled interstices acting as Cerenkov light channels so as to reduce cross-talk. On-line digital analysis of an analog video signal is possible, or video tapes may be used for later measurement using a video editor and an electrometer. Direct measurement of the Cerenkov radiation intensity also is possible using spot photometers pointed at the assembly.

  13. Method for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel using cerenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.T.; Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.

    1983-06-21

    A method is provided for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in a water-filled storage pond wherein the intensity of the cerenkov radiation emitted from the water in the vicinity of the nuclear fuel is measured. This intensity is then compared with the expected intensity for nuclear fuel having a corresponding degree of irradiation exposure and time period after removal from a reactor core. Where the nuclear fuel inventory is located in an assembly having fuel pins or rods with intervening voids, the cerenkov light intensity measurement is taken at selected bright spots corresponding to the water-filled interstices of the assembly in the water storage, the waterfilled interstices acting as cerenkov light channels so as to reduce cross-talk. On-line digital analysis of an analog video signal is possible, or video tapes may be used for later measurement using a video editor and an electrometer. Direct measurement of the cerenkov radiation intensity also is possible using spot photometers pointed at the assembly.

  14. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Evaluation of dry active waste monitoring instruments and techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Young, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is costly, so most nuclear power stations have found or will find that it is cost-effective to dispose of dry active waste (DAW) with activity levels that are Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) at a sanitary landfill or incinerator. It appears that substantial volumes of DAW can be exempted from disposal as LLRW if the maximum exposure to an individual member of the public from BRC waste does not exceed a few mrem per year effective dose equivalent. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has requested that Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) evaluate instruments and methods that could be used to measure surface contamination (activity per unit area) and radioactivity concentrations (activity per unit mass or volume) in BRC waste. Instrumentation utilized in a DAW BRC monitoring program must be capable of satisfying performance objectives. This instrumentations must measure bulk concentrations of radioactivity in DAW to assure that annual inventory disposal limits are not exceeded at each disposal site; measure radionuclide concentrations in disposal containers (e.g., bags, boxes, etc.) to assure that maximum allowable concentration limits in the DAW are not exceeded; assure that discrete radioactive particles (DRPs), if present in DAW, do not exceed maximum permissible activity limits; and possess detection capability to allow utilities to set operational limits between the detection limit and the disposal limit at their option. Our evaluations indicate that bag monitors and barrel counters have the necessary sensitivity to meet all of these objectives. 20 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Monitoring the radiation dose to a multiprogrammable pacemaker during radical radiation therapy: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Orsolini, G.; Kalokhe, U.P. )

    1990-11-01

    Multiprogrammable pacemakers, using complimentary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, may fail during radiation therapy. We report about a patient who received 6,400 cGy for unresectable carcinoma of the left lung. In supine treatment position, arms raised above the head, the pacemaker was outside the treated area by a margin of at least 1 cm, shielded by cerrobend blocking mounted on a tray. From thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements, we estimate that the pacemaker received 620 cGy in scatter doses. Its function was monitored before, during, and after completion of radiation therapy. The pacemaker was functioning normally until the patient's death 5 months after completion of treatment. The relevant electrocardiograms (ECGs) are presented.

  16. An inverse source location algorithm for radiation portal monitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Charlton, William S

    2010-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors are being deployed at border crossings throughout the world to prevent the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials; however, a tension exists between security and the free-flow of commerce. Delays at ports-of-entry have major economic implications, so it is imperative to minimize portal monitor screening time. We have developed an algorithm to locate a radioactive source using a distributed array of detectors, specifically for use at border crossings. To locate the source, we formulated an optimization problem where the objective function describes the least-squares difference between the actual and predicted detector measurements. The predicted measurements are calculated by solving the 3-D deterministic neutron transport equation given an estimated source position. The source position is updated using the steepest descent method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the source position is calculated using adjoint transport calculations. If the objective function is smaller than the convergence criterion, then the source position has been identified. This paper presents the derivation of the underlying equations in the algorithm as well as several computational test cases used to characterize its accuracy.

  17. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Paul; Susini, Jean

    2013-03-01

    These proceedings are a recollection of the articles presented at the Eleventh International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI22012), held in Lyon (France), on 9-13 July 2012. SRI2012, co-organized by ESRF and SOLEIL, was the eleventh in a series of conferences bringing together the foremost x-ray scientists from around the world. This triennial conference is the prime forum to highlight connections between synchrotron radiation instrumentation, science, and society. SRI2012 hosted more than 1000 delegates, including 72 exhibitors. The 2012 edition has seen the emergence of new avenues in the synchrotron technique and in related research areas, and has emphasized the complementarities between synchrotron centers and new x-ray sources such as Free Electron Lasers. The program was structured around 20 topics, and each of the articles in these proceedings refers to one of these topics namely, Instrumentation for Macromolecular Crystallography, Biomedical Experiments, Insertion Device Developments, Storage Ring Performances and Limits on Beam Stability, Advances in Hard X-ray Optics, New Developments in Area Detectors, New Facilities, New Developments in Spectroscopy Detectors, Time-Resolved Applications, Magnetism, SR Experiments under Extreme Conditions, VUV Instrumentation and Applications, Advances in Materials Science Experiments, IR and THz Generation and Applications, Advances in Soft-X-ray Optics, Modelling Tools and Optical Design, Scattering Experiments, High Energy Application, X-ray Microscopy and Nanoprobes, X-ray Imaging Techniques and, Instrumentation and Enabling Technologies. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the 4 days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of

  18. Status of instrumentation for the Southern Great Plains Clouds and Radiation Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Planning for the initial complement of instrumentation at the first Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has concentrated on obtaining a sufficient level of instrumentation at the central facility for studies of radiative transfer processes in a narrow column above the site. The auxiliary facilities, whose sole purpose is cloud mapping above the central facility, will not be activated as such until provisions are made for all-sky imaging systems. In the meantime, the auxiliary facilities wig be instrumented as extended facilities if the locations are suitable, which would be the case if they serve the primary purpose of the extended facilities of obtaining representative observations of surface energy exchanges, state variables, precipitation, soil and vegetative conditions, and other factors that must be considered in terms of boundary conditions by single-column and related models. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) radar wind profiler network is being considered to provide observations of vertical profiles at the boundaries of the CART site. If possible, these locations will be used for boundary facilities. Efforts are proceeding to gain access to the wind profiler network data and to determine if a sufficient number of the profilers can be equipped as Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS). Profiles of temperature as well as winds are needed at the boundary facilities for studies with single-column models and four-dimensional data assimilation models. Balloon-home sounding systems will be used there initially for both temperature and moisture profiles. Infrared spectrometers will eventually be used to infer moisture profiles at these boundary facilities.

  19. Status of instrumentation for the Southern Great Plains Clouds and Radiation Testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Wesely, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Planning for the initial complement of instrumentation at the first Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site has concentrated on obtaining a sufficient level of instrumentation at the central facility for studies of radiative transfer processes in a narrow column above the site. The auxiliary facilities, whose sole purpose is cloud mapping above the central facility, will not be activated as such until provisions are made for all-sky imaging systems. In the meantime, the auxiliary facilities wig be instrumented as extended facilities if the locations are suitable, which would be the case if they serve the primary purpose of the extended facilities of obtaining representative observations of surface energy exchanges, state variables, precipitation, soil and vegetative conditions, and other factors that must be considered in terms of boundary conditions by single-column and related models. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) radar wind profiler network is being considered to provide observations of vertical profiles at the boundaries of the CART site. If possible, these locations will be used for boundary facilities. Efforts are proceeding to gain access to the wind profiler network data and to determine if a sufficient number of the profilers can be equipped as Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS). Profiles of temperature as well as winds are needed at the boundary facilities for studies with single-column models and four-dimensional data assimilation models. Balloon-home sounding systems will be used there initially for both temperature and moisture profiles. Infrared spectrometers will eventually be used to infer moisture profiles at these boundary facilities.

  20. The AMSAT-OSCAR-40 High Elliptical Orbit Radiation Environment Monitoring Payload - First Flight Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Over the last decade, Surrey's micro-satellites have provided continuous monitoring of the proton and heavy-ion environment encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO), through the use of a series of silicon PIN-diode-based particle detectors, starting with the UK Defence Evaluation Research Agency's (DERA's) Cosmic-Radiation Environment and Dosimetry (CREDO) payload, flown on-board UoSAT-3 in 1990, followed in 1992 by the Cosmic-Ray Experiment (CRE), developed at the Surrey Space Centre under a micro-satellite Technology Transfer (TT) programme operated between Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), and flown on the resulting KITSAT-1 micro-satellite. The CRE was flown again in 1993 on-board the PoSAT- 1 micro-satellite, developed under a similar TT programme operated between SSTL and Portugal. The results from all of these instruments have given a great deal of information on the nature of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) ionising radiation environment, and in the case of the PoSAT-1 CRE, continue to do so. However, to obtain a more complete "picture" of the magnetosphere, it is necessary to orbit instruments much further out in space An opportunity to do this arose in 1994 when amateur radio satellite groups (AMSAT) proposed launching a small (600 kg) communications satellite into highly elliptical orbit. This satellite, called AMSAT-OSCAR-40 (AO-40), was launched by Ariane 5 rocket on 16th November 2000, initially into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The satellite has subsequently been manoeuvred into a highly elliptical, 1070 km x 58,700 km, 6.8o inclination orbit, and thus it affords the opportunity to observe the proton and heavy-ion environment through a large cross-section of Earth's magnetosphere. AO-40 carries a version of the CRE, which has been slightly modified in terms of interfaces and packaging to fit that particular satellite bus. However the particle detecting element is essentially

  1. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  2. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  3. The Ancona Early Warning Centre, Instrumentation and Continuous Monitoring of the Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, S.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Grande frana di Ancona' is an deep-seated landslide reactivated in 1982 after a long period of precipitation. The landslide involves clay and silty clay layers (Pliocene-Pleistocene), fractured with different OCR parameter, alternated with thin sand levels. Overlapped sliding zones are active (maximum depth: 100-120 m, maximum depth 1982 event is 75 m bgl). All the investigations aimed at the consolidation preliminary design in 2000, but the plan concluded that a final consolidation was impossible. Ancona Administration decided then to 'live with the landslide' reducing nevertheless the risk for the people living there. In 2002 a regional law was specifically issued for the people living in the landslide, to give Ancona Administration the responsibility of creating an Early Warning System and an Emergency Plan for people. It's active a surface monitoring system based on 7 total stations and 33 geodetic GPS integrated by a subsurface in place geotechnical system based on 3 DMS multiparametric columns installed down to 95 m depth. Surface Monitoring system The combination of the different instruments: GPS, Automatic Robotic Stations and the clinometric sensors allows us to monitor in the 3D (3D, X, Y, Z) a great number of points previously identified, to keep them under supervision with different measuring technical and from different control positions. The adoption of the geodetic GPS at dual frequency assure an high quality of the GPS measures, and a greater versatility at all the system. The measuring cycle is set up on 30 minutes, but in emergency or after a long rainy period, the system can operate on every points of the dual frequency GPS net also in Real Time RTK, and with the 7 Automatic Robotic Stations. Geotechnical monitoring (DMS) The in place Geotechnical Monitoring System DMS (patents and trade mark CSG srl -Italy) was installed in February 2009. It is made by n°3 Modular Dynamic System columns positioned inside borehole 100 m depth. DMS columns

  4. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October-December 1985. Volume 5, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, J.; Rabatin, K.; Cohen, L.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1985. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  6. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Tools and strategies for instrument monitoring, data mining and data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hees, R. M., ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    The ever growing size of data sets produced by various satellite instruments creates a challenge in data management. Three main tasks were identified: instrument performance monitoring, data mining by users and data deployment. In this presentation, I will discuss the three tasks and our solution. As a practical example to illustrate the problem and make the discussion less abstract, I will use Sciamachy on-board the ESA satellite Envisat. Since the launch of Envisat, in March 2002, Sciamachy has performed nearly a billion science measurements and performed daily calibrations measurements. The total size of the data set (not including reprocessed data) is over 30 TB, distributed over 150,000 files. [Instrument Monitoring] Most instruments produce house-keeping data, which may include time, geo-location, temperature of different parts of the instrument and instrument settings and configuration. In addition, many instruments perform calibration measurements. Instrument performance monitoring requires automated analyzes of critical parameters for events, and the option to off-line inspect the behavior of various parameters in time. We choose to extract the necessary information from the SCIAMACHY data products, and store everything in one file, where we separated house-keeping data from calibration measurements. Due to the large volume and the need to have quick random-access, the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) was our obvious choice. The HDF5 format is self describing and designed to organize different types of data in one file. For example, one data set may contain the meta data of the calibration measurements: time, geo-location, instrument settings, quality parameters (temperature of the instrument), while a second large data set contains the actual measurements. The HDF5 high-level packet table API is ideal for tables that only grow (by appending rows), while the HDF5 table API is better suited for tables where rows need to be updated, inserted or replaced. In

  9. Instrumentation for a next-generation x-ray all-sky monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, A. G.

    1999-12-15

    We have proposed an x-ray all-sky monitor for a small satellite mission that will be ten times more sensitive than past monitors and that opens up a new band of the soft x-ray spectrum (0.1-3.0 keV) for study. We discuss three approaches to the construction of the optics. The first method, well within the reach of existing technology, is to approximate the lobster-eye geometry by building crossed arrays of planar reflectors, this gives great control over the reflecting surface but is limited in terms of resolution at the baseline 4 arc minute level. The second method is to use microchannel plates; this technology has the potential to greatly exceed the baseline resolution and sensitivity but is yet to be fully demonstrated. The third method, while still in its infancy, may yet prove to be the most powerful; this approach relies on photolithography to expose a substrate that can then be developed and replicated. The scientific case for this mission is almost too broad to state here. The instrument we describe will allow investigation of the long term light curves of thousands of AGN, it will detect thousands of transients, including GRBs and type II supernova, and the stellar coronae of hundreds of the brightest x-ray stars can be monitored. In addition the classical objectives of all-sky monitors--long-term all-sky archive and watchdog alert to new events--will be fulfilled at an unprecedented level. We also note that by opening up a little-explored band of the x-ray sky the opportunity for new discovery is presented. A satisfying example of entering new territory while still retaining the guarantee of expanding the domain of existing research.

  10. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    hello, yann; Charvis, Philippe; Yegikyan, Manuk; verfaillie, Romain; Rivet, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Real time monitoring of seismic activity is a major issue for early warning of earthquakes and tsunamis. It can be done using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, or DONET in Japan. Another approach to monitor seismic activity at sea is to deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four time 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight time 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four time 6-months deployments). These autonomous OBSs are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data. Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3/4 years autonomy ocean bottom system with 9 channels (?) allowing the acquisition of different seismic or environmental parameters. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a crisis) using one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years, it is a perfect tool to monitor large seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. For remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two-way Iridium satellite communication. After a period of 3 years the main station is self-recovered by

  11. Satellite-Based Evidence of Wavelength-Dependent Aerosol Absorption in Biomass Burning Smoke Inferred from Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2012-01-01

    We provide satellite-based evidence of the spectral dependence of absorption in biomass burning aerosols over South America using near-UV measurements made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) during 2005-2007. In the current near-UV OMI aerosol algorithm (OMAERUV), it is implicitly assumed that the only absorbing component in carbonaceous aerosols is black carbon whose imaginary component of the refractive index is wavelength independent. With this assumption, OMI-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) is found to be significantly over-estimated compared to that of AERONET at several sites during intense biomass burning events (August-September). Other well-known sources of error affecting the near-UV method of aerosol retrieval do not explain the large observed AOD discrepancies between the satellite and the ground-based observations. A number of studies have revealed strong spectral dependence in carbonaceous aerosol absorption in the near-UV region suggesting the presence of organic carbon in biomass burning generated aerosols. A sensitivity analysis examining the importance of accounting for the presence of wavelength-dependent aerosol absorption in carbonaceous particles in satellite-based remote sensing was carried out in this work. The results convincingly show that the inclusion of spectrally-dependent aerosol absorption in the radiative transfer calculations leads to a more accurate characterization of the atmospheric load of carbonaceous aerosols.

  12. Solar Diameter Monitor: an instrument to measure long-term changes.

    PubMed

    Brown, T M; Elmore, D F; Lacey, L; Hull, H

    1982-10-01

    Analyses of historical data suggest that the solar diameter may vary with time with an amplitude of a few tenths of a second of arc. The High Altitude Observatory has constructed a special purpose telescope, the Solar Diameter Monitor, designed to detect any such changes. The telescope is an f/50 transit instrument with an aperture of 10 cm and is almost completely automated to avoid observer bias. Each day at solar noon, it measures the sun's horizontal diameter by timing the solar disk transit time and the vertical diameter by comparing the image size to that of a stable length standard. Preliminary estimates suggest that these observations will allow a test of the solar diameter's constancy at the 1-sec of arc/century level in an observing time of 3-5 years. PMID:20396278

  13. Selected Measurements of Total Arctic Column Ozone Amounts from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Images from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument showing the average total column ozone during the months of January and March, and the total column ozone on the single day of 11 March. Although there was near record chemical ozone loss between January and March, comparing the January and March images shows that on average the lowest total column ozone values in polar regions are slightly higher in March than in January. This is because of the other process that brought higher ozone into the vortex region, thus compensating for the very significant chemical loss. The 11 March image shows that, despite the unremarkable overall March values, on an individual day, chemical loss and dynamical processes combined to result in localized regions of much lower ozone (which resulted in higher UV exposure at the Earth's surface for individual days and places).

  14. Thermal environmental monitoring of divers using a twelve channel multiplexing instrument.

    PubMed

    Weller, C; Dyson, R J

    1985-03-01

    A 12-channel temperature monitoring instrument designed for use by divers while immersed or within pressure chambers is described. Data are multiplexed at the diver and transmitted to the surface, bell, submarine, or chamber exterior through a two-core electrical cable. In the case of the immersed diver the cable may be incorporated into the diver's umbilical cable. Details of the method and special construction techniques used in the design of the diver-borne multiplexer are given. At the dive control station the 12 individual temperatures may be displayed in either digital or analogue format. The temperature data may also be stored on one track of a battery-powered magnetic tape recorder for subsequent off-line analysis. PMID:4035821

  15. Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

  16. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-07-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement.

  17. Software systems for operation, control, and monitoring of the EBEX instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Michael; Ade, Peter; Aubin, François; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Hillbrand, Seth; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hyland, Peter; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Miller, Amber; Pascale, Enzo; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Sagiv, Ilan; Tran, Huan; Tucker, Gregory S.; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-07-01

    We present the hardware and software systems implementing autonomous operation, distributed real-time monitoring, and control for the EBEX instrument. EBEX is a NASA-funded balloon-borne microwave polarimeter designed for a 14 day Antarctic flight that circumnavigates the pole. To meet its science goals the EBEX instrument autonomously executes several tasks in parallel: it collects attitude data and maintains pointing control in order to adhere to an observing schedule; tunes and operates up to 1920 TES bolometers and 120 SQUID amplifiers controlled by as many as 30 embedded computers; coordinates and dispatches jobs across an onboard computer network to manage this detector readout system; logs over 3 GiB/hour of science and housekeeping data to an onboard disk storage array; responds to a variety of commands and exogenous events; and downlinks multiple heterogeneous data streams representing a selected subset of the total logged data. Most of the systems implementing these functions have been tested during a recent engineering flight of the payload, and have proven to meet the target requirements. The EBEX ground segment couples uplink and downlink hardware to a client-server software stack, enabling real-time monitoring and command responsibility to be distributed across the public internet or other standard computer networks. Using the emerging dirfile standard as a uniform intermediate data format, a variety of front end programs provide access to different components and views of the downlinked data products. This distributed architecture was demonstrated operating across multiple widely dispersed sites prior to and during the EBEX engineering flight.

  18. Validation of low-cost ozone measurement instruments suitable for use in an air-quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David E.; Henshaw, Geoff S.; Bart, Mark; Laing, Greer; Wagner, John; Naisbitt, Simon; Salmond, Jennifer A.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a novel low-cost instrument that uses a sensor based on conductivity changes of heated tungstic oxide, which is capable of accurately measuring ambient concentrations of ozone. A combination of temperature steps and air flow-rate steps is used to continually reset and re-zero the sensor. A two-stage calibration procedure is presented, in which a nonlinear transformation converts sensor resistance to a signal linear in ozone concentration, then a linear correlation is used to align the calibration with a reference instrument. The required calibration functions specific for the sensor, and control system for air flow rate and sensor temperature, are housed with the sensor in a compact, simple-to-exchange assembly. The instrument can be operated on solar power and uses cell phone technology to enable monitoring in remote locations. Data from field trials are presented here to demonstrate that both the accuracy and the stability of the instrument over periods of months are within a few parts-per-billion by volume. We show that common failure modes can be detected through measurement of signals available from the instrument. The combination of long-term stability, self-diagnosis, and simple, inexpensive repair means that the cost of operation and calibration of the instruments is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional reference instrumentation. These instruments enable the economical construction and operation of ozone monitoring networks of accuracy, time resolution and spatial density sufficient to resolve the local gradients that are characteristic of urban air pollution.

  19. Differential thermoluminescence (DTL) -a new instrument for measurement of thermoluminescence with suppression of blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Manche, E P

    1978-06-01

    A new instrumental technique for the determination of thermoluminescent glow curves, especially useful for investigation at high temperatures, is described. Two samples, identical in all respects except that one is preheated, are simultaneously heated. The light outputs from the samples are individually modulated at two different frequencies, fed to a single photomultiplier tube the output of which is amplified by two lock-in amplifiers. The selectively amplified signals are further fed to a differential amplifier which cancels out the undesirable blackbody radiation to give a signal due only to the luminophor. This technique conveniently extends the temperature range of thermoluminescence and further allows high-temperature investigation of emissions in the red region of the spectrum.

  20. PREFACE: 17th Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Revesz, Peter; Arp, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the articles presented at the seventeenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Conference SRI2013, held on the campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States of America, 19-21 June, 2013. SRI2013 was jointly hosted by the Cornell University Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), and the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at NIST. This meeting's focus was clearly on instrumentation, thus fulfilling the intent of this SRI meeting series, which was initiated at NIST, then the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in 1979. SRI2013 hosted more than 150 delegates, despite the new US governmental travel restrictions. This proceedings series aims to be an essential reference work for practitioners in the field. It primarily documents the evolution and development of techniques, but also recent scientific advances, that were presented during the two and a half days of the conference. We are extremely thankful to all the authors who contributed to making these proceedings a volume of reference as well as to the reviewers for their careful reading and constructive recommendations for improving the articles. Great thanks go to Robert Dragoset at NIST, for creating and maintaining the conference website and generating the conference logo. We are also thankful for the excellent support we received from the Conference Program at NIST, especially Kathy Kilmer and Angela Ellis. And we would like to dedicate these proceedings to the memory of Kathy Kilmer, who passed away on 15 October, 2013. NIST will not be the same without her. The Co-Editors: Uwe Arp (SURF/NIST) Peter Reversz (CHESS) Gwyn P Williams (Jefferson Lab)

  1. Radiation Hard Bandpass Filters for Mid- to Far-IR Planetary Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari D.; Aslam, Shahid; Chervenack, James A.; Huang, Wei-Chung; Merrell, Willie C.; Quijada, Manuel; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method to fabricate compact metal mesh bandpass filters for use in mid- to far-infrared planetary instruments operating in the 20-600 micron wavelength spectral regime. Our target applications include thermal mapping instruments on ESA's JUICE as well as on a de-scoped JEO. These filters are novel because they are compact, customizable, free-standing copper mesh resonant bandpass filters with micromachined silicon support frames. The filters are well suited for thermal mapping mission to the outer planets and their moons because the filter material is radiation hard. Furthermore, the silicon support frame allows for effective hybridization with sensors made on silicon substrates. Using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, we have demonstrated high transmittance within the passband as well as good out-of-band rejection [1]. In addition, we have developed a unique method of filter stacking in order to increase the bandwidth and sharpen the roll-off of the filters. This method allows one to reliably control the spacing between filters to within 2 microns. Furthermore, our method allows for reliable control over the relative position and orienta-tion between the shared faces of the filters.

  2. SO2 Over China Detected With EOS Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotkov, N. A.; Bhartia, P.; Yang, K.; Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J.; Li, C.; Li, Z.; Marufu, L.; Stehr, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2006-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS/Aura offers unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, coupled with global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Publicly released SO2 pollution data are processed with the Band Residual Difference (BRD) algorithm that uses calibrated residuals at SO2 absorption band centers produced by the NASA operational ozone algorithm (OMTO3). By using optimum wavelengths for retrieval of SO2, the retrieval sensitivity is improved over NASA predecessor Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by factors of 10 to 20, depending on location. The ground footprint of OMI is 8 times smaller than TOMS. These factors produce a two orders of magnitude improvement in the minimum detectable mass of SO2. The improved sensitivity now permits daily global measurement of heavy anthropogenic SO2 pollution. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions have been measured by OMI over known sources of air pollution, such as eastern China, Eastern Europe, and from individual copper smelters in South America and elsewhere. Here we present data from a case study conducted over Shenyang in NE China as part of EAST-AIRE in April 2005. SO2 observations from instrumented aircraft flights are compared with OMI SO2 maps. The OMI SO2 algorithm was improved to account for the known altitude profile of SO2, and the comparison demonstrates that this algorithm can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. Between 5 and 7 April 2005 a cold front traveled from continental China, over Korea and on to the Sea of Japan. The satellite-derived measurements of SO2 confirm the in situ aircraft observations of high concentrations of SO2 (ca 4 DU) ahead of the front and lower concentrations behind it and provide evidence for a large-scale impact of pollutant emissions. The BRD algorithm sensitivity does not represent the maximum sensitivity theoretically achievable with OMI, and hence future improvements in instrument

  3. Sulfur dioxide emissions from Peruvian copper smelters detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Krueger, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Yang, K.; Levelt, P. F.

    2007-05-01

    We report the first daily observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from copper smelters by a satellite-borne sensor - the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's EOS/Aura spacecraft. Emissions from two Peruvian smelters (La Oroya and Ilo) were detected in up to 80% of OMI overpasses between September 2004 and June 2005. SO2 production by each smelter in this period is assessed and compared with contemporaneous emissions from active volcanoes in Ecuador and southern Colombia. Annual SO2 discharge from the Ilo smelter, La Oroya smelter, and volcanoes in 2004-2005 is estimated and amounts to 0.3-0.1 +0.2, 0.07 +/- 0.03, and 1.2 +/- 0.5 Tg, respectively. This study confirms OMI's potential as an effective tool for evaluation of anthropogenic and natural SO2 emissions. Smelter plumes transport an array of toxic metals in addition to SO2 and continued monitoring to mitigate health and environmental impacts is recommended.

  4. Tropospheric ozone column retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument by means of a neural network algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; Bojkov, B. R.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Del Frate, F.

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring tropospheric ozone from space is of critical importance in order to gain more thorough knowledge on phenomena affecting air quality and the greenhouse effect. Deriving information on tropospheric ozone from UV/VIS nadir satellite spectrometers is difficult owing to the weak sensitivity of the measured radiance spectra to variations of ozone in the troposphere. Here we propose an alternative method of analysis to retrieve tropospheric ozone columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument radiances by means of a Neural Network algorithms. An extended set of ozone sonde measurements at northern mid-latitudes has been considered as the training and test data set. The design of the algorithm is extensively discussed. Our retrievals are compared to both tropospheric ozone residuals and optimal estimation retrievals over a similar independent test data set. Results show that our algorithm has comparable accuracy with respect to both correlative methods and its performance is slightly better over a subset containing only European ozone sonde stations. Possible sources of errors are analyzed. Finally, the capabilities of our algorithm to derive information on boundary layer ozone are studied and the results critically discussed.

  5. Observations of the SAA radiation distribution by Liulin-E094 instrument on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Atwell, William; Semones, Edward; Tomov, Borislav; Reddell, Brandon

    Space radiation measurements were made on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Bulgarian Liulin-E094 instrument, which contains 4 Mobile Dosimetry Units (MDU), and the NASA Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) during the time period May 11-July 26, 2001. In the time span 11-27 May 2001 four MDUs were placed at fixed locations: one unit (MDU #1) in the ISS "Unity" Node-1 and three (MDU #2-#4) units were located in the US Laboratory module. The MDU #2 and the TEPC were located in the US Laboratory module Human Research Facility (rack #1, port side). In this paper we discuss the flight observed asymmetries in different detectors on the ascending and descending parts of the ISS orbits. The differences are described by the shielding differences generated by different geometry between the predominating eastward drifting protons and the orientation and placement of the MDUs within the ISS. Shielding distributions were generated for the combined ISS and detector shielding models. The AP8MAX and AE8MAX trapped radiation models were used to compute the daily absorbed dose for the five detectors and are compared with the flight measurements. In addition, the trapped proton incident spectra inside of ISS were calculated using calibration curve of MDU obtained during the tests with protons at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. The energy of incident spectra maximums were analyzed against L value for the individual passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  7. Sulfur dioxide vertical column DOAS retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Global observations and comparison to ground-based and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theys, N.; De Smedt, I.; Gent, J.; Danckaert, T.; Wang, T.; Hendrick, F.; Stavrakou, T.; Bauduin, S.; Clarisse, L.; Li, C.; Krotkov, N.; Yu, H.; Brenot, H.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new data set of sulfur dioxide (SO2) vertical columns from observations of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)/AURA instrument between 2004 and 2013. The retrieval algorithm used is an advanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) scheme combined with radiative transfer calculation. It is developed in preparation for the operational processing of SO2 data product for the upcoming TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument/Sentinel 5 Precursor mission. We evaluate the SO2 column results with those inferred from other satellite retrievals such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer and OMI (Linear Fit and Principal Component Analysis algorithms). A general good agreement between the different data sets is found for both volcanic and anthropogenic SO2 emission scenarios. We show that our algorithm produces SO2 columns with low noise and is able to provide accurate estimates of SO2. This conclusion is supported by important validation results over the heavily polluted site of Xianghe (China). Nearly 4 years of OMI and ground-based multiaxis DOAS SO2 columns are compared, and an excellent match is found. We also highlight the improved performance of the algorithm in capturing weak SO2 sources by detecting shipping SO2 emissions in long-term averaged data, an unreported measurement from space.

  8. Adaptive Multichannel Radiation Sensors for Plant Parameter Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schuhmann, Gudrun; Lausch, Angela; Merbach, Ines; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen are playing a key role in the plant life cycle. They are much needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components. Therefore, the crop yield is strongly affected by plant nutrient status. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of soil characteristics or swaying agricultural inputs the plant development varies within a field. Thus, the determination of these fluctuations in the plant development is valuable for a detection of stress conditions and optimization of fertilisation due to its high environmental and economic impact. Plant parameters play crucial roles in plant growth estimation and prediction since they are used as indicators of plant performance. Especially indices derived out of remote sensing techniques provide quantitative information about agricultural crops instantaneously, and above all, non-destructively. Due to the specific absorption of certain plant pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible and IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral signature. To this end, an adequate remote sensing monitoring concept is needed, considering heterogeneity and dynamic of the plant population and economical aspects. This work will present the development and field investigations of an inexpensive multichannel radiation sensor to observe the incoming and reflected specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum on the crop and facilitate the determination of different plant indices. Based on the selected sensor wavelengths, the sensing device allows the detection of specific parameters, e.g. plant vitality, chlorophyll content or nitrogen content. Besides the improvement of the sensor characteristic, the simple wavelength adaption, and the price-performance ratio, the achievement of appropriate energy efficiency as well as a

  9. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement. PMID:26134798

  10. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, April--June 1996. Volume 16, Number 2

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the second quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters. All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed. Each site is monitored by arranging approximately 40 to 50 TLD stations in two concentric rings extending to about five miles from the facility. All TLD stations are outside the site boundary of the facility.

  11. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  12. Deriving aerosol properties from measurements of the Atmosphere-Surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Li, Donghui; Li, Zhengqiang; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Xin; Xie, Yisong; Liu, Enchao

    2015-10-01

    The Atmosphere-surface Radiation Automatic Instrument (ASRAI) is a newly developed hyper-spectral apparatus by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (AIOFM, CAS), measuring total spectral irradiance, diffuse spectral irradiance of atmosphere and reflected radiance of the land surface for the purpose of in-situ calibration. The instrument applies VIS-SWIR spectrum (0.4~1.0 μm) with an averaged spectral resolution of 0.004 μm. The goal of this paper is to describe a method of deriving both aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol modes from irradiance measurements under free cloudy conditions. The total columnar amounts of water vapor and oxygen are first inferred from solar transmitted irradiance at strong absorption wavelength. The AOD together with total columnar amounts of ozone and nitrogen dioxide are determined by a nonlinear least distance fitting method. Moreover, it is able to infer aerosol modes from the spectral dependency of AOD because different aerosol modes have their inherent spectral extinction characteristics. With assumption that the real aerosol is an idea of "external mixing" of four basic components, dust-like, water-soluble, oceanic and soot, the percentage of volume concentration of each component can be retrieved. A spectrum matching technology based on Euclidean-distance method is adopted to find the most approximate combination of components. The volume concentration ratios of four basic components are in accordance with our prior knowledge of regional aerosol climatology. Another advantage is that the retrievals would facilitate the TOA simulation when applying 6S model for satellite calibration.

  13. Gamma-Ray Signatures for State-Of-Health Analysis and Monitoring of Widely-Arrayed Radiation Portal Monitor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Angel, Linda K.; Wright, Ingrid H.; Eslinger, Melany A.; Pospical, A. Jill; Ellis, John E.

    2008-05-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has deployed a large array of radiation portal monitors for the Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection. These portal monitors scan incoming vehicles crossing the U.S. border and shipping containers leaving international ports for radioactive material via gamma-ray and neutron detection. Data produced and captured by these systems are recorded for every vehicle related to radiation signature, sensor/system status, and local background, as well as a host of other variables. Within the Radiation Portal Monitor Project at PNNL, state-of-health observation and analysis for the whole RPM system using these data to determine functionality and performance is being developed. (PIET-43741-TM-492)

  14. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Pt....

  15. OTP for 244-U radiation monitoring system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-03-13

    This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) will be used to ensure the operability of the beta/gamma alarms for the Continuous Air Monitoring System installed in 244-U DCRT (Double Containment Receiver Tank). The complete system consists of two subsystems: one for Exhaust Stack Monitoring and one for Annulus Monitoring. Completion of this OTP will provide the necessary verification for the operability of the Exhaust Stack and Annulus Monitoring Systems, and for determining the operability of the Receiver Vessel 244-U. This OTP may be performed in conjunction with or following the vendor`s Site Acceptance Test Procedure of Continuous Air Monitoring System for 244-U DCRT.

  16. Comparison of environmental radiation monitoring programs in China and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wolbarst, Anthony B; Griggs, John; Lee, H N; Ren, Tianshan; Hudson, Tonya; White, Jacolyn D; Zhu, Changshou

    2008-06-01

    The monitoring of environmental radiation has been carried out across the United States by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's RadNet (formerly the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System, ERAMS) and the Global Network Program (GNP) of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), and in the People's Republic of China (PRC) by their National Radioactivity Contamination Monitoring System (NRCMS). It is expected that an awareness of the similarities and differences in the structure and operation of these programs will prove helpful to both countries and perhaps others as they continue to develop their monitoring capabilities.

  17. Dual instrument passive acoustic monitoring of belugas in Cook Inlet, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Manuel; Small, Robert J; Lammers, Marc O; Jenniges, Justin J; Mondragon, Jeff; Atkinson, Shannon

    2016-05-01

    As part of a long-term research program, Cook Inlet beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) presence was acoustically monitored with two types of acoustic sensors utilized in tandem in moorings deployed year-round: an ecological acoustic recorder (EAR) and a cetacean and porpoise detector (C-POD). The EAR was used primarily to record the calls, whistles, and buzzes produced by belugas and killer whales (Orcinus orca). The C-POD was used to log and classify echolocation clicks from belugas, killer whales, and porpoises. This paper describes mooring packages that maximized the chances of successful long-term data collection in the particularly challenging Cook Inlet environment, and presents an analytical comparison of odontocete detections obtained by the collocated EAR and C-POD instruments from two mooring locations in the upper inlet. Results from this study illustrate a significant improvement in detecting beluga and killer whale presence when the different acoustic signals detected by EARs and C-PODs are considered together. Further, results from concurrent porpoise detections indicating prey competition and feeding interference with beluga, and porpoise displacement due to ice formation are described. PMID:27250163

  18. Design and validation of a fiber optic point probe instrument for therapy guidance and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haiyan; Xie, Zhiyuan; Mousavi, Monirehalsadat; Bendsoe, Niels; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Optical techniques for tissue diagnostics currently are experiencing tremendous growth in biomedical applications, mainly due to their noninvasive, inexpensive, and real-time functionality. Here, we demonstrate a hand-held fiber optic probe instrument based on fluorescence/reflectance spectroscopy for precise tumor delineation. It is mainly aimed for brain tumor resection guidance with clinical adaptation to minimize the disruption of the standard surgical workflow and is meant as a complement to the state-of-the-art fluorescence surgical microscopy technique. Multiple light sources with fast pulse modulation and detection enable precise quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), tissue optical properties, and ambient light suppression. Laboratory measurements show the system is insensitive to strong ambient light. Validation measurements of tissue phantoms using nonlinear least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) regression analysis demonstrate an error of <5% for PpIX concentration ranging from 400 to 1000 nM, even in the presence of large variations in phantom optical properties. The mean error is 3% for reduced scattering coefficient and 5% for blood concentration. Diagnostic precision of 100% was obtained by LS-SVM classification for in vivo skin tumors with topically applied 5-aminolevulinic acid during photodynamic therapy. The probe could easily be generalized to other tissue types and fluorophores for therapy guidance and monitoring.

  19. Algorithm for NO2 Vertical Column Retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucsela, Eric J.; Celarier, Edward A.; Wenig, Mark O.; Gleason, James F.; Veefkind, J. Pepijn; Boersma, K. Folkert; Brinksma, Ellen J.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the operational algorithm for the retrieval of stratospheric, tropospheric, and total column densities of nitrogen dioxide NO2 from earthshine radiances measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), aboard the EOS-Aura satellite. The algorithm uses the DOAS method for the retrieval of slant column NO densities. Air mass factors (AMFs) calculated from a stratospheric NO2 profile are used to make initial estimates of the vertical column density. Using data collected over a 24-h period, a smooth estimate of the global stratospheric field is constructed. Where the initial vertical column densities exceed the estimated stratospheric field, we infer the presence of tropospheric NO2, and recalculate the vertical column density (VCD) using an AMF calculated from an assumed tropospheric NO2 profile. The parameters that control the operational algorithm were selected with the aid of a set of data assembled from stratospheric and tropospheric chemical transport models. We apply the optimized algorithm to OMI data and present global maps of NO2 VCDs for the first time.

  20. [Role of children physical development in radiation hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Kozlova, E Iu

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with longstanding work on studies of physical development parameters among preschoolers aged 4-7 and dwelling on territories near to objects with potential radiation danger, also on radiation-connected anxiety in parents of the examined children. The stated objects when exploited in normal mode were proved to cause no influence on the children's development. Social and economical factors appeared to play leading role in developmental parameters formation. Increased level of radiation-connected anxiety in parents of the children examined appeared to be out of proportion to real favorable radiation background of the territories examined. PMID:25069276

  1. MUG-OBS - Multiparameter Geophysical Ocean Bottom System : a new instrumental approach to monitor earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Verfaillie, R.; Philippe, O.

    2015-12-01

    There are several attempts to monitor real time seismic activity, using regional scale wired nodes, such as Neptune in Canada and in the U.S, Antares in France or DONET in Japan.On another hand there are also initiatives in deploying repeatedly OBS array like during the amphibious Cascadia Initiative (four 1-year deployments), the Japanese Pacific Array (broadband OBSs "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey" with 2-years autonomy), the Obsismer program in the French Lesser Antilles (eight 6-months deployments) and the Osisec program in Ecuador (four 6-months deployments). These OBSs are autonomous, they are self-recovered or recovered using an ROV. These systems are costly including ship time, and require to recover the OBS before to start working on data.Among the most recent alternative we developed a 3-years autonomy OBS equipped with a Nanometrics Trillium 120 s, a triaxial accelerometer, a differential, an absolute pressure gauge, and a hydrophone. MUG-OBS is a free falling instrument rated down to 6000 m. The installation of the sensor is monitored by acoustic commands from the surface and a health bulletin with data checking is recovered by acoustic during the installation. The major innovation is that it is possible to recover the data any time on demand (regularly every 6-months or after a seismic crisis) utilizing one of the 6 data-shuttles released from the surface by acoustic command using a one day fast cruise boat of opportunity. Since sensors stayed at the same location for 3 years (when an OBS is redeployed on the same site, it will not land in the same place), it is a perfect tool to monitor slow seismic events, background seismic activity and aftershock distribution. Clock, drift measurement and GPS localization is automatic when the shuttle reaches the surface. A new version is being developed; for remote areas, shuttles released automatically and a seismic events bulletin is transmitted. Selected data can be recovered by two- way Iridium

  2. Development of an instrument to indirectly monitor arterial pCO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Høgetveit, Jan Olav; Kristiansen, Frode; Pedersen, Thore H

    2006-01-01

    Arterial blood carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) is important to the conduct of perfusion with alpha-stat or pH-stat strategy. Temperature changes during CBP complicate any attempts to monitor carbon dioxide tension in the exhaust outlet of an oxygenator (PexCO2) because CO2 becomes more soluble with decreasing temperatures. Normally, this would have been the obvious and easy choice of method to indirectly measure the patient's PaCO2. Several tests have been performed with ordinary capnographs modified to measure pCO2 at the oxygenator exhaust gas port. These tests have shown varying degrees of precision (Br I Anaesth 1999; 82(6): 843-46; 1 Extra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218-23; Br JAnaesth 2000; 84: 536; J Extra-Corpor Technol 1994; 26: 64-67). Some of the best results have been achieved by Potger et al. (JExtra-Corpor Technol 2003; 35(3): 218-23), who found a strong correlation between the arterial temperature-corrected PexCO2 when using a standard capnograph monitoring the PaCO2 measured from a blood gas analyser (PbCO2). Our group has developed a new instrument, especially designed for oxygenator gas exhaust monitoring. The new instrument has automatic temperature correction, enabling it to show both original and corrected pCO2 values, simultaneously. Ordinary capnograph functions, such as zeroing, flow control and calibration routines, are included. The solution consists of a pCO2 sensor module, a temperature sensor, a water trap and a dedicated PC mounted on a heart-lung machine. Since the heart-lung machine was already equipped with a computer for data logging and a temperature sensor, only a box containing the pCO2 sensor module and the water trap had to be added. The PC uses a specially written program designed to collect data, make the necessary calculations and display the results on the computer screen. A temperature correction was developed based on a linear regression analysis for a data-set of 15 patients, assuming

  3. Development of monoenergetic electron beam sources for radiation-instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, C. G.; Dick, C. E.; Pruitt, J. S.; Sparrow, J. H.

    1985-05-01

    Accelerator-produced electron beams are being studied for use in obtaining the response of beta-particle dosimetry instrumenta- tion as a function of electron energy. The NBS 4 MV Van de Graaff and 500 kV cascaded rectifier accelerators are being used to generate electron beams from 200 keV to 2.5 MeV. A device capable of scanning the electron beam in two dimensions over an area large enough to cover radiation-survey instruments uniformly is attached to the beam-handling system of each accelerator. The scanned beam exits from vacuum through a 16 cm 2 window consisting of either 25 μm Kapton (for energies below 500 keV) or 100 μm aluminum. The electron beams produced have been characterized in terms of (1) spatial distribution, (2) energy spectrum, and (3) absorbed dose to plastic. Spatial distributions were determined using film, while spectra were measured using a 5 mm-deep Si surface barrier detector. An extrapolation chamber is being used for beam standardization in terms of absorbed dose to plastic.

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring in the Chernobyl exclusion zone--history and results 25 years after.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Gaschak, Sergey P; Kireev, Sergey I; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Proskura, Nikolai I; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status. The history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described also. This paper addresses the characteristics of radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes in these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  5. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  7. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  8. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  9. Structure and performance of radiation monitoring system of ISS ``ZVEZDA'' module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benghin, Victor; Nechaev, Oleg; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Lyagushin, Vladimir; Volkov, Alexey; Mitrikas, Victor; Teltsov, Mikhail; Bratoliubova-Tselukidze, Ledeja.; Miasnikov, Alexander; Alexandrin, Alexandr

    It is presented the radiation monitoring system (RMS) structure, detector unit’s construction, dose measuring method, algorithms of signals processing. The interface for data transmission to ISS onboard systems is considered. Information about radiation detectors placement and shielding environment is presented. The devices calibration methods and results are presented.

  10. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network: Progress report January--March 1997. Volume 17, Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-05-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the first quarter of 1997. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the US. In addition, it describes the recent intercomparison of environmental dosimeters and provides an analysis of the data.

  11. Rain-induced increase in background radiation detected by Radiation Portal Monitors.

    PubMed

    Livesay, R J; Blessinger, C S; Guzzardo, T F; Hausladen, P A

    2014-11-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to enhance partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit movement of special nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma-ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates primarily from the wet-deposition of two radioactive daughters of (222)Rn, namely, (214)Pb and (214)Bi. In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and high-purity germanium spectra. The data verify that these radionuclides are responsible for the largest environmental background fluctuations in RPMs. Analytical expressions for the detector response function in Poly-Vinyl Toluene have been derived. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  12. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  13. Application of fiber Bragg grating sensors in monitoring fatigue failure of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. Y.; Shin, C. S.

    2012-04-01

    NiTi endodontic rotary instruments subjected to alternating tension and compression stress in root canals may fracture without prior warning. Once broken, extracting the fractured part from the canal is a difficult job and is annoying to both the patient and the dentist. Warning of an imminent fracture during clinical use will be a great help to avoid medical and legal complications. A monitoring system employing Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors has been attempted. The reason of using FBG is its small size which is very promising in integrating with the handpiece of the endodontic equipment. When cracking developed in an rotary instrument, we expect the natural vibration frequency of the instrument changes. If we can pick up the stress wave transmitted through the structural components of the rotary instruments, we may be able to detect the occurrence of a crack. In the current work, we found that we can successfully locate the operation period in the time domain by picking up and analyzing the sound wave using FBG. Furthermore, by employing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the signal, we can reveal the energy variation and the frequency shifting phenomenon in specific section of frequency domain. For some characteristic frequencies, it was found that the energy and frequency varied in a well-defined pattern during the period of crack growth. It is hoped that with these information, the fatigue failure of rotary instruments can be closely monitored to avoid/alleviate the occurrence of unexpected fracture during clinical use.

  14. Application of fiber Bragg grating sensors in monitoring fatigue failure of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. Y.; Shin, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    NiTi endodontic rotary instruments subjected to alternating tension and compression stress in root canals may fracture without prior warning. Once broken, extracting the fractured part from the canal is a difficult job and is annoying to both the patient and the dentist. Warning of an imminent fracture during clinical use will be a great help to avoid medical and legal complications. A monitoring system employing Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors has been attempted. The reason of using FBG is its small size which is very promising in integrating with the handpiece of the endodontic equipment. When cracking developed in an rotary instrument, we expect the natural vibration frequency of the instrument changes. If we can pick up the stress wave transmitted through the structural components of the rotary instruments, we may be able to detect the occurrence of a crack. In the current work, we found that we can successfully locate the operation period in the time domain by picking up and analyzing the sound wave using FBG. Furthermore, by employing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) on the signal, we can reveal the energy variation and the frequency shifting phenomenon in specific section of frequency domain. For some characteristic frequencies, it was found that the energy and frequency varied in a well-defined pattern during the period of crack growth. It is hoped that with these information, the fatigue failure of rotary instruments can be closely monitored to avoid/alleviate the occurrence of unexpected fracture during clinical use.

  15. Monitoring the Health and Safety of the ACIS Instrument On-Board the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virani, Shanil N.; Ford, Peter G.; DePasquale, Joseph M.; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2002-12-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), NASA's latest "Great Observatory", was launched on July 23, 1999 and reached its final orbit on August 7, 1999. The CXO is in a highly elliptical orbit, approximately 140,000 km × 10,000 km, and has a period of approximately 63.5 hours (≍2.65 days). Communication with the CXO nominally consists of 1-hour contacts spaced 8-hours apart. Thus, once a communication link has been established, it is very important that the health and safety status of the scientific instruments as well as the Observatory itself be determined as quickly as possible. In this paper, we focus exclusively on the automated health and safety monitoring scripts developed for the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) during those 1-hour contacts. ACIS is one of the two focal plane instruments on-board the CXO. We present an overview of the real-time ACIS Engineering Data Web Page and the alert schemes developed for monitoring the instrument status during each communication contact. A suite of HTML and PERL scripts monitors the instrument hardware house-keeping electronics (i.e., voltages and currents) and temperatures during each contact. If a particular instrument component is performing either above or below pre- established operating parameters, a sequence of email and alert pages are spawned to the Science Operations Team of the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center so that the anomaly can be quickly investigated and corrective actions taken if necessary. We also briefly discuss the tools used to monitor the real-time science telemetry reported by the ACIS flight software. The authors acknowledge support for this research from NASA contract NAS8-39073.

  16. Measurement capability of field portable organic vapor monitoring instruments under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Christopher C; Pearce, Terri A; Lawrence, Robert B; Hudnall, Judith B; Slaven, James E; Martin, Stephen B

    2009-01-01

    The performance of field portable direct-reading organic vapor monitors (DROVMs) was evaluated under a variety of experimental conditions. Four of the DROVMs had photoionization detectors (ppbRAE, IAQRAE, MultiRAE, and Century Toxic Vapor Analyzer), one had a flame ionization detector (Century Toxic Vapor Analyzer), and one was a single-beam infrared spectrophotometer (SapphIRe). Four of each DROVM (two Century Toxic Vapor Analyzers and SapphIRes) were tested. The DROVMs were evaluated at three temperatures (4 degrees C, 21 degrees C, and 38 degrees C), three relative humidities (30%, 60%, and 90%), and two hexane concentrations (5 ppm and 100 ppm). These conditions were selected to provide a range within the operational parameters of all the instruments. At least four replicate trials were performed across the 18 experimental conditions (3 temperatures x 3 relative humidities x 2 concentrations). To evaluate performance, the 4-hr time-weighted average readings from the DROVMs in a given trial were compared with the average of two charcoal tube concentrations using pairwise comparison. The pairwise comparison criterion was +/-25% measurement agreement between each individual DROVM and the DROVMs as a group and the average charcoal tube concentration. The ppbRAE group performed the best with 40% of all readings meeting the comparison criterion followed by the SapphIRe group at 39%. Among individual DROVMs, the best performer was a SapphIRe, with 57% of its readings meeting the criterion. The data was further analyzed by temperature, humidity, and concentration. The results indicated the performance of some DROVMs may be affected by temperature, humidity, and/or concentration. The ppbRAE group performed best at 21 degrees C with the percentage of readings meeting the criterion increasing to 63%. At the 5 ppm concentration, 44% of the ppbRAE group readings met the criterion, while at 100 ppm, only 35% did. The results indicate that monitors can be used as survey tools

  17. Measurement capability of field portable organic vapor monitoring instruments under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Christopher C; Pearce, Terri A; Lawrence, Robert B; Hudnall, Judith B; Slaven, James E; Martin, Stephen B

    2009-01-01

    The performance of field portable direct-reading organic vapor monitors (DROVMs) was evaluated under a variety of experimental conditions. Four of the DROVMs had photoionization detectors (ppbRAE, IAQRAE, MultiRAE, and Century Toxic Vapor Analyzer), one had a flame ionization detector (Century Toxic Vapor Analyzer), and one was a single-beam infrared spectrophotometer (SapphIRe). Four of each DROVM (two Century Toxic Vapor Analyzers and SapphIRes) were tested. The DROVMs were evaluated at three temperatures (4 degrees C, 21 degrees C, and 38 degrees C), three relative humidities (30%, 60%, and 90%), and two hexane concentrations (5 ppm and 100 ppm). These conditions were selected to provide a range within the operational parameters of all the instruments. At least four replicate trials were performed across the 18 experimental conditions (3 temperatures x 3 relative humidities x 2 concentrations). To evaluate performance, the 4-hr time-weighted average readings from the DROVMs in a given trial were compared with the average of two charcoal tube concentrations using pairwise comparison. The pairwise comparison criterion was +/-25% measurement agreement between each individual DROVM and the DROVMs as a group and the average charcoal tube concentration. The ppbRAE group performed the best with 40% of all readings meeting the comparison criterion followed by the SapphIRe group at 39%. Among individual DROVMs, the best performer was a SapphIRe, with 57% of its readings meeting the criterion. The data was further analyzed by temperature, humidity, and concentration. The results indicated the performance of some DROVMs may be affected by temperature, humidity, and/or concentration. The ppbRAE group performed best at 21 degrees C with the percentage of readings meeting the criterion increasing to 63%. At the 5 ppm concentration, 44% of the ppbRAE group readings met the criterion, while at 100 ppm, only 35% did. The results indicate that monitors can be used as survey tools

  18. A Cs2LiYCl6:Ce-based advanced radiation monitoring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Dallmann, N.; Baginski, M. J.; Best, D. J.; Smith, M. B.; Graham, S. A.; Dathy, C.; Frank, J. M.; McClish, M.

    2015-06-01

    Cs2LiYCl6:Ce3+ (CLYC) scintillator has gained recent interest because of its ability to perform simultaneous gamma spectroscopy and thermal neutron detection. Discrimination between the two incident particle types owes to the fundamentally unique emission waveforms, a consequence of the interaction and subsequent scintillation mechanisms within the crystal. Due to this dual-mode detector capability, CLYC was selected for the development of an Advanced Radiation Monitoring Device (ARMD), a compact handheld instrument for radioisotope identification and localization. ARMD consists of four 1 in.-right cylindrical CLYC crystals, custom readout electronics including a suitable multi-window application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), battery pack, proprietary software, and Android-based tablet for high-level analysis and display. We herein describe the motivation of the work and engineering design of the unit, and we explain the software embedded in the core module and for radioisotope analysis. We report an operational range of tens of keV to 8.5 MeV with approximately 5.3% gamma energy resolution at 662 keV, thermal neutron detection efficiency of 10%, battery lifetime of up to 10 h, manageable rates of 20 kHz; further, we describe in greater detail time to identify specific gamma source setups.

  19. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  20. A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, Vitali E.; McLinden, Chris A.; Krotkov, Nickolay; Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Theys, Nicolas; Carn, Simon; Moran, Mike D.

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite sensor processed with the new principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm were used to detect large point emission sources or clusters of sources. The total of 491 continuously emitting point sources releasing from about 30 kt yr-1 to more than 4000 kt yr-1 of SO2 per year have been identified and grouped by country and by primary source origin: volcanoes (76 sources); power plants (297); smelters (53); and sources related to the oil and gas industry (65). The sources were identified using different methods, including through OMI measurements themselves applied to a new emission detection algorithm, and their evolution during the 2005-2014 period was traced by estimating annual emissions from each source. For volcanic sources, the study focused on continuous degassing, and emissions from explosive eruptions were excluded. Emissions from degassing volcanic sources were measured, many for the first time, and collectively they account for about 30 % of total SO2 emissions estimated from OMI measurements, but that fraction has increased in recent years given that cumulative global emissions from power plants and smelters are declining while emissions from oil and gas industry remained nearly constant. Anthropogenic emissions from the USA declined by 80 % over the 2005-2014 period as did emissions from western and central Europe, whereas emissions from India nearly doubled, and emissions from other large SO2-emitting regions (South Africa, Russia, Mexico, and the Middle East) remained fairly constant. In total, OMI-based estimates account for about a half of total reported anthropogenic SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr-1 and not detected by OMI.

  1. A simple low-cost microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring chloroplast movement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Robert; Königer, Martina; Schjeide, Brit-Maren; Dikmak, George; Kohler, Susan; Harris, Gary C

    2006-03-01

    A new microcontroller-based photometric instrument for monitoring blue light dependent changes in leaf transmission (chloroplast movement) was developed based on a modification of the double-beam technique developed by Walzcak and Gabrys [(1980) Photosynthetica 14: 65-72]. A blue and red bicolor light emitting diode (LED) provided both a variable intensity blue actinic light and a low intensity red measuring beam. A phototransistor detected the intensity of the transmitted measuring light. An inexpensive microcontroller independently and precisely controlled the light emission of the bicolor LED. A typical measurement event involved turning off the blue actinic light for 100 mus to create a narrow temporal window for turning on and measuring the transmittance of the red light. The microcontroller was programmed using LogoChip Logo (http://www.wellesley.edu/Physics/Rberg/logochip/) to record fluence rate response curves. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was utilized to correlate the changes in leaf transmission with intercellular chloroplast position. In the dark, the chloroplasts in the spongy mesophyll exhibited no evident asymmetries in their distribution, however, in the palisade layer the cell surface in contact with the overlying epidermis was devoid of chloroplasts. The low light dependent decrease in leaf transmittance in dark acclimated leaves was correlated with the movement of chloroplasts within the palisade layer into the regions previously devoid of chloroplasts. Changes in leaf transmittance were evident within one minute following the onset of illumination. Minimal leaf transmittance was correlated with chloroplasts having retreated from cell surfaces perpendicular to the incident light (avoidance reaction) in both spongy and palisade layers.

  2. Validation of SO2 Retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument over NE China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; McClure, Brittany; Dickerson, Russell R.; Carn, Simon A.; Li, Can; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Yang, Kai; Krueger, Arlin J.; Li, Zhanqing; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Pucai; Lu, Daren

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) launched on the NASA Aura satellite in July 2004 offers unprecedented spatial resolution, coupled with contiguous daily global coverage, for space-based UV measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2). We present a first validation of the OMI SO2 data with in situ aircraft measurements in NE China in April 2005. The study demonstrates that OMI can distinguish between background SO2 conditions and heavy pollution on a daily basis. The noise (expressed as the standard deviation,sigma) is approximately 1.5 DU (Dobson units; 1 DU = 2.69 10 (exp 16) molecules/cm (exp 2)) for instantaneous field of view boundary layer (PBL) SO2 data. Temporal and spatial averaging can reduce the noise to sigma approximetly 0.3 DU over a remote region of the South Pacific; the long-term average over this remote location was within 0.1 DU of zero. Under polluted conditions collection 2 OMI data are higher than aircraft measurements by a factor of two. Improved calibrations of the radiance and irradiance data (collection 3) result in better agreement with aircraft measurements on polluted days. The air mass corrected collection 3 data still show positive bias and sensitivity to UV absorbing aerosols. The difference between the in situ data and the OMI SO2 measurements within 30 km of the aircraft profiles was about 1 DU, equivalent to approximately 5 ppb from 0 to 3000 m altitude. Quantifying the SO2 and aerosol profiles and spectral dependence of aerosol absorption between 310 and 330 nm are critical for an accurate estimate of SO2 from satellite UV measurements.

  3. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  4. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A. J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  5. Radiation monitoring with CVD Diamonds and PIN Diodes at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A.J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A.; /UC, Irvine /SLAC /Ohio State U.

    2008-02-13

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  6. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Specific Instruments Used in the ARM Program

    DOE Data Explorer

    ARM is known for its comprehensive set of world-class, and in some cases, unique, instruments available for use by the global scientific community. In addition to the ARM instruments, the ARM Climate Research Facility identifies and acquires a wide variety of data including model, satellite, and surface data, from "external instruments," to augment the data being generated within the program. External instruments belong to organizations that are outside of the ARM Program. Field campaign instruments are another source of data used to augment routine observations. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by instrument categories into twelve "collections:" Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Ocean Observations, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, Surface Meteorology, Surface/Subsurface Properties, and Other. Clicking on one of the instrument categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Atmospheric Profiling" is broken down into ARM instruments (with 11 subsets), External Instruments (with 6 subsets), and Field Campaign Instruments (with 42 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1023 - Instrument and sensory monitoring for leaks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pursuant to § 63.1030(c). (vi) Compressors designated to operate with an instrument reading less than 500... comply with Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, except as otherwise provided in this section. (2... section, the detection instrument shall meet the performance criteria of Method 21 of 40 CFR part...

  13. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Volume 15, No. 3. Progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1995. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach). All radiation measurements are made using small, passive detectors called therinoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), which provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the area in which they are placed. Each site is monitored by arranging approximately 40 to 50 TLD stations in two concentric rings extending to about five miles from the facility. All TLD stations are outside the site boundary of the facility. A complete description of the program can be found in NUREG-0837, Volume 2, Number 4. A similar description can also be found in the fourth quarter report of each subsequent year. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the National Bureau of Standards) has performed an independent study of the following characteristics of the NRC dosimetry system; energy response, angular dependence, temperature and humidity sensitivity, fading, light dependence, self-irradiation, and reproducibility.

  14. Novel mass spectrometric instrument for gaseous and particulate characterization and monitoring. Final report, September 1992--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Coggiola, M.J.; Becker, C.H.; Witham, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    An instrument is being developed that will be capable of providing real-time (<1 minute), quantitative, chemical analysis of gaseous and particulate pollutants generated from DOE waste cleanup activities. The instrument can detect and identify volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and transuranic species released during waste cleanup. It consists of an isokinetic sampler operable up to 500 K and wide flow rate range, a high- to low-pressure transition and sampling region separating particles from vapors for separate analysis, two small mass spectrometers (one for organic analysis by field ionization and one for particulate analysis by thermal pyrolysis and electron-impact ionization), and a powerful PC for control/data acquisition. Initially, the instrument will used with the K-1435 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator at K-25; other applications are also possible, eg, vitrification monitoring, storage tank offgassing analysis, etc. It will be easily transportable. This report details the technical accomplishments of Phase I.

  15. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; Wintersteiner, Peter; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  16. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  17. The effect of the size of the opening on the acoustic power radiated by a reed woodwind instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilloteau, Alexis; Guillemain, Philippe; Kergomard, Jean; Jousserand, Michael

    2015-05-01

    For a given note, the maker of woodwind instruments can choose between different sizes for the toneholes under the condition that the location is appropriate. The present paper aims at analyzing the consequences of this choice on the power radiated by a hole, which depends on the coupling between the acoustic resonator and the excitation mechanism of the self-sustained oscillation, thus on the blowing pressure. For that purpose a simplified reed instrument is investigated, with a cylindrical pipe and a unique orifice at the pipe termination. The orifice diameter was varied between the pipe diameter and a size such that the instrument did not play. The pipe length was in each case adjusted to keep the resonance frequency constant. A simple analytical model predicts that, for a given mouth pressure of the instrumentalist, the radiated power does not depend on the size of the hole if it is wide enough and if resonator losses are ignored. Numerical solution of a model including losses confirms this result: the difference in radiated power between two diaphragm sizes remains smaller than the difference obtained if the radiated power would be proportional to the orifice cross section area. This is confirmed by experiments using an artificial mouth, but the results show that the linear losses are underestimated, and that significant nonlinear losses occur. The measurements are limited to the acoustic pressure at a given distance of the orifice. Experiments also show that rounding edges of the orifice reduces nonlinear losses resulting in an increase of the power radiated and of the extinction threshold, and resulting in a larger dynamical range.

  18. Seismic monitoring instrumentation needs of a building owner and the solution - A cooperative effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.; Sanli, A.; Sinclair, M.; Gallant, S.; Radulescu, D.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A specific case whereby the owner of a building, in collaboration with another federal agency with expertise in seismic monitoring of buildings, private consulting engineers, and a supplier, facilitated development of a seismic monitoring system for a 24-story building in San Francisco, California. The unique aspects of this monitoring systems include: the monitoring system must relate to rapid assessment of the building following an earthquake and the monitoring system must deliver the data in relatively short time, if not in real-time. The system has the standard recording capability at the site server PC. It has the capability to calculate select number of drift ratios, specific to the building.

  19. Radiation levels in cyclotron-radiochemistry facility measured by a novel comprehensive computerized monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishani, E.; Lifshits, N.; Osavistky, A.; Kaufman, J.; Ankry, N.; Tal, N.; Chisin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Radiation levels in a cyclotron-radiochemistry facility were measured during the production of commonly used PET radiopharmaceuticals by a comprehensive computerized monitoring system. The system consists of three major components: on-line radiation monitoring channels, an area control unit, and a gas waste management unit. During production the radiation levels were measured in the cyclotron vault, inside automatic chemistry production and research shielded cells, in the radiochemistry room, in the gas waste decay tank, in the chimney filters, and at the top of the cells chimney. Each detector was calibrated in a known radiation field, and a special detector dead time correction was performed in order to achieve detected signal-to-radiation linearity for the Geiger tubes located in the radiochemistry production and research cells. During production of C-11 and O-15 PET radiopharmaceuticals, high radiation levels were measured in the gas waste decay tank (240 and 80 mR/h, respectively). In contrast, the radiation levels at the chimney filters and at the top of the cells chimney did not exceed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Drive Air Concentration (DAC) recommended for C-11 or O-15. During production of FDG, high radiation levels were measured at the chimney filters, however the radiation level at the top of the chimney (3.7 μCi/m 3) did not exceed the F-18 DAC recommendation (27 μCi/m 3). Low radiation levels of approximately 0.5-1 mR/h were measured in the radiochemistry room during production of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In the cyclotron vault, 2 min after bombardment the radiation levels at 2 m from the cyclotron decreased to 1-2 mR/h. The addition of a gas waste decay system to computerized monitoring channels located near each strategic point of the site allows for a comprehensive survey of the radiochemical processes.

  20. Sample size allocation for food item radiation monitoring and safety inspection.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mayumi; Uriu, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify a procedure for determining sample size allocation for food radiation inspections of more than one food item to minimize the potential risk to consumers of internal radiation exposure. We consider a simplified case of food radiation monitoring and safety inspection in which a risk manager is required to monitor two food items, milk and spinach, in a contaminated area. Three protocols for food radiation monitoring with different sample size allocations were assessed by simulating random sampling and inspections of milk and spinach in a conceptual monitoring site. Distributions of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations were determined in reference to (131)I and radiocesium concentrations detected in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, for March and April 2011. The results of the simulations suggested that a protocol that allocates sample size to milk and spinach based on the estimation of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations using the apparent decay rate constants sequentially calculated from past monitoring data can most effectively minimize the potential risks of internal radiation exposure.

  1. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  2. Recommendations for Improving Consistency in the Radiation Fields Used During Testing of Radiation Detection Instruments for Homeland Security Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pibida, L; Mille, M; Norman, B

    2013-01-01

    Several measurements and calculations were performed to illustrate the differences that can be observed in the determination of exposure rate or ambient dose equivalent rate used for testing radiation detection systems against consensus standards. The large variations observed support our recommendation that better consistency in the test radiation fields can be achieved by specifying the source activity and testing distance instead of the field strength. PMID:26401434

  3. REM-RED Cosmic Radiation Monitoring Experiment On-Board the REXUS-17 Sounding Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabori, B.; Gerecs, A.; Hurtonyne Gyovai, A.; Benyei, D.; Naczi, F.; Hurtony, T.

    2015-09-01

    The cosmic radiation field is not well known up to the altitude of the lower orbiting spacecrafts. There are several ways to measure the cosmic radiation in this altitude; however it is not easy to apply them to a sounding rocket. The easiest way is to use Geiger-Muller (GM) counters to quantify the radiation level. The REMRED rocket experiment performed measurements with active radiation instruments (GM counters) in order to quantify the cosmic radiation field from the Earth's surface up to the maximum altitude of the REXUS rocket (about 90 km). The flight of the REM-RED experiment was carried out on the 1 7th of March 201 5 from the ESRANGE Space Center on-board the REXUS-17 student mission sounding rocket.

  4. The NOAA Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) - A new surface radiation monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.B.; DeLuisi, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a new radiation monitoring program, the Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS), that builds upon and takes over from earlier NOAA networks monitoring components of solar radiation [both the visible component (SOLRAD) and the shortwave component that causes sunburn, UV-B] across the continental United States. ISIS is implemented in two levels. Level 1 addresses incoming radiation only, and level 2 addresses the surface radiation balance. Level 2 also constitutes the SURFRAD (Surface Radiation) program of the NOAA Office of Global Programs, specifically intended to provide radiation data to support large-scale hydrologic studies that will be conducted under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment. Eventually, it is planned for level 2 sites to monitor all components of the surface energy balance. Both levels of ISIS will eventually measure both visible and UV radiation components. At present, there are nine sites that are considered to be at ISIS level 1 standard and an additional four level 2 SURFRAD sites. A 10th level 1 site will be in operation soon. Plans call for an increase in the number of sites of both kinds, up to about 15 ISIS sites, of which 6 will be at the SURFRAD level. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    DOEpatents

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  6. Photoacoustic monitoring of tumor and normal tissue response to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Laurie J.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a recognized characteristic of tumors that influences efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a relatively new imaging technique that exploits the optical characteristics of hemoglobin to provide information on tissue oxygenation. In the present study, PAI based measures of tumor oxygen saturation (%sO2) were compared to oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) and ex-vivo histology in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models of head and neck cancer. PAI was utilized to assess early changes (24 h) in %sO2 following RT and chemoRT (CRT) and to assess changes in salivary gland hemodynamics following radiation. A significant increase in tumor %sO2 and R1 was observed following oxygen inhalation. Good spatial correlation was observed between PAI, MRI and histology. An early increase in %sO2 after RT and CRT detected by PAI was associated with significant tumor growth inhibition. Twenty four hours after RT, PAI also detected loss of hemodynamic response to gustatory stimulation in murine salivary gland tissue suggestive of radiation-induced vascular damage. Our observations illustrate the utility of PAI in detecting tumor and normal tissue hemodynamic response to radiation in head and neck cancers. PMID:26883660

  7. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leuraud, Klervi; Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8·22 million person-years. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality. Findings Doses were accrued at very low rates (mean 1·1 mGy per year, SD 2·6). The excess relative risk of leukaemia mortality (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) was 2·96 per Gy (90% CI 1·17–5·21; lagged 2 years), most notably because of an association between radiation dose and mortality from chronic myeloid leukaemia (excess relative risk per Gy 10·45, 90% CI 4·48–19·65). Interpretation This study provides strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposure and leukaemia. Funding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, AREVA, Electricité de France, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Energy, US Department of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina, Public Health England. PMID:26436129

  8. A telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal motion in patients with respiratory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Junior, Evert Pereira; Esteves, Guilherme Pompeu; Dames, Karla Kristine; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    Changes in thoracoabdominal motion are highly prevalent in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Home care services that use telemedicine techniques and Internet-based monitoring have the potential to improve the management of these patients. However, there is no detailed description in the literature of a system for Internet-based monitoring of patients with disturbed thoracoabdominal motion. The purpose of this work was to describe the development of a new telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal movement. The instrument directly measures changes in the thorax and abdomen circumferences and transfers data through a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol connection. After the design details are described, the accuracy of the electronic and software processing units of the instrument is evaluated by using electronic signals simulating normal subjects and individuals with thoracoabdominal motion disorders. The results obtained during in vivo studies on normal subjects simulating thoracoabdominal motion disorders showed that this new system is able to detect a reduction in abdominal movement that is associated with abnormal thoracic breathing (p < 0.0001) and the reduction in thoracic movement during abnormal abdominal breathing (p < 0.005). Simulated asynchrony in thoracoabdominal motion was also adequately detected by the system (p < 0.0001). The experimental results obtained for patients with respiratory diseases were in close agreement with the expected values, providing evidence that this instrument can be a useful tool for the evaluation of thoracoabdominal motion. The Internet transmission tests showed that the acquisition and analysis of the thoracoabdominal motion signals can be performed remotely. The user can also receive medical recommendations. The proposed system can be used in a spectrum of telemedicine scenarios, which can reduce the costs of assistance offered to patients with respiratory diseases.

  9. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  10. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  11. Ozone monitoring using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and UV photometry instruments in Sohar, Oman.

    PubMed

    Nawahda, Amin

    2015-08-01

    Ground level ozone (O3) concentrations were measured across Sohar highway in Oman during a four-month period from September to December 2014 by using an open-path deferential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument. The monthly average concentrations of O3 varied from 19.6 to 29.4 ppb. The measurements of O3 are compared with the measurements of a non-open-path UV photometry analyzer (UVP). The percent difference (PD) concept and linear regression methods were used to compare the readings of the two instruments. The findings show high correlation coefficients between the measurements of the DOAS and UVP instruments. The DOAS measurements of O3 are found to be less than those measured by the UVP instrument; the correlation coefficients between absolute PD values and meteorological parameters and PM2.5 were very low indicating a minor effect; therefore, titrations of O3 by traffic emissions and difference in elevation could be the reason for the difference in the measurements of the two instruments.

  12. Ozone monitoring using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and UV photometry instruments in Sohar, Oman.

    PubMed

    Nawahda, Amin

    2015-08-01

    Ground level ozone (O3) concentrations were measured across Sohar highway in Oman during a four-month period from September to December 2014 by using an open-path deferential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument. The monthly average concentrations of O3 varied from 19.6 to 29.4 ppb. The measurements of O3 are compared with the measurements of a non-open-path UV photometry analyzer (UVP). The percent difference (PD) concept and linear regression methods were used to compare the readings of the two instruments. The findings show high correlation coefficients between the measurements of the DOAS and UVP instruments. The DOAS measurements of O3 are found to be less than those measured by the UVP instrument; the correlation coefficients between absolute PD values and meteorological parameters and PM2.5 were very low indicating a minor effect; therefore, titrations of O3 by traffic emissions and difference in elevation could be the reason for the difference in the measurements of the two instruments. PMID:26138853

  13. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Bunch-Length Monitor using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. One of the most critical diagnostic devices is the bunch length monitor (BLM), which is to be installed right after each compressor utilizing coherent radiation from the last bending magnet. We describe the components and the optical layout of such a BLM. Based on the setup geometry, we discuss some issues about the coherent radiation signal.

  14. A multi-instrument approach to monitoring turbidity currents: Case study from the Squamish Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Sophie; Cartigny, Matthieu; Clare, Michael; Talling, Peter; Sumner, Esther; Vardy, Mark; Hughes Clarke, John

    2016-04-01

    Turbidity currents are volumetrically the most important process for moving sediment in submarine environments. They may travel at high speeds, thereby posing a threat to important and expensive seafloor infrastructure. Despite their importance, we still know little about their flow dynamics because direct monitoring is challenging and consequently rare. Additionally, the few settings in which monitoring has been feasible, have generally involved a single instrument approach, either measuring flow velocity, sediment concentration or grain size. Here we present results issued from a multi-instrument study where a single turbidity current was observed with several instruments at the same location and time using different measuring frequencies. Three types of geophysical sensors were deployed from a single vessel moored over a turbidity current channel on the Squamish Delta in British Colombia, Canada. First, two 500 kHz multibeam sonars suspended from the bow of the ship imaged the incoming turbidity current and documented its interaction with the crescentic bedforms on the channel thalweg. Second, a 600 kHz downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) lowered from the back of the ship provided vertical profiles of velocity through time. Third, a 1.0-24.0 kHz Chirp profiler enabled for the first time imaging of the dense near-bed zone of the turbidity current, which has so far been largely impenetrable using higher frequency sonar and ADCP instruments. Besides the stationary deployment, a repetitive multibeam survey was also performed using a moving vessel in order monitor temporal evolution of the seafloor morphology resulting from turbidity currents. By combining the measurements from each system, a single turbidity current was characterised in unusually high resolution. This current was 6 to 8 meters thick and at least 40 meters wide according to the multibeam sonars. The ADCP measured a front speed of around 1.5 m/s, higher than the internal

  15. A study on the temporal and spatial variability of absorbing aerosols using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2009-05-01

    Absorbing aerosols, especially mineral dust and black carbon, play key roles in climate change by absorbing solar radiation, heating the atmosphere, and contributing to global warming. In this paper, we first examine the consistency of the Aerosol Index (AI) product as measured by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) instruments and then analyze these AI data sets to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of UV absorbing aerosols. In contrast to the trend in aerosol optical depth found in the advanced very high-resolution radiometer data, no obvious long-term trend in absorbing aerosols is observed from the time series of AI records. The comparison between the mean annual cycle in the two data sets shows that the cycles agree very well both globally and regionally, indicating a consistency between the AI products from TOMS and OMI. Varimax rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of detrended, deseasonalized AI data proves to be successful in isolating major dust and biomass burning source regions, as well as dust transport. Finally, we find that large, individual events, such as the Kuwait oil fire and Australian smoke plum, are isolated in individual higher-order principal components.

  16. A Fast and Sensitive New Satellite SO2 Retrieval Algorithm based on Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Joiner, Joanna; Krotkov, A.; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm to retrieve SO2 from satellite-measured hyperspectral radiances. We employ the principal component analysis technique in regions with no significant SO2 to capture radiance variability caused by both physical processes (e.g., Rayleigh and Raman scattering and ozone absorption) and measurement artifacts. We use the resulting principal components and SO2 Jacobians calculated with a radiative transfer model to directly estimate SO2 vertical column density in one step. Application to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) radiance spectra in 310.5-340 nm demonstrates that this approach can greatly reduce biases in the operational OMI product and decrease the noise by a factor of 2, providing greater sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The new algorithm is fast, eliminates the need for instrument-specific radiance correction schemes, and can be easily adapted to other sensors. These attributes make it a promising technique for producing longterm, consistent SO2 records for air quality and climate research.

  17. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  19. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  20. Proton irradiation test on the flight model radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, I.; Lobo, A.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Sanjuán, J.; Diaz-Aguiló, M.; Wass, P. J.; Grimani, C.

    2010-05-01

    The design of the Radiation Monitor in the LISA Technology Package on board LISA Pathfinder is based on two silicon PIN diodes, placed parallel to each other in a telescopic configuration. One of them will be able to record spectral information of the particle hitting the diode. A test campaign for the Flight Model Radiation Monitor is proposed to verify its performance. This paper shows the results obtained with a simulated flight model geometry using GEANT4, to be compared with the real data that will be obtained in a proton irradiation facility.

  1. Noninvasive emittance and energy spread monitor using optical synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Castronovo, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Di Mitri, S.; Kishek, R.; Tschalaer, C.; Veronese, M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a design for a minimally perturbing diagnostic minichicane, which utilizes optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) generated from magnetic bends in the chicane, to measure the rms horizontal and vertical beam sizes, divergences, emittances, Twiss parameters and energy spread of a relativistic electron beam. The beam is externally focused to a waist at the first bend and the OSR generated there can be used to measure the rms beam size. Subsequent pairs of bends produce far field OSR interferences (OSRI) whose visibility depends on the beam energy spread and the angular divergence. Under proper conditions, one of these two effects will dominate the OSRI visibility from a particular pair of bends and can be used to diagnose the dominant effect. The properties of different configuration of bends in the chicane have been analyzed to provide an optimum diagnostic design for a given set of beam parameters to: (1) provide a sufficient number of OSR interferences to allow a measurement of the fringe visibility; (2) minimize the effect of coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge forces on the particles motion; and (3) minimize the effect of compression on the bunch length as the beam passes through the chicane. A design for the chicane has been produced for application to the FERMI free electron laser facility and by extension to similar high brightness linear accelerators. Such a diagnostic promises to greatly improve control of the electron beam optics with a noninvasive measurement of beam parameters and allow on-line optics matching and feedback.

  2. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  3. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  4. Cable aging and condition monitoring of radiation resistant nano-dielectrics in advanced reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  5. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  6. CMOS sensor and camera for the PHI instrument on board Solar Orbiter: evaluation of the radiation tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras, J.; Heerlein, K.; Werner, S.; Enge, R.; Schühle, U.; Woch, J.; De Ridder, T.; Meynants, G.; Wolfs, B.; Lepage, G.; Diels, W.

    2012-07-01

    The ESA/NASA Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in 2017, will explore the Sun at a much closer distance than any previous solar observatory. On board the spacecraft, a high-resolution magnetograph (PHI) will provide two-dimensional measurements of the photospheric vector magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity. The environmental conditions encountered during the mission, together with the stringent performance requirements of the instrument, define the set of specifications for the camera system. A custom designed CMOS sensor (with 2048×2050 pixels) has been developed to fulfill the aimed radiation hardness and performance. This sensor must demonstrate a cadence above 10 fps with a full-well capacity higher than 105 electrons in a 10-μm pixel pitch. We report the characterization and qualification tests. The radiation test campaign has been completed up to a TID of 150 krad(Si), proton fluence up to 4 × 1011 at 10 MeV and 2 × 1011 at 20 MeV, and with heavy ions to check for latch-up and SEFI failures. In parallel, a radiation tolerant camera electronic readout system has been built to control the sensor and readout images, digitize the data, and communicate with the data handling system of the PHI instrument. In addition, we present the main issues related to the camera design and future perspectives.

  7. Thermal Assessment of Landsat-7 ETM+ Radiative Cooler in Instrument and Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Tests and in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    1999-01-01

    During the radiative cooler cool-down phase of the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument thermal vacuum test #3, the coldest temperature that the Cold Focal Plane Array (CFPA) achieved was 89.5 K. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.5 K in 80 hours. In the spacecraft and instrument integrated thermal vacuum test, the cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 86.9 K in 80 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 0.08 K/hr when the cool-down was terminated. The cool-down was faster, and a colder CFPA temperature was obtained. In flight, the cooler cool- down was even faster, and colder. The cold stage/CFPA temperature decreased from 315 K to 89.7 K in 33 hours, and was still decreasing at a rate of 1 K/hr when cool- down was terminated at 89.7 K. The factors that affected the ETM+ cooler cool-down are the radiation heat sink temperature for the cold stage and intermediate stage, parasitic radiation heat load to the cooler, parasitic conduction heat load to the cooler, and cooler outgas time preceding cooler cool-down.

  8. Determination of the Characteristics of Ground-Based IR Spectral Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring of the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, M. V.; Poberovskii, A. V.; Hase, F.; Timofeyev, Yu. M.; Imhasin, Kh. Kh.

    2016-07-01

    This is a study of the spectral characteristics of a ground-based spectral system consisting of an original system for tracking the sun developed at St. Petersburg State University and a Bruker IFS125HR Fourier spectrometer. The importance of accounting for the actual instrument function of the spectral system during processing of ground-based IR spectra of direct solar radiation is illustrated by the example of determining the overall abundance of methane in the atmosphere. Spectral intervals are proposed for taking spectra of direct solar radiation with an HBr cell, which yield information on the parameters of the ground-based system, while simultaneously checking the alignment of the system for each spectrum of the atmosphere.

  9. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocariu, L. N.; Placinta, V. M.; Dumitru, L.

    2016-03-01

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  10. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  11. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  12. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  13. Advanced life support control/monitor instrumentation concepts for flight application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dahlhausen, M. J.; Fell, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    Development of regenerative Environmental Control/Life Support Systems requires instrumentation characteristics which evolve with successive development phases. As the development phase moves toward flight hardware, the system availability becomes an important design aspect which requires high reliability and maintainability. This program was directed toward instrumentation designs which incorporate features compatible with anticipated flight requirements. The first task consisted of the design, fabrication and test of a Performance Diagnostic Unit. In interfacing with a subsystem's instrumentation, the Performance Diagnostic Unit is capable of determining faulty operation and components within a subsystem, perform on-line diagnostics of what maintenance is needed and accept historical status on subsystem performance as such information is retained in the memory of a subsystem's computerized controller. The second focus was development and demonstration of analog signal conditioning concepts which reduce the weight, power, volume, cost and maintenance and improve the reliability of this key assembly of advanced life support instrumentation. The approach was to develop a generic set of signal conditioning elements or cards which can be configured to fit various subsystems. Four generic sensor signal conditioning cards were identified as being required to handle more than 90 percent of the sensors encountered in life support systems. Under company funding, these were detail designed, built and successfully tested.

  14. Plots of ground coverage achieveable by global change monitoring instruments and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Heather R.; Foernsler, Lynda

    1991-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite plots are given. All satellites are in an 800 km circular orbit at an inclination of 98.6 deg (sun synchronous). Specifics of the instrument package are given. Additionally, the time period of the plot and the percentage of the Earth covered during the time period are listed.

  15. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-15

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required.

  16. Photon Activation Analysis Of Light Elements Using 'Non-Gamma' Radiation Spectroscopy - The Instrumental Determination Of Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Christian; Goerner, Wolf

    2011-06-01

    Unlike metal determinations the analysis of light elements (e.g., carbon, oxygen, phosphorus) is frequently problematic, in particular if analysed instrumentally. In photon activation analysis (PAA) the respective activation products do not emit gamma radiation in the most cases. Usually, annihilation quanta counting and subsequent decay curve analysis have been used for determinations of C, N, O, and F. However, radiochemical separation of the respective radioisotopes mostly is indispensable. For several reasons, some of the light elements cannot be analysed following this procedure, e.g. phosphorus. In this contribution the instrumental PAA of phosphorus in organic matrix by activation with bremsstrahlung of an electron linear accelerator and subsequent beta spectroscopy is described. The accuracy of the results was excellent as obtained by analysis of a BCR Reference Material.

  17. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  18. Distributing space weather monitoring instruments and educational materials worldwide for IHY 2007: The AWESOME and SID project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Deborah; Cohen, Morris; Hoeksema, Todd; Inan, Umran; Mitchell, Ray; Scherrer, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) aims to advance our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the Sun, Earth, and heliosphere. The IHY Education and Outreach Program is dedicated to inspiring the next generation of space and Earth scientists as well as spreading the knowledge, beauty, and relevance of our solar system to the people of the world. In our Space Weather Monitor project we deploy a global network of sensors to high schools and universities to provide quantitative diagnostics of solar-induced ionospheric disturbances, thunderstorm intensity, and magnetospheric activity. We bring real scientific instruments and data in a cost-effective way to students throughout the world. Instruments meet the objectives of being sensitive enough to produce research-quality data, yet inexpensive enough for placement in high schools and universities. The instruments and data have been shown to be appropriate to, and usable by, high school age and early university students. Data contributed to the Stanford data center is openly shared and partnerships between groups in different nations develop naturally. Students and teachers have direct access to scientific expertise. The result is a world-wide collaboration of scientists, teachers, and students to investigate the variability of the ionosphere. The research-quality AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) instruments have been selected as a participating program by the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI). The IHY Committee for International Education and Public Outreach has designated the simpler SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance) monitors to be provided to teacher/student teams in each of the 192 countries of the world.

  19. Operational test procedure for pumping and instrumentation control skid SALW-6001B monitor and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.F.

    1995-11-01

    This OTP shall verify and document that the monitor and control system comprised of PICS SALW-6001B PLC, 242S PLC, Operator Control Station, and communication network is functioning per operational requirements.

  20. Analysis of Instrumentation to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Green Infrastructure at the Edison Environmental Center

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infiltration is one of the primary functional mechanisms of green infrastructure stormwater controls, so this study explored selection and placement of embedded soil moisture and water level sensors to monitor surface infiltration and infiltration into the underlying soil for per...

  1. Dust measurements in the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument.

    PubMed

    Tuzzolino, Anthony J; Economou, Thanasis E; Clark, Ben C; Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; Green, Simon F; McDonnell, J A M; McBride, Neil; Colwell, Melusine T S H

    2004-06-18

    We present measurements of the dust particle flux and mass distribution from the Stardust Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) throughout the flyby of comet 81P/Wild 2. In the particle mass regime from 10(-14) to 10(-7) kilograms, the spacecraft encountered regions of intense swarms of particles, together with bursts of activity corresponding to clouds of particles only a few hundred meters across. This fine-scale structure can be explained by particle fragmentation. We estimate that 2800 +/- 500 particles of diameter 15 micrometers or larger impacted the aerogel collectors, the largest being approximately 6 x 10(-7) kilograms, which dominates the total collected mass.

  2. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  3. Possibilities of Using MARSES Instrument for Long-Term Monitoring and Subsurface Studies in Arctic and Arid Lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozorovich, Y. R.; Linkin, V. M.; Smythe, W. D.; Zoubkov, B.; Babkin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Electromagnetic Sounding Experiment (MARSES) is the sounding instrument developed of searching for groundwater, water-ice or permafrost layers existing in some depth under the visible surface in the dry lands of Mars. One of the more important challenges facing natural resource managers today is how to identify, measure and monitoring the cumulative impacts of land use decisions across space and time. The secondary task is to measure the soil properties of Martian subsurface, which includes porosity, electrical resistance of the liquid phase, thermal conductivity, temperature dependence. A main task of the MARSES monitoring system is to examine changes in the subsurface properties of local areas regolith on the Martian surface on the base of the database of various soil slices in terrestrial conditions. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  5. Active Region Soft X-Ray Spectra as Observed Using Sounding Rocket Measurements from the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), - a Modified SDO/EVE Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, S. R.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Woods, T. N.; Jones, A. R.; Caspi, A.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar active regions (ARs) in the soft x-ray spectral range (0.5 to 3.0 nm) were made on sounding rocket flight NASA 36.290 using a modified Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), a pinhole camera on the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) sounding rocket instrument. The suite of EVE rocket instruments is designed for under-flight calibrations of the orbital EVE on SDO. While the sounding rocket EVE instrument is for the most part a duplicate of the EVE on SDO, the SAM channel on the rocket version was modified in 2012 to include a free-standing transmission grating so that it could provide spectrally resolved images of the solar disk with the best signal to noise ratio for the brightest features on it, such as ARs. Calibrations of the EVE sounding rocket instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (NIST SURF) have provided a measurement of the SAM absolute spectral response function and a mapping of wavelength separation in the grating diffraction pattern. For solar observations, this spectral separation is on a similar scale to the spatial size of the AR on the CCD, so dispersed AR images associated with emission lines of similar wavelength tend to overlap. Furthermore, SAM shares a CCD detector with MEGS-A, a separate EVE spectrometer channel, and artifacts of the MEGS-A signal (a set of bright spectral lines) appear in the SAM images. For these reasons some processing and analysis of the solar images obtained by SAM must be performed in order to determine spectra of the observed ARs. We present a method for determining AR spectra from the SAM rocket images and report initial soft X-ray spectra for two of the major active regions (AR11877 and AR11875) observed on flight 36.290 on 21 October 2013 at about 18:30 UT. We also compare our results with concurrent measurements from other solar soft x-ray instrumentation.

  6. Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Periodic Developing Flow in Non-Newtonian Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.

    2013-11-15

    Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have conducted mixing and mobilization experiments with non-Newtonian slurries that exhibit Bingham plastic and shear thinning behavior and shear strength. This paper describes measurement techniques applied to identify the interface between flowing and stationary regions of non-Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Techniques were developed to identify the boundary between the flowing and stationary regions, time to mix, characteristic velocities of the flow field produced by the symmetrically spaced nozzles, and the velocity of the upwell formed in the center of the tank by the intersection of flow from four symmetrically spaced nozzles that impinge upon the tank floor. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.

  7. Intelligent monitor functional model with ionization chamber for mixed nuclear radiation field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Valcov, N.; Purghel, L.; Celarel, A.

    1998-12-31

    By using the statistical discrimination technique, the components of an ionization current, due to a mixed radiation field, may be simultaneously measured. A functional model, including a series manufactured gamma-ray ratemeter was done, as an intermediate step in the design of specialized nuclear instrumentation, in order to check the concept of statistical discrimination method. The obtained results are in good agreement with the estimations of the statistical discrimination method.

  8. Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m-3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m-3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the soil

  9. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  10. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than −15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than −30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  11. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-20

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics.

  12. GLORI: A GNSS-R Dual Polarization Airborne Instrument for Land Surface Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Motte, Erwan; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Egido, Alejandro; Darrozes, José; Al-Yaari, Amen; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Baup, Frédéric; Dayau, Sylvia; Fieuzal, Remy; Frison, Pierre-Louis; Guyon, Dominique; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a remote sensing tool, which is complementary to traditional monostatic radars, for the retrieval of geophysical parameters related to surface properties. In the present paper, we describe a new polarimetric GNSS-R system, referred to as the GLObal navigation satellite system Reflectometry Instrument (GLORI), dedicated to the study of land surfaces (soil moisture, vegetation water content, forest biomass) and inland water bodies. This system was installed as a permanent payload on a French ATR42 research aircraft, from which simultaneous measurements can be carried out using other instruments, when required. Following initial laboratory qualifications, two airborne campaigns involving nine flights were performed in 2014 and 2015 in the Southwest of France, over various types of land cover, including agricultural fields and forests. Some of these flights were made concurrently with in situ ground truth campaigns. Various preliminary applications for the characterisation of agricultural and forest areas are presented. Initial analysis of the data shows that the performance of the GLORI instrument is well within specifications, with a cross-polarization isolation better than -15 dB at all elevations above 45°, a relative polarimetric calibration accuracy better than 0.5 dB, and an apparent reflectivity sensitivity better than -30 dB, thus demonstrating its strong potential for the retrieval of land surface characteristics. PMID:27213393

  13. Results from the ESA SREM Monitors and Comparison with Existing Radiation Belt Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, H. D. R.; Bühler, P.; Hajdas, W.; Daly, E.; Nieminen, P.; Mohammadzadeh, A.

    The Standard Radiation Monitor SREM is a simple particle detector developed for wide application on ESA satellites It measures high-energy protons and electrons of the space environment with a - 20o angular resolution and limited spectral information Of the ten SREMs that have been manufactured four have so far flown The first model on STRV-1c functioned well until an early spacecraft failure The other three are on board the ESA spacecraft INTEGRAL ROSETTA and PROBA-1 Another model will fly on GIOVE-B expected to be launched later this year The diverse orbits of these spacecraft and the common calibration of the monitors provides a unique dataset covering a wide range of B-L space providing a direct comparison of the radiation levels in the belts at different locations and the effects of geomagnetic shielding Data from the PROBA SREM and INTEGRAL SREM are compared with existing radiation belt models

  14. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  15. Long Term Trend in the LEO Radiation Environment as Measured by the Radiation Monitors On-Board Three UoSAT-Class Micro-Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, C. I.; Oldfield, M. K.; Dyer, C. S., , Dr.

    1996-12-01

    Radiation environment monitoring payloads developed by DRA Farnborough and the University of Surrey have been flown on-board three low-Earth orbiting (LEO) microsatellites: UoSAT-3, KITSAT-1 and PoSAT-1. These have provided near-continuous sampling of the cosmic-ray and trapped proton environment inside the spacecraft since May 1990 - a period covering half a solar cycle {1,2,3,4}. This paper provides an analysis of the data from the payloads, and in particular examines the long term trends in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) background and trapped proton environment as experienced in LEO. These are then compared with predictions made using the standard environmental models available in the SPACE RADIATION code, together with our own PRISM code {5} to model particle transport and detector response. The results show good inter-correlation between the instruments, which were calibrated independently prior to flight using ion-beams, fission-fragments and alpha-sources. The trend in cosmic-ray background over the period has been generally upwards (as expected), and particle fluxes have doubled (in the LET-range of the instruments) over the six-year period. Fluxes are well correlated with the phase of the solar cycle. However, shorter-term features are observed which are not included in standard models. For example, there was a significant decrease in GCR following the major solar particle events of June 1991. This decrease persisted until late 1991. All the instruments showed a significant low-LET enhancement over the predictions made on the basis of standard models. The trapped proton environment shows long-term dynamics which are significantly out of phase with the solar cycle. The particle flux detected in the heart of the South-Atlantic anomaly reached a minimum in early-to-mid 1992, and has been increasing since then. This suggests that the phase of the trapped proton environment cycle might be better modelled on the basis of atmospheric density. Maps of the observed

  16. Dose Measurement Results Obtained by Radiation Monitoring System of Russian Segment of International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Benghin, V. V.; Volkov, A. N.; Aleksandrin, A. P.; Lyagushin, V. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Tel'Tsov, M. V.; Kutuzov, Yu. V.

    Radiation monitoring system RMS being deployed on the International Space Station is a part of radiation safety system of the station The purpose of the RMS is to provide information for assessment of radiation doses absorbed by the crews during space flights Radiation monitoring system RMS has worked on board of the International Space Station ISS practically continuously beginning from August 2001 RMS consist of 7 units begin itemize item The R-16 dosimeter Two ionization chambers are the sensitive elements of the R-16 dosimeter item Four DB-8 dosimeters with semiconductor radiation detectors item Data collection unit and Utility unit destined for processing and analysis of measurement results end itemize RMS with other ISS systems integration permits to downlink telemetry information and to display radiation parameters to crew In June 2005 the software of data collection unit was updated It permits the RMS telemetry information upgrading to alert the crew when exposure rates exceed set threshold to supply an opportunity of interactive communication the crew and RMS The report contains information on performance of equipment and dose rate measured since August 2001 till December 2005 both in quiet time and during solar proton events Comparison with MIR station R-16 data registered since 1991 year is carried out

  17. Development of a DNA-dosimeter system for monitoring the effects of solar-ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Schuch, André Passaglia; da Silva Galhardo, Rodrigo; de Lima-Bessa, Keronninn Moreno; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Menck, Carlos Frederico Martins

    2009-01-01

    Solar radiation sustains and affects all life forms on Earth. In recent years, the increase in environmental levels of solar-UV radiation due to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, as a result of anthropogenic emission of destructive chemicals, has highlighted serious issues of social concern. This becomes still more dramatic in tropical and subtropical regions, where the intensity of solar radiation is higher. To better understand the impact of the harmful effects of solar-UV radiation on the DNA molecule, we developed a reliable biological monitoring system based on the exposure of plasmid DNA to artificial UV lamps and sunlight. The determination and quantification of different types of UV photoproducts were performed through the use of specific DNA repair enzymes and antibodies. As expected, a significant number of CPDs and 6-4PPs was observed when the DNA-dosimeter system was exposed to increasing doses of UVB radiation. Moreover, CPDs could also be clearly detected in plasmid DNA when this system was exposed to either UVA or directly to sunlight. Interestingly, although less abundant, 6-4PPs and oxidative DNA damage were also generated after exposure to both UVA and sunlight. These results confirm the genotoxic potential of sunlight, reveal that UVA may also produce CPDs and 6-4PPs directly in naked DNA and demonstrate the applicability of a DNA-dosimeter system for monitoring the biological effects of solar-UV radiation.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  19. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  20. Technology advancement of the CCD201-20 EMCCD for the WFIRST coronagraph instrument: sensor characterization and radiation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Leon K.; Demers, Richard T.; Hoenk, Michael; Peddada, Pavani; Nemati, Bijan; Cherng, Michael; Michaels, Darren; Neat, Leo S.; Loc, Anthony; Bush, Nathan; Hall, David; Murray, Neil; Gow, Jason; Burgon, Ross; Holland, Andrew; Reinheimer, Alice; Jorden, Paul R.; Jordan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Asset (WFIRST-AFTA) mission is a 2.4-m class space telescope that will be used across a swath of astrophysical research domains. JPL will provide a high-contrast imaging coronagraph instrument-one of two major astronomical instruments. In order to achieve the low noise performance required to detect planets under extremely low flux conditions, the electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) has been baselined for both of the coronagraph's sensors-the imaging camera and integral field spectrograph. JPL has established an EMCCD test laboratory in order to advance EMCCD maturity to technology readiness level-6. This plan incorporates full sensor characterization, including read noise, dark current, and clock-induced charge. In addition, by considering the unique challenges of the WFIRST space environment, degradation to the sensor's charge transfer efficiency will be assessed, as a result of damage from high-energy particles such as protons, electrons, and cosmic rays. Science-grade CCD201-20 EMCCDs have been irradiated to a proton fluence that reflects the projected WFIRST orbit. Performance degradation due to radiation displacement damage is reported, which is the first such study for a CCD201-20 that replicates the WFIRST conditions. In addition, techniques intended to identify and mitigate radiation-induced electron trapping, such as trap pumping, custom clocking, and thermal cycling, are discussed.