Science.gov

Sample records for radiation monitoring technology

  1. Wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    The Science Application International Corporation (SAIC) RadStar{trademark} wireless remote radiation monitoring system (WRRMS) is designed to provide real-time monitoring of the radiation dose to workers as they perform work in radiologically contaminated areas. WRRMS can also monitor dose rates in a room or area. The system uses radio-frequency communications to transmit dose readings from the wireless dosimeters worn by workers to a remote monitoring station that can be located out of the contaminated area. Each base station can monitor up to 16 workers simultaneously. The WRRMS can be preset to trigger both audible and visual alarms at certain dose rates. The alarms are provided to the worker as well as the base station operator. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their self-reading dosimeters (SRDs), which are typically used to monitor workers, more difficult. The base station is an IBM-compatible personal computer that updates and records information on individual workers every ten seconds. Although the equipment costs for this improved technology are higher than the SRDs (amortized at $2.54/hr versus $1.02/hr), total operational costs are actually less ($639/day versus $851/day). This is because the WRRMS requires fewer workers to be in the contaminated zone than the traditional (baseline) technology. There are also intangible benefits associated with improved worker safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principles, making the WRRMS an attractive alternative to the baseline technology. The baseline technology measures only integrated dose and requires workers to check their own dosimeters manually during the task.

  2. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. Radiator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiator technology is discussed in the context of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative's (CSTI's) high capacity power-thermal management project. The CSTI project is a subset of a project to develop a piloted Mars nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: advanced radiator concepts; heat pipe codes and testing; composite materials; radiator design and integration; and surface morphology.

  6. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  7. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  8. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  9. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  10. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiligiannis, G.; Dilillo, L.; Bosio, A.; Girard, P.; Pravossoudovitch, S.; Todri, A.; Virazel, A.; Mekki, J.; Brugger, M.; Wrobel, F.; Saigne, F.

    2014-05-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for monitoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of particles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shielded areas. By using stability estimation methods and presenting experimental data, we prove that this device is proper to be used for such a purpose.

  11. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  12. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  13. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  14. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  15. A comparison of emerging gamma detector technologies for airborne radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. J.; Aitken-Smith, P.; Beeke, S.; Collins, S. M.; Regan, P. H.; Shearman, R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of new and emerging gamma detector technologies that have the potential to improve in-situ dose and radioactivity-in-air measurements for national monitoring networks. Five detectors were chosen for investigation; LaBr3(Ce), CeBr3, SiPM-CsI(Tl), Cd(Zn)Te and electromechanically-cooled HPGe. These detectors represent the full range of the price-performance matrix. Comparisons have been made of energy resolution, detection efficiency and minimum detectable activity by exposing each detector to a mixed radionuclide source drop-deposited across a filter. Other factors, such as internal radioactivity, linearity, size and cost have also been considered.

  16. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  17. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  18. Audible radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  19. Audible radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  20. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  1. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  2. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  3. The LISA Pathfinder Radiation Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wass, P. J.; Araújo, H.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Hajdas, W.; Lobo, A.; Puigdengoles, C.; Sumner, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present the concept, design and testing of the radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) will cause charging of the LISA Pathfinder test masses producing unwanted disturbances which could be significant during a large solar eruption. A radiation monitor on board LISA Pathfinder, using silicon PIN diodes as particle detectors, will measure the particle flux responsible for charging. It will also be able to record spectral information to identify solar energetic particle events. The design of the monitor was supported by Monte Carlo simulations which allow detailed predictions of the radiation monitor performance. We present these predictions as well as the results of high-energy proton tests carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The tests show good agreement with our simulations and confirm the capability of the radiation monitor to perform well in the space environment, meeting all science requirements.

  4. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  5. Monitoring Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkworth, B. J.; Eckersall, K. E.

    A project was conducted to design and pilot a scheme for monitoring trade/industry/commerce technological changes and reporting them to Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teachers and authorities. A matrix of information categories was used to facilitate the collection and storage of information relative to technological advancements in the…

  6. Radiation environment monitoring for manned missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Benghin, V V; Petrov, V M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a radiation monitoring system for manned Mars missions is described, based on the most recent requirements on crew radiation safety. A comparison is shown between the radiation monitoring systems for Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft, with similarities and differences pointed out and discussed. An operational and technological sketch of the chosen problem solving approach is also given.

  7. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. F.; Araújo, H. M.; Daly, E.; Guerrini, N.; Gunes-Lasnet, S.; Griffin, D.; Marshall, A.; Menicucci, A.; Morse, T.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Turchetta, R.; Woodward, S.

    2014-07-01

    We present the design and preliminary calibration results of a novel highly miniaturised particle radiation monitor (HMRM) for spacecraft use. The HMRM device comprises a telescopic configuration of active pixel sensors enclosed in a titanium shield, with an estimated total mass of 52 g and volume of 15 cm3. The monitor is intended to provide real-time dosimetry and identification of energetic charged particles in fluxes of up to 108 cm-2 s-1 (omnidirectional). Achieving this capability with such a small instrument could open new prospects for radiation detection in space.

  8. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  9. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  10. Radiation Monitor,IV-TEPC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-30

    View of radiation monitor,Intra-Vehicular Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (IV-TEPC),relocated to NOD2 P3,Part Number (P/N): SEG33120960-301,Serial Number (S/N): 1002,in the Node 2. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  11. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  12. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  13. Monitoring dynamic reactions of red blood cells to UHF electromagnetic waves radiation using a novel micro-imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ping; Yong, Junguang; Shen, Hongtao; Zheng, Xianrong

    2012-12-01

    Multiple state-of-the-art techniques, such as multi-dimensional micro-imaging, fast multi-channel micro-spetrophotometry, and dynamic micro-imaging analysis, were used to dynamically investigate various effects of cell under the 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Cell changes in shape, size, and parameters of Hb absorption spectrum under different power density electromagnetic waves radiation were presented in this article. Experimental results indicated that the isolated human red blood cells (RBCs) do not have obviously real-time responses to the ultra-low density (15 μW/cm(2), 31 μW/cm(2)) electromagnetic wave radiation when the radiation time is not more than 30 min; however, the cells do have significant reactions in shape, size, and the like, to the electromagnetic waves radiation with power densities of 1 mW/cm(2) and 5 mW/cm(2). The data also reveal the possible influences and statistical relationships among living human cell functions, radiation amount, and exposure time with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The results of this study may be significant on protection of human being and other living organisms against possible radiation affections of the high-frequency electromagnetic waves.

  14. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product conveyor...

  15. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product conveyor...

  16. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product conveyor...

  17. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product conveyor...

  18. 10 CFR 36.29 - Radiation monitors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation monitors. 36.29 Section 36.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.29 Radiation monitors. (a) Irradiators with automatic product conveyor...

  19. The environmental radiation monitoring network in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Ming-Chi Horng; Yu-Ming Lin

    1994-12-31

    The environmental radiation monitoring network includes direct gamma radiation monitors, a coolant water monitor, moving filter particulate monitors, gamma low energy radiation discrimination monitoring systems, and an integrated information data base. It has the function of daily 24-hour on line continuous automatic monitoring. Personal computers are the major equipment to be used in all monitoring stations to collect and store both radiation levels and meteorological data. The relevant data collected are transmitted to Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) via the telephone network of the telecommunication bureau as commanded by the main computer {mu} VAX II. Then the data are displayed in real time and dynamic mode. A large display board is installed at the TRMC where the data are shown and updated every hour. The high speed data transmission system of the TRMC combines with the emergency response system of the National Nuclear Emergency Management Committee to make a proper decision in case of a nuclear accident.

  20. Personal monitoring of UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Joachim; Knuschke, Peter

    1994-06-01

    Personal monitoring of till-radiation (UVR) is important fo find out both overexposure and underexposure to UVR. At present polysulfone films seem to be most suitable for these purposes. They allow a reliable measurement of till-exposure to wavelengths between 250 and 330 nm if a number of influencing factors is respected. These are described in detail in a technical report of the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE). Own investigations with polysulphone films have shown that these polymers can help as well to detect an overexposure to UVR at workplaces as an UVR-deficiency of people living in an old peoples home. It could be demonstrated that this till-deficiency well correlates to the deficiency of serum 25(OH)D3 levels of these people. Furthermore after optimization of a new phototherapeutic equipment in uniformity of UV-exposure round patients body by polysulphone film dosimeters it got useable in therapy.

  1. Moving Belt Radiator technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan, III

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The relative merits of Solid Belt (SBR) Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  2. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

  3. Computer-controlled radiation monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-09-27

    A computer-controlled radiation monitoring system was designed and installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Multiuser Tandem Laboratory (10 MV tandem accelerator from High Voltage Engineering Corporation). The system continuously monitors the photon and neutron radiation environment associated with the facility and automatically suspends accelerator operation if preset radiation levels are exceeded. The system has proved reliable real-time radiation monitoring over the past five years, and has been a valuable tool for maintaining personnel exposure as low as reasonably achievable.

  4. Interstitial Monitoring Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael; Torgerson, Mark D.

    2005-12-01

    When developing new hardware for a computer system, bus monitors are invaluable for testing compliance and troubleshooting problems. Bus monitors can be purchased for other common system busses such as the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus and the Universal Serial Bus (USB). However, the project team did not find any commercial bus analyzers for the Low Pin Count (LPC) bus. This report will provide a short overview of the LPC interface. Page 3 of 11 This page intentionally left blank.Page 4 of 11

  5. TECHNOLOGIES FORM MONITORING AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the evaluation of Wako Pure Chemical Industries's Dioxin ELISA Kit. The kit is an immunoassay technique that reports toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin/furans. The sample units are in pg/g 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (EQ). The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) TEQ results generated using EPA Method 1613B.The Wako results were biased both positively and negatively relative to HRMS results. The technologys estimated method detection limit was 83-201 pg/g 2,3,7,8-TCDD EQ, but this should be considered a rough estimate. Results from this demonstration suggest that the Wako kit could be an effective screening tool for determining sample results above and below 20 pg/g TEQ, and even more effective as a screen for samples above and below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering the cost to analyze the 209 demonstration samples was significantly less than that of the reference laboratory ($150,294 vs. $213,580), and all samples were analyzed on-site in 9 days (in comparison to the reference laboratory which took 8 months). The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented per

  6. Portal monitoring technology control process

    SciTech Connect

    York, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Portal monitors are an important part of the material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) programs in Russia and the US. Although portal monitors are only a part of an integrated MPC and A system, they are an effective means of controlling the unauthorized movement of special nuclear material (SNM). Russian technical experts have gained experience in the use of SNM portal monitors from US experts ad this has allowed them to use the monitors more effectively. Several Russian institutes and companies are designing and manufacturing SNM portal monitors in Russia. Interactions between Russian and US experts have resulted in improvements to the instruments. SNM portal monitor technology has been effectively transferred from the US to Russia and should be a permanent part of the Russian MPC and A Program. Progress in the implementation of the monitors and improvements to how they are used are discussed.

  7. CONTAINMENT TECHNOLOGY AND MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used to control ground-water seepage in the construction industry for many years. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of containment technologies as supplemental and stand-alone remedial options for hazardous waste sites to...

  8. Novel Silicon Devices for Radiation Therapy Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, Mara

    2016-02-01

    Modern radiotherapy techniques pose specific constraints in radiation-monitoring and dosimetry due to the occurrence of small radiation fields with high dose gradients, variation in space and time of the dose rate, variation in space and time of the beam energy spectrum. Novel devices coping with these strict conditions are needed. This paper reviews the most advanced technologies developed with silicon-based materials for clinical radiotherapy. Novel Si diodes as Pt-doped Si, epitaxial Si as well as thin devices have optimized performance, their response being independent of the accumulated dose, thus ensuring radiation tolerance and no need of recalibration. Monolithic devices based on segmented Si detectors can be easily tailored to optimize spatial resolution in the large active areas required in clinical radiotherapy. In particular, a monolithic device based on epitaxial p-type silicon, characterized by high spatial resolution and ability to directly measure temporal variations in dose modulation proved to be best viable solution for pre-treatment verifications in IMRT fields.

  9. Active personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straume, Tore; Borak, Tom; Braby, L. A.; Lusby, Terry; Semones, Edward J.; Vazquez, Marcelo E.

    As astronauts return to the Moon-and this time, work for extended periods-there will be a critical need for crew personnel radiation monitoring as they operate lunar rovers or otherwise perform a myriad of extravehicular activities (EVAs). Our focus is on development of a small personal radiation monitor for lunar EVA that responds to the complex radiation quality and changing dose rates on the Moon. Of particular concern are active monitoring capabilities that provide both early warning and radiation dosimetry information during solar particle events (SPEs). To accomplish this, we are developing small detectors integrated with modern high speed, low power microelectronics to measure dose-rate and dose-mean lineal energy in real time. The monitor is designed to perform over the range of dose rates and LETs expected from both GCR and SPE radiations during lunar EVA missions. The monitor design provides simultaneous measurement of dose-equivalent rates at two tissue-equivalent depths simulating skin and marrow. The compact personal monitor is estimated to be the size of a cell phone and would fit on an EVA spacesuit (e.g., in backpack) or in a toolbox. The four-year development effort (which began December 2007) will result in a prototype radiation monitor field tested and characterized for the major radiations expected on the surface of the Moon. We acknowledge support from NSBRI through grants to NASA Ames Research Center (T. Straume, PI) and Colorado State University (T. Borak, PI).

  10. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.

    1984-09-20

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  11. Wide-range radiation dose monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation dose-rate monitor is provided which operates in a conventional linear mode for radiation in the 0 to 0.5 R/h range and utilizes a nonlinear mode of operation for sensing radiation from 0.5 R/h to over 500 R/h. The nonlinear mode is achieved by a feedback circuit which adjusts the high voltage bias of the proportional counter, and hence its gas gain, in accordance with the amount of radiation being monitored. This allows compression of readout onto a single scale over the range of 0 to greater than 500 R/h without scale switching operations.

  12. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-woo; Jeong, Kyu-hwan; Kim, Jong-il; Im, Chae-wan

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  13. Human health monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  14. New technologies for monitoring nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes new technologies for monitoring the continued presence of nuclear materials that are being evaluated in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to reduce the effort, cost, and employee exposures associated with conducting nuclear material inventories. These technologies also show promise for the international safeguarding of process systems and nuclear materials in storage, including spent fuels. The identified systems are based on innovative technologies that were not developed for safeguards applications. These advanced technologies include passive and active sensor systems based on optical materials, inexpensive solid-state radiation detectors, dimensional surface characterization, and digital color imagery. The passive sensor systems use specialized scintillator materials coupled to optical-fiber technologies that not only are capable of measuring radioactive emissions but also are capable of measuring or monitoring pressure, weight, temperature, and source location. Small, durable solid-state gamma-ray detection devices, whose components are estimated to cost less than $25 per unit, can be implemented in a variety of configurations and can be adapted to enhance existing monitoring systems. Variations in detector design have produced significantly different system capabilities. Dimensional surface characterization and digital color imaging are applications of developed technologies that are capable of motion detection, item surveillance, and unique identification of items.

  15. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, S.

    The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.

  16. Optical Tracking Technology in Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Thomas H. . E-mail: thomas.wagner@orhs.org; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Tome, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has seen the introduction of advanced technologies that have enabled much more precise application of therapeutic radiation. These relatively new technologies include multileaf collimators, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning, and intensity modulated radiotherapy in radiotherapy. Therapeutic dose distributions have become more conformal to volumes of disease, sometimes utilizing sharp dose gradients to deliver high doses to target volumes while sparing nearby radiosensitive structures. Thus, accurate patient positioning has become even more important, so that the treatment delivered to the patient matches the virtual treatment plan in the computer treatment planning system. Optical and image-guided radiation therapy systems offer the potential to improve the precision of patient treatment by providing a more robust fiducial system than is typically used in conventional radiotherapy. The ability to accurately position internal targets relative to the linac isocenter and to provide real-time patient tracking theoretically enables significant reductions in the amount of normal tissue irradiated. This report reviews the concepts, technology, and clinical applications of optical tracking systems currently in use for stereotactic radiation therapy. Applications of radiotherapy optical tracking technology to respiratory gating and the monitoring of implanted fiducial markers are also discussed.

  17. GIMS- technology for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is directed to the widening of cumulative experience in the development of effective and reliable information modeling technologies for the equipping of microwave and optical monitoring of hydrological systems having different spatial scales. The problem urgency is caused by the necessity of perfecting the existing information technologies including Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) in the direction of broadening their functions and optimization of instrumental tools for hydrological monitoring with the orientation on the detection of extreme hydrological processes. GIMS - technology develops GIS technology towards the realization of the formula: GIMS = GIS + model. In other words, the functions of GIS enlivened by the introduction of a new grid-time scale. The result is a forecasting tool and, therefore, may carry out a dynamic integration of environmental information.

  18. 77 FR 55199 - Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc. AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION... to Radiation Detection Technologies, Inc., of Manhattan, Kansas, an exclusive license to practice the... response to that public notice, before the end of the comment period. Radiation Detection Technologies,...

  19. Migration monitoring with automated technology

    Treesearch

    Rhonda L. Millikin

    2005-01-01

    Automated technology can supplement ground-based methods of migration monitoring by providing: (1) unbiased and automated sampling; (2) independent validation of current methods; (3) a larger sample area for landscape-level analysis of habitat selection for stopover, and (4) an opportunity to study flight behavior. In particular, radar-acoustic sensor fusion can...

  20. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  1. REMOTE AREA RADIATION MONITORING (RARM) ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON RL

    2008-07-18

    The Remote Area Radiation Monitoring (RARM) system will be used to provide real-time radiation monitoring information to the operations personnel during tank retrieval and transfer operations. The primary focus of the system is to detect potential anomalous (waste leaks) or transient radiological conditions. This system will provide mobile, real-time radiological monitoring, data logging, and status at pre-selected strategic points along the waste transfer route during tank retrieval operations. The system will provide early detection and response capabilities for the Retrieval and Closure Operations organization and Radiological Control personnel.

  2. Radiation Monitoring for the Masses.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Eric; Sorom, Rich; Wiles, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima-Daiichi incident, many commercial vendors have produced applications and equipment targeted at the average member of the public in order to enable them to make radiation measurements themselves at little to no cost. The authors have evaluated a small selection of these items in order to validate their performance when exposed to a calibrated 137Cs dose rate irradiator. The products fall into two primary categories: the first using the CMOS from the camera on ubiquitous smartphones and the second using an accessory that performs the radiation measurement. Presented here are the performance data of a selection and recommendations on how to interpret the produced values.

  3. Radiation monitoring container device (16-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaoka, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this experiment, layers of radiation detectors and biological specimens, bacterial spores (Bacillus subtillis), shrimp eggs (Altemia salina), and maize seeds (Zea mays) are sandwiched together in the Radiation Monitoring Container. The detectors, sheets of plastic materials, record the nuclear track of cosmic radiation. The dosimeter package contains conventional detectors made of materials such as lithium fluoride or magnesium-silica-terbium. The thermoluminescent materials (TLD) will, when moderately heated, emit luminescent photons linearly depending upon the dose of radiation received. The experiment, enclosed in a box-like container, is mounted on the aft end cone of the Spacelab, the area where the shielding is somewhat less than other locations.

  4. Space radiation environment monitoring onboard Chinese spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijin; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Xianguo

    The space particle radiation can cause harsh hazards to spacecraft performance and lifetime. Numerous operational anomalies and several Chinese satellites failures have been attributed to radiation effects. The failure of FY-1 satellite, in 1991, increased awareness of space radiation effects and enhanced monitoring in situ. From then on, Space Environment Monitors (SEM) have been widely used in a great number of Chinese spacecrafts, such as SZ-4 manned spacecraft, FY-1, FY-3 sun-synchronous orbit satellites, FY-2 geo-synchronous orbit satellite, CE-1 lunar probe satellite, and so on. In particular, the SJ-4 and the SJ-5 satellites, which were used for special experiments of space radiation and theirs effects on spacecrafts, had been launched in 1990's. The sustained space radiation monitoring on LEO and GEO has accumulated a mass of data and can promote studies for empirical model of space radiation. In this article, monitoring at the Chinese spacecrafts from 1990's to the predictive future will be described, and cross-calibration of data and their typical results will be given.

  5. Solar radiation monitoring for high altitude aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-based and satellite-based ionizing radiation monitoring systems are considered as alternative methods for ensuring safe radiation levels for high-altitude aircraft. It is found that ground-based methods are of limited accuracy due to insensitivity to solar particles of energies between the riometer upper cutoff of about 50 MeV and the neutron monitor threshold of about 450 MeV. This energy range is demonstrated to be essential for atmospheric radiation monitoring at high altitude, and must be covered by satellite measurement. On the basis of presently available data, the accuracy to which the incident solar particle flux must be measured by satellite-borne detectors is examined and recommendations are made to establish minimum requirements.

  6. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.E.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  7. Radiation monitoring in interventional cardiology: a requirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, T.; Uruchurtu, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of procedures using fluoroscopy in interventional cardiology procedures may increase medical and patients to levels of radiation that manifest in unintended outcomes. Such outcomes may include skin injury and cancer. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and they receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Mexico does not have a formal policy for monitoring and recording the radiation dose delivered in hemodynamic establishments. Deterministic risk management can be improved by monitoring the radiation delivered from X-ray devices. The objective of this paper is to provide cardiologist, techniques, nurses, and all medical staff an information on DR levels, about X-ray risks and a simple a reliable method to control cumulative dose.

  8. Microsystems technology in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Maleki, T; Ziaie, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present several implantable micro-devices targeted towards improving the efficacy of radiation therapy. Three micro-devices are discussed: a self-biased solid state dosimeter to be used for wireless monitoring of the delivered dose, an electromagnetic tracking system to locate the position of tumor in real-time, and a Guyton-chamber-embedded capacitive pressure sensor for wireless measurement of interstitial pressure inside a tumor. Dosimeter and tracking systems are developed to be integrated together to achieve a track-able radiation sensor. Guyton chamber of the pressure sensor will eliminate the sensor drift due to the interaction of cells and fibrous tissue with sensor's membrane. The dosimeter has a sensitivity of up to 9 kΩ/Gy and a dynamic range of 10 Gy, when operating with a zero bias voltage. The tracking system is able to track a tumor that is 60 cm away with a resolution of 2 mm and a dynamic range of up to 5 cm. Finally, the capacitive pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 75 fF/kPa and a dynamic range of 60 mmHg.

  9. Bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in technologies for quantifying bedload fluxes and in some cases bedload size distributions in rivers show promise toward supplanting traditional physical samplers and sampling methods predicated on the collection and analysis of physical bedload samples. Four workshops held from 2002 to 2007 directly or peripherally addressed bedload-surrogate technologies, and results from these workshops have been compiled to evaluate the state-of-the-art in bedload monitoring. Papers from the 2007 workshop are published for the first time with this report. Selected research and publications since the 2007 workshop also are presented. Traditional samplers used for some or all of the last eight decades include box or basket samplers, pan or tray samplers, pressure-difference samplers, and trough or pit samplers. Although still useful, the future niche of these devices may be as a means for calibrating bedload-surrogate technologies operating with active- and passive-type sensors, in many cases continuously and automatically at a river site. Active sensors include acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), sonar, radar, and smart sensors. Passive sensors include geophones (pipes or plates) in direct contact with the streambed, hydrophones deployed in the water column, impact columns, and magnetic detection. The ADCP for sand and geophones for gravel are currently the most developed techniques, several of which have been calibrated under both laboratory and field conditions. Although none of the bedload-surrogate technologies described herein are broadly accepted for use in large-scale monitoring programs, several are under evaluation. The benefits of verifying and operationally deploying selected bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies could be considerable, providing for more frequent and consistent, less expensive, and arguably more accurate bedload data obtained with reduced personal risk for use in managing the world's sedimentary resources. Twenty-six papers are

  10. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  11. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  12. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Markin, J.T.; Scurry, T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation monitors for nuclear safeguards and security depend on internal control circuits to determine when diversion of special nuclear materials is taking place. Early monitors depended on analog circuits for this purpose, subsequently, digital logic controllers made better monitoring methods possible. Now, versatile microprocessor systems permit new, more efficient, and more useful monitoring methods. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false-alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quantitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high- to low-energy gamma-ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. In addition, microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble-shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set bias levels in plastic scintillators and a state-of-health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  13. The Global Environment Radiation Monitoring Network (GERMON)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakheim, B.J.; Goellner, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a group of experts from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) met in France to discuss and develop the basic principles of a global environmental radiation monitoring network (GERMON). The basic functions of this network were to provide regular reports on environmental radiation levels and to be in a position to provide reliable and accurate radiation measurements on a quick and accurate radiation measurements on a quick turnaround basis in the event of a major radiation release. By 1992, although 58 countries had indicated an interest in becoming a part of the GERMON system, only 16 were providing data on a regular basis. This paper traces the history of GERMON from its inception in 1987 through its activities during 1993-4. It details the objectives of the network, describes functions, lists its participants, and presents obstacles in the current network. The paper examines the data requirements for radiological emergency preparedness and offers suggestions for the current system. The paper also describes the growing need for such a network. To add a domestic perspective, the authors present a summary of the environmental monitoring information system that was used by the NRC in 1986 in its analyses of the Chernobyl incident. Then we will use this 1986 experience to propose a method for the use of GERMON should a similar occasion arise in the future.

  14. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  15. The Juno Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H. N.; Alexander, J. W.; Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Jørgensen, J. L.; Denver, T.; Sushkova, J.; Jørgensen, A.; Benn, M.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Bolton, S. J.; Allison, J.; Watts, S.; Adumitroaie, V.; Manor-Chapman, E. A.; Daubar, I. J.; Lee, C.; Kang, S.; McAlpine, W. J.; Di Iorio, T.; Pasqui, C.; Barbis, A.; Lawton, P.; Spalsbury, L.; Loftin, S.; Sun, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Radiation Monitoring Investigation of the Juno Mission will actively retrieve and analyze the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in the images of Juno's star cameras and science instruments at Jupiter. The investigation's objective is to profile Jupiter's >10 -MeV electron environment in regions of the Jovian magnetosphere which today are still largely unexplored. This paper discusses the primary instruments on Juno which contribute to the investigation's data suite, the measurements of camera noise from penetrating particles, spectral sensitivities and measurement ranges of the instruments, calibrations performed prior to Juno's first science orbit, and how the measurements may be used to infer the external relativistic electron environment.

  16. Utilisation of Thermal Radiation for Process Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan; Hermann, Tobias; Berger, Peter; Singpiel, Holger

    Particularly the automation of thermal material processing makes high demands on monitoring and controlling the resulting quality. A new promising approach is the utilisation of the emitted thermal radiation to get detailed information about temperature distributions and geometrical structures. Indeed, current laser systems with strong focusability exhibit a high innovation potential in many application ranges, for example the possibility of adjusting the welding depth to even small material thicknesses. However, the usability of these advantages is limited because the suitable process windows are considerably constricted at increased welding speed. Therefore, a reliable monitoring of thermal material processing is of vital importance.

  17. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art (SOA) instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  18. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  19. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  20. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  1. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  2. Autonomous Radiation Monitoring of Small Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabris, Lorenzo; Hornback, Donald Eric

    2010-01-01

    Small private vessels are one avenue by which nuclear materials may be smuggled across international borders. While one can contemplate using the terrestrial approach of radiation portal monitors on the navigable waterways that lead to many ports, these systems are ill-suited to the problem. They require vehicles to pass at slow speeds between two closely-spaced radiation sensors, relying on the uniformity of vehicle sizes to space the detectors, and on proximity to link an individual vehicle to its radiation signature. In contrast to roadways where lanes segregate vehicles, and motion is well controlled by inspection booths; channels, inlets, and rivers present chaotic traffic patterns populated by vessels of all sizes. We have developed a unique solution to this problem based on our portal-less portal monitor instrument that is designed to handle free-flowing traffic on roadways with up to five-traffic lanes. The instrument uses a combination of visible-light and gamma-ray imaging to acquire and link radiation images to individual vehicles. It was recently tested in a maritime setting. In this paper we present the instrument, how it functions, and the results of the recent tests.

  3. Radiation technologies: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Haji-Saeid, M.

    2004-09-01

    The radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material processing are well-established processes. New fields concerning radiation sources are development of compact size gamma irradiators, high-power accelerators with direct e-/X conversion and low-energy EB processing systems. The technologies to be developed besides environmental applications, could be nanomaterials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, the composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers processing. The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) has been involved in the support of projects related to the application of radiation technology for many years. Due to its assistance, advanced radiation processing centers were established in many countries. New materials and processes were developed as well: wound hydrogel dressing, radiation vulcanized latex, industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment, pilot plant for electron beam wastewater treatment and others.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Technologies Technology Brief

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a Technology Brief for the ETV Program. The EPA Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) develops test protocols and verifies the performance of innovative technologies that have the potential to improve protection of human health and the environment. The progr...

  5. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  6. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  7. Radiation Effects on Current Field Programmable Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-01-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAS) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar y technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  8. Radiation effects on current field programmable technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, R.; LaBel, K.; Wang, J. J.; Cronquist, B.; Koga, R.; Penzin, S.; Swift, G.

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) take different technological and architectural approaches that directly affect radiation performance. Similar technological and architectural features are used in related technologies such as programmable substrates and quick-turn application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). After analyzing current technologies and architectures and their radiation-effects implications, this paper includes extensive test data quantifying various devices' total dose and single event susceptibilities, including performance degradation effects and temporary or permanent re-configuration faults. Test results will concentrate on recent technologies being used in space flight electronic systems and those being developed for use in the near term. This paper will provide the first extensive study of various configuration memories used in programmable devices. Radiation performance limits and their impacts will be discussed for each design. In addition, the interplay between device scaling, process, bias voltage, design, and architecture will be explored. Lastly, areas of ongoing research will be discussed.

  9. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, P.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Diaz–Aguiló, M.; García-Berro, E.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Sanjuán, J.; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Araújo, H. M.; Wass, P.

    2011-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  10. Characterization monitoring & sensor technology crosscutting program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the OFfice of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60).

  11. Space Technology for Patient Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A contract for the development of an astronaut monitoring system in the early days of the space program provided Mennen Medical, Inc. with a foundation in telemetry that led to the development of a computerized medical electronic system used by hospitals. Mennen was the first company to adopt solid state design in patient monitoring and to offer multipatient telemetry monitoring. Telemetry converts instrument data to electrical signals and relays them to a remote receiver where they are displayed. From a central station, a nurse can monitor several patients. Company products include VISTA systems and Horizon 2000 Monitor.

  12. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Chetty, Indrin J.; Martel, Mary K.; Jaffray, David A.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A.; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B.; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C.; Timmerman, Robert D.; Wong, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. As these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology”, which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, on June 13-14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how they are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, as well as information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically-advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments pre-disposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research were clearly identified as synergistic. PMID:26460989

  13. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  14. Monitoring Radiation Fallout Using Locally Available Biotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    Lichens and mosses have long been recognized as ideal indicators of radionuclide contamination released from electronuclear installations or nuclear weapon tests. 137Cs is suitable for monitoring man-made radionuclide fallout because it is soluble in water and readily absorbed by plants. The detection of 137Cs in environmental samples extends supporting the evidence of global impact of radiation fallout from the wepon tests in the past. Various lichen and moss species from diffent biotopes of Kathmandu valley were collected during October 1998 to January 1999 and 20 gm of the representative sample of each species was filled in Merinelli beaker for gamma spectrometry using Multichannel Analyzer (ORTEC-NORLEND, 5600 MCA) coupled with NaI (Tl) detector system. 137Cs activity in most lichen and moss was not different significantly. However, the high concentration of 137Cs was observed in lichens and mosses collected from Doodhpokhari watershed area in Kathmandu valley whereas the highest 137Cs activity around 400 Bq/kg was observed in lichens collected from Ranipauwa, a site outside from the Kathmandu valley. The presence of radionuclide(Cs-137) in samples collected from environment of Kathmandu (Nepal) indicates that there is a fallout of 137Cs in this environment either from neighboring countries through nuclear weapon tests or from nuclear accidents in the past. This talk will further review the monitoring of cesium as a tool to assess the evidence of radiation fallout during the presentation.

  15. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an application guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commerciallly available during the 1980s. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an applications guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commercially available during the 1980s.

  17. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Groups which consist of members from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of...different ports; however, the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental

  18. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports. Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of the host State or Territory and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) undertake the...always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the Australian Radiation

  19. Observations from Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation during Juno's Early Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Jorgensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Connerney, John E. P.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Levin, Steven M.; Alexander, James W.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Lee, Clifford; Benn, Mathias; Denver, Troelz; Sushkova, Julia; Cicchetti, Andrea; Noschese, Raffaella; Thorne, Richard M.

    2017-04-01

    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation profiles Jupiter's >10-MeV electron environment throughout unexplored regions of the Jovian magnetosphere. RM's measurement approach involves active retrieval of the characteristic noise signatures from penetrating radiation in images obtained by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Collaborative observation campaigns of "radiation image" collection and penetrating particle counts are conducted at targeted opportunities within the magnetosphere during each of Juno's perijove passes using the spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit, the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass Imagers, and the JIRAM infrared imager. Simultaneous observations gathered from these very different instruments provide comparative spectral information due to substantial differences in instrument shielding. Juno's orbit provides a unique sampling of energetic particles within Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions. We present a survey of observations of the high energy radiation environment made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager during Juno's early perijove passes on August 27 and December 11, 2016; and February 2 and March 27, 2017. The JPL author's copyright for this publication is held by the California Institute of Technology. Government Sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Organic Scintillation Detectors for Spectroscopic Radiation Portal Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit

    Thousands of radiation portal monitors have been deployed worldwide to detect and deter the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials that could be used in nefarious acts. Radiation portal monitors are often installed at bottlenecks where large amounts of people or goods must traverse. Examples of use include scanning cargo containers at shipping ports, vehicles at border crossings, and people at high profile functions and events. Traditional radiation portal monitors contain separate detectors for passively measuring neutron and gamma ray count rates. 3He tubes embedded in polyethylene and slabs of plastic scintillators are the most common detector materials used in radiation portal monitors. The radiation portal monitor alarm mechanism relies on measuring radiation count rates above user defined alarm thresholds. These alarm thresholds are set above natural background count rates. Minimizing false alarms caused by natural background and maximizing sensitivity to weakly emitting threat sources must be balanced when setting these alarm thresholds. Current radiation portal monitor designs suffer from frequent nuisance radiation alarms. These radiation nuisance alarms are most frequently caused by shipments of large quantities of naturally occurring radioactive material containing cargo, like kitty litter, as well as by humans who have recently undergone a nuclear medicine procedure, particularly 99mTc treatments. Current radiation portal monitors typically lack spectroscopic capabilities, so nuisance alarms must be screened out in time-intensive secondary inspections with handheld radiation detectors. Radiation portal monitors using organic liquid scintillation detectors were designed, built, and tested. A number of algorithms were developed to perform on-the-fly radionuclide identification of single and combination radiation sources moving past the portal monitor at speeds up to 2.2 m/s. The portal monitor designs were tested extensively with a variety of

  1. Analysis of the TMI-2 dome radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M B; Mueller, G M; Jernigan, W C

    1985-08-01

    Questions have been raised regarding the accuracy of the in-containment radiation readings from the LOCA qualified, dome radiation monitor, HP-R-214 during the March 28, 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor. This report discusses the accuracy of the readings, gives the results of examining the radiation monitor itself, and estimates the radiation environment inside containment during the accident.

  2. TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of CAPE Technologies DF-1 Dioxin/Furan and PCB TEQ Immunoassay Kits. The kits are immunoassay techniques that report the total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry TEQ results generated using EPA Methods 1613B and 1668A.The CAPE Technologies kits generally reported data higher than the certified PE and reference laboratory values. The technologys estimated MDL was 12 to 33 pg/g TEQ. Results from this demonstration suggest that the CAPE Technologies kits could be an effective screening tool for determining sample results above and below 20 pg/g TEQ and even more effective as a screen for sample above and below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering that both the cost ($59,234 vs. $398,029) and the time (3 weeks vs. 8 months) to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than those of the reference laboratory. The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented performance and cost data obtained from field demonstrations.

  3. Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

  4. Environmental Radiation Monitoring During Visits of Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), is to ensure that an appropriately qualified officer is available for each...monitoring equipment, * Radiation Monitoring Handbook for Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports, ANSTO , 1985 L.ai 6 c. communication

  5. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  6. Space Radiation Monitoring Center at SINP MSU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Wera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Myagkova, Irina; Nguen, Minh; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Data on energetic particle fluxes from Russian satellites have been collected in Space monitoring data center at Moscow State University in the near real-time mode. Web-portal http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ provides operational information on radiation state of the near-Earth space. Operational data are coming from space missions ELECTRO-L1, Meteor-M2. High-resolution data on energetic electron fluxes from MSU's satellite VERNOV with RELEC instrumentation on board are also available. Specific tools allow the visual representation of the satellite orbit in 3D space simultaneously with particle fluxes variations. Concurrent operational data coming from other spacecraft (ACE, GOES, SDO) and from the Earth's surface (geomagnetic indices) are used to represent geomagnetic and radiation state of near-Earth environment. Internet portal http://swx.sinp.msu.ru provides access to the actual data characterizing the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation conditions in heliosphere and the Earth's magnetosphere in the real-time mode. Operational forecasting services automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons, using data from LEO and GEO orbits. The models of space environment working in autonomous mode are used to generalize the information obtained from different missions for the whole magnetosphere. On-line applications created on the base of these models provide short-term forecasting for SEP particles and relativistic electron fluxes at GEO and LEO, Dst and Kp indices online forecasting up to 1.5 hours ahead. Velocities of high-speed streams in solar wind on the Earth orbit are estimated with advance time of 3-4 days. Visualization system provides representation of experimental and modeling data in 2D and 3D.

  7. Characterization, Monitoring and Sensor Technology Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet contains summary sheets that describe FY 1993 characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) development projects. Currently, 32 projects are funded, 22 through the OTD Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP), 8 through the OTD Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) activity managed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), and 2 through Interagency Agreements (IAGs). This booklet is not inclusive of those CMST projects which are funded through Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and other Integrated Programs (IPs). The projects are in six areas: Expedited Site Characterization; Contaminants in Soils and Groundwater; Geophysical and Hydrogeological Measurements; Mixed Wastes in Drums, Burial Grounds, and USTs; Remediation, D&D, and Waste Process Monitoring; and Performance Specifications and Program Support. A task description, technology needs, accomplishments and technology transfer information is given for each project.

  8. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  9. TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of the Abraxis LLC Coplanar PCB Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. The kit is an immunoassay technique that reports the total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry TEQ results generated using EPA Method 1668A.Abraxis generally reported data that were higher than the reference laboratory TEQPCB values, with the exception of ultra-high level PCB samples [> 10,000 picogram/gram (pg/g) TEQ] where Abraxis reported values lower than the reference method. The technologys estimated MDL was 6 to 31 pg/g TEQPCB. Results from this demonstration suggest that the Abraxis kit could be an effective screening tool for screening sample concentrations above and below 50 pg/g TEQPCB, particularly considering that the cost ($22,668 vs. $184,449) and the time to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than those of the reference laboratory. The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented performance and cost data obtained from field demonstrations.

  10. New technology to realize printed radiating elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarot, A. C.; Sharaiha, A.; Terret, C.; Garnier, Y.

    1995-05-01

    A plating process for low-cost dielectric substrates (like polypropylene or foam) has been developed by the CNET (Centre National d'Etudes des Telecommunications) in collaboration with LAM (Laboratoire Antennes et Microelectronique). This process allows the realization of printed radiating elements like microstrip antennas. An example of a multilayered printed antenna realized with this technology is presented with its performance.

  11. Final Report: Radiation Health Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dwight A.; Hunt, Hiram M.

    This report describes all aspects of a radiation health technology program at a lower-division college level. Such a program must include certain basic courses, plus supplementary ones to meet the needs of local employers. To implement and sustain a curriculum, the college must (1) determine the need for it, (2) establish its objectives, (3)…

  12. Application of radiation technology in vaccines development.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho Seong

    2015-07-01

    One of the earliest methods used in the manufacture of stable and safe vaccines is the use of chemical and physical treatments to produce inactivated forms of pathogens. Although these types of vaccines have been successful in eliciting specific humoral immune responses to pathogen-associated immunogens, there is a large demand for the development of fast, safe, and effective vaccine manufacturing strategies. Radiation sterilization has been used to develop a variety of vaccine types, because it can eradicate chemical contaminants and penetrate pathogens to destroy nucleic acids without damaging the pathogen surface antigens. Nevertheless, irradiated vaccines have not widely been used at an industrial level because of difficulties obtaining the necessary equipment. Recent successful clinical trials of irradiated vaccines against pathogens and tumors have led to a reevaluation of radiation technology as an alternative method to produce vaccines. In the present article, we review the challenges associated with creating irradiated vaccines and discuss potential strategies for developing vaccines using radiation technology.

  13. Perimeter radiation monitors for the control and physical security of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    Perimeter radiation monitors are gamma-ray and neutron measurement systems that can provide timely notice of theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM). The monitors may be hand-held instruments operated by security inspectors or automatic pedestrian or vehicle monitors located in exit pathways. A monitor's performance depends on its design, the characteristics of SNM and the operating environment, and proper monitor calibration and maintenance. Goals of ASTM Subcommittee C26.12 are to describe monitoring technology, how to apply it, and how to test its performance. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in soil and sediment was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan in April 2004. This report describes the performance evaluation of Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., CALUX®by XDS. This is an aryl hydrocarbon-receptor bioassay that reports total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins/furans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The technology results were compared to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) TEQ results generated using EPA Methods 1613B and 1668A.The CALUX® by XDS generally reported data higher than HRMS TEQD/F and total TEQ values, but were generally lower than the HRMS values for TEQPCB. The technology's estimated method detection limit was 0.53 to 0.63 pg/g TEQD/F. Results from this demonstration suggested that the XDS technology could be an effective tool to screen for samples above or below 1 pg/g for TEQD/F and total TEQ, and that it could be effective for all three types of TEQ values for results above or below 50 pg/g TEQ, particularly considering that the cost ($89,564 vs. $398,029) and the time (six weeks vs. eight months) to analyze the 209 demonstration samples were significantly less than that of the reference laboratory. The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented performance and cost data obtained from f

  15. Interpretation of TEPC Measurements in Space Flights for Radiation Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Dicello, John F.; Pisacane, Vincent; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    For the proper interpretation of radiation data measured in space, the results of integrated radiation transport models were compared with the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) measurements. TEPC is a simple, time-dependent approach to radiation monitoring for astronauts on board the International Space Station. Another and a newer approach to microdosimetry is the use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology launched on the MidSTAR-1 mission in low Earth orbit (LEO). In the radiation protection practice, the average quality factor of a radiation field is defined as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), Qave(LET). However, TEPC measures the average quality factor as a function of the lineal energy y, Qave(y), defined as the average energy deposition in a volume divided by the average chord length of the volume. The deviation of y from LET is caused by energy straggling, delta-ray escape or entry, and nuclear fragments produced in the detector volume. The response distribution functions of the wall-less and walled TEPCs were calculated from Monte-Carlo track simulations. Using an integrated space radiation model (which includes the transport codes HZETRN and BRYNTRN, and the quantum nuclear interaction model QMSFRG) and the resultant response distribution functions from Monte-Carlo track simulations, we compared model calculations with the walled-TEPC measurements from NASA missions in LEO and made predictions for the lunar and the Mars missions. Good agreement was found for Qave(y) between the model and measured spectra from past NASA missions. The Qave(y) values for the trapped or the solar protons ranged from 1.9-2.5. This over-estimates the Qave(LET) values which ranged from 1.4-1.6. Both quantities increase with shield thickness due to nuclear fragmentation. The Qave(LET) for the complete GCR spectra was found to be 3.5-4.5, while flight TEPCs measured 2.9-3.4 for Qave(y). The GCR values are decreasing with the shield thickness. Our analysis

  16. Radiation Monitoring at FGUP Atomflot and the Polyarninski Shipyard

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerville, J.; Griffith, A. G.; Moskowitz, P. D.; BNL; Endregard, M.; Sidhu, R. S.; Sundling, C-V.; Walderhaug, T.; Egorkin, A.; Kisselev, V.; Yanovskaya, N.; Tchernaenko, L.

    2003-02-26

    The Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program is a cooperative effort between military establishments of the Russian Federation, United States and Norway to reduce potential environmental threats from military installations and activities in the Arctic and enhancing the environmental security of all three countries. The goal of this project is to enhance the ability to effectively and safely perform radiological monitoring of objects at selected facilities for dismantlement of nuclear submarines and handling and disposition of spent nuclear fuel. Radiological monitoring is needed to protect workers at the sites engaged in dismantlement of nuclear submarines, the local public and the environment. This is to be accomplished by supply of radiation monitoring equipment and the installation of centralized radiological surveillance, the PICASSO Environmental Monitoring system developed by Institute for Energy Technology, Halden, Norway. The first site selected for th e installation of PICASSO will be at the FGUP Atomflot spent nuclear fuel pad site and liquid radioactive waste treatment facility. This will be followed by an installation of PICASSO at the Mobile Processing Facility at Polyarninski Shipyard. The implementation of the PICASSO system will be integrated with the other AMEC projects at both sites. Plans are being developed to implement the use of this system at most Russian Navy sites handling spent nuclear fuel. Dosimeters have been supplied by the US and with funds from Norway. This equipment will be used at the Polyarninski Shipyard.

  17. Portable radiation monitor assures cleanup levels

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbach, A.

    1995-10-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Niagara Falls, NY, is a contractor at the EPA Superfund site at Montclair, NJ. Working with the Army Corps of Engineers, they are cleaning up radium waste left by a watch factory from the early 1900s. With the hazards of radium unknown at the time, radium in its many forms was spread throughout the region. As sand, it was used for concrete, as ash for packing material, and sometimes as landfill. When a hazardous site is found, Sevenson excavates the contaminated material and replaces it with clean fill. A Reuter-Stokes RSS-112 portable gamma monitoring system is used to ensure radiation is at sample background levels. Using a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC), the RSS-112 measures exposure rates from background to serious alarm levels over a wide energy range. Measurement takes place every five seconds. The portable system is 50% lighter than its predecessor and includes 300 point data storage, graphic display panel, 120-hour battery life between recharges, and RS-232 interface for downloading to a PC.

  18. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  19. Characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology crosscutting program: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program (CMST-CP) is to deliver appropriate characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology (CMST) to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The technology development must also be cost effective and appropriate to EM-30/40/60 needs. Furthermore, the required technologies must be delivered and implemented when needed. Accordingly, and to ensure that available DOE and other national resources are focused an the most pressing needs, management of the technology development is concentrated on the following Focus Areas: Contaminant Plume Containment and Remediation (PFA); Landfill Stabilization (LSFA); High-Level Waste Tank Remediation (TFA); Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal (MWFA); and Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition (FDDMDFA). Brief descriptions of CMST-CP projects funded in FY95 are presented.

  20. Radiation monitoring of the GEM muon detectors at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, L.; Iaydjiev, P.; Mitev, G.; Vankov, I.

    2016-09-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of future High Luminosity (HL) LHC, determines a significant increasing of the radiation background around the CMS subdetectors, and especially in the higher pseudorapidity region. Under such heavy conditions, the RPC (used in muon trigger) most probably could not operate effectively. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment in that region and test at CMS will start in 2016. A monitoring system to control the absorbed radiation dose by the GEM under test is developed. Two types of sensors are used in it: RadFETs for total absorbed dose and p-i-n diodes for particle (proton and neutron) detection. The basic detector unit, called RADMON, contains two sensors of each type and can be installed at each GEM detector. The system has a modular structure, permitting to increase easily the number of controlled RADMONs: one module controls up to 12 RADMONs, organized in three group of four and communicates outside by RS 485 and CANBUS interfaces.

  1. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail.

  2. Applications of microwave radiation environmental remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T.R.; Helt, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    A growing number of environmental remediation technologies (e.g., drying, melting, or sintering) utilize microwave radiation as an integral part of the process. An increasing number of novel applications, such as sustaining low-temperature plasmas or enhancing chemical reactivity, are also being developed. An overview of such technologies being developed by the Department of Energy is presented. A specific example being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, microwave-induced plasma reactors for the destruction of volatile organic compounds, is discussed in more detail.

  3. Energy Savings Potential of Radiative Cooling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Alvine, Kyle J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2015-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP), conducted a study to estimate, through simulation, the potential cooling energy savings that could be achieved through novel approaches to capturing free radiative cooling in buildings, particularly photonic ‘selective emittance’ materials. This report documents the results of that study.

  4. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    PubMed

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  5. Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Platform Technologies for Minimally Invasive Physiological Monitoring Mingui Sun1,2,3,4, Steven A. Hackworth1,2,4, Zhide Tang1, Jun Zhao1,4, Daliang...Light, W. G. Berger, “Medical devices of the head, neck, and spine,” Radiographics, Jan-Feb 2004 24(1):257-85. [2] W. Liu, M. Sivaprakasam, G. Wang

  6. Membrane technology in water treatment and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Bharat B.

    2001-02-01

    12 Membranes play an important role in the wastewater and drinking water processing. Membrane processes are increasingly finding role in sensor and monitoring system design. The challenges facing the designing of such analytical systems and those of the conventional membrane processes have several similarities. In this presentation fundamentals of membrane technology, current trends and future possibilities pertinent to water industry are discussed.

  7. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  8. Application of radiation technology in vaccines development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    One of the earliest methods used in the manufacture of stable and safe vaccines is the use of chemical and physical treatments to produce inactivated forms of pathogens. Although these types of vaccines have been successful in eliciting specific humoral immune responses to pathogen-associated immunogens, there is a large demand for the development of fast, safe, and effective vaccine manufacturing strategies. Radiation sterilization has been used to develop a variety of vaccine types, because it can eradicate chemical contaminants and penetrate pathogens to destroy nucleic acids without damaging the pathogen surface antigens. Nevertheless, irradiated vaccines have not widely been used at an industrial level because of difficulties obtaining the necessary equipment. Recent successful clinical trials of irradiated vaccines against pathogens and tumors have led to a reevaluation of radiation technology as an alternative method to produce vaccines. In the present article, we review the challenges associated with creating irradiated vaccines and discuss potential strategies for developing vaccines using radiation technology. PMID:26273573

  9. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  10. 14. CLOSEUP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP OF RADIATION MONITORING EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO FRAMEWORK. CAMERA FACING SKY. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6175, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Recent developments in radiation field control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposures over the past ten years. There has been over a fourfold reduction in the person-rem incurred for each MW.year of electric power generated: from 1.8 in 1980, to only 0.39 person-rems in 1991 and 1992. Preliminary data for 1993 are even lower: approximately 0.37 person-rem.MW.year. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in ICRP 60 and there will be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts with be increased requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the industry goals for 1995. Reducing out-of-core radiation fields offer the best chance of continuing the downward trend in exposures. To assist utilities select the most economic technology for their specific plants, EPRI has published a manual capturing worldwide operating experience with radiation-field control techniques (TR-100265). No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this collection will enable utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: outages are shorter, manpower requirements are reduced and work quality is improved. Despite the up front costs, the benefits over the following 1-3 years typically outweigh the expenses.

  12. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehlau, P. E.; Pratt, J. C.; Markin, J. T.; Scurry, T., Jr.

    Versatile microprocessor systems permit more efficient, and more useful methods for monitoring nuclear materials. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quntitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high to low energy gamma ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. Microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set hias levels in plastic scintillators and a state of health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  13. Summary Report on Beam and Radiation Generation, Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D. F.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  14. APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, R.

    2013-06-09

    Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each

  15. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L.; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu, Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang, Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian

    2002-04-01

    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  16. Technology Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Howell, Joe T.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS, Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches. System level applications for the RHESE technology products are discussed.

  17. Characterization, monitoring, and sensor technology catalogue

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Esparza-Baca, C.; Jimenez, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    This document represents a summary of 58 technologies that are being developed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to provide site, waste, and process characterization and monitoring solutions to the DOE weapons complex. The information was compiled to provide performance data on OST-developed technologies to scientists and engineers responsible for preparing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FSs) and preparing plans and compliance documents for DOE cleanup and waste management programs. The information may also be used to identify opportunities for partnering and commercialization with industry, DOE laboratories, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. Each technology is featured in a format that provides: (1) a description, (2) technical performance data, (3) applicability, (4) development status, (5) regulatory considerations, (6) potential commercial applications, (7) intellectual property, and (8) points-of-contact. Technologies are categorized into the following areas: (1) Bioremediation Monitoring, (2) Decontamination and Decommissioning, (3) Field Analytical Laboratories, (4) Geophysical and Hydrologic Characterization, (5) Hazardous Inorganic Contaminant Analysis, (6) Hazardous Organic Contaminant Analysis, (7) Mixed Waste, (8) Radioactive Contaminant Analysis, (9) Remote Sensing,(10)Sampling and Drilling, (11) Statistically Guided Sampling, and (12) Tank Waste.

  18. Variable filtered photographic film as a radiation detector for environmental radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdullah, Abdul Adam; Hanafiah, Megat Ahmad Kamal Megat

    2013-05-01

    Environmental radiation is an ionising radiation that present in the natural environment which mostly originates from cosmic rays and radionuclide agents in the environment. This may lead the population to be exposed to the radiation. Therefore, the environmental radiation needs to be observed cautiously to minimize the impact of radiation. However, there is no specific or proper monitoring device that provides an outdoor environmental radiation monitoring. Hence, a new outdoor environmental radiation monitoring device was developed. A photographic film has been chosen as a dosimeter. The purpose of this study was to prove the covered photographic film attached with variable filter can be used to develop environmental radiation monitoring device to detect the ionising radiation. The filter used was variable thickness of plastic, aluminium (Al) and lead (Pb). The result from the study showed that the mean optical density (OD) values for medium speed film are in the range 0.41 to 0.73, and for fast speed film the OD values are in the range 0.51 to 1.35. The OD values decreased when the filter was attached. This has proven that the photographic film can be used to detect radiation and fast speed film was more sensitive compared to medium speed film.

  19. Radiation Monitoring with Diamond Sensors in BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, A

    2004-07-13

    In order to safeguard the silicon vertex tracker in the BaBar detector from excessive radiation damage, cumulative dose and instantaneous dose rates are continuously monitored. As an upgrade to the current radiation monitoring system which uses silicon PIN-diodes, we are examining the possible use of single-crystal and/or polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds. The radiation responses of several CVD diamonds have been tested on time scales from tens of nanoseconds to thousands of seconds in order to determine their integrity in monitoring accumulated dose and their response to large sudden changes in dose rates. Two polycrystalline CVD diamonds have been installed near the silicon vertex tracker near existing silicon PIN-diodes for comparative studies. CVD diamond radiation sensors have also been tested using {sup 60}Co and in various magnetic field configurations.

  20. Adaptable radiation monitoring system and method

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Beauchamp, Brock R.; Mauger, G. Joseph; Nelson, Karl E.; Mercer, Michael B.; Pletcher, David C.; Riot, Vincent J.; Schek, James L.; Knapp, David A.

    2006-06-20

    A portable radioactive-material detection system capable of detecting radioactive sources moving at high speeds. The system has at least one radiation detector capable of detecting gamma-radiation and coupled to an MCA capable of collecting spectral data in very small time bins of less than about 150 msec. A computer processor is connected to the MCA for determining from the spectral data if a triggering event has occurred. Spectral data is stored on a data storage device, and a power source supplies power to the detection system. Various configurations of the detection system may be adaptably arranged for various radiation detection scenarios. In a preferred embodiment, the computer processor operates as a server which receives spectral data from other networked detection systems, and communicates the collected data to a central data reporting system.

  1. Perfluorinated polymer optical fiber for gamma radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, P.; Mihai, L.; Sporea, D.; Negut, D.; Krebber, K.

    2016-05-01

    The sensitivity of low-loss perfluorinated polymer optical fiber (PF-POF) to gamma radiation is investigated for on-line radiation monitoring purposes. The radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of a commercial PF-POF based on Cytop material is measured in the visible spectral region. The fiber RIA shows strong wavelength dependence with rapid increase towards the blue side of the spectrum. The wide range of radiation sensitivities is available via careful selection of appropriate monitoring wavelength. The accessible sensitivities span from 1.6 +/- 0.2 dBm-1/kGy measured at 750 nm to 18.3 +/- 0.7 dBm-1/kGy measured at 420 nm. The fairly high radiation sensitivity as well as its wide tunability makes the fiber a promising candidate for a broad range of applications.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  3. Radiation and Reliability Concerns for Modern Nonvolatile Memory Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Friendlich, Mark R.; Kim, Hak S.; Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Buchner, S. P.; McMorrow, D.; Mavis, D. G.; Eaton, P. H.; Castillo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial nonvolatile memory technology is attractive for space applications, but radiation issues are serious concerns. In addition, we discuss combined radiation/reliability concerns which are only beginning to be addressed.

  4. Land border monitoring with remote sensing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw

    2010-09-01

    The remote sensing technology has many practical applications in different fields of science and industry. There is also a need to examine its usefulness for the purpose of land border surveillance. This research started with analysis of potential direct use of Earth Observation technology for monitoring migrations of people and preventing smuggling. The research, however, proved that there are still many fields within which the EO technology needs to be improved. From that point the analysis focused on improving Border Permeability Index which utilizes EO techniques as a source of information. The result of BPI analysis with use of high resolution data provides new kind of information which can support and make more effective work of authorities from security domain.

  5. Environmental radiation protection: philosophy, monitoring and standards.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Augustin

    2004-01-01

    The Euratom Treaty confers important powers to the European Commission with regard to monitoring and assessment of levels of radioactivity in the environment and discharges with effluents (Articles 35-37 of the Euratom Treaty). Current developments in the area relate to harmonised reporting of environmental data and to harmonisation of effluent monitoring data. Both developments relate to the requirement under the new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for a realistic assessment of population exposure. Guidance to this effect is being prepared by the Article 31 Group of Experts. In the context of Article 36 intercomparison exercises for radionuclides measurements in environmental samples are organised. New challenges for environmental monitoring result from the requirement under the BSS to regulate also industries processing NORM materials. Also the international move towards extending the scope of environmental radioactivity to the protection of biota opens new perspectives.

  6. A low radiation computed tomography protocol for monitoring shunted hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    George, Kuriakose J; Roy, Deb

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) requires highest radiation doses in radiology. The collective dose from the use of radiation in medicine is rising, partly due to increase in CT use as well as the growing popularity of multislice scanners. There is growing concern from multiple studies that radiation from repeated CT scans could induce malignancies later in life. Patients with hydrocephalus are unique in that they are often subjected to repeated CT imaging throughout their lives to monitor whether their hydrocephalus is under control. We designed a study to see whether a low dose radiation CT protocol could provide effective information for monitoring hydrocephalus. A pilot study was done with 10 patients with hydrocephalus who needed CT scanning to monitor their hydrocephalus. The CT protocol was altered for each patient to sequentially bring down the radiation dose to the minimum level, which would provide sufficient diagnostic information. Based on the pilot study, a new low dose CT scanning protocol was devised and tested on 25 shunted patients who needed monitoring of their hydrocephalus. All images were carefully scrutinized by a consultant neuroradiologist and consultant neurosurgeon to ensure that the following diagnostic information could be analyzed: 1. ventricular size, 2. cisterns, 3. sulcii, and 4. cathet er position All low-dose CT images were diagnostically acceptable and provided sufficient information to the requesting clinician. None of the subjects required repeat imaging. The effective radiation dose was reduced from 2.2 mSv using a conventional CT protocol to 0.29 mSv with the new low dose CT protocol. The new CT protocol provides 87% less effective radiation dose compared with conventional scans. We propose a new low dose CT protocol which can be used for monitoring shunted hydrocephalus. The radiation to the patient with this protocol is comparable to that of a skull X-ray. However, this protocol should only be requested by a clinician who is aware

  7. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  8. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  9. CVD Diamonds in the BABAR Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, M

    2004-06-28

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  10. TOWARDS A NOVEL MODULAR ARCHITECTURE FOR CERN RADIATION MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Boukabache, Hamza; Pangallo, Michel; Ducos, Gael; Cardines, Nicola; Bellotta, Antonio; Toner, Ciarán; Perrin, Daniel; Forkel-Wirth, Doris

    2017-04-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability. Based on these two main principles, new detectors are currently being developed that will be capable of measuring very low dose rates down to 50 nSv h-1, whilst being able to measure radiation over an extensive range of 8 decades without any auto scaling. To reach these performances, CERN Radiation MOnitoring Electronics (CROME), the new generation of CERN radiation monitors, is based on the versatile architecture that includes new read-out electronics developed by the Instrumentation and Logistics section of the CERN Radiation Protection Group as well as a reconfigurable system on chip capable of performing complex processing calculations. Beside the capabilities of CROME to continuously measure the ambient dose rate, the system generates radiation alarms, provides interlock signals, drives alarm display units through a fieldbus and provides long-term, permanent and reliable data logging. The measurement tests performed during the first phase of the development show very promising results that pave the way to the second phase: the certification. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor: Concept, Design and Space Weather Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanova, Yulia; Irshad, Ranah; Griffin, Doug; Araujo, Henrique; Mitchell, Edward; Turchetta, Renato; Woodward, Simon; Velagapudi, Bindu; Menicucci, Alessandra; Daly, Eamonn

    2015-04-01

    The high energy plasma population, i.e. inside the radiation belts and within solar energetic particle events, is extremely damaging to satellite electronics and human health. Therefore monitoring, understanding of the physics behind and prediction of space radiation strength is a crucial aspect of space weather research and applications. In addition, the availability of good quality housekeeping data on the ionizing radiation environment in and around spacecraft systems is recognised as highly desirable for the efficient design and operation of spacecraft. Yet the engineering and economic costs of integrating such sensors into flight systems are a serious barrier to their widespread adoption. In light of this, the Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor (HMRM) has been developed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council and Imperial College London within the framework of an ESA technology development contract. The device is significantly smaller and lighter than current space technology with modest power requirements (1W) meaning that it has negligible impact on the spacecraft's overall resources. Furthermore, its simple electrical and data interfaces result in minimal integration costs. The HMRM is designed as a real-time radiation monitor with provides additional scientific data sets, such as reconstructed particle spectra of high-energy plasma population. The instrument energy coverage of 35 keV - 6 MeV for electrons and 600 keV - 500 MeV for protons makes the HMRM an ideal instrument to monitor and study the radiation environment of near-Earth space and to be widely used for space weather monitoring and research.

  12. Monitoring structure movement with laser tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, Luigi; Giussani, Alberto; Roncoroni, Fabio; Previtali, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the use of laser tracking technology for structure monitoring. In this field the use of this precise instrument is innovative and therefore new investigations are needed for civil structures, especially for applications carried out during unstable environmental conditions. On the other hand, as laser trackers are today very used in industrial applications aimed at collecting data at high speed with precisions superior to +/-0.05 mm, they seem quite promising for those civil engineering applications where numerous geodetic tools, often coupled with mechanical and electrical instruments, are usually used to inspect structure movements. This work illustrates three real civil engineering monitoring applications where laser tracking technology was used to detect object movements. The first one is a laboratory testing for the inspection of a beam (bending moment and shear). The second experiment is the stability inspection of a bridge. The last experiment is one of the first attempts where laser trackers tried to substitute traditional high precision geometric leveling for monitoring an important historical building: the Cathedral of Milan. The achieved results, pro and contra along with some practical issues are described.

  13. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Yussup, F. Ibrahim, M. M. Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Haris, M. F.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-22

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  14. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  15. Modeling radiation conditions in orbits of projected system of small satellites for radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    Calculated estimates are presented for the accumulated radiation doses behind the shields of various thicknesses in the orbits of projected at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University system of small satellites for radiation monitoring. The results are analyzed and compared with the calculation data for other actively exploited near-Earth orbits.

  16. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

  17. LISA-PF radiation monitor performance during the evolution of SEP events for the monitoring of test-mass charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Ao, X.; Fabi, M.; Laurenza, M.; Li, G.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.; Verkhoglyadova, O.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic rays of solar and galactic origin at energies >100 MeV/n charge and induce spurious forces on free-floating test masses on board interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection in space. LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF), the technology testing mission for eLISA/NGO, will carry radiation monitors for on board test-mass charging monitoring. We present here the results of a simulation of radiation monitor performance during the evolution of solar energetic particle (SEP) events of different intensity. This simulation was carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo package by taking into account for the first time both energy and spatial distributions of solar protons for the SEP events of 23 February 1956, 15 November 1960 and 7 May 1978. Input data for the Monte Carlo simulations was inferred from neutron monitor measurements. Conversely, for the SEP event of 13 December 2006 observed by the PAMELA experiment in space, we used the proton pitch angle distribution (PAD) computed from the Particle Acceleration and Transport in the Heliosphere (PATH) code. We plan to adopt this approach at the time of LISA-PF data analysis in order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor observations and test-mass charging. The results of this work can be extended to the future space interferometers and other space missions carrying instruments for SEP detection.

  18. Autodialer technology monitors momentary outagse - inexpensively

    SciTech Connect

    Mericle, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    It is no longer possible for utilities to ignore momentary outages. Utility customers are demanding more reliable service. Blinking digital clocks, lost VCR, computer, and microwave programs, and decreased factory production frustrate customers and lead to their increased sensitivity to momentary outages. Because of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, it soon may be possible for customers to vent their dissatisfaction by switching utilities. Before these momentary outages can be managed, however, the utility must know what is happening on its system. It is embarrassing to acknowledge that irate customers, complaining about service continuity, know more about system disturbances than we do. This is what motivated Idaho Power Company engineers to seek an effective momentary outage monitoring system. The outcome of our search exceeded our expectations. Autodialer technology provided the desired monitoring system at a reasonable cost.

  19. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  20. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  1. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  2. Radiation Monitoring System of 30 MeV Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Hur, Min-Goo; Jeong, Gyosung; Kim, Jongil

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation monitoring system was implemented at KAERI for a 30-MeV cyclotron. This system consists of several types of radiation measuring systems for ambient dose equivalent rate measurements of outside photon and neutron areas as well as inside the cyclotron, and monitors the alpha and beta particulates released from a stack, as well as the results of worker contamination at the portal of the cyclotron. In addition, an automatic alarm system is also mounted if there are alarms in the measuring systems.

  3. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  4. New site characterization and monitoring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Bruce J.; Gillispie, Gregory D.; Bohne, David A.; Lindstrom, David R.

    1995-10-01

    The cost of characterizing and monitoring U.S. government hazardous waste sites could exceed $500 billion utilizing traditional methods and technology. New sensor technologies are being developed to meet the nation's environmental remediation and compliance programs. In 1993, the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory and Loral Defense System, Eagan (formerly a division of Unisys Corporation) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) to commercialize fiber optic laser-induced fluorescence technology that had been developed with U.S. Air Force funding a North Dakota State University (NDSU). A consortium consisting of the CRDA partners (USAF and Loral), Dakota Technologies Inc., and NDSU submitted a proposal to the advanced Research Projects Agency, Technology Reinvestment Project and won an award to fund the commercialization. The result, the Rapid Optical Screening Tool or ROST is a state-of-the-art laser spectroscopy system for analysis of aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and groundwater. With ROST, environmental investigators are able to find, classify, and map the distribution of many hazardous chemicals in the field instead of waiting for reports to come back from the analytical laboratory. The research and development program leading to prototype laser spectrometers is summarized along with results from laboratory and field demonstrations illustrating system performance and benefits for site characterization. The technology has recently been demonstrated in Europe in Germany, the Netherlands, France an several sites in the United Kingdom having light, medium, and heavy aromatic hydrocarbon contamination from fuel spills and refinery or chemical plant operations. The use of the ROST system to find hydrocarbon contamination is now being offered as a service by Loral Corporation.

  5. [Organization of monitoring of electromagnetic radiation in the urban environment].

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, S I; Dvoeglazova, S V; Koz'min, V A; Kochkin, D E; Begishev, M R

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe new current approaches to monitoring the environment, including the sources of electromagnetic radiation and noise. Electronic maps of the area under study are shown to be made, by constructing the isolines or distributing the actual levels of controlled factors. These current approaches to electromagnetic and acoustic monitoring make it possible to automate a process of measurements, to analyze the established situation, and to simplify the risk controlling methodology.

  6. Dose build up correction for radiation monitors in high-energy bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Nair, Haridas G; Nayak, M K; Dev, Vipin; Thakkar, K K; Sarkar, P K; Sharma, D N

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radiation monitors have been found to underestimate the personal dose equivalent in the high-energy bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields encountered near electron storage rings. Depth-dose measurements in a water phantom were carried out with a radiation survey meter in the bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields from a 450 MeV electron storage ring to find out the magnitude of the underestimation. Dose equivalent indicated by the survey meter was found to build up with increase in thickness of water placed in front of the meter up to certain depth and then reduce with further increase in thickness. A dose equivalent build up factor was estimated from the measurements. An absorbed dose build up factor in a water phantom was also estimated from calculations performed using the Monte Carlo codes, EGS-4 and EGSnrc. The calculations are found to be in very good agreement with the measurements. The studies indicate inadequacy of commercially available radiation monitors for radiation monitoring within shielded enclosures and in streaming high-energy photon radiation fields from electron storage rings, and the need for proper correction for use in such radiation fields.

  7. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  8. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) for Variable Heat Rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology leverages the temperature dependent phase change of shape memory alloys (SMAs) to drive the shape of a flexible radiator panel. The opening/closing of the radiator panel, as a function of temperature, passively adapts the radiator's rate of heat rejection in response to a vehicle's needs.

  9. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Green, J. Andrew; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark F.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Sossong, Michael J.

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  10. New techniques of low level environmental radiation monitoring at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    P. Degtiarenko, V. Popov

    2010-07-01

    We present the first long-term environmental radiation monitoring results obtained using the technique of pulse mode readout for the industry-standard Reuter-Stokes RSS-1013 argon-filled high pressure ionization chambers (HPIC). With novel designs for the front-end electronics readout and customized signal processing algorithms, we are capable of detecting individual events of gas ionization in the HPIC, caused by interactions of gammas and charged particles in the gas. The technique provides enough spectroscopic information to distinguish between several different types of environmental and man-made radiation. The technique also achieves a high degree of sensitivity and stability of the data, allowing long-term environmental radiation monitoring with unprecedented precision.

  11. Radiation Effects in Advanced Microelectonic Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Several new radiation phenomena have been observed in laboratory testing of advanced microelectonics that are not yet of sufficient importance for typical space applications, but provide insight into the likely effects of scaling and device design on radiation hardness.

  12. Characteristics of the earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Cess, Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    The earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors, active cavity pyrheliometers, have been developed to measure every two weeks the total optical solar irradiance from the earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 spacecraft platforms. In the unfiltered 0.2-50-micron wavelength broadband region, the monitors were used to obtain 1365 W/sq m as the mean value for the solar irradiance, with measurement precisions and accuracies approaching 0.1 and 0.2 percent, respectively. The design and characteristics of the solar monitors are presented along with the data reduction model. For the October 1984 through July 1985 period, the resulting ERBS and NOAA-9 solar irradiance values are intercompared.

  13. Characteristics of the earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors.

    PubMed

    Lee Iii, R B; Barkstrom, B R; Cess, R D

    1987-08-01

    The earth radiation budget experiment solar monitors, active cavity pyrheliometers, have been developed to measure every two weeks the total optical solar irradiance from the earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA-9 spacecraft platforms. In the unfiltered 0.2-50-microm wavelength broadband region, the monitors were used to obtain 1365 W/m(2) as the mean value for the solar irradiance with measurement precisions and accuracies approaching 0.1 and 0.2%, respectively. The design and characteristics of the solar monitors are presented along with the data reduction model. For the Oct. 1984 through July 1985 period, the resulting ERBS and NOAA-9 solar irradiance values are intercompared.

  14. Radiation-Induced Attenuation of Perfluorinated Polymer Optical Fibers for Radiation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Stajanca, Pavol; Krebber, Katerina

    2017-08-25

    Due to some of their unique properties, optical fiber dosimeters are attractive and extensively researched devices in several radiation-related areas. This work evaluates the performance and potential of commercial perfluorinated polymer optical fibers (PF-POFs) for radiation monitoring applications. Gamma radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of two commercial PF-POFs is evaluated in the VIS spectral region. Influence of a dose rate and temperature on RIA measurement is investigated, along with defect stability and measurement repeatability. Co-extruded PF-POFs are identified as more suitable for radiation monitoring applications due to lower dose-rate dependence. With co-extruded PF-POF, RIA measurement holds potential for highly-sensitive radiation monitoring with good reproducibility. The results show that operation in the blue part of the spectrum provides most favorable performance in terms of the largest nominal radiation sensitivity, lower temperature, and dose-rate dependence as well as higher defect stability. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that PF-POFs can be used for distributed detection of radiation with doses down to tens of Grays. The off-the-shelf, user-friendly PF-POF could be of interest as a cheap, disposable sensor for various applications, especially of a more qualitative nature.

  15. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging].

    PubMed

    Jungmann, F; Pinto dos Santos, D; Hempel, J; Düber, C; Mildenberger, P

    2013-06-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object.Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  18. Radiation monitoring policy at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.; Heinzelman, K.; Perdue, G.

    1998-02-04

    When the accelerator first began operation it was decided that, until we had the necessary dosimetry data to decide otherwise, we would badge the entire worker and experimental population. Each person was issued a dosimetry badge that contained 4 TLD elements. Badges were processed on a monthly basis. After three years of analyzing a total of 65,000 TLD elements, the decision was made to modify the radiation monitoring policy at the ALS. Only those individuals in the workforce that have any potential for exposure, no matter how small, would be badged. Subsequently, DOE conducted an independent review of the ALS radiation monitoring and dosimetry program. This review concluded that the ALS program, if expanded as proposed, would be adequate under the 10 CFR 835 Rule to establish radiation exposures to an acceptable level of confidence. The review team recommended the ALS provide more comprehensive documentation on the basis for its radiation protection and monitoring program. This document describes the technical justification for that program.

  19. Spectroscopic radiation imager for Internet-based safeguards and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodring, Mitchell; Souza, David; Honig, Larry; Squillante, Michael R.; Entine, Gerald

    1999-10-01

    Monitoring nuclear materials that is dangerously radioactive, remotely located, or difficult to access is a challenging task. The necessary research required to develop a system capable of remotely monitoring radioactive materials has been undertaken at Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. We report on a system utilizing a spectroscopic gamma-ray imager for real-time observation of sensitive nuclear materials over the Internet or dedicated networks. Research at RMD has produced a spectroscopic gamma-ray imager centered on a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube coupled to scintillation crystal and a coded aperture. A gamma-ray intensity pattern from the detector is stored and processed by a portable computer workstation and then mathematically corrected to yield the original radiation-source image. The pseudo-color, radiation-source image is overlaid on a co-registered video picture of the same area captured by a high-resolution charge-coupled device. The combined image is displayed as an accurate map of gamma-ray sources in the physical environment. Recent developments involve instrument control and data transmission through computer networks. Alarm triggers based on changes in the video image, the radiation image, the energy spectrum are under development. Work to remotely control alarm sensitivity and type, as well as the image update frequency, has also been examined.

  20. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Balasis, G.; Chatzichristou, E.; Cully, C.; Georgiou, M.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Macusova, E.; Maget, V.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Usanova, M.

    2012-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Furthermore, we will incorporate multi-spacecraft particle measurements into data assimilation tools, aiming at a new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven to be a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system.

  1. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  2. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  3. IAEA programme in the field of radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad

    2005-07-01

    Radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material modification are well-established processes. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 electron industrial accelerators in operation worldwide. A new advancement in the field of radiation sources engineering is the development of high power direct e-/X conversion sources based on electron accelerators. Technologies to be developed beside environmental applications could be nanomaterials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers' processing. New products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides have already been commercialised in many countries of the East Asia and Pacific Region, especially in those being rich in natural polymers. Very important and promising applications concern environmental protection-radiation technology, being a clean and environment friendly process, helps to curb pollutants' emission as well. Industrial plants for flue gas treatment have been constructed in Poland and China. The pilot plant in Bulgaria using this technology has just started its operation. The Polish plant is equipped with accelerators of over 1 MW power, a breakthrough in radiation technology application. The industrial plant for wastewater treatment is under development in Korea and a pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation has been in operation in India for many years. Due to recent developments, the Agency has restructured its programme and organized a Technical Meeting (TM) on "Emerging Applications of Radiation Technology for the 21st Century" at its Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, in April 2003, to review the present situation and possible developments of radiation technology to contribute to a sustainable development. This meeting provided the basic input to launch others in the most important fields of radiation technology applications: "Advances in Radiation Chemistry of Polymers" (Notre Dame, USA

  4. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  5. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  6. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  7. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Belooussov, Andrei V.

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: AMBIENT AMMONIA MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  9. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  10. Demonstration of a vapor density monitoring system using UV radiation generated from quasi-phasematched SHG waveguide devices

    SciTech Connect

    Galanti, S.A.; Berzins, L.V.; Brown, J.B.; Tamosaitis, R.S.; Bortz, M.L.; Day, T.; Fejer, M.M.; Wang, W.

    1996-01-29

    Many industrial applications require non-intrusive diagnostics for process monitoring and control. One example is the physical vapor deposition of titanium alloys. In this paper we present a system based on laser absorption spectroscopy for monitoring titanium vapor. Appropriate transitions for monitoring high rate vaporization of titanium require extension of available IR diode technology to the UV. The heart of this vapor density monitoring system is the 390nm radiation generated from quasi-phase matched interactions within periodically poled waveguides. In this paper, key system components of a UV laser absorption spectroscopy based system specific for titanium density monitoring are described. Analysis is presented showing the minimum power levels necessary from the ultraviolet laser source. Performance data for prototype systems using second harmonic generation (SHG) waveguide technology is presented. Application of this technology to other alloy density monitoring systems is discussed.

  11. FPGA-based prototype of portable environmental radiation monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Benahmed, A.; Elkarch, H.

    2015-07-01

    This new portable radiological environmental monitor consists of 2 main components, Gamma ionization chamber and a FPGA-based electronic enclosure linked to convivial software for treatment and analyzing. The HPIC ion chamber is the heart of this radiation measurement system and is running in range from 0 to 100 mR/h, so that the sensitivity at the output is 20 mV/μR/h, with a nearly flat energy response from 0,07 to 10 MEV. This paper presents a contribution for developing a new nuclear measurement data acquisition system based on Cyclone III FPGA Starter Kit ALTERA, and a user-friendly software to run real-time control and data processing. It was developed to substitute the older radiation monitor RSS-112 PIC installed in CNESTEN's Laboratory in order to improve some of its functionalities related to acquisition time and data memory capacity. As for the associated acquisition software, it was conceived under the virtual LabView platform from National Instrument, and offers a variety of system setup for radiation environmental monitoring. It gives choice to display both the statistical data and the dose rate. Statistical data shows a summary of current data, current time/date and dose integrator values, and the dose rate displays the current dose rate in large numbers for viewing from a distance as well as the date and time. The prototype version of this new instrument and its data processing software has been successfully tested and validated for viewing and monitoring the environmental radiation of Moroccan nuclear center. (authors)

  12. Radiation factors in space and a system for their monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovtunenko, V M; Kremnev, R S; Pichkhadze, K M; Bogomolov, V B; Kontor, N N; Filippichev, S A; Petrov, V M; Pissarenko, N F

    1994-10-01

    The radiation environment is of special concern when the spaceship flies in deep space. The annual fluence of the galactic cosmic rays is approximately 10(8) cm-2 and the absorbed dose of the solar cosmic rays can reach 10 Gy per event behind the shielding thickness of 3-5 g cm-2 Al. For the radiation environment monitoring it is planned to place a measuring complex on the space probes "Mars" and "Spectr" flying outside the magnetosphere. This complex is to measure: cosmic rays composition, particle flux, dose equivalent, energy and LET spectra, solar X-rays spectrum. On line data transmission by the space probes permits to obtain the radiation environment data in space.

  13. A theoretical approach to calibrate radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Abbas, Mahmoud I

    2008-10-01

    Radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems are widely used at international border crossings, where they are applied to the task of detecting nuclear devices, special nuclear material, and radiation dispersal device materials that could appear at borders. The requirements and constraints on RPM systems deployed at high-volume border crossings are significantly different from those at weapons facilities or steel recycling plants, the former being required to rapidly detect localized sources of radiation with a very high detection probability and low false-alarm rate, while screening all of the traffic without impeding the flow of commerce [Chambers, W.H., Atwater, H.F., Fehlau, P.E., Hastings, R.D., Henry, C.N., Kunz, W.E., Sampson, T.E., Whittlesey, T.H., Worth, G.M., 1974. Portal Monitor for Diversion Safeguards. LA-5681, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM]. In the present work, compact analytical formulae are derived and used to calibrate two RPM systems with isotropic radiating sources: (i) polyvinyltoluene (PVT) or plastic and (ii) thallium-doped crystalline sodium iodide, NaI(Tl), gamma-ray detector materials. The calculated efficiencies are compared to measured values reported in the literatures, showing very good agreement.

  14. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A.

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  15. Radiation Science Enabled by the Radiation Monitoring Subsystem (RMS) for the Planned Europa Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, I.; Paranicas, C.; Goldsten, J. O.; Meitzler, R.; Peplowski, P. N.; Maurer, R.

    2016-12-01

    Like any mission to Jupiter, radiation is an important consideration for the planned Europa mission as it would frequently travel through Jupiter's harsh radiation environment. The entire Europa mission flight system would have to be designed to survive and meet its mission objectives in the expected radiation environment. Although a significant effort has been spent in the past decade to improve the understanding of the radiation environment at Jupiter using the data from previous missions (mostly from the data from Energetic Particle Detector onboard Galileo), our understanding of the temporal and spatial behavior of the radiation environment at Jupiter has a lot of uncertainty. In an attempt to better understand the local radiation environment during the mission and to use the data to help the operation of the spacecraft in case of possible radiation-related issues, the planned Europa mission would have a radiation monitoring sub-system (RMS) on board the spacecraft. The RMS currently envisioned will measure the total integrated ionizing dose, both inside and outside of the main spacecraft vault, by using multiple radiation-sensitive MOSFET devices, and it will sample the energetic electron environment outside the vault using two or more charge monitors under different levels of shielding. While the RMS is foremost an engineering subsystem, RMS data could be used to further Jovian/Europa radiation science, in particular the charge monitor data, which provides high-resolution measurements of dose rate at frequent intervals ( 1 s). Using RMS data, it may be possible to construct electron energy spectra as a function of position around Europa, map the estimated precipitating flux onto Europa, and characterize the dose rate at different locations in the Jovian magnetosphere. Such data products could facilitate the study of several important scientific topics: radiation-induced surface modification of Europa, survivability of complex molecules including organics, the

  16. Thailand radiation monitoring program: a preliminary result analysis of the country's background radiation.

    PubMed

    Krisanangkura, Piyawan; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring in the context of nuclear-related activities refers to the measurements of ambient gamma dose rates in the environment and radioactivity in air, water, soil etc. Since nuclear power programme in Thailand has not yet been in place, the environment surveillance programme in Thailand currently focuses on establishing 'baseline' environmental radiation levels and radioactivity for the purpose of establishing impacts of future possible sources such as nuclear accidents. The objective is to assure assessments concerning radiation safety for the environment and public. At present, Thailand's monitoring programme operates eight fixed monitoring stations installed in various regions of Thailand; four of which have been in operation since late 2010. The ambient gamma dose rate data are routinely collected from those four real-time monitoring stations starting from October 2010 to September 2011 as described in this study. Also, the radiation data from each station are statically analysed. This study found that the dose rate from the stations located in north and north-east of Thailand showed an apparent tendency towards a diurnal pattern. With these routine data, the average exposure dose rate was possible to estimate in Thailand. Additionally, the assessment of the equivalent dose from natural background radiation was estimated.

  17. Approaches to radiation-hardened I2L technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahraman, A.; Chang, S. Y.

    1980-12-01

    Design techniques are described for achieving radiation-hardened Schottky-base I2L (SBI2L) circuits. Radiation performance data are presented for this new technology and compared with results for conventional or Schottky-base I2L. This concept is extended to VLSI designs. Finally, as an application of SBI2L, a new design is presented for a radiation-hardened static random-access-memory (RAM) cell.

  18. Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program: Site Characterization and Monitoring Technologies Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ETV Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot is composed of EPA, DoD, DOE, other Federal agencies, state regulators, technology evaluation and verification entities, and potential end users of these technologies to facilitate independent..

  19. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  20. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: ARSENIC MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This technology ...

  1. Biosensing Technologies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Anna; Tartaggia, Stefano; Alvau, Maria Domenica; Polo, Federico; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2017-07-20

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients' biofluids at designated intervals to allow a close and timely control of their dosage. This practice allows for rapid medical intervention in case of toxicity-related issues and/or adjustment of dosage to better fit the therapeutic demand. Currently, TDM is performed in centralized laboratories employing instruments, such as immunoassay analyzers and mass spectrometers that can be run only by trained personnel. However the time required for the preparation, samples analysis, and data processing, together with the related financial cost, severely affects the application of TDM in medical practices. Therefore, a new generation of analytical tools is necessary to respond to the timely need of drug administration or reduction aiming at effectively treating oncologic patients. Technological advances in the field of nanosciences and biosensors offer the unique opportunity to address such issues. The interest for the so-called nanobiosensors is considerably increasing, particularly in drug discovery and clinical chemistry, even though there are only few examples reporting their use for TDM. The techniques employing nanobiosensors are mainly based on electrochemical, optical, and mass detection systems. In this review we described the most promising methodologies that, in our opinion, will bring TDM towards the next stage of clinical practice in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. U.S. Government shutdown degrades aviation radiation monitoring during solar radiation storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Gersey, Brad; Wilkins, Richard; Mertens, Chris; Atwell, William; Bailey, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Government shutdown from 1 to 17 October 2013 significantly affected U.S. and global aviation radiation monitoring. The closure occurred just as a S2 radiation storm was in progress with an average dose rate of 20 μSv h-1. We estimate that during the radiation event period, one-half million passengers were flying in the affected zone and, of this population, four would have received sufficient dose to contract fatal cancer in their lifetimes. The radiation environment can be treated like any other risk-prone weather event, e.g., rain, snow, icing, clear air turbulence, convective weather, or volcanic ash, and should be made available to flight crews in a timely way across the entire air traffic management system. The shutdown highlighted the need for active operational monitoring of the global radiation environment. Aviation radiation risk mitigation steps are simple and straightforward, i.e., fly at a lower altitude and/or use a more equatorward route. Public tools and media methods are also needed from the space weather scientific and operational communities to provide this information in a timely and accessible manner to the flying public.

  3. Silicon carbide semiconductor technology for high temperature and radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on silicon carbide semiconductor technology and its potential for enabling electronic devices to function in high temperature and high radiation environments are presented. Topics covered include silicon carbide; sublimation growth of 6H-SiC boules; SiC chemical vapor deposition reaction system; 6H silicon carbide p-n junction diode; silicon carbide MOSFET; and silicon carbide JFET radiation response.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  7. The Engineering Radiation Monitor for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsten, J. O.; Maurer, R. H.; Peplowski, P. N.; Holmes-Siedle, A. G.; Herrmann, C. C.; Mauk, B. H.

    2013-11-01

    An Engineering Radiation Monitor (ERM) has been developed as a supplementary spacecraft subsystem for NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission. The ERM will monitor total dose and deep dielectric charging at each RBSP spacecraft in real time. Configured to take the place of spacecraft balance mass, the ERM contains an array of eight dosimeters and two buried conductive plates. The dosimeters are mounted under covers of varying shielding thickness to obtain a dose-depth curve and characterize the electron and proton contributions to total dose. A 3-min readout cadence coupled with an initial sensitivity of ˜0.01 krad should enable dynamic measurements of dose rate throughout the 9-hr RBSP orbit. The dosimeters are Radiation-sensing Field Effect Transistors (RadFETs) and operate at zero bias to preserve their response even when powered off. The range of the RadFETs extends above 1000 krad to avoid saturation over the expected duration of the mission. Two large-area (˜10 cm2) charge monitor plates set behind different thickness covers will measure the dynamic currents of weakly-penetrating electrons that can be potentially hazardous to sensitive electronic components within the spacecraft. The charge monitors can handle large events without saturating (˜3000 fA/cm2) and provide sufficient sensitivity (˜0.1 fA/cm2) to gauge quiescent conditions. High time-resolution (5 s) monitoring allows detection of rapid changes in flux and enables correlation of spacecraft anomalies with local space weather conditions. Although primarily intended as an engineering subsystem to monitor spacecraft radiation levels, real-time data from the ERM may also prove useful or interesting to a larger community.

  8. Advances in vaccine stability monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Stephen E

    2006-08-14

    Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM).

  9. Health Monitoring System Technology Assessments: Cost Benefits Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Renee M.; Murphy, Dennis A.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of sensor-based structural health monitoring is very diverse and encompasses a wide range of activities including initiatives and innovations involving the development of advanced sensor, signal processing, data analysis, and actuation and control technologies. In addition, it embraces the consideration of the availability of low-cost, high-quality contributing technologies, computational utilities, and hardware and software resources that enable the operational realization of robust health monitoring technologies. This report presents a detailed analysis of the cost benefit and other logistics and operational considerations associated with the implementation and utilization of sensor-based technologies for use in aerospace structure health monitoring. The scope of this volume is to assess the economic impact, from an end-user perspective, implementation health monitoring technologies on three structures. It specifically focuses on evaluating the impact on maintaining and supporting these structures with and without health monitoring capability.

  10. Noncontacting measurement technologies for space propulsion condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, M. R.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Collins, J. J.; Schwartzbart, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes four noncontacting measurement technologies that can be used in a turbopump condition monitoring system. The isotope wear analyzer, fiberoptic deflectometer, brushless torque-meter, and fiberoptic pyrometer can be used to monitor component wear, bearing degradation, instantaneous shaft torque, and turbine blade cracking, respectively. A complete turbopump condition monitoring system including these four technologies could predict remaining component life, thus reducing engine operating costs and increasing reliability.

  11. Noncontacting measurement technologies for space propulsion condition monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, M. R.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Collins, J. J.; Schwartzbart, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes four noncontacting measurement technologies that can be used in a turbopump condition monitoring system. The isotope wear analyzer, fiberoptic deflectometer, brushless torque-meter, and fiberoptic pyrometer can be used to monitor component wear, bearing degradation, instantaneous shaft torque, and turbine blade cracking, respectively. A complete turbopump condition monitoring system including these four technologies could predict remaining component life, thus reducing engine operating costs and increasing reliability.

  12. Optical Sensors for Monitoring Gamma and Neutron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Clark D.

    2011-01-01

    For safety and efficiency, nuclear reactors must be carefully monitored to provide feedback that enables the fission rate to be held at a constant target level via adjustments in the position of neutron-absorbing rods and moderating coolant flow rates. For automated reactor control, the monitoring system should provide calibrated analog or digital output. The sensors must survive and produce reliable output with minimal drift for at least one to two years, for replacement only during refueling. Small sensor size is preferred to enable more sensors to be placed in the core for more detailed characterization of the local fission rate and fuel consumption, since local deviations from the norm tend to amplify themselves. Currently, reactors are monitored by local power range meters (LPRMs) based on the neutron flux or gamma thermometers based on the gamma flux. LPRMs tend to be bulky, while gamma thermometers are subject to unwanted drift. Both electronic reactor sensors are plagued by electrical noise induced by ionizing radiation near the reactor core. A fiber optic sensor system was developed that is capable of tracking thermal neutron fluence and gamma flux in order to monitor nuclear reactor fission rates. The system provides near-real-time feedback from small- profile probes that are not sensitive to electromagnetic noise. The key novel feature is the practical design of fiber optic radiation sensors. The use of an actinoid element to monitor neutron flux in fiber optic EFPI (extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric) sensors is a new use of material. The materials and structure used in the sensor construction can be adjusted to result in a sensor that is sensitive to just thermal, gamma, or neutron stimulus, or any combination of the three. The tested design showed low sensitivity to thermal and gamma stimuli and high sensitivity to neutrons, with a fast response time.

  13. Rock Burst Monitoring by Integrated Microseismic and Electromagnetic Radiation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuelong; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zhonghui; Liu, Zhentang; Song, Dazhao; Qiu, Liming

    2016-11-01

    For this study, microseismic (MS) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) monitoring systems were installed in a coal mine to monitor rock bursts. The MS system monitors coal or rock mass ruptures in the whole mine, whereas the EMR equipment monitors the coal or rock stress in a small area. By analysing the MS energy, number of MS events, and EMR intensity with respect to rock bursts, it has been shown that the energy and number of MS events present a "quiet period" 1-3 days before the rock burst. The data also show that the EMR intensity reaches a peak before the rock burst and this EMR intensity peak generally corresponds to the MS "quiet period". There is a positive correlation between stress and EMR intensity. Buckling failure of coal or rock depends on the rheological properties and occurs after the peak stress in the high-stress concentration areas in deep mines. The MS "quiet period" before the rock burst is caused by the heterogeneity of the coal and rock structures, the transfer of high stress into internal areas, locked patches, and self-organized criticality near the stress peak. This study increases our understanding of coal and rock instability in deep mines. Combining MS and EMR to monitor rock burst could improve prediction accuracy.

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 19: Radiation Shielding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 19: Radiation Shielding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  19. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) Updates to Techport Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa; Bertagne, Christopher; Hartl, Darren; Witcomb, John; Cognata, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Shape-Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) project builds off the FY16 research effort that developed a flexible composite radiator panel and demonstrated its ability to actuate from SMA's attached to it. The proposed FY17 Shape-Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) project's goal is to 1) develop a practical radiator design with shape memory alloys (SMAs) bonded to the radiator's panel, and 2) build a multi-panel radiator prototype for subsequent system level thermal vacuum tests. The morphing radiator employs SMA materials to passively change its shape to adapt its rate of heat rejection to vehicle requirements. Conceptually, the radiator panel has a naturally closed position (like a cylinder) in a cold environment. Whenever the radiator's temperature gradually rises, SMA's affixed to the face sheet will pull the face sheet open a commensurate amount - increasing the radiators view to space and causing it to reject more heat. In a vehicle, the radiator's variable heat rejection capabilities would reduce the number of additional heat rejection devices in a vehicle's thermal control system. This technology aims to help achieve the required maximum to minimum heat rejection ratio required for manned space vehicles to adopt a lighter, simpler, single loop thermal control architecture (ATCS). Single loop architectures are viewed as an attractive means to reduce mass and complexity over traditional dual-loop solutions. However, fluids generally considered safe enough to flow within crewed cabins (e.g. propylene glycol-water mixtures) have much higher freezing points and viscosities than those used in the external sides of dual loop ATCSs (e.g. Ammonia and HFE7000).

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  1. New monitoring by thermogravimetry for radiation degradation of EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguski, J.; Przybytniak, G.; Łyczko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The radiation ageing of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA) as the jacket of cable applied in nuclear power plant was carried out by gamma rays irradiation, and the degradation was monitored by a thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The EVA decomposition rate in air by the isothermal at 400 °C decreased with increase of dose and also with decrease of the dose rate. The behavior of EVA jacket of cable indicated that the decomposition rate at 400 °C was reduced with increase of oxidation. The elongation at break by tensile test for the radiation aged EVA was closely related to the decomposition rate at 400 °C; therefore, the TGA might be applied for a diagnostic technique of the cable degradation.

  2. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  3. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  4. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of Ansto . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a...no radionuclide was detected that would be characteristic of the radioactive waste associated with NPW operations. Training 30. Ansto provided...and HMAS MORETON personnel were used to assist Ansto in impiementing the monitoring program. CONCLUSIONS 31. The program of radiation monitoring and

  5. Emerging Radiation Health-Risk Mitigation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Schimmerling, W.

    2004-02-04

    Past space missions beyond the confines of the Earth's protective magnetic field have been of short duration and protection from the effects of solar particle events was of primary concern. The extension of operational infrastructure beyond low-Earth orbit to enable routine access to more interesting regions of space will require protection from the hazards of the accumulated exposures of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). There are significant challenges in providing protection from the long-duration exposure to GCR: the human risks to the exposures are highly uncertain and safety requirements places unreasonable demands in supplying sufficient shielding materials in the design. A vigorous approach to future radiation health-risk mitigation requires a triage of techniques (using biological and technical factors) and reduction of the uncertainty in radiation risk models. The present paper discusses the triage of factors for risk mitigation with associated materials issues and engineering design methods.

  6. A beam radiation monitor based on CVD diamonds for SuperB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.

    2013-08-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond particle detectors are in use in the CERN experiments at LHC and at particle accelerator laboratories in Europe, USA and Japan mainly as beam monitors. Nowadays it is considered a proven technology with a very fast signal read-out and a very high radiation tolerance suitable for measurements in high radiation environment zones i.e. near the accelerators beam pipes. The specific properties of CVD diamonds make them a prime candidate for measuring single particles as well as high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the sub-nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems in hostile environments. A single-crystalline CVD (scCVD) diamond sensor, read out with a new generation of fast and high transition frequency SiGe bipolar transistor amplifiers, has been tested for an application as radiation monitor to safeguard the silicon vertex tracker in the SuperB detector from excessive radiation damage, cumulative dose and instantaneous dose rates. Test results with 5.5 MeV alpha particles from a 241Am radioactive source and from electrons from a 90Sr radioactive source are presented in this paper.

  7. Ionizing radiation in the polyelectrolytes technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Dragusin, M.; Radoiu, M.; Moraru, R.; Oproiu, C.; Toma, M.; Ferdes, O.; Jianu, A.; Bestea, V.; Manea, A.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma ray and accelerated electron beam application in the chemistry of polyelectrolytes is presented. The polyelectrolytes preparation is based on radiation induced polymerization of aqueous solutions containing an appropriate mixture of monomers such as acrylamide, acrylic acid, vinyl acetate, diallyldimethylammonium-chloride and certain initiators, complexing agents and chain transfer agents. The effects of absorbed dose, rate of absorbed dose and chemical composition of aqueous solution on the polymerization process are discussed. The results obtained by testing these polyelectrolytes with waste water from food industry are also given.

  8. Application of New Technologies to Radiation Biodosimetry in Mammalian Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    events and location of space orbits. Also, partial body exposures of different doses would be expected due to differences in shielding within the space...TR- 85-660D APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES TO RADIATION BIODOSIMETRY IN MAMMALIAN SYSTEMS Robert M. Sutherland, Ph.D. Edith M. Lord, Ph.D. Peter C...SUBJECT TERMS IContinue on reuerse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP I SUB. GR. Radiation biodosimetry , Centrifugal elutriation, Flow

  9. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The “HAWK” tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H * (10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H * (10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  10. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  11. Monitoring precipitation and lightning via changes in atmospheric gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, M.B.; Domondon, A.; Tsuchiya, S.; Tomiyama, G.

    2003-08-26

    Atmospheric {gamma}-radiation has been measured since 1999 and recently at three elevations 220m from the first site to ascertain position dependency and optimal elevation for observing {gamma}-rays from radon and radon-progeny found in precipitation. Radiation from time-independent and diurnal components was minimized in order to ascertain the reliability, accuracy and practicality of determining precipitation rates from correlated {gamma}-rates. Data taken with 4-12.9cm3 NaI detectors at elevations above ground of 9.91, 14.2, 15.7, and 21.4 m were fit with a model assuming a surface and/or volume deposition of radon progeny on/in water droplets during precipitation which predicts {gamma} -ray rates proportional to the 2/5 and/or 3/5 power of rain rates, respectively. With mostly surface deposition and age corrections for radon progeny, the correlation coefficients improved with elevation and reached a maximum at 0.95 around 20m. Atmospheric {gamma} radiation enables monitoring precipitation rates to 0.3 mm/h with time resolution limited only by counting statistics. High {gamma}-ray rates, decreasing with 40-minute half-life following lightning may be indirectly due to ions accelerated in electric field.

  12. Active Dust Mitigation Technology for Thermal Radiators for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Hopkins, J. W.; Holloway, N. M. H.; Connell, J. W.; Chen, A.; Irwin, S. A.; Case, S. O.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Dust accumulation on thermal radiator surfaces planned for lunar exploration will significantly reduce their efficiency. Evidence from the Apollo missions shows that an insulating layer of dust accumulated on radiator surfaces could not be removed and caused serious thermal control problems. Temperatures measured at different locations in the magnetometer on Apollo 12 were 38 C warmer than expected due to lunar dust accumulation. In this paper, we report on the application of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) technology being developed in our NASA laboratory and applied to thermal radiator surfaces. The EDS uses electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces generated by a grid of electrodes running a 2 micro A electric current to remove dust particles from surfaces. Working prototypes of EDS systems on solar panels and on thermal radiators have been successfully developed and tested at vacuum with clearing efficiencies above 92%. For this work EDS prototypes on flexible and rigid thermal radiators were developed and tested at vacuum.

  13. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Laurence; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jisnmin; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Wall, Joe

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  14. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Elder, M.G.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1984-08-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance (kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of light weight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  15. Heat pipe technology development for high temperature space radiator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Elder, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Technology requirements for heat pipe radiators, potentially among the lightest weight systems for space power applications, include flexible elements, and improved specific radiator performance(kg/kW). For these applications a flexible heat pipe capable of continuous operation through an angle of 180/sup 0/ has been demonstrated. The effect of bend angle on the heat pipe temperature distribution is reviewed. An analysis of lightweight membrane heat pipe radiators that use surface tension forces for fluid containment has been conducted. The design analysis of these lightweight heat pipes is described and a potential application in heat rejection systems for space nuclear power plants outlined.

  16. A framework for evaluating usability of clinical monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jeremy; Fels, Sidney; Kushniruk, Andre; Lim, Joanne; Ansermino, J Mark

    2007-10-01

    Technology design is a complex task, and acceptability is enhanced when usability is central to its design. Evaluating usability is a challenge for purchasers and developers of technology. We have developed a framework for testing the usability of clinical monitoring technology through literature review and experience designing clinical monitors. The framework can help designers meet key international usability norms. The framework includes these direct testing methods: thinking aloud, question asking, co-discovery, performance and psychophysiological measurement. Indirect testing methods include: questionnaires and interviews, observation and ethnographic studies, and self-reporting logs. Inspection, a third usability testing method, is also included. The use of these methods is described and practical examples of how they would be used in the development of an innovative monitor are given throughout. This framework is built on a range of methods to ensure harmony between users and new clinical monitoring technology, and have been selected to be practical to use.

  17. Survey of Technologies for Monitoring Containment Liners and Covers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report provides information on innovative long-term monitoring technologies to detect contaminant releases beneath a liner containment system and identify potential problems with the integrity of final containment covers.

  18. Calibration of the radiation monitor onboard Akebono using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Keiko; Takashima, Takeshi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    Natural high-energy electrons and protons (keV-MeV) in the space contaminate the data re-ciprocally. In order to calibrate the energy ranges and to remove data contamination on the radiation monitor (RDM) onboard the Japanese satellite, Akebono (EXOS-D), the detector is investigated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit of computational particle tracing. The semi-polar orbiting Akebono, launched in February 1989, is active now. This satellite has been observed the space environment at altitudes of several thousands km. The RDM instrument onboard Akebono monitors energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belt and gives important data accumulated for about two solar cycles. The data from RDM are for electrons in three energy channels of 0.3 MeV, protons in three energy channels of ¿ 30 MeV, and alpha particles in one energy channels of 15-45 MeV. The energy ranges are however based on information of about 20 years ago so that the data seem to include some errors actuary. In addition, these data include contamination of electrons and protons reciprocally. Actuary it is noticed that the electron data are contaminated by the solar protons but unknown quantitative amount of the contamination. Therefore we need data calibration in order to correct the energy ranges and to remove data contamination. The Geant4 simulation gives information of trajectories of incident and secondary particles whose are interacted with materials. We examine the RDM monitor using the Geant4 simulation. We find from the results that relativistic electrons of MeV behave quite complicatedly because of particle-material interaction in the instrument. The results indicate that efficiencies of detection and contamination are dependent on energy. This study compares the electron data from Akebono RDM with the simultaneous observation of CRRES and tries to lead the values of correction for each of the energy channels.

  19. Radiation tolerant 1 micron CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crevel, P.; Rodde, K.

    1991-03-01

    Starting from a standard one micron Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) for high density, low power memory applications, the degree of radiation tolerance of the baseline process is evaluated. Implemented process modifications to improve latchup sensitivity under heavy ion irradiation as well as total dose effects without changing layout rules are described. By changing doping profiles in Metal Nitride Oxide Semiconductors (MNOS) and P-channel MOS (PMOS) device regions, it is possible to guarantee data sheet specification of a 64 K low power static RAM for total gamma dose up to 35 krad (Si) (and even higher values for the gate array family) without latch up for Linear Energy Transfer LET up to 115 MeV/(mg/cm squared).

  20. New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article.

  1. FY-2010 Process Monitoring Technology Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Casella, Amanda J.; Hines, Wes; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; henkell, J.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Lines, Amanda M.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peterson, James M.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Peper, Shane M.

    2011-01-01

    During FY 2010, work under the Spectroscopy-Based Process Monitoring task included ordering and receiving four fluid flow meters and four flow visible-near infrared spectrometer cells to be instrumented within the centrifugal contactor system at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Initial demonstrations of real-time spectroscopic measurements on cold-stream simulants were conducted using plutonium (Pu)/uranium (U) (PUREX) solvent extraction process conditions. The specific test case examined the extraction of neodymium nitrate (Nd(NO3)3) from an aqueous nitric acid (HNO3) feed into a tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/ n-dodecane solvent. Demonstration testing of this system included diverting a sample from the aqueous feed meanwhile monitoring the process in every phase using the on-line spectroscopic process monitoring system. The purpose of this demonstration was to test whether spectroscopic monitoring is capable of determining the mass balance of metal nitrate species involved in a cross-current solvent extraction scheme while also diverting a sample from the system. The diversion scenario involved diverting a portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system while a continuous extraction experiment was underway. A successful test would demonstrate the ability of the process monitoring system to detect and quantify the diversion of material from the system during a real-time continuous solvent extraction experiment. The system was designed to mimic a PUREX-type extraction process with a bank of four centrifugal contactors. The aqueous feed contained Nd(NO3)3 in HNO3, and the organic phase was composed of TBP/n-dodecane. The amount of sample observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was measured to be 3 mmol (3 x 10-3 mol) Nd3+. This value was in excellent agreement with the 2.9 mmol Nd3+ value based on the known mass of sample taken (i.e., diverted) directly from the system feed solution.

  2. Modeling of human movement monitoring using Bluetooth Low Energy technology.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, G; Zhang, Q; Karunanithi, M

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless communication technology which can be used to monitor human movements. In this monitoring system, a BLE signal scanner scans signal strength of BLE tags carried by people, to thus infer human movement patterns within its monitoring zone. However to the extent of our knowledge one main aspect of this monitoring system which has not yet been thoroughly investigated in literature is how to build a sound theoretical model, based on tunable BLE communication parameters such as scanning time interval and advertising time interval, to enable the study and design of effective and efficient movement monitoring systems. In this paper, we proposed and developed a statistical model based on Monte-Carlo simulation, which can be utilized to assess impacts of BLE technology parameters in terms of latency and efficiency, on a movement monitoring system, and can thus benefit a more efficient system design.

  3. Biomedical Monitoring By A Novel Noncontact Radio Frequency Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The area of Space Health and Medicine is one of the NASA's Space Technology Grand Challenges. Space is an extreme environment which is not conducive to human life. The extraterrestrial environment can result in the deconditioning of various human physiological systems and thus require easy to use physiological monitoring technologies in order to better monitor space crews for appropriate health management and successful space missions and space operations. Furthermore, the Space Technology Roadmap's Technology Area Breakdown Structure calls for improvements in research to support human health and performance (Technology Area 06). To address these needs, this project investigated a potential noncontact and noninvasive radio frequency-based technique of monitoring central hemodynamic function in human research subjects in response to orthostatic stress.

  4. [A wireless mobile monitoring system based on bluetooth technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-jun; Wu, Kai; Wu, Xiao-Ming

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless mobile monitoring system based on Bluetooth technology. This system realizes the remote mobile monitoring of multiple physiological parameters, and has the characters of easy use, low cost, good reliability and strong capability of anti-jamming.

  5. Microsensor Technologies for Plant Growth System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo

    2004-01-01

    This document covered the following: a) demonstration of feasibility of microsensor for tube and particulate growth systems; b) Dissolved oxygen; c)Wetness; d) Flexible microfluidic substrate with microfluidic channels and microsensor arrays; e)Dynamic root zone control/monitoring in microgravity; f)Rapid prototyping of phytoremediation; and g) A new tool for root physiology and pathology.

  6. Shields-1, A SmallSat Radiation Shielding Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, D. Laurence, III; Kim, Wousik; Cutler, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Shields CubeSat initiative is to develop a configurable platform that would allow lower cost access to Space for materials durability experiments, and to foster a pathway for both emerging and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radiation shielding technologies to gain spaceflight heritage in a relevant environment. The Shields-1 will be Langleys' first CubeSat platform to carry out this mission. Radiation shielding tests on Shields-1 are planned for the expected severe radiation environment in a geotransfer orbit (GTO), where advertised commercial rideshare opportunities and CubeSat missions exist, such as Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1). To meet this objective, atomic number (Z) graded radiation shields (Zshields) have been developed. The Z-shield properties have been estimated, using the Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) radiation shielding computational modeling, to have 30% increased shielding effectiveness of electrons, at half the thickness of a corresponding single layer of aluminum. The Shields-1 research payload will be made with the Z-graded radiation shields of varying thicknesses to create dose-depth curves to be compared with baseline materials. Additionally, Shields-1 demonstrates an engineered Z-grade radiation shielding vault protecting the systems' electronic boards. The radiation shielding materials' performances will be characterized using total ionizing dose sensors. Completion of these experiments is expected to raise the technology readiness levels (TRLs) of the tested atomic number (Z) graded materials. The most significant contribution of the Z-shields for the SmallSat community will be that it enables cost effective shielding for small satellite systems, with significant volume constraints, while increasing the operational lifetime of ionizing radiation sensitive components. These results are anticipated to increase the development of CubeSat hardware design for increased mission lifetimes, and enable

  7. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  8. Design and qualification of the SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.; Soli, George A.; Zamani, Nasser; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the Single-Event Upset/Total Dose (SEU/TD) Radiation Monitor chip. The Radiation Monitor is scheduled to fly on the Mid-Course Space Experiment Satellite (MSX). The Radiation Monitor chip consists of a custom-designed 4-bit SRAM for heavy ion detection and three MOSFET's for monitoring total dose. In addition the Radiation Monitor chip was tested along with three diagnostic chips: the processor monitor and the reliability and fault chips. These chips revealed the quality of the CMOS fabrication process. The SEU/TD Radiation Monitor chip had an initial functional yield of 94.6 percent. Forty-three (43) SEU SRAM's and 14 Total Dose MOSFET's passed the hermeticity and final electrical tests and were delivered to LL.

  9. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: PROGRESS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) has been engaged in verification activities since the fall of 1994 (U.S. EPA, 1997). The purpose of the ETV is to promote th...

  10. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: PROGRESS AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Site Characterization and Monitoring Technology Pilot of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) has been engaged in verification activities since the fall of 1994 (U.S. EPA, 1997). The purpose of the ETV is to promote th...

  11. Monitoring the radiation dose to a multiprogrammable pacemaker during radical radiation therapy: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Orsolini, G.; Kalokhe, U.P. )

    1990-11-01

    Multiprogrammable pacemakers, using complimentary metaloxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry, may fail during radiation therapy. We report about a patient who received 6,400 cGy for unresectable carcinoma of the left lung. In supine treatment position, arms raised above the head, the pacemaker was outside the treated area by a margin of at least 1 cm, shielded by cerrobend blocking mounted on a tray. From thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) measurements, we estimate that the pacemaker received 620 cGy in scatter doses. Its function was monitored before, during, and after completion of radiation therapy. The pacemaker was functioning normally until the patient's death 5 months after completion of treatment. The relevant electrocardiograms (ECGs) are presented.

  12. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals

    DOEpatents

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  13. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of colored indicator lights and colored print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm color scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the color blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing setups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  14. NASDA technician test real-time radiation monitoring device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  15. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.

    PubMed

    Tinker, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  16. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  17. Applications of aerospace technology in biomedicine. A technology transfer profile: Patient monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    NASA contributions to cardiovascular monitoring are described along with innovations in intracardiac blood pressure monitoring. A brief overview of the process of NASA technology transfer in patient monitoring is presented and a list of bioinstrumentation tech briefs and the number of requests for technical support is included.

  18. Monitoring science and technology for competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, W.B.; Johnson, A.; Stacey, G.

    1994-08-01

    In this age of rapid technological innovation, firms that do not stay abreast of the latest advancements in science and technology (S&T) stand a greater chance of missing opportunities than firms that maintain vigilance over the ever-changing technical environment. As a result, a resurgence of interest in technical intelligence for business is occurring in companies around the globe. Many firms now have formal technical intelligence programs to gather, analyze and use S&T information to watch their competitors, to track emerging trends in technological development and to anticipate significant technology-based changes in key markets. Careful management of technical information that affects a business can have a vital influence on corporate profitability and long term health. This paper describes the main features of technical intelligence operations in business, drawing on the experience of several companies that develop and use intelligence information. The steps of gathering, analyzing, evaluating and using information for business decisions are described and examples are given to illustrate how intelligence concepts are implemented in firms from several different industries. Practical issues such as understanding user needs, ethical data collection, effective analysis methods and using intelligence results are covered in the paper.

  19. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  20. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J.

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  1. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    SciTech Connect

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  2. Blue sensors : technology and cooperative monitoring in UN peacekeeping.

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, A. Walter Dr.

    2004-04-01

    For over a half-century, the soldiers and civilians deployed to conflict areas in UN peacekeeping operations have monitored ceasefires and peace agreements of many types with varying degrees of effectiveness. Though there has been a significant evolution of peacekeeping, especially in the 1990s, with many new monitoring functions, the UN has yet to incorporate monitoring technologies into its operations in a systematic fashion. Rather, the level of technology depends largely on the contributing nations and the individual field commanders. In most missions, sensor technology has not been used at all. So the UN has not been able to fully benefit from the sensor technology revolution that has seen effectiveness greatly amplified and costs plummet. This paper argues that monitoring technologies need not replace the human factor, which is essential for confidence building in conflict areas, but they can make peacekeepers more effective, more knowledgeable and safer. Airborne, ground and underground sensors can allow peacekeepers to do better monitoring over larger areas, in rugged terrain, at night (when most infractions occur) and in adverse weather conditions. Technology also allows new ways to share gathered information with the parties to create confidence and, hence, better pre-conditions for peace. In the future sensors should become 'tools of the trade' to help the UN keep the peace in war-torn areas.

  3. Radiation Monitoring at Mars -- Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.; Cucinotta, F.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K.; Pinsky, L.; Turner, R.; Atwell, W.

    We present the current status of efforts to monitor the radiation environment at Mars using instruments aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft. For most of 2002 and 2003, the MARIE instrument successfully recorded energetic charged particles from the nearly-constant Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and from intermittent Solar Particle Events (SPEs). In late October 2003, communication with MARIE was lost during an extremely intense SPE. Troubleshooting attempts continued without success through mid-December, at which time efforts were suspended in order to eliminate any possible risk to Odyssey during its period of operation as a relay for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. In Spring 2004, efforts to revive MARIE will resume, with an uncertain outcome; if the instrument cannot be restored to operation, it is expected that the MARIE team will extend ongoing collaborations with Odyssey scientists from the GRS and HEND teams to make use of the capabilities of those instruments. Specifically, the GRS gamma crystal and the HEND scintillation block are both sensitive to energetic charged particles. These capabilities are, in both cases, peripheral to the main purpose of the detector, and so neither one yields detailed data on charged particles. However, each provides a charged-particle count rate, and these are of considerable value as they allow for the determination of the intensity of SPEs and -- when studied over long periods of time -- may show the expected variation in the flux of GCR particles, which is related to the solar cycle.

  4. Method for monitoring irradiated fuel using Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dowdy, E.J.; Nicholson, N.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1980-05-21

    A method is provided for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in a water-filled storage pond wherein the intensity of the Cerenkov radiation emitted from the water in the vicinity of the nuclear fuel is measured. This intensity is then compared with the expected intensity for nuclear fuel having a corresponding degree of irradiation exposure and time period after removal from a reactor core. Where the nuclear fuel inventory is located in an assembly having fuel pins or rods with intervening voids, the Cerenkov light intensity measurement is taken at selected bright sports corresponding to the water-filled interstices of the assembly in the water storage, the water-filled interstices acting as Cerenkov light channels so as to reduce cross-talk. On-line digital analysis of an analog video signal is possible, or video tapes may be used for later measurement using a video editor and an electrometer. Direct measurement of the Cerenkov radiation intensity also is possible using spot photometers pointed at the assembly.

  5. Impact of monitoring technology in assisted living: outcome pilot.

    PubMed

    Alwan, Majd; Dalal, Siddharth; Mack, David; Kell, Steven W; Turner, Beverely; Leachtenauer, Jon; Felder, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to assess the acceptance and some psychosocial impacts of monitoring technology in assisted living. Monitoring systems were installed in 22 assisted living units to track the activities of daily living (ADLs) and key alert conditions of residents (15 of whom were nonmemory care residents). Activity reports and alert notifications were sent to professional caregivers who provided care to residents participating in the study. Diagnostic use of the monitoring data was assessed. Nonmemory care residents were surveyed and assessed using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) instrument. Pre- and post-installation SWLS scores were compared. Older adult participants accepted monitoring. The results suggest that monitoring technologies could provide care coordination tools that are accepted by residents and may have a positive impact on their quality of life.

  6. Developing and testing technologies for future remote monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; Dupree, S.A.

    1995-10-01

    Remote monitoring systems presently operating in facilities in a number of countries around the world are providing valuable information on the installation and operation of such systems. Results indicate they are performing reliably. While the technology for remote monitoring exists today, it may be some time before numerous constraints on implementation can be resolved. However, the constraints should not prevent the designing of systems that can be used for remote monitoring. Selection of the proper technology path for future development should include a flexible approach to front-end detection, data formats, data processing, and other areas. A brief description of two of the existing remote monitoring systems, and some general recommendations for future remote monitoring systems, will be presented.

  7. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  8. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, the International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expendable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  9. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George

    2013-01-01

    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expandable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  10. A Cooperatively Controlled Robot for Ultrasound Monitoring of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tutkun Şen, H.; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) involves two main procedures, performed in different rooms on different days: (1) treatment planning in the simulator room on the first day, and (2) radiotherapy in the linear accelerator room over multiple subsequent days. Both the simulator and the linear accelerator include CT imaging capabilities, which enables both treatment planning and reproducible patient setup, but does not provide good soft tissue contrast or allow monitoring of the target during treatment. We propose a cooperatively-controlled robot to reproducibly position an ultrasound (US) probe on the patient during simulation and treatment, thereby improving soft tissue visualization and allowing real-time monitoring of the target. A key goal of the robotic system is to produce consistent tissue deformations for both CT and US imaging, which simplifies registration of these two modalities. This paper presents the robotic system design and describes a novel control algorithm that employs virtual springs to implement guidance virtual fixtures during “hands on” cooperative control. PMID:26823988

  11. An inverse source location algorithm for radiation portal monitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Charlton, William S

    2010-01-01

    Radiation portal monitors are being deployed at border crossings throughout the world to prevent the smuggling of nuclear and radiological materials; however, a tension exists between security and the free-flow of commerce. Delays at ports-of-entry have major economic implications, so it is imperative to minimize portal monitor screening time. We have developed an algorithm to locate a radioactive source using a distributed array of detectors, specifically for use at border crossings. To locate the source, we formulated an optimization problem where the objective function describes the least-squares difference between the actual and predicted detector measurements. The predicted measurements are calculated by solving the 3-D deterministic neutron transport equation given an estimated source position. The source position is updated using the steepest descent method, where the gradient of the objective function with respect to the source position is calculated using adjoint transport calculations. If the objective function is smaller than the convergence criterion, then the source position has been identified. This paper presents the derivation of the underlying equations in the algorithm as well as several computational test cases used to characterize its accuracy.

  12. Study of orifice fabrication technologies for the liquid droplet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, David B.; Hayes, Donald J.; Bush, J. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Eleven orifice fabrication technologies potentially applicable for a liquid droplet radiator are discussed. The evaluation is focused on technologies capable of yielding 25-150 microns diameter orifices with trajectory accuracies below 5 milliradians, ultimately in arrays of up to 4000 orifices. An initial analytical screening considering factors such as trajectory accuracy, manufacturability, and hydrodynamics of orifice flow is presented. Based on this screening, four technologies were selected for experimental evaluation. A jet straightness system used to test 50-orifice arrays made by electro-discharge machining (EDM), Fotoceram, and mechanical drilling is discussed. Measurements on orifice diameter control and jet trajectory accuracy are presented and discussed. Trajectory standard deviations are in the 4.6-10.0 milliradian range. Electroforming and EDM appear to have the greatest potential for Liquid Droplet Radiator applications. The direction of a future development effort is discussed.

  13. THE FEDERAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACT - ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To enhance and maintain a clean environment while imporiving the nation's productivity, the U.S. EPA is joining with private industry and academia to seek new, cost-effective technologies to prevent and control environmental pollution. Both the U.S. government and the private sec...

  14. THE FEDERAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ACT - ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To enhance and maintain a clean environment while imporiving the nation's productivity, the U.S. EPA is joining with private industry and academia to seek new, cost-effective technologies to prevent and control environmental pollution. Both the U.S. government and the private sec...

  15. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-01-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  16. Configurable technology development for reusable control and monitor ground systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrlaub, David R.

    1994-11-01

    The control monitor unit (CMU) uses configurable software technology for real-time mission command and control, telemetry processing, simulation, data acquisition, data archiving, and ground operations automation. The base technology is currently planned for the following control and monitor systems: portable Space Station checkout systems; ecological life support systems; Space Station logistics carrier system; and the ground system of the Delta Clipper (SX-2) in the Single-Stage Rocket Technology program. The CMU makes extensive use of commercial technology to increase capability and reduce development and life-cycle costs. The concepts and technology are being developed by McDonnell Douglas Space and Defense Systems for the Real-Time Systems Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center under the Payload Ground Operations Contract. A second function of the Real-Time Systems Laboratory is development and utilization of advanced software development practices.

  17. Challenges and trends in glucose monitoring technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Padma; Tomar, Reena; Kapoor, Rajiv

    2016-03-01

    It is known that diabetes is a very serious disease as it may lead to heart attack, kidney failure and neuro diseases. The present study was aimed to review and compare various techniques useful for detecting diabetes or hypoglycemia in human body. In this paper we discuss the invasive and non-invasive techniques which are used for early detection of hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and highlight their advantages as well as limitations. The use of bio impedance measurement technology has been described as it is an emerging non-invasive technique useful for the same purpose.

  18. Monitoring Technologies for Mitigating Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Brian M.; Salem, Malek Ben; Keromytis, Angelos D.; Stolfo, Salvatore J.

    In this chapter, we propose a design for an insider threat detection system that combines an array of complementary techniques that aims to detect evasive adversaries. We are motivated by real world incidents and our experience with building isolated detectors: such standalone mechanisms are often easily identified and avoided by malefactors. Our work-in-progress combines host-based user-event monitoring sensors with trap-based decoys and remote network detectors to track and correlate insider activity. We introduce and formalize a number of properties of decoys as a guide to design trap-based defenses to increase the likelihood of detecting an insider attack. We identify several challenges in scaling up, deploying, and validating our architecture in real environments.

  19. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  20. Advanced sensor-computer technology for urban runoff monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Byunggu; Behera, Pradeep K.; Ramirez Rochac, Juan F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the project team's advanced sensor-computer sphere technology for real-time and continuous monitoring of wastewater runoff at the sewer discharge outfalls along the receiving water. This research significantly enhances and extends the previously proposed novel sensor-computer technology. This advanced technology offers new computation models for an innovative use of the sensor-computer sphere comprising accelerometer, programmable in-situ computer, solar power, and wireless communication for real-time and online monitoring of runoff quantity. This innovation can enable more effective planning and decision-making in civil infrastructure, natural environment protection, and water pollution related emergencies. The paper presents the following: (i) the sensor-computer sphere technology; (ii) a significant enhancement to the previously proposed discrete runoff quantity model of this technology; (iii) a new continuous runoff quantity model. Our comparative study on the two distinct models is presented. Based on this study, the paper further investigates the following: (1) energy-, memory-, and communication-efficient use of the technology for runoff monitoring; (2) possible sensor extensions for runoff quality monitoring.

  1. Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program seeks to deliver needed technologies, timely and cost-effectively, to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The scope of characterizations monitoring, and sensor technology needs that are required by those organizations encompass: (1) initial location and characterization of wastes and waste environments - prior to treatment; (2) monitoring of waste retrieval, remediation and treatment processes; (3) characterization of the co-position of final waste treatment forms to evaluate the performance of waste treatments processes; and (4) site closure and compliance monitoring. Wherever possible, the CMST-IP fosters technology transfer and commercialization of technologies that it sponsors.

  2. Home medical monitoring network based on embedded technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guozhong; Deng, Wenyi; Yan, Bixi; Lv, Naiguang

    2006-11-01

    Remote medical monitoring network for long-term monitoring of physiological variables would be helpful for recovery of patients as people are monitored at more comfortable conditions. Furthermore, long-term monitoring would be beneficial to investigate slowly developing deterioration in wellness status of a subject and provide medical treatment as soon as possible. The home monitor runs on an embedded microcomputer Rabbit3000 and interfaces with different medical monitoring module through serial ports. The network based on asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) or local area network (LAN) is established and a client - server model, each embedded home medical monitor is client and the monitoring center is the server, is applied to the system design. The client is able to provide its information to the server when client's request of connection to the server is permitted. The monitoring center focuses on the management of the communications, the acquisition of medical data, and the visualization and analysis of the data, etc. Diagnosing model of sleep apnea syndrome is built basing on ECG, heart rate, respiration wave, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, air temperature of mouth cavity or nasal cavity, so sleep status can be analyzed by physiological data acquired as people in sleep. Remote medical monitoring network based on embedded micro Internetworking technology have advantages of lower price, convenience and feasibility, which have been tested by the prototype.

  3. Monitoring technologies for ocean disposal of radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, M. B.; Solomon, K. A.; Bishop, C. B.; Tyce, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using carefully selected subseabed locations to permanently isolate high level radioactive wastes at ocean depths greater than 4000 meters is discussed. Disposal at several candidate subseabed areas is being studied because of the long term geologic stability of the sediments, remoteness from human activity, and lack of useful natural resources. While the deep sea environment is remote, it also poses some significant challenges for the technology required to survey and monitor these sites, to identify and pinpoint container leakage should it occur, and to provide the environmental information and data base essential to determining the probable impacts of any such occurrence. Objectives and technical approaches to aid in the selective development of advanced technologies for the future monitoring of nuclear low level and high level waste disposal in the deep seabed are presented. Detailed recommendations for measurement and sampling technology development needed for deep seabed nuclear waste monitoring are also presented.

  4. CMS Run-2 Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement using novel detector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Espinosa, Alejandro; CMS Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The higher energy and luminosity for Run 2 at the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for beam radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixel luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. The full pixel data is also read out at a lower rate to reconstruct charged particle tracks for monitoring and beam spot determination. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC, produced in 130 nm CMOS technology, for excellent time resolution. A new beam-halo monitor exploits Cerenkov light production in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and excellent time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems include dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Detector performance results from the 2015 LHC Run II will be presented.

  5. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  6. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  8. Development of InSAR technology on deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ming-lian; Jiang, Ting-chen; Zong, Yu-yu

    2008-10-01

    In recent years, application of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture, Radar) to deformation monitoring has become a hotspot in research of geological hazards. This paper introduces the basic principles and data processing procedures of InSAR and summarizes main progresses made in InSAR technology and its application to deformation monitoring. Through actual examples of application and research at home and abroad, the article figures out existing problems and the future of application of InSAR.

  9. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean

    2015-07-01

    The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement.

  10. Active magnetic radiation shielding system analysis and key technologies.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S A; Blattnig, S R; Singleterry, R C; Westover, S C

    2015-01-01

    Many active magnetic shielding designs have been proposed in order to reduce the radiation exposure received by astronauts on long duration, deep space missions. While these designs are promising, they pose significant engineering challenges. This work presents a survey of the major systems required for such unconfined magnetic field design, allowing the identification of key technologies for future development. Basic mass calculations are developed for each system and are used to determine the resulting galactic cosmic radiation exposure for a generic solenoid design, using a range of magnetic field strength and thickness values, allowing some of the basic characteristics of such a design to be observed. This study focuses on a solenoid shaped, active magnetic shield design; however, many of the principles discussed are applicable regardless of the exact design configuration, particularly the key technologies cited. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation Protection in the Application of Active Detection Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DTRA) in the Department of Defense (DoD) support programs to develop and field an Active Detection Technology (ADT) system. This Commentary focuses...locate materials or rapid data acquisition if the materials are moving quickly across a detection field . Nuclear weapons, which can be small (~1 m in...neutron-nucleus interactions from neutrons released when the protons interact with the SNM or shielding material. Radiation fields associated

  12. Radiation Response of Emerging FeRAM Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. N.; Scheick, L. Z.

    2001-01-01

    The test results of measurements performed on two different sizes of ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) suggest the degradation is due to the low radiation tolerance of sense amplifiers and reference voltage generators which are based on commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This paper presents total ionizing dose (TID) testing of 64Kb Ramtron FM1608 and 256Kb Ramtron FM1808.

  13. Management and Analysis of Radiation Portal Monitor Data

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Nathan C; Alcala, Scott; Crye, Jason Michael; Lousteau, Angela L

    2014-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) receives, archives, and analyzes data from radiation portal monitors (RPMs). Over time the amount of data submitted for analysis has grown significantly, and in fiscal year 2013, ORNL received 545 gigabytes of data representing more than 230,000 RPM operating days. This data comes from more than 900 RPMs. ORNL extracts this data into a relational database, which is accessed through a custom software solution called the Desktop Analysis and Reporting Tool (DART). DART is used by data analysts to complete a monthly lane-by-lane review of RPM status. Recently ORNL has begun to extend its data analysis based on program-wide data processing in addition to the lane-by-lane review. Program-wide data processing includes the use of classification algorithms designed to identify RPMs with specific known issues and clustering algorithms intended to identify as-yet-unknown issues or new methods and measures for use in future classification algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the architecture used in the management of this data, performance aspects of the system, and additional requirements and methods used in moving toward an increased program-wide analysis paradigm.

  14. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a Particle Radiation Monitor II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, C. E.; Ford, P. G.; Bautz, M. W.; ODell, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  15. FY 2009 Progress: Process Monitoring Technology Demonstration at PNNL

    SciTech Connect

    Arrigo, Leah M.; Christensen, Ronald N.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Liezers, Martin; Peper, Shane M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Douglas, Matthew; Laspe, Amy R.; Lines, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Ward, Rebecca M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Orton, Christopher R.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing and demonstrating three technologies designed to assist in the monitoring of reprocessing facilities in near-real time. These technologies include 1) a multi-isotope process monitor (MIP), 2) a spectroscopy-based monitor that uses UV-Vis-NIR (ultraviolet-visible-near infrared) and Raman spectrometers, and 3) an electrochemically modulated separations approach (EMS). The MIP monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and pattern recognition software to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The UV-Vis-NIR and Raman spectroscopic monitoring continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (uranium, plutonium, neptunium), selected fission products, and major cold flow sheet chemicals. The EMS approach provides an on-line means for separating and concentrating elements of interest out of complex matrices prior to detection via nondestructive assay by gamma spectroscopy or destructive analysis with mass spectrometry. A general overview of the technologies and ongoing demonstration results are described in this report.

  16. Client-Server Connection Status Monitoring Using Ajax Push Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamongie, Julien R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how simple client-server connection status monitoring can be implemented using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), JSF (Java Server Faces) and ICEfaces technologies. This functionality is required for NASA LCS (Launch Control System) displays used in the firing room for the Constellation project. Two separate implementations based on two distinct approaches are detailed and analyzed.

  17. A Survey of Current Rotorcraft Propulsion Health Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    A brief review is presented on the state-of-the-art in rotorcraft engine health monitoring technologies including summaries on current practices in the area of sensors, data acquisition, monitoring and analysis. Also, presented are guidelines for verification and validation of Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) and specifically for maintenance credits to extend part life. Finally, a number of new efforts in HUMS are summarized as well as lessons learned and future challenges. In particular, gaps are identified to supporting maintenance credits to extend rotorcraft engine part life. A number of data sources were consulted and include results from a survey from the HUMS community, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) documents, American Helicopter Society (AHS) papers, as well as references from Defence Science & Technology Organization (DSTO), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  18. Adaptive Multichannel Radiation Sensors for Plant Parameter Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schuhmann, Gudrun; Lausch, Angela; Merbach, Ines; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen are playing a key role in the plant life cycle. They are much needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components. Therefore, the crop yield is strongly affected by plant nutrient status. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of soil characteristics or swaying agricultural inputs the plant development varies within a field. Thus, the determination of these fluctuations in the plant development is valuable for a detection of stress conditions and optimization of fertilisation due to its high environmental and economic impact. Plant parameters play crucial roles in plant growth estimation and prediction since they are used as indicators of plant performance. Especially indices derived out of remote sensing techniques provide quantitative information about agricultural crops instantaneously, and above all, non-destructively. Due to the specific absorption of certain plant pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible and IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral signature. To this end, an adequate remote sensing monitoring concept is needed, considering heterogeneity and dynamic of the plant population and economical aspects. This work will present the development and field investigations of an inexpensive multichannel radiation sensor to observe the incoming and reflected specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum on the crop and facilitate the determination of different plant indices. Based on the selected sensor wavelengths, the sensing device allows the detection of specific parameters, e.g. plant vitality, chlorophyll content or nitrogen content. Besides the improvement of the sensor characteristic, the simple wavelength adaption, and the price-performance ratio, the achievement of appropriate energy efficiency as well as a

  19. Health Technologies for Monitoring and Managing Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Minda, Elizabeth; Jutai, Jeffrey; Speechley, Mark; Bradley, Kaitlin; Chudyk, Anna; Petrella, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this review was to determine the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of self-monitoring devices and technologies for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on specific health-related outcome measures. Self-monitoring devices included those that assist patients with managing diabetes and preventing cardiovascular complications (CVCs). A secondary objective was to explore issues of feasibility, usability, and compliance among patients and providers. Methods Study criteria included individuals ≥14 years and youth (7–14 years) with T1DM or T2DM, intervention with a self-monitoring device, assessment of clinical outcomes with the device, literature in English, and ≥10 participants. Relevant published literature was searched from 1985 to 2008. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. Data were extracted for clinical outcomes, feasibility and compliance methods, and results. Selected studies were independently evaluated with a validated instrument for assessing methodological quality. Results Eighteen trials were selected. Predominant types of device interventions included self-monitoring of blood glucose, pedometers, and cell phone or wireless technologies. Feasibility and compliance were measured in the majority of studies. Conclusions Self-monitoring of blood glucose continues to be an effective tool for the management of diabetes. Wireless technologies can improve diabetes self-care, and pedometers are effective lifestyle modification tools. The results of this review indicate a need for additional controlled trial research on existing and novel technologies for diabetes self-monitoring, on health outcomes associated with diabetes and CVCs, and device feasibility and compliance. PMID:20144402

  20. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1983. High Efficiency, Radiation Damage, and Blanket Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This three day conference, sixth in a series that began in 1974, was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on October 18-20, 1983. The conference provided a forum for the discussion of space photovoltaic systems, their research status, and program goals. Papers were presented and workshops were held in a variety of technology areas, including basic cell research, advanced blanket technology, and radiation damage.

  1. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) MITIGATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE: ACTIVITIES OF THE GHG TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and monitoring technology performance activities of the GHG Technology Verification Center. The Center is a public/private partnership between Southern Research Institute and the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development. It...

  3. Demonstration of a vapor-density monitoring system using UV radiation generated from waveguide quasi-phase-matched SHG waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanti, Shirley A.; Berzins, Leon V.; Brown, J. B.; Tamosaitis, Robert S.; Bortz, Michael L.; Day, Timothy; Fejer, Martin M.; Wang, Weizhi

    1996-05-01

    Many industrial application require non-intrusive diagnostics for process monitoring and control. One example is the physical vapor deposition of titanium alloys. In this paper we present a system based on laser absorption spectroscopy for monitoring titanium vapor. Appropriate transitions for monitoring high rate vaporization of titanium require extension of available IR diode technology to the UV. The heart of this vapor density monitoring system is the 390 nm radiation generated from quasi-phase matched interactions within periodically poled waveguides. In this paper, key system components of a UV laser absorption spectroscopy based system specific for titanium density monitoring are described. Analysis is presented showing the minimum power levels necessary from the ultraviolet laser source. Performance data for prototype systems using second harmonic generation waveguide technology is presented. Application of this technology to other alloy density monitoring systems is discussed.

  4. Development of a Remote Monitoring System Using Meteor Burst Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewanic, M.A.; Dunstan, M.T.; Reichhardt, D.K.

    2006-07-01

    Monitoring the cleanup and closure of contaminated sites requires extensive data acquisition, processing, and storage. At remote sites, the task of monitoring often becomes problematical due to the lack of site infrastructure (i.e., electrical power lines, telephone lines, etc.). MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) has designed an economical and efficient remote monitoring system that will handle large amounts of data; process the data, if necessary; and transmit this data over long distances. Design criteria MSE considered during the development of the remote monitoring system included: the ability to handle multiple, remote sampling points with independent sampling frequencies; robust (i.e., less susceptible to moisture, heat, and cold extremes); independent of infrastructure; user friendly; economical; and easy to expand system capabilities. MSE installed and tested a prototype system at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center (MMATC), Butte, Montana, in June 2005. The system MSE designed and installed consisted of a 'master' control station and two remote 'slave' stations. Data acquired at the two slave stations were transmitted to the master control station, which then transmits a complete data package to a ground station using meteor burst technology. The meteor burst technology has no need for hardwired land-lines or man-made satellites. Instead, it uses ionized particles in the Earth's atmosphere to propagate a radio signal. One major advantage of the system is that it can be configured to accept data from virtually any type of device, so long as the signal from the device can be read and recorded by a standard data-logger. In fact, MSE has designed and built an electrical resistivity monitoring system that will be powered and controlled by the meteor burst system components. As sites move through the process of remediation and eventual closure, monitoring provides data vital to the successful long term management of the site. The remote

  5. Environmental Radiation Monitoring at NBS/NIST From 1960 Through 2000

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    The program for monitoring the environment in and about the site of the National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, at its Gaithersburg, Maryland location began in 1960. The program includes measurements of radiation fields at the fence line of the site and of radionuclides in samples of soil, water, and biota taken within and around the site. A variety of instruments and equipment, processes and procedures, and measurement devices has been employed. To date, no measurement from the routine program has exhibited any result that could be attributed to any effluent or other effect of the radiological work conducted at the site; that includes the NIST Research Reactor, the now defunct Linear Electron Accelerator (LINAC) and other accelerators, radiochemistry, and sealed source operations. PMID:27500047

  6. On the optimisation of the use of 3He in radiation portal monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomanin, Alice; Peerani, Paolo; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2013-02-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) are used to detect illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive material concealed in vehicles, cargo containers or people at strategic check points, such as borders, seaports and airports. Most of them include neutron detectors for the interception of potential plutonium smuggling. The most common technology used for neutron detection in RPMs is based on 3He proportional counters. The recent severe shortage of this rare and expensive gas has created a problem of capacity for manufacturers to provide enough detectors to satisfy the market demand. In this paper we analyse the design of typical commercial RPMs and try to optimise the detector parameters in order either to maximise the efficiency using the same amount of 3He or minimise the amount of gas needed to reach the same detection performance: by reducing the volume or gas pressure in an optimised design.

  7. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  8. Fibre-optic gamma-flux monitoring in a fission reactor by means of Cerenkov radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brichard, B.; Fernandez, A. F.; Ooms, H.; Berghmans, F.

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of using Cerenkov radiation to monitor the reactor power and the high energy gamma-ray flux in a high neutron flux reactor. The system employs a radiation-resistant pure silica glass fibre to measure the Cerenkov radiation in the infrared region (800-1100 nm). A model is proposed to determine the order of magnitude of the gamma-ray flux from the measurement. The method and concept can be extended to the monitoring of low reactor powers if Cerenkov radiation is measured in the 450-500 nm region by means of hydrogen-treated fibres.

  9. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  10. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chong, Pek Ching Jenny; Li, Bingqing; Asundi, Anand K.

    2008-01-01

    Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for non-invasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control. PMID:27879874

  11. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  12. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav'yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem'ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  13. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  14. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  15. Heat stress monitoring system. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program involves the need to decontaminate and decommission buildings expeditiously and cost-effectively. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. Often, D and D workers must perform duties in inclement weather, and because they also frequently work in contaminated areas, they must wear personal protective clothing and/or respirators. Monitoring the health status of workers under these conditions is an important component of ensuring their safety. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System`s heat stress monitoring system (HSMS) is designed to monitor the vital signs of individual workers as they perform work in conditions that might be conducive to heat exhaustion or heat stress. The HSMS provides real-time data on the physiological condition of workers which can be monitored to prevent heat stress or other adverse health situations. This system is particularly useful when workers are wearing personal protective clothing or respirators that make visual observation of their condition more difficult. The MiniMitter VitalSense Telemetry System can monitor up to four channels (e.g., heart rate, body activity, ear canal, and skin temperature) and ten workers from a single supervisory station. The monitors are interfaced with a portable computer that updates and records information on individual workers. This innovative technology, even though it costs more, is an attractive alternative to the traditional (baseline) technology, which measures environmental statistics and predicts the average worker`s reaction to those environmental conditions without taking the physical condition of the individual worker into consideration. Although use of the improved technology might be justified purely on the basis of improved safety, it has the potential to pay for itself by reducing worker time lost caused by heat

  16. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  17. Characterizations of and Radiation Effects in Several Emerging CMOS Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufeng Ren

    As the conventional scaling of Si based CMOS is approaching its limit at 7 nm technology node, many perceive that the adoption of novel materials and/or device structures are inevitable to keep Moore's law going. High mobility channel materials such as III-V compound semiconductors or Ge are considered promising to replace Si in order to achieve high performance as well as low power consumption. However, interface and oxide traps have become a major obstacle for high-mobility semiconductors (such as Ge, GaAs, InGaAs, GaSb, etc) to replace Si CMOS technology. Therefore novel high-k dielectrics, such as epitaxially grown crystalline oxides, have been explored to be incorporated onto the high mobility channel materials. Moreover, to enable continued scaling, extremely scaled devices structures such as nanowire gate-all-around structure are needed in the near future. Moreover, as the CMOS industry moves into the 7 nm node and beyond, novel lithography techniques such as EUV are believed to be adopted soon, which can bring radiation damage to CMOS devices and circuit during the fabrication process. Therefore radiation hardening technology in future generations of CMOS devices has again become an interesting research topic to deal with the possible process-induced damage as well as damage caused by operating in radiation harsh environment such as outer space, nuclear plant, etc. In this thesis, the electrical properties of a few selected emerging novel CMOS devices are investigated, which include InGaAs based extremely scaled ultra-thin body nanowire gate-all-around MOSFETs, GOI (Ge On Insulator) CMOS with recessed channel and source/drain, GaAs MOSFETs with crystalline La based gate stack, and crystalline SrTiO3, are investigated to extend our understanding of their electrical characteristics, underlying physical mechanisms, and material properties. Furthermore, the radiation responses of these aforementioned novel devices are thoroughly investigated, with a focus on

  18. Advances in microbeam technologies and applications to radiation biology.

    PubMed

    Barberet, P; Seznec, H

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle microbeams (CPMs) allow the targeting of sub-cellular compartments with a counted number of energetic ions. While initially developed in the late 1990s to overcome the statistical fluctuation on the number of traversals per cell inevitably associated with broad beam irradiations, CPMs have generated a growing interest and are now used in a wide range of radiation biology studies. Besides the study of the low-dose cellular response that has prevailed in the applications of these facilities for many years, several new topics have appeared recently. By combining their ability to generate highly clustered damages in a micrometric volume with immunostaining or live-cell GFP labelling, a huge potential for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage and repair has been introduced. This type of studies has pushed end-stations towards advanced fluorescence microscopy techniques, and several microbeam lines are currently equipped with the state-of-the-art time-lapse fluorescence imaging microscopes. In addition, CPMs are nowadays also used to irradiate multicellular models in a highly controlled way. This review presents the latest developments and applications of charged-particle microbeams to radiation biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  20. Impact of Scaled Technology on Radiation Testing and Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview of some of the radiation challenges facing emerging scaled digital technologies with implications on using consumer grade electronics and next generation hardening schemes. Commercial semiconductor manufacturers are recognizing some of these issues as issues for terrestrial performance. Looking at means of dealing with soft errors. The thinned oxide has indicated improved TID tolerance of commercial products hardened by "serendipity" which does not guarantee hardness or say if the trend will continue. This presentation also focuses one reliability implications of thinned oxides.

  1. Radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter in the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Kondo, Atsuya; Sugita, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Yuuki, Youichi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Shoji, Yasunori; Torii, Tatsuo

    2014-11-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. In recent years, technologies for unmanned helicopters have been developed and applied in various fields. In expectation of the application of unmanned helicopters in airborne radiation monitoring, in this study we developed a radiation monitoring system for aerial use. We then measured the radiation level by using unmanned helicopters in areas where the soil had been contaminated by radioactive caesium emitted from the nuclear power plant to evaluate the ambient dose rate distribution around the site. We found that in dry riverbeds near the nuclear power plant, the dose rate was higher than that in the surrounding areas. The results of our measurements show that radiation monitoring using this system was useful in measuring radioactivity in contaminated areas.

  2. A historical fluence analysis of the radiation environment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and implications for continued radiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePasquale, J. M.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    2006-06-01

    Now in operation for over 6 years, the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has sampled a variety of space environments. Its highly elliptical orbit, with a 63.5 hr period, regularly takes the spacecraft through the Earth's radiation belts, the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath and into the solar wind. Additionally, the CXO has weathered several severe solar storms during its time in orbit. Given the vulnerability of Chandra's Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) to radiation damage from low energy protons, proper radiation management has been a prime concern of the Chandra team. A comprehensive approach utilizing scheduled radiation safing, in addition to both on-board autonomous radiation monitoring and manual intervention, has proved successful at managing further radiation damage. However, the future of autonomous radiation monitoring on-board the CXO faces a new challenge as the multi-layer insulation (MLI) on its radiation monitor, the Electron, Proton, Helium Instrument (EPHIN), continues to degrade, leading to elevated temperatures. Operating at higher temperatures, the data from some EPHIN channels can become noisy and unreliable for radiation monitoring. This paper explores the full implication of the loss of EPHIN to CXO radiation monitoring by evaluating the fluences the CXO experienced during 40 autonomous radiation safing events from 2000 through 2005 in various hypothetical scenarios which include the use of EPHIN in limited to no capacity as a radiation monitor. We also consider the possibility of replacing EPHIN with Chandra's High Resolution Camera (HRC) for radiation monitoring.

  3. Exposing Exposure: Automated Anatomy-specific CT Radiation Exposure Extraction for Quality Assurance and Radiation Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Graham I.; Farkas, Cameron E.; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M.; Andriole, Katherine P.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    control and optimization, and cumulative patient- and anatomy-specific radiation exposure monitoring. Conclusion: Large-scale anatomy-specific radiation exposure data repositories can be created with high fidelity from existing digital image archives by using open-source informatics tools. ©RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111822/-/DC1 PMID:22668563

  4. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  5. 78 FR 64030 - Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S....

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring in the Chernobyl exclusion zone--history and results 25 years after.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Gaschak, Sergey P; Kireev, Sergey I; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Proskura, Nikolai I; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status. The history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described also. This paper addresses the characteristics of radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes in these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  8. Radial distribution of radiation in a CuBr vapor brightness amplifier used in laser monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarev, F. A.; Trigub, M. V.; Klenovskii, M. S.; Li, Lin; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study of the effect of excitation conditions in a CuBr vapor brightness amplifier in a monostatic laser monitor on the radial non-uniformity of the radiation bearing the information about the object being visualized. A significant dependence of radial signal distribution on the concentrations of CuBr, HBr and pumping power has been demonstrated. In particular, an increase in CuBr vapor concentration causes the gain profile of the active medium to constrict and the axial gain to increase. The conditions for the most uniform radial distribution of the laser monitor signal are substantially different from those for the maximum radiated power. The paper demonstrates HBr doping to be usable as a tool to correct the non-uniformity of the radial distribution of laser monitor radiation. An addition of ~0.15 Torr HBr broadens and flattens the radiation profile, improving an important aspect of laser monitor image quality.

  9. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  10. A comparative radiation study at ALBA synchrotron facility between Monte Carlo modeling and radiation monitors dosimetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devienne, A.; Aymerich, N.; García-Fusté, M. J.; Queralt, X.

    2015-11-01

    ALBA is the Spanish synchrotron facility formed with a 3 GeV electron synchrotron accelerator generating bright beams of synchrotron radiation, located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Spain). The aim of this work is to study the origin of the radiation produced inside and outside the optical hutch of BOREAS beamline, an experimental station dedicated to study the resonant absorption and scattering of the photons. The objective is to characterize the radiation at the beamline, evaluating in particular the solid bremsstrahlung component of the radiation. The results are obtained after comparing radiation monitors detectors data with Monte Carlo modeling (FLUKA), giving the characteristics of the shielding required to consider the outside of the hutch as a public zone.

  11. Review of advanced radiator technologies for spacecraft power systems and space thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Peterson, George P.

    1994-01-01

    A two-part overview of progress in space radiator technologies is presented. The first part reviews and compares the innovative heat-rejection system concepts proposed during the past decade, some of which have been developed to the breadboard demonstration stage. Included are space-constructable radiators with heat pipes, variable-surface-area radiators, rotating solid radiators, moving-belt radiators, rotating film radiators, liquid droplet radiators, Curie point radiators, and rotating bubble-membrane radiators. The second part summarizes a multielement project including focused hardware development under the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power program carried out by the NASA Lewis Research Center and its contractors to develop lightweight space radiators in support of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) power systems technology.

  12. Triage, monitoring and dose assessment for people exposed to ionising radiation following a malevolent act.

    PubMed

    Etherington, G; Rothkamm, K; Shutt, A L; Youngman, M J

    2011-03-01

    The part played by individual monitoring within the context of the overall response to incidents involving the malevolent use of radiation or radioactive material is discussed. The main objectives of an individual monitoring programme are outlined, and types of malevolent use scenario briefly described. Some major challenges facing those with responsibilities for planning the monitoring response to such an incident are identified and discussed. These include the need for rapid selection and prioritisation of people for individual monitoring by means of an effective triage system; the need for rapid initiation of individual monitoring; problems associated with monitoring large numbers of people; the particular difficulties associated with incidents involving pure-beta and alpha-emitting radionuclides; the need for techniques that can provide retrospective estimates of external radiation exposures rapidly and the need for rapid interpretation of contamination monitoring data. The paper concludes with a brief review of assistance networks and relevant international projects planned or currently underway.

  13. Rain-induced increase in background radiation detected by Radiation Portal Monitors.

    PubMed

    Livesay, R J; Blessinger, C S; Guzzardo, T F; Hausladen, P A

    2014-11-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to enhance partner country capability to deter, detect, and interdict the illicit movement of special nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma-ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates primarily from the wet-deposition of two radioactive daughters of (222)Rn, namely, (214)Pb and (214)Bi. In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and high-purity germanium spectra. The data verify that these radionuclides are responsible for the largest environmental background fluctuations in RPMs. Analytical expressions for the detector response function in Poly-Vinyl Toluene have been derived. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  14. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  15. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  17. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  18. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  19. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  1. Task Force Report: Assessment of Nuclear Monitoring and Verification Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    state actions and their potential cascading effects;  The impact of advancing technologies relevant to nuclear weapons development ;  The...detection programs to:  o Conduct systems  studies  and engage operators early in  development  to improve  transition of radiation detection  advances  to...Regimes| 23  Resilient Military Systems and the  Advanced  Cyber Threat  UNCLASSIFIED  stability were  achieved  between  the  United   States   and Russia

  2. [Research advances in water quality monitoring technology based on UV-Vis spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang-Lin; Wen, Zhi-yu; Wu, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Zeng, Tian-Ling

    2011-04-01

    The application of spectral analysis to water quality monitoring is an important developing trend in the field of modern environment monitoring technology. The principle and characteristic of water quality monitoring technology based on UV-Vis spectrum analysis are briefly reviewed. And the research status and advances are introduced from two aspects, on-line monitoring and in-situ monitoring. Moreover, the existent key technical problems are put forward. Finally, the technology trends of multi-parameter water quality monitoring microsystem and microsystem networks based on microspectrometer are prospected, which has certain reference value for the research and development of environmental monitoring technology and modern scientific instrument in the authors' country.

  3. Tracking Accuracy of a Real-Time Fiducial Tracking System for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shchory, Tal; Schifter, Dan; Lichtman, Rinat; Neustadter, David; Corn, Benjamin W.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy there is a need to accurately know the location of the target in real time. A novel radioactive tracking technology has been developed to answer this need. The technology consists of a radioactive implanted fiducial marker designed to minimize migration and a linac mounted tracking device. This study measured the static and dynamic accuracy of the new tracking technology in a clinical radiation therapy environment. Methods and Materials: The tracking device was installed on the linac gantry. The radioactive marker was located in a tissue equivalent phantom. Marker location was measured simultaneously by the radioactive tracking system and by a Microscribe G2 coordinate measuring machine (certified spatial accuracy of 0.38 mm). Localization consistency throughout a volume and absolute accuracy in the Fixed coordinate system were measured at multiple gantry angles over volumes of at least 10 cm in diameter centered at isocenter. Dynamic accuracy was measured with the marker located inside a breathing phantom. Results: The mean consistency for the static source was 0.58 mm throughout the tested region at all measured gantry angles. The mean absolute position error in the Fixed coordinate system for all gantry angles was 0.97 mm. The mean real-time tracking error for the dynamic source within the breathing phantom was less than 1 mm. Conclusions: This novel radioactive tracking technology has the potential to be useful in accurate target localization and real-time monitoring for radiation therapy.

  4. Radiation monitoring with CVD Diamonds and PIN Diodes at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A.J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A.; /UC, Irvine /SLAC /Ohio State U.

    2008-02-13

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  5. Development of Technologies to Utilize Laser Plasma Radiations Sources for Radiation Effects Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J F

    2007-01-31

    This final report will cover work performed over the period of November 11, 2005 to September 30, 2006 on the contract to develop technologies using laser sources for radiation effects sciences. The report will discuss four topic areas; the laser source experiments on the Gekko Laser at Osaka, Japan, planning for the Charge State Freeze Out experiments to be performed in calendar year 2007, a review of previous xenon gasbags on the LANL Trident laser to provide planning support to the May-June 2007 HELEN experiments.

  6. Technology evaluation report: SITE program demonstration of the Ultrox International ultraviolet radiation/oxidation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Welshans, G.; Topudurti, K.

    1990-01-01

    This document presents the field-evaluation results of the ultraviolet radiation (UV)/oxidation technology developed by Ultrox International, Santa Ana, California. The field evaluation of the technology was performed at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB D) site in San Jose, California, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program from February 27 through March 10, 1989. The UV/oxidation technology uses UV radiation, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic contaminants present in water. At the LB D site, this technology was evaluated in treating ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Ultrox system achieved VOC removals greater than 90%. The majority of VOC's were removed through chemical oxidation. However, for a few VOC's, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) stripping also contributed toward removal. The treated ground water met the applicable discharge standards (NPDES) for disposal into a local waterway at 95% confidence level. There were no harmful air emissions from the Ultrox system into the atmosphere.

  7. Quality management system and accreditation of the in vivo monitoring laboratory at Karslruhe Institute of Technology.

    PubMed

    Breustedt, B; Mohr, U; Biegard, N; Cordes, G

    2011-03-01

    The in vivo monitoring laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with one whole body counter and three partial-body counters, is an approved lab for individual monitoring according to German regulation. These approved labs are required to prove their competencies by accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025:2005. In 2007 a quality management system (QMS), which was successfully audited and granted accreditation, was set up at the IVM. The system is based on the ISO 9001 certified QMS of the central safety department of the Research Centre Karlsruhe the IVM belonged to at that time. The system itself was set up to be flexible and could be adapted to the recent organisational changes (e.g. founding of KIT and an institute for radiation research) with only minor effort.

  8. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Nadja; Hirvonen-Kari, Mirja; Timonen, Marjut; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2012-08-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are <10 µSv y(-1) and the highest value was 0.3 mSv (single interventional radiologist). A revised categorisation of radiation workers based on the working profile of the radiologist and observed accumulated doses is justified. Occupational monitoring can be implemented mostly with group dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential.

  9. Ultrox international ultraviolet radiation/oxidation technology: Applications analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Welshans, G.; Topudurti, K.; Sootkoos, B.; Weinberg, S.

    1990-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the report evaluates both treatment efficiency and economic cost from the SITE demonstration and seven case studies. The Ultrox technology simultaneously uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize dissolved organic contaminants found in groundwater or wastewater. Under the SITE Program, the Ultrox technology demonstration was conducted at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB D) site, San Jose, California, in February and March of 1989. During the demonstration, the Ultrox system achieved volatile organic compound (VOC) removals greater than 90 percent. The majority of VOCs were removed through chemical oxidation. However, stripping also contributed toward removal of a few VOCs, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA). The treated groundwater met the applicable National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards for discharge into a local waterway. In addition, there were no harmful air emissions to the atmosphere from the Ultrox system, which is equipped with an off-gas treatment unit.

  10. Real-Time Patient Radiation Dose Monitoring System Used in a Large University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsu; Yoon, Yongsu; Seo, Deoknam; Kwon, Soonmu; Shim, Jina; Kim, Jungmin

    2016-10-01

    Radiation dose monitoring in medical imaging examination areas is mandatory for the reduction of patient radiation exposure. Recently, dose monitoring techniques that use digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reports (SR) have been introduced. The present paper discusses the setup of a radiation dose monitoring system based on DICOM data from university hospitals in Korea. This system utilizes the radiation dose data-archiving method of standard DICOM dose SR combined with a DICOM modality performed procedure step (MPPS). The analysis of dose data based on a method utilizing DICOM tag information is proposed herein. This method supports the display of dose data from non-dosimeter-attached X-ray equipment. This system tracks data from 62 pieces of equipment to analyze digital radiographic, mammographic, mobile radiographic, CT, PET-CT, angiographic, and fluorographic modalities.

  11. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  12. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  13. Wearable Physiological Systems and Technologies for Metabolic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Brooks, George A; Klonoff, David C

    2017-09-28

    Wearable sensors allow continuous monitoring of metabolites for diabetes, sports medicine, exercise science, and physiology research. These sensors can continuously detect target analytes in skin interstitial fluid (ISF), tears, saliva, and sweat. In this review, we will summarize developments on wearable devices and their potential applications in research, clinical practice, and recreational and sporting activities. Sampling skin ISF can require insertion of a needle into the skin, whereas sweat, tears, and saliva can be sampled by devices worn outside the body. The most widely sampled metabolite from a wearable device is glucose in skin ISF for monitoring diabetes patients. Continuous ISF glucose monitoring allows estimation of the glucose concentration in blood without the pain, inconvenience, and blood waste of fingerstick capillary blood glucose testing. This tool is currently used by diabetes patients to provide information for dosing insulin and determining a diet and exercise plan. Similar technologies for measuring concentrations of other analytes in skin ISF could be used to monitor athletes, emergency responders, warfighters, and others in states of extreme physiologic stress. Sweat is a potentially useful substrate for sampling analytes for metabolic monitoring during exercise. Lactate, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen ions can be measured in sweat. Tools for converting the concentrations of these analytes sampled from sweat, tears, and saliva into blood concentrations are being developed. As an understanding of the relationships between the concentrations of analytes in blood and easily sampled body fluids increases, then the benefits of new wearable devices for metabolic monitoring will also increase. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  14. New paradigms and future challenges in Radiation Oncology: An Update of Biological Targets and Technology*

    PubMed Central

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Connell, Philip P.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of radiation oncology is to exploit the biological interaction of radiation within tissue to promote tumor death while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissue. The clinical delivery of radiation relies on principles of radiation physics that define how radiation energy is deposited in the body, as well as technology that facilitates accurate tumor targeting. This review will summarize the current landscape of recent biological and technological advances in radiation oncology, describe the challenges that exist, and offer potential avenues for improvement. PMID:23427246

  15. Future technologies for monitoring HIV drug resistance and cure.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Urvi M; McCormick, Kevin; van Zyl, Gert; Mellors, John W

    2017-03-01

    Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis. Similarly, improvements in PCR and NGS are resulting in higher throughput single genome sequencing to detect intact proviruses and to characterize HIV integration sites and clonal expansions of infected cells. Current population genotyping methods for resistance monitoring are high cost and low throughput. NGS, combined with simpler sample collection and storage matrices (e.g. dried blood spots), has considerable potential to broaden global surveillance and patient monitoring for HIVDR. Recent adaptions of NGS to identify integration sites of HIV in the human genome and to characterize the integrated HIV proviruses are likely to facilitate investigations of the impact of experimental 'curative' interventions on HIV reservoirs.

  16. Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Xue-Ling; Li, Zhan-Hong; Zhu, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Shao-Hong; Flewitt, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems. PMID:28106820

  17. Current and Emerging Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Xue-Ling; Li, Zhan-Hong; Zhu, Zhi-Gang; Qian, Shao-Hong; Flewitt, Andrew J

    2017-01-19

    Diabetes has become a leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, blood glucose monitoring combined with appropriate medication can enhance treatment efficiency, alleviate the symptoms, as well as diminish the complications. For point-of-care purposes, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices are considered to be the best candidates for diabetes therapy. This review focuses on current growth areas of CGM technologies, specifically focusing on subcutaneous implantable electrochemical glucose sensors. The superiority of CGM systems is introduced firstly, and then the strategies for fabrication of minimally-invasive and non-invasive CGM biosensors are discussed, respectively. Finally, we briefly outline the current status and future perspective for CGM systems.

  18. Solid state microdosimeter for radiation monitoring in spacecraft and avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.R.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Reed, R.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Stassinopoulos, E.G. )

    1994-12-01

    An instrument is described which is designed to characterize the complex radiation environments inside spacecraft and airplanes in terms of the risk of SEEs in the present and planned microelectronic systems and in terms of the risk to flight crews and passengers.

  19. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  20. Automated systems to monitor space radiation effect on photosynthetic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, D.; di Costa, F.; Faraloni, C.; Fasolo, F.; Pace, E.; Perosino, M.; Torzillo, G.; Touloupakis, E.; Zanini, A.; Giardi, M. T.

    We developed automated biodevices to obtain, automatically, measures about the space radiation effect on living photosynthetic organisms, which can be used as biomass and oxygen-producing system on shuttles or ISS. Vitality measurements were performed by optical devices (fluorimeters) measuring fluorescence emission. Fluorescence methodology is a well known applied technique for studying photosynthetic activity, and in particular the oxygen-evolving process of photosynthetic organisms. Different strains of unicellular green algae are properly immobilized on agar growth medium and kept under survial light. The biodevices are characterised by the sensibility and selectivity of the biological component response, together with easy use, versatility, miniature size and low cost. We performed experiments in some facilities, in order to understand separately the effect of radiation of different LET, on the biochemical activity (gamma rays at Joint Research Centre -Varese, Italy; fast neutrons at CERF -- SPS beam at CERN -Geneva, Switzerland). The exposure to different radiation beams of the automatic devices, allowed us to test them under stress condition. In one year, these instrument are expected to be sent to space, inside a spacecraft, in order to study the effect of ionising cosmic radiation during an ESA flight.

  1. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  2. Multiplexing Technology for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William; Percy, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    The initiation and propagation of damage mechanisms such as cracks and delaminations generate acoustic waves, which propagate through a structure. These waves can be detected and analyzed to provide the location and severity of damage as part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. This methodology of damage detection is commonly known as acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and is widely used on a variety of applications on civil structures. AE has been widely considered for SHM of aerospace vehicles. Numerous successful ground and flight test demonstrations have been performed, which show the viability of the technology for damage monitoring in aerospace structures. However, one significant current limitation for application of AE techniques on aerospace vehicles is the large size, mass, and power requirements for the necessary monitoring instrumentation. To address this issue, a prototype multiplexing approach has been developed and demonstrated in this study, which reduces the amount of AE monitoring instrumentation required. Typical time division multiplexing techniques that are commonly used to monitor strain, pressure and temperature sensors are not applicable to AE monitoring because of the asynchronous and widely varying rates of AE signal occurrence. Thus, an event based multiplexing technique was developed. In the initial prototype circuit, inputs from eight sensors in a linear array were multiplexed into two data acquisition channels. The multiplexer rapidly switches, in less than one microsecond, allowing the signals from two sensors to be acquired by a digitizer. The two acquired signals are from the sensors on either side of the trigger sensor. This enables the capture of the first arrival of the waves, which cannot be accomplished with the signal from the trigger sensor. The propagation delay to the slightly more distant neighboring sensors makes this possible. The arrival time from this first arrival provides a more accurate source location

  3. Radiation levels in cyclotron-radiochemistry facility measured by a novel comprehensive computerized monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishani, E.; Lifshits, N.; Osavistky, A.; Kaufman, J.; Ankry, N.; Tal, N.; Chisin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Radiation levels in a cyclotron-radiochemistry facility were measured during the production of commonly used PET radiopharmaceuticals by a comprehensive computerized monitoring system. The system consists of three major components: on-line radiation monitoring channels, an area control unit, and a gas waste management unit. During production the radiation levels were measured in the cyclotron vault, inside automatic chemistry production and research shielded cells, in the radiochemistry room, in the gas waste decay tank, in the chimney filters, and at the top of the cells chimney. Each detector was calibrated in a known radiation field, and a special detector dead time correction was performed in order to achieve detected signal-to-radiation linearity for the Geiger tubes located in the radiochemistry production and research cells. During production of C-11 and O-15 PET radiopharmaceuticals, high radiation levels were measured in the gas waste decay tank (240 and 80 mR/h, respectively). In contrast, the radiation levels at the chimney filters and at the top of the cells chimney did not exceed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Drive Air Concentration (DAC) recommended for C-11 or O-15. During production of FDG, high radiation levels were measured at the chimney filters, however the radiation level at the top of the chimney (3.7 μCi/m 3) did not exceed the F-18 DAC recommendation (27 μCi/m 3). Low radiation levels of approximately 0.5-1 mR/h were measured in the radiochemistry room during production of PET radiopharmaceuticals. In the cyclotron vault, 2 min after bombardment the radiation levels at 2 m from the cyclotron decreased to 1-2 mR/h. The addition of a gas waste decay system to computerized monitoring channels located near each strategic point of the site allows for a comprehensive survey of the radiochemical processes.

  4. Lab-on-a-Chip Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gravesen, Peter; Raaby Poulsen, Kristian; Dirac, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The demand for continuous glucose monitoring systems is greater than ever. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) approach has the advantage of being relatively easy to upscale to a commercial level; the preferred MEMS technique would be to run several detectors at once and, through the improved statistics, get a both more accurate and more reliable device than is currently available. Lab-on-a-chip technology may be seen as a further development of MEMS technology for analytical sensors. Lab-on-a-chip systems may be used to obtain improvements on several important characteristics of a sensor system: remove or decrease cross-sensitivity, improve sensor stability, improve accuracy, and/or improve response time compared to similar laboratory-equipment methods. PMID:19885092

  5. Application of network technology to Remote Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.S.; Sorokowski, D.L.; Veevers, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have sponsored work under a bilateral agreement to implement a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at an Australian nuclear site operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The RMS, designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), was installed in February 1994 at the Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSFSF) located at Lucas Heights, Australia. The RMS was designed to test a number of different concepts that would be useful for unattended remote monitoring activities. The DSFSF located in Building 27 is a very suitable test site for a RMS. The RMS uses a network of low cost nodes to collect data from a number of different sensors and security devices. Different sensors and detection devices have been installed to study how they can be used to complement each other for C/S applications. The data collected from the network will allow a comparison of how the various types of sensors perform under the same set of conditions. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Canberra, Australia and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by ASO and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the DSFSF. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. The Remote Monitoring System field tests have been operational for six months with good test results. Sensors have performed well and the digital images have excellent resolution. The hardware and software have performed reliably without any major difficulties. This paper summarizes the highlights of the prototype system and the ongoing field tests.

  6. Wearable Training-Monitoring Technology: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Marco; Varley, Matthew C

    2017-04-01

    The need to quantify aspects of training to improve training prescription has been the holy grail of sport scientists and coaches for many years. Recently, there has been an increase in scientific interest, possibly due to technological advancements and better equipment to quantify training activities. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the number of studies assessing training load in various athletic cohorts with a bias toward subjective reports and/or quantifications of external load. There is an evident lack of extensive longitudinal studies employing objective internal-load measurements, possibly due to the cost-effectiveness and invasiveness of measures necessary to quantify objective internal loads. Advances in technology might help in developing better wearable tools able to ease the difficulties and costs associated with conducting longitudinal observational studies in athletic cohorts and possibly provide better information on the biological implications of specific external-load patterns. Considering the recent technological developments for monitoring training load and the extensive use of various tools for research and applied work, the aim of this work was to review applications, challenges, and opportunities of various wearable technologies.

  7. Sample size allocation for food item radiation monitoring and safety inspection.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mayumi; Uriu, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify a procedure for determining sample size allocation for food radiation inspections of more than one food item to minimize the potential risk to consumers of internal radiation exposure. We consider a simplified case of food radiation monitoring and safety inspection in which a risk manager is required to monitor two food items, milk and spinach, in a contaminated area. Three protocols for food radiation monitoring with different sample size allocations were assessed by simulating random sampling and inspections of milk and spinach in a conceptual monitoring site. Distributions of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations were determined in reference to (131)I and radiocesium concentrations detected in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, for March and April 2011. The results of the simulations suggested that a protocol that allocates sample size to milk and spinach based on the estimation of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations using the apparent decay rate constants sequentially calculated from past monitoring data can most effectively minimize the potential risks of internal radiation exposure.

  8. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leuraud, Klervi; Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-07-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. We assembled a cohort of 308,297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8.22 million person-years. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality. Doses were accrued at very low rates (mean 1.1 mGy per year, SD 2.6). The excess relative risk of leukaemia mortality (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) was 2.96 per Gy (90% CI 1.17-5.21; lagged 2 years), most notably because of an association between radiation dose and mortality from chronic myeloid leukaemia (excess relative risk per Gy 10.45, 90% CI 4.48-19.65). This study provides strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposure and leukaemia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, AREVA, Electricité de France, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Energy, US Department of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina, Public Health England. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leuraud, Klervi; Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8·22 million person-years. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality. Findings Doses were accrued at very low rates (mean 1·1 mGy per year, SD 2·6). The excess relative risk of leukaemia mortality (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) was 2·96 per Gy (90% CI 1·17–5·21; lagged 2 years), most notably because of an association between radiation dose and mortality from chronic myeloid leukaemia (excess relative risk per Gy 10·45, 90% CI 4·48–19·65). Interpretation This study provides strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposure and leukaemia. Funding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, AREVA, Electricité de France, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Energy, US Department of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina, Public Health England. PMID:26436129

  10. Remembering Fukushima: PNNL Monitors Radiation from Nuclear Disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Harry

    2014-03-07

    Senior Scientist Harry Miley describes how his work in ultra-trace, nuclear detection technology picked up the first reading of radiological materials over the U.S. following the nuclear power plant explosion in Japan.

  11. Remembering Fukushima: PNNL Monitors Radiation from Nuclear Disaster

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Harry

    2016-07-12

    Senior Scientist Harry Miley describes how his work in ultra-trace, nuclear detection technology picked up the first reading of radiological materials over the U.S. following the nuclear power plant explosion in Japan.

  12. Continuing dental education in radiation protection: monitoring the outcomes.

    PubMed

    Absi, Eg; Drage, Na; Thomas, Hs; Newcombe, Rg; Nash, Es

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate an evolving radiation protection dental postgraduate course run in Wales between 2003 and 2007. We compared three standardized course series. Course content was enhanced in 2006 to target areas of weakness. In 2007, a single best answer multiple choice questionnaire instrument superseded a true/false format. Practitioners' performance was studied pre- and immediately post-training. 900 participants completed identical pre- and post-course validated multiple choice questionnaires. 809 (90%) paired morning-afternoon records, including those of 52 dental care professionals (DCPs), were analysed. Mean (standard error) pre- and post-course percentage scores for the three courses were 33.8 (0.9), 35.4 (1.4), 34.6 (1.0) and 63.6 (0.9), 59.0 (1.4), 69.5 (0.9). Pre-training, only 2.4%, 3.1% and 4.9% of participants achieved the pass mark compared to 57.7%, 48.4% and 65.9% post-training, indicating a rather greater pass rate and gain in the most recent series than earlier ones. In recent series, older more experienced candidates scored slightly higher; however, their gain from pre- to post-training was slightly less. Baseline levels of radiation protection knowledge remained very low but attending an approved course improved this considerably. Targeting areas of weaknesses produced higher scores. Current radiation protection courses may not be optimal for DCPs.

  13. Photoacoustic monitoring of tumor and normal tissue response to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Laurie J.; Seshadri, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a recognized characteristic of tumors that influences efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a relatively new imaging technique that exploits the optical characteristics of hemoglobin to provide information on tissue oxygenation. In the present study, PAI based measures of tumor oxygen saturation (%sO2) were compared to oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of longitudinal relaxation rate (R1 = 1/T1) and ex-vivo histology in patient derived xenograft (PDX) models of head and neck cancer. PAI was utilized to assess early changes (24 h) in %sO2 following RT and chemoRT (CRT) and to assess changes in salivary gland hemodynamics following radiation. A significant increase in tumor %sO2 and R1 was observed following oxygen inhalation. Good spatial correlation was observed between PAI, MRI and histology. An early increase in %sO2 after RT and CRT detected by PAI was associated with significant tumor growth inhibition. Twenty four hours after RT, PAI also detected loss of hemodynamic response to gustatory stimulation in murine salivary gland tissue suggestive of radiation-induced vascular damage. Our observations illustrate the utility of PAI in detecting tumor and normal tissue hemodynamic response to radiation in head and neck cancers. PMID:26883660

  14. Breathing Room in Monitored Space: The Impact of Passive Monitoring Technology on Privacy in Independent Living.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Clara

    2016-10-01

    This study examines articulations of the relationship between privacy and passive monitoring by users and former users of a sensor-based remote monitoring system. A new conceptualization of privacy provides a framework for a constructive analysis of the study's findings with practical implications. Forty-nine in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with elder residents, family members, and staff of 6 low-income independent living residence apartment buildings where the passive monitoring system had been offered for 6 years. Transcribed interviews were coded into the Dedoose software service and were analyzed using methods of grounded theory. Five diverse articulations of the relationship between privacy and passive monitoring emerged. The system produced new knowledge about residents and enabled staff to decide how much of that knowledge to disclose to residents. They chose not to disclose to residents their reason for following up on system-generated alerts for 2 reasons: concern that feelings of privacy invasion may arise and cause dissatisfaction with the technology, and the knowledge that many resident users did not comprehend the extent of its features and would be alarmed. This research reveals the importance and challenges of obtaining informed consent. It identifies where boundary intrusion can occur in the use of passive monitoring as well as how changes to technology design and practice could create opportunities for residents to manage their own boundaries according to their privacy needs. The diversity of approaches to privacy supports the need for "opportunity for boundary management" to be employed as both a design and practice principle. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. New concepts and technologies in home care and ambulatory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, A; Axisa, F; Delhomme, G; Gehin, C

    2004-01-01

    The world is becoming more and more health conscious. Society, health policy and patients' needs are all changing dramatically. The challenges society is currently facing are related to the increase in the aging population, changes in lifestyle, the need for healthcare cost containment and the need for improvement and monitoring of healthcare quality. The emphasis is put on prevention rather than on treatment. In addition, patients and health consumers are waiting for non-invasive or minimally-invasive diagnosis and treatment methods, for home care, short stays in hospital, enhancement of rehabilitation, information and involvement in their own treatment. Progress in science and technology offers, today, miniaturization, speed, intelligence, sophistication and new materials at lower cost. In this new landscape, microtechnologies, information technologies and telecommunications are key factors. Telemedicine has also evolved. Used initially to exchange patients' files, radiographic data and other information between health providers, today telemedicine contributes to new trends in "hospital extension" through all-day monitoring of vital signs, professional activities, entertainment and home-based activities. The new possibilities for home care and ambulatory monitoring are provided at 4 levels: a) Microsensors. Microtechnologies offer the possibility of small size, but also of intelligent, active devices, working with low energy, wireless and non-invasive or minimally-invasive; b) Wrist devices are particularly user friendly and combine sensors, circuits, supply, display and wireless transmission in a single box, very convenient for common physical activities; c) Health smart clothes make contact with 90 % of the skin and offer many possibilities for the location of sensors. These sensors have to be thin, flexible and compatible with textiles, or made using textile technologies, such as new fibers with specific (mechanical, electrical and optical) properties; d

  16. Towards personalised ambient monitoring of mental health via mobile technologies.

    PubMed

    Prociow, Pawel A; Crowe, John A

    2010-01-01

    Managing bipolar disorder is an important health issue that can strongly affect the patient's quality of life during occurrences of depressive or manic episodes and is therefore a growing burden to healthcare systems. A widely practised method of monitoring the course of the disorder is by mood and general mental health questionnaires, which are nowadays often implemented on mobile electronic devices.Detecting changes to daily routine and behaviour is of crucial importance as they can be symptomatic of an ongoing episode, or in the case of an external cause, may trigger such an episode.Current mobile phones and geospatial technology provide a means of monitoring aspects of daily routine and lifestyle which may be valuable in facilitating self-management of the condition.This manuscript introduces a methodology for analysing data obtained from a simple wearable system based on a mid-range mobile phone, along with trial results from a control group of three participants with no history of Bipolar Disorder. It is suggested that such an approach offers an unobtrusive, acceptable and low cost means of monitoring bipolar disorder patients that could significantly improve their care.

  17. Reliable real-time clinical monitoring using sensor network technology.

    PubMed

    Chipara, Octav; Brooks, Christopher; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta; Lu, Chenyang; Chamberlain, Roger D; Roman, Gruia-Catalin; Bailey, Thomas C

    2009-11-14

    We propose wireless sensor networks composed of nodes using low-power 802.15.4 radios as an enabling technology for patient monitoring in general hospital wards. A key challenge for such applications is to reliably deliver sensor data from mobile patients. We propose a monitoring system with two types of nodes: patient nodes equipped with wireless pulse oximeters and relays nodes used to route data to a base station. A reliability analysis of data collection from mobile users shows that mobility leads to packet losses exceeding 30%. The majority of packet losses occur between the mobile subjects and the first-hop relays. Based on this insight we developed the Dynamic Relay Association Protocol (DRAP), an effective mechanism for discovering the right relays for patient nodes. DRAP enables highly reliable data collection from mobile subjects. Empirical evaluation showed that DRAP delivered at least 96% of data from multiple users. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of wireless sensor networks for real-time clinical monitoring.

  18. OH radical monitoring technologies for AOP advanced oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Han, S K; Nam, S N; Kang, J W

    2002-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate OH radical monitoring technologies for the advanced oxidation process (AOP). OH radicals can be measured directly or indirectly through electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), hydrogen peroxide method and probe compounds such as pCBA. Among the various AOPs, we focused on the application of EPR technique for *OH monitoring in the ultrasonic irradiation process. EPR method is a valuable tool and has a high sensitivity for radical measuring. Our study was performed with 20 kHz ultrasonic processor in 20 ml DMPO (1 mM) solution. The amount of DMPO-OH adduct with hyperfine constants aN = aH = 1.49 mT and g-value 2.0054, coincided with those of the DMPO-OH adduct depends on the reaction time of the sonication. Also, we have found that at least, *OH was accumulated by 2 x 10(-10) M for 10 min sonication, when 60% of the initial amount was destroyed through *OH monitoring using a probe compound. With these results, we could assume that recombination of *OH to form hydrogen peroxide occurs at the interfacial region.

  19. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  20. Monitoring radiation dose to the hands in nuclear medicine: location of dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Williams, E D; Laird, E E; Forster, E

    1987-07-01

    The relatively high radiation dose which can be received by the hands of staff in nuclear medicine departments means that in many departments it is necessary to monitor such doses. A convenient method is to use a TLD sachet in a plastic strip around a finger. This study was done to determine whether a dosemeter worn at the base of the middle finger was adequate to monitor the dose to the surface of the whole hand. Dosemeters were worn at the finger tips, finger base and palm of both hands, on two people while preparing and dispensing radio-pharmaceuticals, and two others while giving injections using syringe shields. The pattern of distribution of radiation does to the hands was similar for all workers and for both types of work. A single, convenient site (base of middle finger) may therefore be used for monitoring radiation dose to the hand.

  1. Open-source radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) for dose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenthal, Samuel; Folio, Les; Derderian, Vana; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of an open-source, PACS-integrated, DICOM header-based tool that automatically provides granular data for monitoring of CT radiation exposure. To do so, we constructed a radiation exposure extraction engine (RE3) that is seamlessly connected to the PACS using the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) toolkit (DCMTK) and runs on the fly within the workflow. We evaluated RE3's ability to determine the number of acquisitions and calculate the exposure metric dose length product (DLP) by comparing its output to the vendor dose pages. RE3 output closely correlated to the dose pages for both contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9987) and non-contiguously acquired exams (R2 =0.9994). RE3 is an open-source, automated radiation monitoring program to provide study-, series-, and slice-level radiation data.

  2. Advanced Electronics Technologies: Challenges for Radiation Effects Testing, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging Electronics Technologies include: 1) Changes in the commercial semiconductor world; 2) Radiation Effects Sources (A sample test constraint); and 3) Challenges to Radiation Testing and Modeling: a) IC Attributes-Radiation Effects Implication b) Fault Isolation c) Scaled Geometry d) Speed e) Modeling Shortfall f) Knowledge Status

  3. Individual monitoring for external radiation at accelerator facilities.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R J; Hager, L G

    2011-07-01

    Individual monitoring at accelerator facilities is discussed, within the framework set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and with reference to the implementation of the recommendations of that body within the European Basic Safety Standards. Legislation in other parts of the world may differ, but a worldwide perspective on this subject would be too exhaustive. The fields at accelerator facilities are contrasted in terms of particle type and energy with those encountered at more conventional sites within the nuclear fuel cycle, medical applications and general industry. The implications for individual monitoring are discussed in relation to the dose quantities for these accelerator fields and also with respect to the personal dosemeters options.

  4. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  5. Research on Land Ecological Condition Investigation and Monitoring Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chunyan; Guo, Xudong; Chen, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    The ecological status of land reflects the relationship between land use and environmental factors. At present, land ecological situation in China is worrying. According to the second national land survey data, there are about 149 million acres of arable land located in forests and grasslands area in Northeast and Northwest of China, Within the limits of the highest flood level, at steep slope above 25 degrees; about 50 million acres of arable land has been in heavy pollution; grassland degradation is still serious. Protected natural forests accounted for only 6% of the land area, and forest quality is low. Overall, the ecological problem has been eased, but the local ecological destruction intensified, natural ecosystem in degradation. It is urgent to find out the situation of land ecology in the whole country and key regions as soon as possible. The government attaches great importance to ecological environment investigation and monitoring. Various industries and departments from different angles carry out related work, most of it about a single ecological problem, the lack of a comprehensive surveying and assessment of land ecological status of the region. This paper established the monitoring index system of land ecological condition, including Land use type area and distribution, quality of cultivated land, vegetation status and ecological service, arable land potential and risk, a total of 21 indicators. Based on the second national land use survey data, annual land use change data and high resolution remote sensing data, using the methods of sample monitoring, field investigation and statistical analysis to obtain the information of each index, this paper established the land ecological condition investigation and monitoring technology and method system. It has been improved, through the application to Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, the northern agro-pastoral ecological fragile zone, and 6 counties (cities).

  6. On the role of radiation monitors on board LISA Pathfinder and future space interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Laurenza, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.

    2012-05-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) and its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) will carry particle monitors for noise diagnostics. It was proposed to build and place radiation detectors on board the ASTROD missions as well. We present here a study of the solar energetic particle (SEP) events that the LISA-PF radiation monitors are able to detect above the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) background predicted at the time of the mission data taking in 2015. In order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor measurements and gravitational sensor test-mass charging, the energy threshold for particles traversing both detectors should be approximately the same. In LISA-PF, the radiation monitor particle energy cut-off was conservatively set at 75 MeV per nucleon (MeV/n) for protons and ion normal incidence, while the minimum energy of the same particles reaching the test masses is 100 MeV/n. We find that SEP events detectable on LISA-PF are characterized by peak fluxes and fluences at energies >75 MeV/n larger than about 45%, on average, with respect to those at energies >100 MeV/n. We conclude that for an accurate correlation between radiation monitor count rates and test-mass charging, it is mandatory to benefit from absolute flux measurements of both galactic and high-energy solar particles provided by experiments carrying magnetic spectrometers in space at the time of LISA-PF (PAMELA, AMS). On the other hand, the role of the radiation detectors on board LISA-PF is crucial allowing for SEP event onset and dynamics monitoring.

  7. Advances in Linac-Based Technology for Industrial Radiation Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, Joseph

    1997-04-01

    Experience with the Industrial Materials Processing Electron Linear Accelerator, IMPELA, over 30,000 hours of 50 kW operation is reported for three irradiators, two of which are in commercial service. Operations are sufficiently mature that research is now concentrated on split beams, photon conversion, dose monitoring, beam scanning, new shielding designs and QA controls. The efficacy of increasing the incident electron energy on bremsstrahlung converters to 7.5 MeV, as proposed by an IAEA committee, is examined experimentally on an IMPELA accelerator over the energy range 7 MeV to 11 MeV to evaluate conversion efficiency, activation of machine components, converter engineering and the activation of red meat. Above 8 MeV the radioactive isotopes ^38Cl and ^24Na, formed primarily by neutrons produced in a tantalum converter, were clearly identified in the meat, while above 10.5 MeV the radiation from ^13N becomes dominant. Implications for the practicality of processing other high density products are discussed.

  8. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods.

  9. On Assessing the Robustness of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Christopher J.; Hemez, Francois M.; Farrar, Charles R.

    2012-08-24

    As Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continues to gain popularity, both as an area of research and as a tool for use in industrial applications, the number of technologies associated with SHM will also continue to grow. As a result, the engineer tasked with developing a SHM system is faced with myriad hardware and software technologies from which to choose, often adopting an ad hoc qualitative approach based on physical intuition or past experience to making such decisions. This paper offers a framework that aims to provide the engineer with a quantitative approach for choosing from among a suite of candidate SHM technologies. The framework is outlined for the general case, where a supervised learning approach to SHM is adopted, and the presentation will focus on applying the framework to two commonly encountered problems: (1) selection of damage-sensitive features and (2) selection of a damage classifier. The data employed for these problems will be drawn from a study that examined the feasibility of applying SHM to the RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response observatory network.

  10. Noninvasive emittance and energy spread monitor using optical synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorito, R.; Shkvarunets, A.; Castronovo, D.; Cornacchia, M.; Di Mitri, S.; Kishek, R.; Tschalaer, C.; Veronese, M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a design for a minimally perturbing diagnostic minichicane, which utilizes optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) generated from magnetic bends in the chicane, to measure the rms horizontal and vertical beam sizes, divergences, emittances, Twiss parameters and energy spread of a relativistic electron beam. The beam is externally focused to a waist at the first bend and the OSR generated there can be used to measure the rms beam size. Subsequent pairs of bends produce far field OSR interferences (OSRI) whose visibility depends on the beam energy spread and the angular divergence. Under proper conditions, one of these two effects will dominate the OSRI visibility from a particular pair of bends and can be used to diagnose the dominant effect. The properties of different configuration of bends in the chicane have been analyzed to provide an optimum diagnostic design for a given set of beam parameters to: (1) provide a sufficient number of OSR interferences to allow a measurement of the fringe visibility; (2) minimize the effect of coherent synchrotron radiation and space charge forces on the particles motion; and (3) minimize the effect of compression on the bunch length as the beam passes through the chicane. A design for the chicane has been produced for application to the FERMI free electron laser facility and by extension to similar high brightness linear accelerators. Such a diagnostic promises to greatly improve control of the electron beam optics with a noninvasive measurement of beam parameters and allow on-line optics matching and feedback.

  11. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05). CA analyses revealed no significant differences between workers with external gamma radiation exposure and the controls (1.60 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p > 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  12. Proton Irradiation Facility and space radiation monitoring at the Paul Scherrer Institute.

    PubMed

    Hajdas, W; Zehnder, A; Adams, L; Buehler, P; Harboe-Sorensen, R; Daum, M; Nickson, R; Daly, E; Nieminen, P

    2001-01-01

    The Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF) has been designed and constructed, in cooperation between Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and European Space Agency (ESA), for terrestrial proton testing of components and materials for spacecraft. Emphasis has been given to generating realistic proton spectra encountered by space-flights at any potential orbit. The facility, designed in a user-friendly manner, can be readily adapted to the individual requirements of experimenters. It is available for general use serving also in testing of radiation monitors and for proton experiments in different scientific disciplines. The Radiation Environment Monitor REM has been developed for measurements of the spacecraft radiation conditions. Two instruments were launched into space, one into a Geo-stationary Transfer Orbit on board of the STRV-1b satellite and one into a Low Earth Orbit on the Russian MIR station. The next generation of monitors (SREMs--Standard REMs) is currently under development in partnership of ESA, PSI and Contraves-Space. They will operate both as minimum intrusive monitors, which provide radiation housekeeping data and alert the spacecraft when the radiation level crosses allowed limits and as small scientific devices measuring particle spectra and fluxes. Future missions as e.g. INTEGRAL, STRV-1c and PROBA will be equipped with new SREMs.

  13. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorkin, V. M.; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  14. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Skorkin, V. M. Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V.

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  15. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  17. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  18. Technologies for Metabolic Monitoring Military Section Editorials in Diabetes Technologies and Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    monitoring, diabetes, IGF-I, patient decision assist, hyperspectral imaging, actigraphy , accelerometry, foot contact time, Con A-glucose sensing, lactate...physical activity using hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 5(6): 1023- 1034. Friedl KE. Actigraphy as metabolic...of Type I and care system: elegant simplicity, patient em- Type it diabetes in the military population are powerment, open software architecture

  19. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    SciTech Connect

    Cojocariu, L. N.; Placinta, V. M.; Dumitru, L.

    2016-03-25

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  20. [New mammography technologies and their impact on radiation dose].

    PubMed

    Chevalier del Rio, M

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews new mammography technologies resulting from advances in digital detectors and processing techniques. Most are just starting to be commercialized or are in the clinical trial phase. The results of clinical trials with the new 2D techniques (contrast-enhanced techniques or stereotactic techniques) show they are useful for diagnosing cancer. However, the greater complexity of the image acquisition process suggests that their use will be limited to particular cases such as inconclusive lesions or women with high risk for developing breast cancer. Among the 3D technologies (breast tomography and breast tomosynthesis), only breast tomosynthesis has been implemented in clinical practice, so it is the only technique for which it is possible to know the sensitivity, specificity, and radiation dose delivered. This article describes the principles underlying the way breast tomosynthesis works and the techniques used for image acquisition and reconstruction. It also summarizes the main results obtained in clinical studies, which generally show that breast tomosynthesis increases the breast cancer detection rate while decreasing the recall rate and number of biopsies taken. The protocol for breast tomosynthesis approved by the Food and Drug Administration (USA) consists of two conventional mammography projections for each breast and two tomosynthesis projections for each breast. This means multiplying the risks of inducing cancer and death associated with 2D mammography by a factor between 2 and 3 (2.6-3.3 and 0.7-0.9 per 100,000 women exposed when 50 years old, respectively). The protocol for breast tomosynthesis examinations is one of the aspects that is essential to determine when including tomosynthesis in screening programs and routine breast imaging.

  1. Towards on-line radiation monitoring with perfluorinated polymer optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajanca, P.; Krebber, K.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitivity of two commercial perfluorinated (PF) polymer optical fibers (POFs) to gamma radiation was measured, compared and exploited for dosimetry purposes. Fiber radiation induced attenuation (RIA) was found to be highly wavelength dependent and pronounced towards the UV part of the spectrum. PF-POFs were shown to be highly radiation sensitive and RIA-based on-line radiation monitoring with sensitivity as high as 135 dBm-1/kGy was demonstrated at 460 nm with co-extruded PF-POF. In addition, thanks to low inherent attenuation in the near-infrared region, possibility of distributed radiation detection with PF-POFs was demonstrated for the first time, utilizing optical time domain reflectometry.

  2. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  3. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports; Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    is undertaken by groups made up from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technical Organisation ( ANSTO ). the health and environmental authorities of...Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of the ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the...Centre and was manned continuously for the period of the visit. TRAINING 14. A refresher course was conducted in January by ANSTO staff for an RAN

  4. [Research progress in water quality monitoring technology based on ultraviolet spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tian-Ling; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Wen, Zhong-Quan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Wei, Kang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The water quality monitoring technology based on ultraviolet spectrum analysis has the characteristics of small volume, low cost, and no secondary pollution, and it doesn't need any reagent and sample pretreatment. On account of these characteristics, the direct ultra-violet technology has remarkable superiority over traditional technologies when applied in online monitoring of drinking water, surface water and industrial wastewater, and it has become an important development tendency of modern water monitoring technologies. The principle, characteristics, present situation and development trend of modern water quality monitoring technology based on ultra-violet spectrum analysis were introduced, and the key technical problems were further discussed in this paper.

  5. Observations from Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation during Juno's First Look at Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts: Perijove 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, H. N.; Joergensen, J. L.; Adriani, A.; Mura, A.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Alexander, J. W.; Adumitroaie, V.; Manor-Chapman, E. A.; Daubar, I.; Clifford, L.; Benn, M.; Denver, T.; Sushkova, J.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's inner radiation belts have not yet been fully explored. Our understanding of the relativistic electron population within this region is based on a limited set of in situ measurements made by the Galileo probe and Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, and remote synchrotron emission measurements. Juno's unique polar orbit will enable data collection at high magnetic latitudes and to within 2,600 miles of Jupiter's cloud tops. Over the course of the mission Juno's trajectory will provide the most comprehensive tour of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere to date. To function within Jupiter's extremely harsh radiation environment Juno's star trackers and science instruments have been very heavily shielded to reduce noise from penetrating relativistic electrons. Differences in instrument shielding strategies created differing spectral sensitivities to penetrating electrons. The detectors of Juno's cameras register impacts by penetrating charged particles as elevated noise signals within a cluster of pixels local to each "hit." The objective of Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation is to learn more about Jupiter's >10-MeV electron environment by actively retrieving and counting the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in Juno's star cameras and science instruments. Radiation measurements from multiple instruments will be coordinated in campaigns within regions of the magnetosphere where little to no in situ high energy electron data exist from prior missions. Dedicated "radiation image" collection and particle counting by the spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit, the Magnetic Field Investigation Advanced Stellar Compass, and the JIRAM infrared imager is the investigation's primary data set. We will discuss observations of the radiation environment made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager during Juno's "first look" perijove pass through Jupiter's inner magnetosphere on August 27, 2016 (4,147 km from the cloud tops at closest approach).

  6. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions

  7. Civil helicopter propulsion system reliability and engine monitoring technology assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. A.; Zuk, J.

    1982-01-01

    A study to reduce operating costs of helicopters, particularly directed at the maintenance of the propulsion subsystem, is presented. The tasks of the study consisted of problem definition refinement, technology solutions, diagnostic system concepts, and emergency power augmentation. Quantifiable benefits (reduced fuel consumption, on-condition engine maintenance, extended drive system overhaul periods, and longer oil change intervals) would increase the initial cost by $43,000, but the benefit of $24.46 per hour would result in breakeven at 1758 hours. Other benefits not capable of being quantified but perhaps more important include improved aircraft avilability due to reduced maintenance time, potential for increased operating limits due to continuous automatic monitoring of gages, and less time and fuel required to make engine power checks. The most important improvement is the on-condition maintenance program, which will require the development of algorithms, equipment, and procedures compatible with all operating environments.

  8. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  9. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  10. Earth Radiation Array (ERA). [for climate research and earth radiation budget monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Grush, Ronald C.; Arking, Albert

    1989-01-01

    The NASA's Earth Radiation Array (ERA), which is currently being developed to provide calibrated radiation measurements from various areas of the earth for at least 11 years, i.e., one solar cycle, contains a mosaic array of detectors which measures the outgoing radiation of the earth in all directions without the need for mechanical scanning. The angular measurements obtained by the ERA over set intervals of time will be integrated to produce total reflected and emitted flux values from each of the target areas. The ERA is designed as a relatively small instrument (less than 1-cu-m volume and 100-kg mass), which can be included in the payload complement of many different satellites. The key requirement of the ERA is the ability to operate for up to 11 years continuously and without failure.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY REPORT - LEAD DUST WIPE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL, PDV 5000 TRACE ELEMENT ANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETV works in partnership with recognized standards and testing organizations and stakeholder groups consisting of regulators, buyers, and vendor organizations, with the full participation of individual technology developers. The program evaluates the performance of innovative

  12. Potential of hybrid sensing technology to monitor soil ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    To study and monitor environments, a plethora of sensors in last decades have been proposed and claimed to be as the most specific, sensitive, reliable, durable, affordable or whatever. However, they rarely take into account probable interactions of compounds of interest with other substances (i.e. molecules, matrices, surfaces, etc.) occurring in the environments where the analytes are present (although some corrections due to a few interfering compounds have been sometimes carried out), then, generating misinterpretations of results (e.g. overestimation or underestimation) or incorrect evaluation of effects (e.g. about toxicity and disease diagnoses). Another quite rare evaluation in the detection of analytes in environments concerns the partition of substances of interest into different phases, as well as adsorption/desorption and absorption/release events, thus often leading to misinterpretations of results. That issue is of outmost importance in complex multiphasic environments, such as soil, where these phenomena commonly occur. An improvement in sensor applications to environmental monitoring, as concerns the competition and interference of other compounds in measurements, has been the development of electronic noses. The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology, where the presence of arrays of several suitable but unspecific sensors for volatiles and gases can deal with this problem, since the different features of sensors, despite overlapping responses to different compounds, are then evaluated in post-measurement data processing analyses (namely multivariate analyses) and integrated into a chemical image reproducing the fingerprint of the sample headspace or atmosphere (i.e. the odour), such as occurs in the olfactory system of mammalians. E-noses in the last decade have been extensively used to monitor volatile and gaseous analytes and odours in several contexts and environments. In the last 5 years, a very few groups have applied this technology

  13. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  14. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  15. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Richard

    A combination of passive and active sensing technologies is proposed as a structural health monitoring solution for several applications. Passive sensing is differentiated from active sensing in that with the former, no energy is intentionally imparted into the structure under test; sensors are deployed in a pure detection mode for collecting data mined for structural health monitoring purposes. In this thesis, passive sensing using embedded fiber Bragg grating optical strain gages was used to detect varying degrees of impact damage using two different classes of features drawn from traditional spectral analysis and auto-regressive time series modeling. The two feature classes were compared in detail through receiver operating curve performance analysis. The passive detection problem was then augmented with an active sensing system using ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs). This thesis considered two main challenges associated with UGW SHM including in-situ wave propagation property determination and thermal corruption of data. Regarding determination of wave propagation properties, of which dispersion characteristics are the most important, a new dispersion curve extraction method called sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA) was experimentally validated. Also, because UGWs are extremely sensitive to ambient temperature changes on the structure, it significantly affects the wave propagation properties by causing large errors in the residual error in the processing of the UGWs from an array. This thesis presented a novel method that compensates for uniform temperature change by considering the magnitude and phase of the signal separately and applying a scalable transformation.

  16. Can information technology improve the performance of remote monitoring systems?

    PubMed

    Bas, Marian; Ten, Jose Ignacio; Bover, Ramon; Cañadas, Victoria; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Perez-Villacastin, Julián; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    Despite some clinical, economic, and other qualitative advantages associated with remote cardiac device monitoring systems, one of the main challenges concerns the management of the out-of-hospital data. Manual updating of hospital databases with the data stored in the manufacturers' servers increases time requirements and may introduce mistakes in the entries. The use of communication standards such as Health Level 7 for data interchange could provide a safe and easy way to access patient and device information. The present study of 38 patients was carried out with the Carelink® remote monitoring technology. A formal process for remote cardiac device monitoring was established, including some features in the Arrhythmias Information System: mobile phone and e-mail were included for communication between patients and hospital, with a new gateway for automatic message sending. Device reports generated through the manufacturer's application were attached to the patient's record. Once the information concerning the transmission session was reviewed, the physician made a medical report, which was sent via post and e-mail to the patient. A new interface was created for Health Level 7 communication with the manufacturers' applications, so that the Arrhythmias Information System could automatically interchange information concerning the device and/or the patient when this kind of communication system is available. The volume of data generated by system warning alerts and transmission sessions makes it very difficult to meet the hospital database updating requirements. Standard-based communication between hospital and manufacturers' applications is fundamental to automatic and reliable update of data.

  17. The Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Education Program: An Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, F.; Marsh, L. K.; Springer, M.; Talus, C. E.; Haruta, A.; Kloesel, K.; Zak, B. D.; Clements, W. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Education and Outreach program supports ARM Operations at all three CART sites (North Slope of Alaska, Tropical West Pacific, and Southern Great Plains) in ways that are relevant to the needs of the communities and regions that host the ARM program sites. The goal of the education and outreach program is to develop basic science awareness, critical thinking skills, and improve environmental science capacity building for communities, teachers and students in ARM host communities and regions. This year, the primary goal is to extend the existing program to cover all three sites and to coordinate activities among the sites. In order to achieve this goal, we: o Bring awareness of the ARM program to host communities through public education relevant to the culture of the region; o Aid capacity building and community involvement in developing and implementing ARM education at each site; o Promote a broader knowledge of regional and international climate concerns for teachers and students through integration of ARM education across sites; o Assist access to ARM data for educational programs as technical resources permit, and to provide real time research experiences for students; and o Increase the knowledge base for teachers and students in basic science and critical thinking skills using curriculum-based enrichment activities in climate, climate change, and climate change effects relevant to each region.

  18. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  19. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A; Patterson, Eileen F

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  1. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  2. Technologies for Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Current Problems and Future Promises

    PubMed Central

    Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Burgess, Diane J; Tomazos, Ioannis; Jain, Faquir C; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2010-01-01

    Devices for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) are currently a major focus of research in the area of diabetes management. It is envisioned that such devices will have the ability to alert a diabetes patient (or the parent or medical care giver of a diabetes patient) of impending hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events and thereby enable the patient to avoid extreme hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic excursions as well as minimize deviations outside the normal glucose range, thus preventing both life-threatening events and the debilitating complications associated with diabetes. It is anticipated that CGM devices will utilize constant feedback of analytical information from a glucose sensor to activate an insulin delivery pump, thereby ultimately realizing the concept of an artificial pancreas. Depending on whether the CGM device penetrates/breaks the skin and/or the sample is measured extracorporeally, these devices can be categorized as totally invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive. In addition, CGM devices are further classified according to the transduction mechanisms used for glucose sensing (i.e., electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric). However, at present, most of these technologies are plagued by a variety of issues that affect their accuracy and long-term performance. This article presents a critical comparison of existing CGM technologies, highlighting critical issues of device accuracy, foreign body response, calibration, and miniaturization. An outlook on future developments with an emphasis on long-term reliability and performance is also presented. PMID:21129353

  3. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  4. Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m-3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m-3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the soil

  5. Design and evaluation of an inexpensive radiation shield for monitoring surface air temperatures

    Treesearch

    Zachary A. Holden; Anna E. Klene; Robert F. Keefe; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive temperature sensors are widely used in agricultural and forestry research. This paper describes a low-cost (~3 USD) radiation shield (radshield) designed for monitoring surface air temperatures in harsh outdoor environments. We compared the performance of the radshield paired with low-cost temperature sensors at three sites in western Montana to several...

  6. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  7. A simple convenient biological dosimeter for monitoring solar UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C. )

    1991-05-31

    The use of dry Bacillus subtilis spores as a biological dosimeter for the monitoring of solar UV-B (290-330 nm) radiation was described. Our field tests had supported the utility of this dosimeter as a reproducible and reliable sunlight dosimeter.

  8. Monitoring based maintenance utilizing actual stress sensory technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumitro, Sunaryo; Kurokawa, Shoji; Shimano, Keiji; Wang, Ming L.

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, many infrastructures have been deteriorating. In order to maintain sustainability of those infrastructures which have significant influence on social lifelines, economical and rational maintenance management should be carried out to evaluate the life cycle cost (LCC). The development of structural health monitoring systems, such as deriving evaluation techniques for the field structural condition of existing structures and identification techniques for the significant engineering properties of new structures, can be considered as the first step in resolving the above problem. New innovative evaluation methods need to be devised to identify the deterioration of infrastructures, e.g. steel tendons, cables in cable-stayed bridges and strands embedded in pre- or post-tensioned concrete structures. One of the possible solutions that show 'AtoE' characteristics, i.e., (a)ccuracy, (b)enefit, (c)ompendiousness, (d)urability and (e)ase of operation, elasto-magnetic (EM) actual stress sensory technology utilizing the sensitivity of incremental magnetic permeability to stress change, has been developed. Numerous verification tests on various steel materials have been conducted. By comparing with load cell, strain gage and other sensory technology measurement results, the actual stresses of steel tendons in a pre-stressed concrete structure at the following stages have been thoroughly investigated: (i) pre-stress change due to set-loss (anchorage slippage) at the tendon fixation stage; (ii) pre-stress change due to the tendon relaxation stage; (iii) concrete creep and shrinkage at the long term pre-stressing stage; (iv) pre-stress change in the cyclic fatigue loading stage; and (v) pre-stress change due to the re-pre-stress setting stage. As the result of this testing, it is confirmed that EM sensory technology enables one to measure actual stress in steel wire, strands and steel bars precisely without destroying the polyethylene covering sheath and enables

  9. [Nephro-urological monitoring technology based on radionuclide functional tests (tasks of an automated workplace)].

    PubMed

    Averinova, S G; Kashkadaeva, A V; Shiriaev, S V; Nechipaĭ, A M; Dmitrieva, G D

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with a diagnostic informational and analytical system (DIAS). The system is based on the current concept of a dynamic model of nephro-urological clearance macroregulation under retention factors at the pre-, intra-, and postrenal levels during drug load tests. DIAS includes a package of dynamic renoscintigraphic techniques, as well as original software support. A system for parameters of renal clearance regulation has been developed, which is effective at nephro-urological screening and monitoring at all treatment stages for cancer patients. A two-detector chamber which permits the mounting of a detector at an angle to the patient's body is the optimum diagnostic apparatus for a cancer clinic. The use of functional tests makes it possible to examine the regulatory reserves for each kidney, followed up by the choice of adequate corrective measures to prevent renal failure during treatment. In some cases, DIAS monitoring frequently shows a higher sensitivity to the signs of latent renal failure than does routine clinical and laboratory monitoring. The effective radiation dose taken by a patient during a study by the DIAS technology aimed at reducing radioopaque doses is 100-150 times higher than that at an X-ray study and is an order less than during routine urinary tests.

  10. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Kusunoki, Y; Hirai, Y; Tanabe, K; Cologne, J B

    1996-01-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. PMID:8781371

  11. Monitoring exposure to atomic bomb radiation by somatic mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    1996-05-01

    Atomic bomb survivors are a population suitable for studying the relationship between somatic mutation and cancer risk because their exposure doses are relatively well known and their dose responses in terms of cancer risk have also been thoroughly studied. An analysis has been made of erythrocyte glycophorin A (GPA) gene mutations in 1,226 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The GPA mutation frequency (Mf) increased slightly but significantly with age at the time of measurement and with the number of cigarettes smoked. After adjustment for the effect of smoking, the Mf was significantly higher in males than in females and higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. All of these characteristics of the background GPA Mf were in accord with those of solid tumor incidence obtained from an earlier epidemiological study of A-bomb survivors. Analysis of the dose effect on Mf revealed the doubling dose to be about 1.20 Sv and the minimum dose for detection of a significant increase to be about 0.24 Sv. No significant dose effect for difference in sex, city, or age at the time of bombing was observed. Interestingly, the doubling dose for the GPA Mf approximated that for solid cancer incidence (1.59 Sv). And the minimum dose for detection was not inconsistent with the data for solid cancer incidence. The dose effect was significantly higher in those diagnosed with cancer before or after measurement than in those without a history of cancer. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that somatic mutations are the main cause of excess cancer risk from radiation exposure. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  13. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety education at radiological technology schools].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2004-10-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey of all radiological technology schools, to investigate the status of radiation safety education. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning full-time teachers, measures being taken for the Radiation Protection Supervisor Qualifying Examination, equipment available for radiation safety education, radiation safety education for other departments, curriculum of radiation safety education, and related problems. The returned questionnaires were analyzed according to different groups categorized by form of education and type of establishment. The overall response rate was 55%, and there were statistically significant differences in the response rates among the different forms of education. No statistically significant differences were found in the items relating to full-time teachers, measures for Radiation Protection Supervisor Qualifying Examination, and radiation safety education for other departments, either for the form of education or type of establishment. Queries on the equipment used for radiation safety education revealed a statistically significant difference in unsealed radioisotope institutes among the forms of education. In terms of curriculum, the percentage of radiological technology schools which dealt with neither the shielding calculation method for radiation facilities nor with the control of medical waste was found to be approximately 10%. Other educational problems that were indicated included shortages of full-time teachers and equipment for radiation safety education. In the future, in order to improve radiation safety education at radiological technology schools, we consider it necessary to develop unsealed radioisotope institutes, to appoint more full-time teachers, and to educate students about risk communication.

  14. Monitoring of Solar Radiation Intensity using Wireless Sensor Network for Plant Growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, B.; Fadli, F.; Andayani, U.; Harahap, LA; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract— Plant growth is highly depending on the sunlight, if the consumption of sunlight is enough, it will grow well. The plant will be green because of its chlorophyll and it can perform photosynthesis at maximum; but if the plants get less sunlight, it will make the plants be yellowing. Radiation is electromagnetic waves that are good for plants, so-called visible light. In the electromagnetic wave spectrum the best wavelength range from 400-700 nm for the plant. A monitoring of sun intensity is needed in order to obtain sufficient solar radiation consumption and provide notification if there is a high radiation. In this study, several sensors and devices were combined such as photosynthetic solar radiation sensors, GSM / GPRS and waspmote as a main board or a microcontroller. The test was carried out on at least three occasions; the system has a stable radiation in the morning with an average of 505.51 micrometers. IN this study, we have successfully developed a monitoring tools for solar radiation intensity applied on plant growth by using wireless sensor network.

  15. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  16. Monitoring cystic fibrosis lung disease by computed tomography. Radiation risk in perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wieying; Ciet, Pierluigi; Tiddens, Harm A W M; Zhang, Wei; Guillerman, R Paul; van Straten, Marcel

    2014-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a sensitive technique to monitor structural changes related to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. It detects structural pulmonary abnormalities such as bronchiectasis and trapped air, at an early stage, before they become apparent with other diagnostic tests. Clinical decisions may be influenced by knowledge of these abnormalities. CT imaging, however, comes with risk related to ionizing radiation exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the risk of routine CT imaging in patients with CF, using current models of radiation-induced cancer, and to put this risk in perspective with other medical and nonmedical risks. The magnitude of the risk is a complex, controversial matter. Risk analyses have largely been based on a linear no-threshold model, and excess relative and excess absolute risk estimates have been derived mainly from atomic bomb survivors. The estimates have large confidence intervals. Our risk estimates are in concordance with previously reported estimates. A large proportion of radiation to which humans are exposed is from natural background sources and varies widely depending on geographical location. The risk differences due to variation in background radiation can be larger than the risks associated with CF lung disease monitoring by CT. We conclude that the risk related to routine usage of CT in clinical care is small. In addition, a life-limiting disease, such as CF, lowers the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Nonetheless, the use of CT should always be justified and the radiation dose should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.

  17. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  18. Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Margalit, Danielle N.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)-conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique. There

  19. How gamma radiation processing systems are benefiting from the latest advances in information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Wayne H.; Levesque, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses how gamma irradiation plants are putting the latest advances in computer and information technology to use for better process control, cost savings, and strategic advantages. Some irradiator operations are gaining significant benefits by integrating computer technology and robotics with real-time information processing, multi-user databases, and communication networks. The paper reports on several irradiation facilities that are making good use of client/server LANs, user-friendly graphics interfaces, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed I/O with real-time sensor devices, trending analysis, real-time product tracking, dynamic product scheduling, and automated dosimetry reading. These plants are lowering costs by fast and reliable reconciliation of dosimetry data, easier validation to GMP requirements, optimizing production flow, and faster release of sterilized products to market. There is a trend in the manufacturing sector towards total automation using "predictive process control". Real-time verification of process parameters "on-the-run" allows control parameters to be adjusted appropriately, before the process strays out of limits. Applying this technology to the gamma radiation process, control will be based on monitoring the key parameters such as time, and making adjustments during the process to optimize quality and throughput. Dosimetry results will be used as a quality control measurement rather than as a final monitor for the release of the product. Results are correlated with the irradiation process data to quickly and confidently reconcile variations. Ultimately, a parametric process control system utilizing responsive control, feedback and verification will not only increase productivity and process efficiency, but can also result in operating within tighter dose control set points.

  20. The AMSAT-OSCAR-40 High Elliptical Orbit Radiation Environment Monitoring Payload - First Flight Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    Over the last decade, Surrey's micro-satellites have provided continuous monitoring of the proton and heavy-ion environment encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO), through the use of a series of silicon PIN-diode-based particle detectors, starting with the UK Defence Evaluation Research Agency's (DERA's) Cosmic-Radiation Environment and Dosimetry (CREDO) payload, flown on-board UoSAT-3 in 1990, followed in 1992 by the Cosmic-Ray Experiment (CRE), developed at the Surrey Space Centre under a micro-satellite Technology Transfer (TT) programme operated between Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) and the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), and flown on the resulting KITSAT-1 micro-satellite. The CRE was flown again in 1993 on-board the PoSAT- 1 micro-satellite, developed under a similar TT programme operated between SSTL and Portugal. The results from all of these instruments have given a great deal of information on the nature of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) ionising radiation environment, and in the case of the PoSAT-1 CRE, continue to do so. However, to obtain a more complete "picture" of the magnetosphere, it is necessary to orbit instruments much further out in space An opportunity to do this arose in 1994 when amateur radio satellite groups (AMSAT) proposed launching a small (600 kg) communications satellite into highly elliptical orbit. This satellite, called AMSAT-OSCAR-40 (AO-40), was launched by Ariane 5 rocket on 16th November 2000, initially into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The satellite has subsequently been manoeuvred into a highly elliptical, 1070 km x 58,700 km, 6.8o inclination orbit, and thus it affords the opportunity to observe the proton and heavy-ion environment through a large cross-section of Earth's magnetosphere. AO-40 carries a version of the CRE, which has been slightly modified in terms of interfaces and packaging to fit that particular satellite bus. However the particle detecting element is essentially

  1. Radiation-induced insulator discharge pulses in the CRRES Internal Discharge Monitor satellite experiment. [Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Mullen, E. G.; Brautigam, D. H.; Kerns, K. J.; Robinson, P. A., Jr.; Holman, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) is designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The IDM is flying on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The sixteen insulator samples include G10 circuit boards, FR4 and PTFE fiberglass circuit boards, FEP Teflon, alumina, and wires with common insulations. The samples are fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrates 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. The IDM results indicate the rate at which insulator pulses occur. Pulsing began on the seventh orbit. The maximum pulse rate occurred near orbit 600 when over 50 pulses occurred. The average pulse rate is approximately two per orbit, but nearly half of the first 600 orbits experienced no pulses. The pulse rate per unit flux of high energy electrons has not changed dramatically over the first ten months in space. These pulse rates are in agreement with laboratory experience on shorter time scales. Several of the samples have never pulsed. IDM pulses are the seeds of larger satellite electrical anomalies. The pulse rates are compared with space radiation intensities, L shell location, and spectral distributions from the radiation spectrometers on CRRES.

  2. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  3. Scientific goals achievable with radiation monitor measurements on board gravitational wave interferometers in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.

    2012-06-01

    Cosmic rays and energetic solar particles constitute one of the most important sources of noise for future gravitational wave detectors in space. Radiation monitors were designed for the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) mission. Similar devices were proposed to be placed on board LISA and ASTROD. These detectors are needed to monitor the flux of energetic particles penetrating mission spacecraft and inertial sensors. However, in addition to this primary use, radiation monitors on board space interferometers will carry out the first multipoint observation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at small and large heliolongitude intervals and at very different distances from Earth with minor normalization errors. We illustrate the scientific goals that can be achieved in solar physics and space weather studies with these detectors. A comparison with present and future missions devoted to solar physics is presented.

  4. Automatic radiation dose monitoring for CT of trauma patients with different protocols: feasibility and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Higashigaito, K; Becker, A S; Sprengel, K; Simmen, H-P; Wanner, G; Alkadhi, H

    2016-09-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of automatic radiation dose monitoring software for computed tomography (CT) of trauma patients in a clinical setting over time, and to evaluate the potential of radiation dose reduction using iterative reconstruction (IR). In a time period of 18 months, data from 378 consecutive thoraco-abdominal CT examinations of trauma patients were extracted using automatic radiation dose monitoring software, and patients were split into three cohorts: cohort 1, 64-section CT with filtered back projection, 200 mAs tube current-time product; cohort 2, 128-section CT with IR and identical imaging protocol; cohort 3, 128-section CT with IR, 150 mAs tube current-time product. Radiation dose parameters from the software were compared with the individual patient protocols. Image noise was measured and image quality was semi-quantitatively determined. Automatic extraction of radiation dose metrics was feasible and accurate in all (100%) patients. All CT examinations were of diagnostic quality. There were no differences between cohorts 1 and 2 regarding volume CT dose index (CTDIvol; p=0.62), dose-length product (DLP), and effective dose (ED, both p=0.95), while noise was significantly lower (chest and abdomen, both -38%, p<0.017). Compared to cohort 1, CTDIvol, DLP, and ED in cohort 3 were significantly lower (all -25%, p<0.017), similar to the noise in the chest (-32%) and abdomen (-27%, both p<0.017). Compared to cohort 2, CTDIvol (-28%), DLP, and ED (both -26%) in cohort 3 was significantly lower (all, p<0.017), while noise in the chest (+9%) and abdomen (+18%) was significantly higher (all, p<0.017). Automatic radiation dose monitoring software is feasible and accurate, and can be implemented in a clinical setting for evaluating the effects of lowering radiation doses of CT protocols over time. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Product assurance technology for procuring reliable, radiation-hard, custom LSI/VLSI electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Allen, R. A.; Blaes, B. R.; Hicks, K. A.; Jennings, G. A.; Lin, Y.-S.; Pina, C. A.; Sayah, H. R.; Zamani, N.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced measurement methods using microelectronic test chips are described. These chips are intended to be used in acquiring the data needed to qualify Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) for space use. Efforts were focused on developing the technology for obtaining custom IC's from CMOS/bulk silicon foundries. A series of test chips were developed: a parametric test strip, a fault chip, a set of reliability chips, and the CRRES (Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite) chip, a test circuit for monitoring space radiation effects. The technical accomplishments of the effort include: (1) development of a fault chip that contains a set of test structures used to evaluate the density of various process-induced defects; (2) development of new test structures and testing techniques for measuring gate-oxide capacitance, gate-overlap capacitance, and propagation delay; (3) development of a set of reliability chips that are used to evaluate failure mechanisms in CMOS/bulk: interconnect and contact electromigration and time-dependent dielectric breakdown; (4) development of MOSFET parameter extraction procedures for evaluating subthreshold characteristics; (5) evaluation of test chips and test strips on the second CRRES wafer run; (6) two dedicated fabrication runs for the CRRES chip flight parts; and (7) publication of two papers: one on the split-cross bridge resistor and another on asymmetrical SRAM (static random access memory) cells for single-event upset analysis.

  6. Preliminary Results on Design and Implementation of a Solar Radiation Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Balan, Mugur C; Damian, Mihai; Jäntschi, Lorentz

    2008-02-19

    The paper presents a solar radiation monitoring system, using two scientificpyranometers and an on-line computer home-made data acquisition system. The firstpyranometer measures the global solar radiation and the other one, which is shaded,measure the diffuse radiation. The values of total and diffuse solar radiation arecontinuously stored into a database on a server. Original software was created for dataacquisition and interrogation of the created system. The server application acquires the datafrom pyranometers and stores it into a database with a baud rate of one record at 50seconds. The client-server application queries the database and provides descriptivestatistics. A web interface allow to any user to define the including criteria and to obtainthe results. In terms of results, the system is able to provide direct, diffuse and totalradiation intensities as time series. Our client-server application computes also derivateheats. The ability of the system to evaluate the local solar energy potential is highlighted.

  7. Differences in mortality by radiation monitoring status in an expanded cohort of Portsmouth Naval Shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Silver, Sharon R; Daniels, Robert D; Taulbee, Timothy D; Zaebst, Dennis D; Kinnes, Gregory M; Couch, James R; Kubale, Travis L; Yiin, James H; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Chen, Pi-Hsueh

    2004-07-01

    Studies of leukemia and lung cancer mortality at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS) have yielded conflicting results. In an expanded cohort of PNS workers employed between 1952 and 1992 and followed through 1996, the all-cause standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.96). Employment duration SMRs were elevated with confidence intervals excluding 1.00 for lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and all cancers combined. Leukemia mortality was as expected overall, but standardized rate ratio analyses showed a significant positive linear trend with increasing external radiation dose. The role of solvent exposures could not be evaluated. Findings differed by radiation monitoring subcohort, with excess asbestosis deaths limited to radiation workers and several smoking-related causes of death higher among nonmonitored workers. At PNS, asbestos exposure and possibly smoking could be nonrandomly distributed with respect to radiation exposure, suggesting potential for confounding in internal analyses of an occupational cohort.

  8. Personalized Technologies in Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders: Self-monitoring and Remote Sensor Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad Safwan; Atreja, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    With increased access to high-speed Internet and smartphone devices, patients have started to use mobile applications (apps) for various health needs. These mobile apps are now increasingly used in integration with telemedicine and wearables to support fitness, health education, symptom tracking, and collaborative disease management and care coordination. More recently, evidence (especially around remote patient monitoring) has started to build in some chronic diseases, and some of the digital health technologies have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration. With the changing healthcare landscape and push for value-based care, adoption of these digital health initiatives among providers is bound to increase. Although so far there is a dearth of published evidence about effectiveness of these apps in gastroenterology care, there are ongoing trials to determine whether remote patient monitoring can lead to improvement in process metrics or outcome metrics for patients with chronic gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27189911

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT CEREX ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES UV HOUND POINT SAMPLE AIR MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Technology Testing and Evaluation Program (TTEP) is carrying out performance tests on homeland security technologies. Under TTEP, Battelle evaluated the performance of the Cerex UV Hound point sample air monitor in de...

  11. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  12. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  13. Remote monitoring technologies for the prevention of metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA) study.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Melanie; Fulkerson, Robyn; Read, Emily; Russell-Minda, Elizabeth; Munoz, Claudio; Kleinstiver, Peter; Petrella, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Remote monitoring technologies are ideally suited for rural communities with limited access to health care. In an 8-week pilot study, we examined the feasibility of implementing and conducting a technology-intensive intervention in an underserviced rural setting. Our goal was to test the utility of self-monitoring technologies, physical activity, and education as tools to manage health indicators for the development of the cardiovascular complications (CVCs) of type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity study was an open single-center study conducted in a community-based research setting. All 24 participants were provided with a Blackberry™ Smartphone, blood pressure monitor, glucometer, and pedometer. Smartphones transmitted measurements and survey results to the database, interfaced participants with the clinical team, and allowed for self-monitoring. Outcomes were improved body composition, improved markers of CVC risk factors, increased daily exercise, and interest in or awareness of lifestyle changes that impact health outcomes. Participants had excellent compliance for measurements, as self-monitoring provided a sense of security that improved from week 4 to week 8. Our team gained substantial insight into the operational requirements of technology-facilitated health care, including redefined hours of service; data reporting, management, and access protocols; and the utility of real-time clinical measures by remote monitoring. We developed an understanding of knowledge translation strategies as well as successful motivational and educational tools. Importantly, remote monitoring technology was found to be feasible and accepted in a rural setting. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Study on the biological effect of cosmic radiation and the development of radiation protection technology (L-11)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagaoka, Shunji

    1993-01-01

    NASDA is now participating in a series of flight experiments on Spacelab missions. The first experiment was carried out on the first International Microgravity Laboratory Mission (IML-1) January 1992, and the second experiment will be conducted on the Spacelab-J Mission, First Materials Processing Test (FMPT). The equipment or Radiation Monitoring Container Devices (RMCD) includes passive dosimeter systems and biological specimens. The experiments using this hardware are designed by NASDA to measure and investigate the radiation levels inside spacecraft like space shuttle and to look at the basic effects of the space environment from the aspect of radiation biology. The data gathered will be analyzed to understand the details of biological effects as well as the physical nature of space radiation registered in the sensitive Solid-State Track Detectors (SSTD).

  15. Optical Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Biodosimetry and Monitoring of Radiation Injury to the Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Thrall, Karla D.; Peterson, James M.

    2012-08-01

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation in a densely populated area, timely assessment and triage of the general population for the radiation exposure is critical. In particular, a significant number of the victims may sustain cutaneous radiation injury, which increases the mortality and worsens the overall prognosis of the victims suffered from combined thermal/mechanical and radiation trauma. Diagnosis of the cutaneous radiation injury is challenging, and established methods largely rely on visual manifestations, presence of the skin contamination, and a high degree of recall by the victim. Availability of a high throughput non-invasive in vivo biodosimetry tool for assessment of the radiation exposure of the skin is of particular importance for the timely diagnosis of the cutaneous injury. In the reported investigation, we have tested the potential of an optical reflectance spectroscopy for the evaluation of the radiation injury to the skin. This is technically attractive because optical spectroscopy relies on well-established and routinely used for various applications instrumentation, one example being pulse oximetry which uses selected wavelengths for the quantification of the blood oxygenation. Our method relies on a broad spectral region ranging from the locally absorbed, shallow-penetrating ultraviolet and visible (250 to 800 nm) to more deeply penetrating near-Infrared (800 – 1600 nm) light for the monitoring of multiple physiological changes in the skin upon irradiation. Chemometrics is a multivariate methodology that allows the information from entire spectral region to be used to generate predictive regression models. In this report we demonstrate that simple spectroscopic method, such as the optical reflectance spectroscopy, in combination with multivariate data analysis, offers the promise of rapid and non-invasive in vivo diagnosis and monitoring of the cutaneous radiation exposure, and is able accurately predict

  16. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  17. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  18. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  19. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  1. Wireless remote weather monitoring system based on MEMS technologies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10(-4) (°C(-1)). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10(-2) (Ω/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10(-2), 9.2 × 10(-2), 9.7 × 10(-2) (Ω/ms(-1)) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction.

  2. Utilizing Information Technologies for Lifelong Monitoring in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Capozzi, Davide; Lanzola, Giordano

    2011-01-01

    Background Information and communication technologies have long been acknowledged to support information sharing along the whole chain of care, from the clinic to the homes of patients and their relatives. Thus they are increasingly being considered for improving the delivery of health care services also in light of clinical and technological achievements that propose new treatments requiring a tighter interaction among patients and physicians. Methods The multiagent paradigm has been utilized within an architecture for delivering telemedicine services to chronic outpatients at their domiciles and enforcing cooperation among patients, caregivers, and different members of the health care staff. The architecture sees each communication device such as a palmtop, smart phone, or personal digital assistant as a separate agent upon which different services are deployed, including telemetry, reminders, notifications, and alarms. Decoupling services from agents account for a highly configurable environment applicable to almost any context that can be customized as needed. Results The architecture has been used for designing and implementing a prototypical software infrastructure, called LifePhone, that runs on several communication devices. A basic set of services has been devised with which we were able to configure two different applications that address long-term and short-term monitoring scenarios for diabetes patients. The long-term scenario encompasses telemetry and reminder services for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, which is a treatment for chronic renal failure, a diabetes complication. The short-term scenario incorporates telemetry and remote alarms and is applicable for training patients to use an artificial pancreas. Conclusions Our experiments proved that an infrastructure such as LifePhone can be used successfully for bridging the interaction gap that exists among all the components of a health care delivery process, improving the quality of service

  3. Wireless Remote Weather Monitoring System Based on MEMS Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a wireless remote weather monitoring system based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies comprising sensors for the measurement of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, integrated on a single chip. The sensing signals are transmitted between the Octopus II-A sensor nodes using WSN technology, following amplification and analog/digital conversion (ADC). Experimental results show that the resistance of the micro temperature sensor increases linearly with input temperature, with an average TCR (temperature coefficient of resistance) value of 8.2 × 10−4 (°C−1). The resistance of the pressure sensor also increases linearly with air pressure, with an average sensitivity value of 3.5 × 10−2 (Ω/kPa). The sensitivity to humidity increases with ambient temperature due to the effect of temperature on the dielectric constant, which was determined to be 16.9, 21.4, 27.0, and 38.2 (pF/%RH) at 27 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, respectively. The velocity of airflow is obtained by summing the variations in resistor response as airflow passed over the sensors providing sensitivity of 4.2 × 10−2, 9.2 × 10−2, 9.7 × 10−2 (Ω/ms−1) with power consumption by the heating resistor of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 W, respectively. The passage of air across the surface of the flow sensors prompts variations in temperature among each of the sensing resistors. Evaluating these variations in resistance caused by the temperature change enables the measurement of wind direction. PMID:22163762

  4. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. EPA-developed, patented technologies related to water monitoring and remediation that are available for licensing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA), Federal Agencies can patent inventions developed during the course of research. These technologies can then be licensed to businesses or individuals for further development and sale in the marketplace. These technologies relate to water monitoring and treatment technologies.

  6. A Scale for Monitoring Students' Attitudes to Learning Mathematics with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye; Barkatsas, Anastasios

    2007-01-01

    The "Mathematics and Technology Attitudes Scale" (MTAS) is a simple scale for middle secondary years students that monitors five affective variables relevant to learning mathematics with technology. The subscales measure mathematics confidence, confidence with technology, attitude to learning mathematics with technology and two aspects of…

  7. Literature review on monitoring technologies and their outcomes in independently living elderly people.

    PubMed

    Peetoom, Kirsten K B; Lexis, Monique A S; Joore, Manuela; Dirksen, Carmen D; De Witte, Luc P

    2015-07-01

    To obtain insight into what kind of monitoring technologies exist to monitor activity in-home, what the characteristics and aims of applying these technologies are, what kind of research has been conducted on their effects and what kind of outcomes are reported. A systematic document search was conducted within the scientific databases Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Cinahl, complemented by Google Scholar. Documents were included in this review if they reported on monitoring technologies that detect activities of daily living (ADL) or significant events, e.g. falls, of elderly people in-home, with the aim of prolonging independent living. Five main types of monitoring technologies were identified: PIR motion sensors, body-worn sensors, pressure sensors, video monitoring and sound recognition. In addition, multicomponent technologies and smart home technologies were identified. Research into the use of monitoring technologies is widespread, but in its infancy, consisting mainly of small-scale studies and including few longitudinal studies. Monitoring technology is a promising field, with applications to the long-term care of elderly persons. However, monitoring technologies have to be brought to the next level, with longitudinal studies that evaluate their (cost-) effectiveness to demonstrate the potential to prolong independent living of elderly persons. [Box: see text].

  8. An automated DICOM database capable of arbitrary data mining (including radiation dose indicators) for quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Pavlicek, William; Roberts, Catherine C; Langer, Steve G; Zhang, Muhong; Hu, Mengqi; Morin, Richard L; Schueler, Beth A; Wellnitz, Clinton V; Wu, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. National Press has brought to full public discussion concerns regarding the use of medical radiation, specifically x-ray computed tomography (CT), in diagnosis. A need exists for developing methods whereby assurance is given that all diagnostic medical radiation use is properly prescribed, and all patients' radiation exposure is monitored. The "DICOM Index Tracker©" (DIT) transparently captures desired digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) tags from CT, nuclear imaging equipment, and other DICOM devices across an enterprise. Its initial use is recording, monitoring, and providing automatic alerts to medical professionals of excursions beyond internally determined trigger action levels of radiation. A flexible knowledge base, aware of equipment in use, enables automatic alerts to system administrators of newly identified equipment models or software versions so that DIT can be adapted to the new equipment or software. A dosimetry module accepts mammography breast organ dose, skin air kerma values from XA modalities, exposure indices from computed radiography, etc. upon receipt. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine recommended a methodology for effective dose calculations which are performed with CT units having DICOM structured dose reports. Web interface reporting is provided for accessing the database in real-time. DIT is DICOM-compliant and, thus, is standardized for international comparisons. Automatic alerts currently in use include: email, cell phone text message, and internal pager text messaging. This system extends the utility of DICOM for standardizing the capturing and computing of radiation dose as well as other quality measures.

  9. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  10. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olefs, M.; Baumgartner, D. J.; Obleitner, F.; Bichler, C.; Foelsche, U.; Pietsch, H.; Rieder, H. E.; Weihs, P.; Geyer, F.; Haiden, T.; Schöner, W.

    2015-10-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  11. Monitoring Ionizing Radiation Exposure for Cardiotoxic Effects of Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Gillian; Yu, Zoe; Harrold, Emily; Cooke, Jennie; Keegan, Niamh; Fukuda, Shota; Addetia, Karima; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Spencer, Kirk T; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Kennedy, John; Ward, R Parker; Patel, Amit R; Lang, Roberto M; DeCara, Jeanne M

    2016-05-15

    Serial assessments of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are customary in patients with breast cancer receiving trastuzumab. Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is often used; however, a typical monitoring schedule could include 5 scans in a year. We evaluated the proportion of imaging-related ionizing radiation attributable to RNA in 115 patients with breast cancer, from 3 medical centers in the United States, Ireland, and Japan, who completed 12 months of trastuzumab treatment. Estimated radiation dose (ERD) was used to calculate exposure associated with imaging procedures spanning the 18 months before and after trastuzumab therapy. In addition, 20 cardiologists and oncologists from participating centers were surveyed for their opinions regarding the contribution of RNA to overall radiation exposure during trastuzumab treatment. When RNA was used to monitor LVEF, the mean ERD from imaging was substantial (34 ± 24.3 mSv), with the majority attributable solely to RNA (24.7 ± 14.8 mSv, 72.6%). Actual ERD associated with RNA in this population differed significantly from the perception in surveyed cardiologists and oncologists; 70% of respondents believed that RNA typically accounted for 0% to 20% of overall radiation exposure from imaging; RNA actually accounted for more than 70% of ERD. In conclusion, RNA was used to monitor LVEF in most patients in this cohort during and after trastuzumab therapy. This significantly increased ERD and accounted for a greater proportion of radiation than that perceived by surveyed physicians. ERD should be taken into account when choosing a method of LVEF surveillance. Alternative techniques that do not use radiation should be strongly considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Benefits of Mobile Phone Technology for Personal Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    phones are faster at identifying first locations and capable of getting location in challenging environments thanks to the combination of assisted-GPS technology and network positioning systems. Moreover, collecting location information from mobile phones, which are already carried by individuals, allows monitoring more people with a cheaper and less burdensome method than deploying GPS trackers. PMID:27833069

  13. Benefits of Mobile Phone Technology for Personal Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Valentín, Antònia; de Nazelle, Audrey; Ambros, Albert; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Seto, Edmund; Jerrett, Michael; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-11-10

    capable of getting location in challenging environments thanks to the combination of assisted-GPS technology and network positioning systems. Moreover, collecting location information from mobile phones, which are already carried by individuals, allows monitoring more people with a cheaper and less burdensome method than deploying GPS trackers.

  14. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  15. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  16. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-03-15

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

  17. Monitoring Radiation on Commercial Flights: An Interview With Captain Ian Getley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2009-11-01

    Ian Getley has logged more than 18,000 hours on Boeing 747s during his 29 years—20 as a captain—as a pilot with Qantas Airways. In 2008, he received a Ph.D. for his space weather research from the University of New South Wales, in Australia. Here Getley describes his experience measuring cosmic and solar particle radiation on commercial aircraft and his recent work developing a new radiation monitor that will allow pilots to respond in flight to solar events.

  18. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  19. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  20. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Program: An Overview of the Monitoring Approach and Technologies Selected for Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Strickland, Chris E.; Thorne, Paul D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Kelly, Mark E.; Sullivan, Charlotte; Williams, Mark D.; Amonette, James E.; Downs, Janelle L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to 1) evaluate CO2 mass balance and 2) detect any unforeseen loss in CO2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the injection stream and reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. It will also implement an adaptive monitoring strategy whereby monitoring results are continually evaluated and the monitoring network is modified as required, including the option to drill additional wells in out-years. Wells will be monitored for changes in CO2 concentration and formation pressure, and other geochemical/isotopic signatures that provide indication of CO2 or brine leakage. Indirect geophysical monitoring technologies that were selected for implementation include passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture logging. Near-surface monitoring approaches that have been initiated include surficial aquifer and surface- water monitoring, soil-gas monitoring, atmospheric monitoring, and hyperspectral data acquisition for assessment of vegetation conditions. Initially, only the collection of baseline data sets is planned; the need for additional near- surface monitoring will be continually evaluated throughout the design and operational phases of the project, and selected approaches may be reinstituted if conditions warrant. Given the current conceptual understanding of the subsurface environment, early and appreciable impacts to near-surface environments are not expected.

  1. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  2. Study of thermal management for space platform applications: Unmanned modular thermal management and radiator technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate techniques for thermal management of unmanned modules docked to a large 250 kW platform were evaluated. Both automatically deployed and space constructed radiator systems were studied to identify characteristics and potential problems. Radiator coating requirements and current state-of-the-art were identified. An assessment of the technology needs was made and advancements were recommended.

  3. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In 1982 astronauts were declared to be radiation workers by OSHA, and as such were subject to the rules and regulations applied to that group. NASA was already aware that space radiation was a hazard to crewmembers and had been studying and monitoring astronaut doses since 1962 at the Johnson Space Center. It was quickly realized NASA would not be able to accomplish all of its goals if the astronauts were subject to the ground based radiation worker limits, and thus received a waiver from OSHA to establish independent limits. As part of the stipulation attached to setting new limits, OSHA included a requirement to perform preflight dose projections for each crew and inform them of the associated risks. Additional requirements included measuring doses from various sources during the flight, making every effort to prevent a crewmember from exceeding the new limits, and keeping all exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (a.k.a. ALARA - a common health physics principle). The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its initial manned operations will coincide with the 4-5 year period of high space weather activity at the next maximum in the solar cycle. For the first time in NASA's manned program, US astronauts will be in orbit continuously throughout a solar maximum period. During this period, crews are at risk of significantly increased radiation exposures due to solar particle events and trapped electron belt enhancements following geomagnetic storms. The problem of protecting crews is compounded by the difficulty of providing continuous real-time monitoring over a period of a decade in an era of tightly constrained budgets. In order to prepare for ISS radiological support needs, the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group and the NOAA Space Environment Center have undertaken a multiyear effort to improve and automate ground-based space weather monitoring systems and real-time radiation analysis tools. These improvements include a coupled, automated

  4. Monitoring and Modeling Astronaut Occupational Radiation Exposures in Space: Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark; Golightly, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In 1982 astronauts were declared to be radiation workers by OSHA, and as such were subject to the rules and regulations applied to that group. NASA was already aware that space radiation was a hazard to crewmembers and had been studying and monitoring astronaut doses since 1962 at the Johnson Space Center. It was quickly realized NASA would not be able to accomplish all of its goals if the astronauts were subject to the ground based radiation worker limits, and thus received a waiver from OSHA to establish independent limits. As part of the stipulation attached to setting new limits, OSHA included a requirement to perform preflight dose projections for each crew and inform them of the associated risks. Additional requirements included measuring doses from various sources during the flight, making every effort to prevent a crewmember from exceeding the new limits, and keeping all exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (a.k.a. ALARA - a common health physics principle). The assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its initial manned operations will coincide with the 4-5 year period of high space weather activity at the next maximum in the solar cycle. For the first time in NASA's manned program, US astronauts will be in orbit continuously throughout a solar maximum period. During this period, crews are at risk of significantly increased radiation exposures due to solar particle events and trapped electron belt enhancements following geomagnetic storms. The problem of protecting crews is compounded by the difficulty of providing continuous real-time monitoring over a period of a decade in an era of tightly constrained budgets. In order to prepare for ISS radiological support needs, the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group and the NOAA Space Environment Center have undertaken a multiyear effort to improve and automate ground-based space weather monitoring systems and real-time radiation analysis tools. These improvements include a coupled, automated

  5. Lightweight, High Strength Metals With Enhanced Radiation Shielding - Technology Advancing Partnerships Challenge Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Maria Clara (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Technology Advancing Partnership (TAP) Challenge will seek to foster innovation throughout the Center by allowing the KSC workforce to identify a specific technology idea that needs improvement and to then work with an external partner to develop that technology. This Challenge will enable competitive partnerships with outside entities that will increase the value by bringing leveraged resources. The selected proposal from the University of Florida will develop new lightweight technologies with radiation mitigation for spacecraft.

  6. Radiation immune RAM semiconductor technology for the 80's. [Random Access Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, W. A.; Panagos, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents current and short term future characteristics of RAM semiconductor technologies which were obtained by literature survey and discussions with cognizant Government and industry personnel. In particular, total ionizing dose tolerance and high energy particle susceptibility of the technologies are addressed. Technologies judged compatible with spacecraft applications are ranked to determine the best current and future technology for fast access (less than 60 ns), radiation tolerant RAM.

  7. Comparison of the radiation hardness of various VLSI technologies for defense applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    In this review the radiation hardness of various potential very large scale (VLSI) IC technologies is evaluated. IC scaling produces several countervailing trends. Reducing vertical dimensions tends to increase total dose hardness, while reducing lateral feature sizes may increase susceptibility to transient radiation effects. It is concluded that during the next decade at least, silicon complimentary MOS (CMOS), perhaps on an insulating substrate (SOI) will be the technology of choice for VLSI in defense systems.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TEST OF DIOXIN EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of four dioxin emission monitors including two long-term sampling devices, the DMS (DioxinMonitoringSystem) and AMESA (Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans), and two semi-real-time continuous monitors, RIMMPA-TOFMS (Resonance Ionization with Multi-Mir...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, KMC CONTROLS, INC. SLE-1001 SIGHT GLASS MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the KMC SLE-1001 Sight Glass Monitor manufactured by KMC Controls, Inc. The sight glass monitor (SGM) fits over the sight glass that may be installed in a refrigeration system for the pur...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, KMC CONTROLS, INC. SLE-1001 SIGHT GLASS MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the KMC SLE-1001 Sight Glass Monitor manufactured by KMC Controls, Inc. The sight glass monitor (SGM) fits over the sight glass that may be installed in a refrigeration system for the pur...

  12. Overview of nonintercepting beam-size monitoring with optical diffraction radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as nonintercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  13. Application of the TLD albedo technique for monitoring and interpretation of neutron stray radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1980-09-01

    A single sphere albedo technique with TLD 600/TLD 700 detectors has been applied in neutron monitoring to calibrate albedo dosimeters and to interpret neutron stray radiation fields in terms of neutron dose equivalent separated for the energy groups below 0.4 eV, 0.4-10 keV and 10 keV-10 MeV, and Eeff for fast neutrons. The paper describes the technique for field and personnel monitoring under the aspect of an on-line computer program for data recording and processing.

  14. Overview of Nonintercepting Beam-Size Monitoring with Optical Diffraction Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, Alex H.

    2010-11-04

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as nonintercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  15. FutureGen 2.0 Monitoring Program: An Overview of the Monitoring Approach and Technologies Selected for Implementation

    DOE PAGES

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Strickland, Chris E.; Thorne, Paul D.; ...

    2014-12-31

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will design and build a first-of-its-kind, near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant with carbon capture and storage (CCS). To assess storage site performance and meet the regulatory requirements of the Class VI Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program for CO2 Geologic Sequestration, the FutureGen 2.0 project will implement a suite of monitoring technologies designed to 1) evaluate CO2 mass balance and 2) detect any unforeseen loss in CO2 containment. The monitoring program will include direct monitoring of the injection stream and reservoir, and early-leak-detection monitoring directly above the primary confining zone. It will also implement an adaptive monitoringmore » strategy whereby monitoring results are continually evaluated and the monitoring network is modified as required, including the option to drill additional wells in out-years. Wells will be monitored for changes in CO2 concentration and formation pressure, and other geochemical/isotopic signatures that provide indication of CO2 or brine leakage. Indirect geophysical monitoring technologies that were selected for implementation include passive seismic, integrated surface deformation, time-lapse gravity, and pulsed neutron capture logging. Near-surface monitoring approaches that have been initiated include surficial aquifer and surface- water monitoring, soil-gas monitoring, atmospheric monitoring, and hyperspectral data acquisition for assessment of vegetation conditions. Initially, only the collection of baseline data sets is planned; the need for additional near- surface monitoring will be continually evaluated throughout the design and operational phases of the project, and selected approaches may be reinstituted if conditions warrant. Given the current conceptual understanding of the subsurface environment, early and appreciable impacts to near-surface environments are not expected.« less

  16. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE`s Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE`s weapons laboratories.

  17. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-02-12

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories.

  18. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  19. Monitoring of electron bunch length by using Terahertz coherent transition radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaolu; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Lianmin; Tian, Qili; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, ultrashort bunch length monitoring was demonstrated based on Terahertz (THz) coherent transition radiation (CTR) in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The radiation produced by electron bunch is split into three paths: one of them is used to detect the total energy, while the other two paths are filtered with different THz band-pass filters before detection. The bunch length variation can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the filtered energy and the total energy. The bunch is compressed by a chicane and via changing the current of chicane, the ratio of filtered energy and total energy changed correspondingly. It is a simple supplemental approach to monitor the bunch length during beam conditioning and facility operation. Bunch arrival-time jitter and nonlinear effects in chicane are observed in the experiment during the measurement of filtered energy and total energy.

  20. A novel fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector for beam loss monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.; Tang, Z.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Shao, M.

    2017-07-01

    At high luminosity area, beam loss monitor with fast response and high radiation resistance is crucial for accelerator operation. In this article, we report the design and test results of a fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector as the beam loss monitor for high luminosity collider, especially at low energy region such as RFQ. The detector is consisted of a 2 cm× 2 cm× 0.5 cm LYSO crystal readout by a 6 mm × 6 mm Silicon photomultiplier. Test results from various radioactive sources show that the detector has good sensitivity to photons from tens of keV to several MeV with good linearity and energy resolution (23% for 60 keV γ-ray). For field test, two such detectors are installed outside of the vacuum chamber shell of an 800 MeV electron storage ring. The details of the test and results are introduced.