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Sample records for radiation protection standards

  1. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  2. Federal Guidance Report No. 1: Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards (Federal Radiation Council)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report provides required interim radiation protection recommendations. It includes recommendations for additional research which will provide a firmer basis for the formulation of radiation standards.

  3. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View ...

  4. European standards for protective apparel against UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Laperre, Jan; Foubert, Fred

    2002-01-01

    The first European standard which describes the test procedure to determine the UV-protection factor of clothing is about to be completed. A second part of the same standard, dealing with labelling and marking aspects, is ready to be submitted to public enquiry. In this effort a group of experts from most EU member states have cooperated with a high degree of consensus. In this chapter we explain this European standard together with the standard developed in the UK.

  5. Standards for protection against radiation, 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, D.A.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    On may 21, 1991, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued a revision to its standards for protection against ionizing radiation, 10 CFR Part 20. Although the revised part ({section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401) became effective on June 20, 1991, licensees may defer implementation of the revised rule until January 1, 1993. Licensees continue to be required to comply with the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 until the time they adopt the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401. Therefore, between June 20, 1991 and January 1, 1993 both the provisions of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 and {section}{section} 20.1001-20.2401 are in effect. This NUREG presents a comparative text of the provisions of the revised Part 20 ({section}{section} 20.1001-20. 2401) to the text of {section}{section} 20.1-20.601 for use by the NRC staff and NRC licensees. 2 refs.

  6. A review of the history of U.S. radiation protection regulations, recommendations, and standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cynthia G

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of x rays by Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, and the isolation of the element radium by Pierre and Marie Curie three years later, the fascination with and potential for an array of uses of ionizing radiation in medicine, science, and technology was born. As with any new technology, there was a need to balance both the beneficial and potential detrimental effects of uses of these new technologies for the advancement of humankind. In the early days, radiation hazards were not well understood. Over the decades increasing concerns in the scientific community and lay population demanded that standardized guidance and recommendations be developed for the use of ionizing radiation. Today, U.S. radiation protection standards and recommendations to protect the occupational worker, members of the general public, and the environment are numerous and complex. This review summarizes the history of the development and application of radiation protection standards and regulations to assure the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials. The evolution and roles of international and national scientific recommending and regulatory organizations that shape U.S. radiation protection policy are described and discussed.

  7. Experience with the application of radiation protection standards: A driving force

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    This paper identifies the driving forces for the development of new standards within the radiation protection areas, characterizes the process of developing such guidance, discusses problems with the application of guidance and discusses experience in applying recommendations and standards. Efforts to improve performance in health physics measurements will also be described including methods to determine the feasibility and applicability of standards. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Federal Guidance for Radiation Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA produces federal guidance technical reports, which standardize dose and risk assessment and issues radiation protection guidance to federal agencies. This page provides links to federal guidance policy recommendations and technical reports.

  9. Designing, implementing, and conducting a web-based radiation safety training program to meet Texas standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Cerecero, Jennifer A; Charlton, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The implementation of a web-based radiation safety training program for a large biomedical research institution has the capability of increasing the knowledge of proper use of radionuclides in the laboratories in a more cost effective and efficient way of demonstrating this material. The design and implementation of the web-based course for the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio must meet Texas radioactive material regulations while ensuring that the content engages and challenges the student's health physics knowledge. The implementation of this course required updating the existing course to reflect current regulatory requirements for radiation safety training, emergency response, and biological effects risk coefficients. The final web-based radiation safety training program was evaluated by a standard examination that it is equivalent to the knowledge gained in the classroom course. The results of the scores for the standard examination were equivalent for both the classroom and the web-based course. However, the web-based version with 1 h in the classroom has saved 5,407 h total throughout the institution.

  10. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-04-30

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 {times} 10{sup -2} Sv{sup -1}.

  11. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  12. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  13. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  14. Radiation protection in space

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  15. Ethics and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  16. Federal Guidance Report No. 5: Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report contains background material used in the development of guidance for Federal agencies in respect to planning protective actions to reduce potential doses from radioactive fission products to the population.

  17. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. |

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  18. Federal Guidance Report No. 2: Background Material for the Development of Radiation Protection Standards (Federal Radiation Council)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report discusses how to provide guidance for Federal agencies in activities designed to limit exposure of members of population groups to radiation from radioactive materials deposited in the body as a result of their occurrence in the environment.

  19. An EGS4 based mathematical phantom for radiation protection calculations using standard man

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, K.N.

    1994-11-01

    This note describes an Electron Gamma Shower code (EGS4) Monte Carlo program for calculating radiation transport in adult males and females from internal or external electron and gamma sources which requires minimal knowledge of organ geometry. Calculations of the dose from planar gamma fields and from computerized tomography illustrate two applications of the package. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed.

  1. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA...

  2. Manifolds and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossitto, Franco; Petrov, Vladislav M.; Ongaro, Filippo

    During the past 40 years humans have travelled beyond Earth's atmosphere, orbiting the planets for extended periods of time and landing on the Moon. Humans have survived this overwhelming challenge but to assure future exploration of space further expertise in the long term survival in space must be obtained. The International Space Station (ISS) provides this opportunity and allows space scientist to fine-tune their knowledge and prepare for even bolder human space missions. In this work we focus on the aspect of radiation, perhaps the most complex one from a physical and physiological perspective. Travel beyond the Earth's atmosphere and especially to Moon and Mars requires a precise consideration of the radiation environment as radiation exposure could be a show-stopper. At the moment scientists have not yet developed complete and reliable systems for radiation protection. Most likely an adequate level of protection will be reached through an integrated countermeasure system which could include: shields, monitoring of the environment, drugs to protect from damage, etc.

  3. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  4. Protection from space radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  5. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  6. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, H. E.

    1964-01-01

    Factors that may reduce the dose of radiation, from diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray procedures, to the patient and to the occupational and non-occupational worker are outlined. Suitable basic radiation measuring apparatus is described. It is recommended that, in diagnostic radiography, relatively high kilovoltage, proper cones, collimation and adequate filtration be used. Some specific recommendations are made concerning fluoroscopic, photoroentgen and portable x-ray examinations. Film monitoring of personnel is advisable. Examples are given of protective devices to lessen the dosage to the occupational worker. It is the responsibility of the radiologist or physician in charge to ensure that the x-ray equipment is safe to operate and the radiation dose to the patient is kept to a minimum. The roentgen output for all radiographic examinations should be known by the responsible user. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14199820

  7. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  8. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 20.1101 Section 20.1101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Radiation Protection Programs § 20.1101 Radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall develop, document, and...

  12. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'': Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational...

  13. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-21

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  14. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material.

  16. Chemical Protection Against Radiation Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campaigne, Ernest

    1969-01-01

    Discusses potential war time and medical uses for chemical compounds giving protection against radiation damage. Describes compounds known to protect, research aimed at discovering such compounds, and problems of toxicity. (EB)

  17. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  18. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  19. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  20. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  1. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  2. 10 CFR 20.2102 - Records of radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection programs. 20.2102 Section 20.2102 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Records § 20.2102 Records of radiation protection programs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain records of...

  3. American standards for UV-protective textiles.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Kathryn L

    2002-01-01

    During the last 3 years, three standard documents that pertain to the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products have been published by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC). The titles of these documents, which are available for purchase at www.astm.org and www.aatcc.org are: ASTM D 6544 "Standard Practice for the Preparation of Textiles Prior to UV Transmission Testing", AATCC 183 "Test Method for Transmittance or Blocking of Erythemally Weighted Ultraviolet Radiation Through Fabrics", and ASTM 6603 "Standard Guide to Labeling of UV-protective Textiles". This chapter summarizes the content of each document and shows how the documents are linked together to make a comprehensive plan for the testing and labeling of UV-protective textile products to be sold in the United States. It also describes the intended future work in the United States on UV-protective textile standards.

  4. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  6. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND...

  7. Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Agricultural Worker Protection Standard (WPS) is aimed at reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning and injury among agricultural workers and pesticide handlers. It places specific requirements on employers of such workers.

  8. 77 FR 66650 - Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 12.1, ``Assuring that Occupational Radiation Exposures Are...

  9. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  10. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Thermal radiation protection. 193.2057 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Siting Requirements § 193.2057 Thermal radiation protection...) The thermal radiation distances must be calculated using Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) report...

  14. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  15. Methodological approach to EMF protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchia, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Biological and health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been investigated for many years. Exposure standards have been developed internationally, that provide adequate protection against all known adverse effects of exposure to EMF. The guidelines developed by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are widely recognized and have formed the basis for national regulations in several countries. Concerns for hypothesized, but unproven, long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level EMFs have created a demand for precautionary measures beyond the standards for recognized, acute effects. However, such measure should be separate from exposure standards, and adopted with special care to avoid undermining the credibility of science-based guidelines, and of health protection agencies.

  16. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The book covers all the basic concepts concerned with minimizing the radiation dose to patients, parents, and personnel, while producing radiographic studies of diagnostic quality. Practical information about tissues at risk, radiation risks specific to children, performance of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination, gonadal protection, pregnancy, immobilization of children, mobile radiography, and equipment considerations including those pertaining to computed tomography and dental radiography are given. (KRM)

  17. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    SciTech Connect

    Hertel, Nolan E

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  18. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  19. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

  20. [Radiation protection in interventional cardiology].

    PubMed

    Durán, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    INTERVENTIONAL: cardiology progress makes each year a greater number of procedures and increasing complexity with a very good success rate. The problem is that this progress brings greater dose of radiation not only for the patient but to occupationally exposed workers as well. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include: minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance programme; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability and use of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite.

  1. 76 FR 20489 - Occupational Radiation Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...-45 Occupational Radiation Protection AGENCY: Office of Health, Safety and Security, Department of... to its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements. The derived air concentration values for air...), Occupational Radiation Protection, are designed to protect the health and safety of workers at Department...

  2. NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Gernhardt, Michael A.; Lawrence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which were based on human tests performed under pre-Space Shuttle human flight programs where the occupants were in different suit and seat configurations than is expected for the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew programs. As a result, there is limited statistical validity to the occupant protection standards. Furthermore, the current standards and requirements have not been validated in relevant spaceflight suit, seat configurations or loading conditions. The objectives of this study were to develop new standards and requirements for occupant protection and rigorously validate these new standards with sub-injurious human testing. To accomplish these objectives we began by determining which critical injuries NASA would like to protect for. We then defined the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the associated injury metrics of interest. Finally, we conducted a literature review of available data for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint New Technology (THOR-NT) ATD to determine injury assessment reference values (IARV) to serve as a baseline for further development. To better understand NASA s environment, we propose conducting sub-injurious human testing in spaceflight seat and suit configurations with spaceflight dynamic loads, with a sufficiently high number of subjects to validate no injury during nominal landing loads. In addition to validate nominal loads, the THOR-NT ATD will be tested in the same conditions as the human volunteers, allowing correlation between human and ATD responses covering the Orion nominal landing environment and commercial vehicle expected nominal environments. All testing will be conducted without the suit and with the suit to ascertain the contribution of the suit to human and ATD responses. In addition to the testing campaign proposed, additional

  3. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  4. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  5. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  7. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  8. IEC STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, Miroslav; Ambrosi, P.; Behrens, R.; Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B Radiation protection instrumentation and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  9. The reference individual of radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Cristy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The 70-kg {open_quotes}standard man{close_quotes} representing a typical Western adult male has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s. In 1949 at the Chalk River conference, health physicists from the U.S., UK, and Canada agreed on the concept of a standard man to facilitate comparison of internal dose estimates. The 70-kg standard man included specifications of the masses of 25 organs and tissues, total body content of 15 elements, total water intake and output, water content of the body, and some anatomical and physiological data for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In 1959, in its Publication 2{sup 2} on permissible doses for internal radiation the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) modified standard man. In 1963 the ICRP established a task group to revise and extend the standard man concept. The name was changed later to Reference Man and the task group`s work was published in 1975 as ICRP Publication 23{sup 3}. Publication 23 similar to Publication 2, updates and documents the sources of the data. Data on women, children, and fetuses were also collected, where available, but these data were limited primarily to anatomical data and only a few reference values were established for these groups. Information assembled during the course of the effort on the Reference Man report was used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to construct a mathematical representation of the body (a phantom) that was suitable for use with Monte Carlo methods in the calculation of organ doses. That effort was undertaken to improve estimates of dose from photon-emitting radionuclides residing within organs, so-called internal emitters. The phantom, although updated throughout the years, remains today as the basis for organ dose estimates in nuclear medicine and radiation protection and underlies the radiation risk data derived from the epidemiologic studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  10. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in relation to the radiological

  11. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    PubMed

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  12. Radiation protection for nurses. Regulations and guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, C.B. )

    1992-02-01

    Rules and regulations of federal agencies and state radiation protection programs provide the bases for hospital policy regarding radiation safety for nurses. Nursing administrators should work with the radiation safety officer at their institutions to ensure that radiation exposures to staff nurses will be as low as reasonably achievable and that special consideration will be given to pregnant nurses. Nurses' fears about their exposure to radiation can be greatly reduced through education.

  13. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  14. 76 FR 4258 - Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Part 835 RIN 1901-AA-95 Occupational Radiation Protection; Revision AGENCY: Department of Energy...) proposes to revise the values in an appendix to its Occupational Radiation Protection requirements. The... requirements in title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10 CFR part 835), Occupational...

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  18. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  19. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption with a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA radiation under standardized photodiagnostic conditions.

    PubMed

    Schleyer, Verena; Weber, Oliver; Yazdi, Amir; Benedix, Frauke; Dietz, Klaus; Röcken, Martin; Berneburg, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphic light eruption (PLE), with an overall prevalence of 10-20%, is mainly provoked by ultraviolet A (UVA) (320-400 nm) and to a lesser degree by UVB (280-320 nm). The most effective prophylaxis of PLE, application of UV protection clothing, is not feasible for all sun-exposed areas of the skin and UV-hardening is time-consuming and may be associated with side-effects. Most sunscreens protect predominantly against UVB and therefore fail to prevent PLE. The protection level of potent UVA-protective filters remains unresolved. This single-centre, open, placebo-controlled, intra-individual, comparative study, analysed the efficacy of a sunscreen of very high protection level against UVB and UVA, containing methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (Tinosorb M), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (Tinosorb S) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane as UVA absorbing filters, in the prevention of PLE under standardized photodiagnostic conditions. After determination of the minimal erythema dose at day 0, photoprovocation was performed in 12 patients with a clinical history of PLE, on days 1, 2 and 3 with 100 J/cm2 UVA and variable doses of UVB, starting with the 1.5-fold minimal erythema dose of UVB. Prior to irradiation, placebo was applied to the right and sunscreen to the left dorsal forearm under COLIPA (European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association) conditions. In 10 patients PLE could be provoked at the placebo site, with positive reactions in 90% of the UVA, 40% of the UVB and 90% of the UVA/UVB irradiated fields. At the site with the active treatment none of these patients developed PLE. These data demonstrate that a sunscreen with effective filters against UVA and UVB can successfully prevent the development of PLE. Further studies are needed to examine whether regular application of sunscreen under everyday conditions, especially in doses less than the tested COLIPA-norm, could be an equivalent alternative to UV-hardening therapy.

  20. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Ivanov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation.

  1. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Głuszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  2. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  3. The Future of Radiation Protection: Handbook and Companion Poster

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Future of Radiation Protection: 2025 is a report on challenges the radiation protection community will confront over the generation ahead. The companion poster is also available, Radiation Protection at EPA: Over the Decades.

  4. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  5. Clear Film Protects Against Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Yavrouian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Acrylic film contains screeing agent filtering ultraviolet radiation up to 380 nanometers in wavelength but passes other components of Sunlight. Film used to protect such materials as rubber and plastics degraded by ultraviolet light. Used as protective cover on outdoor sheets or pipes made of such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene and on solar cells.

  6. Microwaves (including radar) and protection against radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossel, F.

    1982-08-01

    A directive by the Commission of the European Communities for protection against microwaves is outlined, and the nature of microwaves, and possible protection methods are discussed. Devices which utilize microwaves are reviewed. The health risks from these forms of radiation are discussed, and safety limits are considered. A limit value of 10 mw/sqcm is specified.

  7. Protection from harmful UV radiation by contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Bergmanson, J P; Pitts, D G; Chu, L W

    1988-03-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been demonstrated to be harmful to the cornea, the lens and the retina. Recent research has indicated that, in addition to the epithelial trauma found in UVR-induced keratitis, the deeper corneal layers are also involved. Since trauma to keratocytes and endothelial cells can result in permanent damage or cell loss, it is imperative to protect eyes against excessive dosages of UVR. Standard hydrogel contact lenses (Vistamarc normal) and newly developed UV-filtering hydrogel lenses (Vistakon UV-BLOC) were fitted on five rabbits and compared in protection from harmful UVR (300 nm). The eyes that wore the UV-filtering lens maintained normal corneas; however, the eyes that wore the standard hydrogel lens showed pronounced epithelial, stromal and endothelial changes. We concluded that the UV-filtering lens effectively absorbed the hazardous UV radiation while the standard soft lens provided little protection.

  8. Studies Concerned with Basic Radiation Protection Criteria and Studies Concerned with Guidance and Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    has been completed and is ready to enter the review stage. Task Group 2 Uranium Mining and Milling - Radiation Safety Programs - A draft report is in...8217RD-fl158 319 STUDIES CONCERNED WITH BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION i/i I CRITERIA AND STUDIES CO..(U) N T ONAL COUNCIL ON I RADIATION PROTECTION AND...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1963 A ’--- ( National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 7910 WOODMONT AVENUE, SUITE 1016, BETHESDA

  9. NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey; Gernhardt, Michael; Lawrence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft landing systems have been tested with human volunteers, because analytical methods for estimating injury risk were insufficient. These tests were conducted with flight-like suits and seats to verify the safety of the landing systems. Currently, NASA uses the Brinkley Dynamic Response Index to estimate injury risk, although applying it to the NASA environment has drawbacks: (1) Does not indicate severity or anatomical location of injury (2) Unclear if model applies to NASA applications. Because of these limitations, a new validated, analytical approach was desired. Leveraging off of the current state of the art in automotive safety and racing, a new approach was developed. The approach has several aspects: (1) Define the acceptable level of injury risk by injury severity (2) Determine the appropriate human surrogate for testing and modeling (3) Mine existing human injury data to determine appropriate Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARV). (4) Rigorously Validate the IARVs with sub-injurious human testing (5) Use validated IARVs to update standards and vehicle requirement

  10. Accreditation of ionizing radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    There are over one million workers in the United States who have the potential to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine accurately the quantity of radiation to which they may have been exposed. This quantity if measured by personnel dosimeters that are carried by individuals requiring radiation monitoring. Accreditation of the organizations which evaluate this quantity provides official recognition of the competence of these organizations. Accreditation programs in the field of ionizing radiation protection have been in operation for a number of years, and their experience has demonstrated that such programs can help to improve performance.

  11. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation.

  12. Aiming Optimum Space Radiation Protection using Regolith.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Daisuke; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Indo, Hiroko; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Yano, Sachiko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Mukai, Chiaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    Radiation protection of space radiation is very important factor in manned space activity on the moon. At the construction of lunar base, low cost radiation shielding would be achieved using regolith that exists on the surface of the moon. We studied radiation shielding ability of regolith as answer the question, how much of depth would be necessary to achieve minimum radiation protection. We estimated the shielding ability of regolith against each atomic number of space radiation particles. Using stopping power data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73, we simulated the approximate expression (function of the energy of the atomic nucleus as x and the atomic number as Z) of the stopping power for the space proton particle (nucleus of H) against silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and iron (Fe), which are the main components of regolith. Based on the expression, we applied the manipulation to the other particles of space radiation to up to argon particle (Ar). These simulated expressions complied well the data of ICRU REPORT49 and 73 except alpha particle (nucleus of He). The simulation values of stop-ping power of ten elements from potassium to nickel those we had no data in ICRU REPORT were further simulated. Using the obtained expressions, the relationship between the radiation absorbed dose and depth of a silicon dioxide was obtained. The space radiation relative dose with every depth in the moon could be estimated by this study.

  13. Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    measuring the rates of reaction of various thiols with model carbon-centered radicals. In solutions containing methanol and cysteamine , pulse radiolytic...epinephrine but causes much less reduction of cysteamine or cysteine radio- protection [457]. Finally, the state of intracellular oxygen tension in intestinal...rates which are close to the diffusion controlled limit (see II.C.l.b.i). Even at these high rates of reaction, calculations show [349] that cysteamine

  14. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  15. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  16. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J. M.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    NASA's current radiation protection guidelines date from 1970, when the career limit was set at 400 rem. Today, using the same approach, but with the current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain. Also, there is considerably more information about the radiation environments to be experienced in different missions than previously. Since 1970 women have joined the ranks. For these and other reasons it was necessary to reexamine the radiation protection guidelines. This task was undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75 (NCRP SC 75). Below the magnetosphere the radiation environment varies with altitude and orbit inclination. In outer space missions galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 100 rem (4.0Sv) for a 24 year old female to 400 rem for a 55 year old male compared to the previous single limit of 400 rem (4.0 Sv). The career limit for the lens of the eye was reduced from 600 to 400 rem (6.0 to 4.0 Sv.)

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, R. J.; Nachtwey, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem).

  18. Radiation protection and radiation recovery with essential metalloelement chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, J.R.J.; Soderberg, L.S.F.; Chang, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    This review presents the roles of some essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes in tissue maintenance and function, and their responses to radiation injury in accounting for radiation protection and recovery effects observed for nontoxic doses of essential metalloelement compounds. Effects of biochemicals including water undergoing bond radiolysis and the effects of free radicals derived from diatomic oxygen account for the acute and chronic aspects of radiation injury. Copper chelates have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities and cause rapid recovery of immunocompetency and recovery from radiation-induced histopathology. Mice treated with Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-disopropylsalicy-late){sub 4}[Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}] had increased survival and corresponding increases in numbers of myeloid and multipotential progenitor cells early after irradiation and earlier recovery of immune reactivity. Examination of radiation-induced histopathology in spleen, bone marrow, thymus, and small intestine also revealed Cu(II){sub 2}(3,5-DIPS){sub 4}-mediated rapid recovery of radiation-induced histopathology. Most recently, Fe, Mn, and Zn complexes have also been found to prevent death in lethally irradiated mice. These pharmacological effects of essential metalloelement chelates can be understood as due to facilitation of de novo synthesis of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes which have roles in preventing the accumulation of pathological concentrations of oxygen radicals or repairing biochemical damage caused by radiation-induced bond homolysis. Essential metalloelement chelates offer a physiological approach to prevention and/or treatment of radiation injury. 97 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. A.; Benson, R. E.; Bailey, J. V.; Barnes, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection problems on earth and in space are discussed. Flight through the Van Allen belts and into space beyond the geomagnetic shielding was recognized as hazardous before the advent of manned space flight. Specialized dosimetry systems were developed for use on the Apollo spacecraft, and systems for solar-particle-event warning and dose projection were devised. Radiation sources of manmade origin on board the Apollo spacecraft present additional problems. Methods applied to evaluate and control or avoid the various Apollo radiation hazards are discussed.

  20. Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2012-11-01

    Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/γ rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields.

  1. US Army primary radiation standards complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Army Primary Radiation Standards Complex (PRSC) to be constructed at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. The missions of the organizations to be located in the PRSC are described. The health physics review of the facility design is discussed. The radiation sources to be available in the PRSC and the resulting measurement capabilities of the Army Primary Standards Laboratory Nucleonics section are specified. Influence of the National Voluntary Laboratory Accrediation Program (NVLAP) accreditation criteria on facility design and source selection is illustrated.

  2. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.S.; Campbell, G.W.

    1982-04-01

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards.

  3. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  4. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  5. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  6. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  7. 10 CFR 35.26 - Radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection program changes. 35.26 Section 35.26... Requirements § 35.26 Radiation protection program changes. (a) A licensee may revise its radiation protection... been reviewed and approved by the Radiation Safety Officer and licensee management; and (4)...

  8. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  9. Critical Issues in Radiation Protection Knowledge Management for Preserving Radiation Protection Research and Development Capabilities.

    PubMed

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-02-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. However, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  10. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, inmore » the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.« less

  11. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  12. Protection from radiation nephropathy by WR-2721

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, S.S.; Moskowitz, P.S.; Evans, J.W.; Fajardo, L.F.

    1984-02-01

    The efficacy of WR-2721 pretreatment against radiation injury to the growing kidney was evaluated in the weanling mouse. Immediately following unilateral nephrectomy, animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or WR-2721 (220 mg/kg). Thirty minutes later both nonprotected (saline-treated) control animals and protected (WR-2721-treated) animals received 1000-rad single-fraction radiation to the remaining kidney. Other animals received WR-2721 immediately following unilateral nephrectomy but no radiation. Animals were sacrificed at 3 and 24 weeks. Nonirradiated animals treated with WR-2721 only showed normal compensatory renal growth, body growth, and renal function at 24 weeks. The nonprotected, irradiated animals exhibited renal growth inhibition without body growth inhibition, and renal functional abnormalities including elevation of serum BUN and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Pretreatment with WR-2721 prior to 1000 rad prevented the renal growth inhibition and functional abnormalities seen in the nonprotected irradiated animals. Within the observation period there were no differences in renal morphology by light and electron microscopy between protected and nonprotected groups; only mild glomerular and tubular abnormalities compatible with radiation injury were seen. The dose reduction factor for WR-2721 renal growth protection is between 1.16 and 1.2.

  13. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Porous material for protection from electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmina, Olga E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Dushkina, Maria E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Suslyaev, Valentin; Semukhin, Boris

    2014-11-14

    It is shown that the porous glass crystalline material obtained by a low temperature technology can be used not only for thermal insulation, but also for lining of rooms as protective screens decreasing harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation as well as to establish acoustic chambers and rooms with a low level of electromagnetic background. The material interacts with electromagnetic radiation by the most effective way in a high frequency field (above 100 GHz). At the frequency of 260 GHz the value of the transmission coefficient decreases approximately in a factor times in comparison with foam glass.

  15. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  16. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Issues in deep space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Schimmerling, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Noor, A. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2001-01-01

    The exposures in deep space are largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little biological experience. Mounting evidence indicates that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate for GCR ions. The available biological data indicates that aluminum alloy structures may generate inherently unhealthy internal spacecraft environments in the thickness range for space applications. Methods for optimization of spacecraft shielding and the associated role of materials selection are discussed. One material which may prove to be an important radiation protection material is hydrogenated carbon nanofibers. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR.

  19. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kuniaki; Momose, Takumaro; Furuta, Sadaaki

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation.

  20. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  1. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  3. MO-E-213-02: Medical Physicist Involvement in Implementing Patient Protection Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, J.

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  4. 76 FR 4944 - Ionizing Radiation Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Ionizing Radiation Standard; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in the Ionizing Radiation Standard (29 CFR 1910.1096). The information collection requirements contained in the Ionizing Radiation Standard protect workers from the adverse health effects...

  5. 40 CFR 197.38 - Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? 197.38 Section 197.38 Protection of Environment... Disposal Additional Provisions § 197.38 Are the Individual Protection and Ground Water Protection Standards Severable? Yes. The individual protection and ground water protection standards are severable....

  6. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  7. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  8. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  9. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  10. 10 CFR 835.101 - Radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation protection programs. 835.101 Section 835.101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Management and Administrative Requirements § 835.101 Radiation protection programs. (a) A DOE activity shall be conducted in compliance with...

  11. Uncertainty Analysis in Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, protons, and secondary radiation including neutrons. The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are a major limitation to the length of space missions, the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches, and application of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. For long duration space missio ns, risks may approach radiation exposure limits, therefore the uncertainties in risk projections become a major safety concern and methodologies used for ground-based works are not deemed to be sufficient. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals in the projection model. We discuss NASA s approach to space radiation uncertainty assessments and applications for the International Space Station (ISS) program and design studies of future missions to Mars and other destinations. Several features of NASA s approach will be discussed. Radiation quality descriptions are based on the properties of radiation tracks rather than LET with probability distribution functions (PDF) for uncertainties derived from radiobiology experiments at particle accelerators. The application of age and gender specific models for individual astronauts is described. Because more than 90% of astronauts are never-smokers, an alternative risk calculation for never-smokers is used and will be compared to estimates for an average U.S. population. Because of the high energies of the GCR limits the benefits of shielding and the limited role expected for pharmaceutical countermeasures, uncertainty reduction continues to be the optimal approach to improve radiation safety for space missions.

  12. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  13. The European standard on planetary protection requirements.

    PubMed

    Debus, André

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of solar system exploration, numerous spacecrafts have been sent towards others worlds, and one of the main goals of such missions is the search for extraterrestrial forms of life. It is known that, under certain conditions, some terrestrial entities are able to survive during cruises in space and that they may contaminate other planets (forward contamination). At another level, possible extraterrestrial life forms are unknown and their ability to contaminate the Earth's biosphere (back contamination) in the frame of sample return missions cannot be excluded. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty (London/Washington, January 27, 1967) requires the preservation of planets and the Earth from contamination. All nations taking part in this Treaty must prevent forward and back contamination during missions exploring our solar system. Consequently, the United Nations (UN-COPUOS) has delegated COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) to take charge of planetary protection and, at present, all space-faring nations must comply with COSPAR policy and consequently with COSPAR planetary protection recommendations. Starting from these recommendations and the "CNES Planetary Protection Standard" document, a working group has been set up in the framework of the "European Cooperation for Space Standardization" (ECSS) to establish the main specifications for preventing cross-contamination between target bodies within the solar system and the Earth-moon system.

  14. [Current status of the problem of radiation protection in space flight].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E

    1984-01-01

    This review of radiation protection in space flight considers specific features of radiation effects (the composition of radiation, space-time changes of fluxes of charged particles, nonuniform radiation fields in spacecraft modules, formation of secondary radiations, etc) and the major sources of radiation hazards in space (Earth radiation belts, solar and galactic cosmic radiations). The paper presents estimates of the equivalent dose of protons and electrons of the Earth radiation belts at various orbits, as well as radiation characteristics of certain proton solar flares and galactic cosmic radiation. The paper also discusses the present-day criteria of radiation safety used in calculations of the shielding of manned spacecraft. The paper gives the standards of allowable radiation levels used in the USSR.

  15. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  16. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  17. Radiation protectants: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Seed, Thomas M

    2005-11-01

    In today's heightened nuclear/biological/chemical threat environment, there is an increased need to have safe and effective means to protect not only special high-risk service groups, but also the general population at large, from the health hazards of unintended ionizing radiation exposures. An unfulfilled dream has been to have a globally effective pharmacologic that could be easily taken orally without any undue side effects prior to a suspected or impending nuclear/radiological event; such an ideal radioprotective agent has yet to be identified, let alone fully developed and approved for human use. No one would argue against the fact that this is problematic and needs to be corrected, but where might the ultimate solution to this difficult problem be found? Without question, representative species of the aminothiol family [e.g., Amifostine (MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland)] have proven to be potent cytoprotectants for normal tissues subjected to irradiation or to radiomimetic chemicals. Although Amifostine is currently used clinically, drug toxicity, limited times of protection, and unfavorable routes of administration, all serve to limit the drug's utility in nonclinical settings. A full range of research and development strategies is being employed currently in the hunt for new safe and effective radioprotectants. These include: (1) large scale screening of new chemical classes or natural products; (2) restructuring/reformulating older protectants with proven efficacies but unwanted toxicities; (3) using nutraceuticals that are only moderately protective but are essentially nontoxic; (4) using low dose combinations of potentially toxic but efficacious agents that protect through different routes to foster radioprotective synergy; and (5) accepting a lower level of drug efficacy in lieu of reduced toxicity, banking on the premise that the protection afforded can be leveraged by post-exposure therapies. Although it is difficult to predict which of these

  18. MO-E-213-01: Increasing Role of Medical Physicist in Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rehani, M.

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  19. MO-E-213-03: Newer Radiation Protection Requirements in Last Decade

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, J.

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  20. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.

  1. Radiation protection technician job task analysis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This manual was developed to assist all DOE contractors in the design and conduct of job task analysis (JTA) for the radiation protection technician. Experience throughout the nuclear industry and the DOE system has indicated that the quality and efficiency in conducting a JTA at most sites is greatly enhanced by using a generic task list for the position, and clearly written guidelines on the JTA process. This manual is designed to provide this information for personnel to use in developing and conducting site-specific JTAs. (VC)

  2. Logic and ethics in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Lindell, B

    2001-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to accept the assumption of a linear non-threshold dose-response relationship (LNT) as the most likely one. In that case, basic logic as well as widely accepted ethics require that the full collective dose be used for detriment assessments and in procedures for optimisation of radiation protection. This means that even the smallest doses must be taken into account in the assessment of the global collective dose if they contribute significantly together. However, in calculating collective doses over time, some reasonable restriction of the integration period has to be employed, mainly because of the uncertainties involved in the assessment of future detriment. There are also uncertainties in the LNT assumption, but the precautionary principle would not permit that this is taken as an excuse for neglecting small doses.

  3. Protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pustisek, Nives; Situm, Mirna

    2011-09-01

    In the last decade, awareness of the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation has increased. Modern lifestyles, outdoor occupations, sports and other activities make total sun avoidance impossible. Children spend more time outdoors than adults and there is compelling evidence that childhood is a particularly vulnerable time for the photocarcinogenic effects of the sun. Sun exposure among infants and pre-school age children is largely depend on the discretion of adult care providers. It is important to learn safe habits about sun-safety behaviours during the childhood. Children deserve to live and play in safe environments, and it is the responsibility of every adult to help children stay safe. Protecting children from excessive sun exposure is protection from sunburn today and other forms of sun damages, especially skin cancers, in the future.

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  5. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  6. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  8. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of...

  9. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  10. Protective clothing ensembles and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Tom M; Havenith, George

    2016-06-01

    Physical employment standards (PESs) exist for certain occupational groups that also require the use of protective clothing ensembles (PCEs) during their normal work. This review addresses whether these current PESs appropriately incorporate the physiological burden associated with wearing PCEs during respective tasks. Metabolic heat production increases because of wearing PCE; this increase is greater than that because of simply the weight of the clothing and can vary 2-fold among individuals. This variation negates a simple adjustment to the PES for the effect of the clothing on metabolic rate. As a result, PES testing that only simulates the weight of the clothing and protective equipment does not adequately accommodate this effect. The physiological heat strain associated with the use of PCEs is also not addressed with current PESs. Typically the selection tests of a PES lasts less than 20 min, whereas the requirement for use of PCE in the workplace may approach 1 h before cooling strategies can be employed. One option that might be considered is to construct a heat stress test that requires new recruits and incumbents to work for a predetermined duration while exposed to a warm environmental temperature while wearing the PCE.

  11. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection; Correction of Direct Final Rule AGENCY... head protection standards to eliminate confusion resulting from a drafting error. OSHA published the... paragraph (b) to read as follows: 1926.100 Head protection. * * * * * (b) Criteria for head protection....

  12. Radiation protection at Hadron therapy facilities.

    PubMed

    Pelliccioni, Maorizio

    2011-07-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radiobiological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u(-1) LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u(-1) synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities.

  13. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  14. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E. J.; Johnson, A. S.; Guetersloh, S.; Fry, D.; Stoffle, N.; Lee, K.

    2008-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight -- and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between "research" and "operations". The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun.

  15. Space Weather Status for Exploration Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Dan J.; Lee, Kerry; Zapp, Neal; Barzilla, Janet; Dunegan, Audrey; Johnson, Steve; Stoffle, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during an exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and in free space, for example, may differ by orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for the ability to conduct exploration operations. We present a current status of developing operational concepts for manned exploration and expectations for asset viability and available predictive and characterization toolsets.

  16. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-05-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload.

  17. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... limits under § 264.94 in the uppermost aquifer underlying the waste management area beyond the point of... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard....

  18. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  19. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  20. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  1. 40 CFR 264.92 - Ground-water protection standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground-water protection standard. 264... Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.92 Ground-water protection standard. The owner or operator... constituents under § 264.93 detected in the ground water from a regulated unit do not exceed the...

  2. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  3. Improved Spacecraft Materials for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila Ann; Kim, M.-H. Y.; Heinbockel, John H.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2001-01-01

    Methods by which radiation shielding is optimized need to be developed and materials of improved shielding characteristics identified and validated. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are very penetrating and the energy absorbed by the astronaut behind the shield is nearly independent of shield composition and even the shield thickness. However, the mix of particles in the transmitted beam changes rapidly with shield material composition and thickness. This results in part from the breakup of the high-energy heavy ions of the GCR which make contributions to biological effects out of proportion to their deposited energy. So the mixture of particles in the radiation field changes with shielding and the control of risk contributions from dominant particle types is critical to reducing the hazard to the astronaut. The risk of biological injury for a given particle type depends on the type of biological effect and is specific to cell or tissue type. Thus, one is faced with choosing materials which may protect a given tissue against a given effect but leave unchanged or even increase the risk of other effects in the same tissue or increase the risks to other adjacent tissues of a different type in the same individual. The optimization of shield composition will then be tied to a specific tissue and risk to that tissue. Such peculiarities arise from the complicated mixture of particles, the nature of their biological response, and the details of their interaction with material constituents. Aside from the understanding of the biological response to specific components, one also needs an accurate understanding of the radiation emerging from the shield material. This latter subject has been a principal element of this project. In the past ten years our understanding of space radiation interactions with materials has changed radically, with a large impact on shield design. For example, the NCRP estimated that only 2 g/sq cm. of aluminum would be required to meet the annual 500 m

  4. 78 FR 76986 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability... proceeding, Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 145 FERC ] 61,160...

  5. Thermal stress and radiation protection principles.

    PubMed

    Kheifets, L; Repacholi, M; Saunders, R

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in residential, occupational and medical settings. Since many technologies use RF fields, it is important to fully investigate their effects on the human body. Since the demonstrated effect of RF exposure is heating, it is important to critically evaluate studies of elevated temperature effects on the human body, from the cellular and tissue level to the whole body level, including potential effects on the susceptible groups such as the very young and the very old. WHO convened a Workshop in the Spring of 2002 on the subject of Adverse Temperature Levels in the Human. The goal of the workshop was to evaluate most recent data useful for the development of science-based RF exposure limits. This paper outlines radiation protection principles that underline such an evaluation. It discusses the quality of literature needed for sound scientific reviews, provides the hierarchy of scientific evidence used to establish effects, distinguish between biological effects and adverse health consequences and indicates how evidence is evaluated. In addition, criteria for determining the most sensitive effects, the value of an effect that has a dose-response and methods of extrapolation are also described. Finally, the need to account for scientific uncertainty in the formulation of guidance on exposure is discussed.

  6. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  7. UV radiation transmittance: regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Kenneth; Bielinski, Nolan

    2014-09-01

    There are many clothing options available for patients who are interested in limiting their exposure to UV radiation; however, these options can be confusing for patients. For dermatologists, there is limited clinical data regarding the advantages, if any, of sun-protective clothing. In this study, we examined the UV radiation transmittance of regular clothing versus sun-protective clothing. We found that regular clothing may match or even exceed sun-protective clothing in blocking the transmittance of UV radiation. These data will help dermatologists better counsel their patients on clothing options for sun protection.

  8. Meeting the Needs for Radiation Protection: Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Frush, Donald P

    2017-02-01

    Radiation and potential risk during medical imaging is one of the foremost issues for the imaging community. Because of this, there are growing demands for accountability, including appropriate use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Factors contributing to this include increasing use of medical imaging; increased scrutiny (from awareness to alarm) by patients/caregivers and the public over radiation risk; and mounting calls for accountability from regulatory, accrediting, healthcare coverage (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and advisory agencies and organizations as well as industry (e.g., NEMA XR-29, Standard Attributes on CT Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and Management). Current challenges include debates over uncertainty with risks with low-level radiation; lack of fully developed and targeted products for diagnostic imaging and radiation dose monitoring; lack of resources for and clarity surrounding dose monitoring programs; inconsistencies across and between practices for design, implementation and audit of dose monitoring programs; lack of interdisciplinary programs for radiation protection of patients; potential shortages in personnel for these and other consensus efforts; and training concerns as well as inconsistencies for competencies throughout medical providers' careers for radiation protection of patients. Medical care providers are currently in a purgatory between quality- and value-based imaging paradigms, a state that has yet to mature to reward this move to quality-based performance. There are also deficits in radiation expertise personnel in medicine. For example, health physics academic programs and graduates have recently declined, and medical physics residency openings are currently at a third of the number of graduates. However, leveraging solutions to the medical needs will require money and resources, beyond personnel alone. Energy and capital will need to be directed to

  9. 78 FR 27113 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Version 5 Critical Infrastructure... 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 143 FERC ] 61,055 (2013). This...

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered.

  11. 77 FR 7526 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard... North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) submitted a petition (Petition) requesting approval of NERC's interpretation of Requirement R1 of Commission-approved Reliability Standard...

  12. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  13. Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    2017-04-01

    Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection. The research topics considered necessary and most urgent for effective medical care and efficient in terms of radiation protection are summarised in five main themes: 1. Measurement and quantification in the field of medical applications of ionising radiation 2. Normal tissue reactions, radiation-induced morbidity and long-term health problems 3. Optimisation of radiation exposure and harmonisation of practices 4. Justification of the use of ionising radiation in medical practice 5. Infrastructures for quality assurance The SRA is a living document; thus comments and suggestions by all stakeholders in medical radiation protection are welcome and will be dealt with by the European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research (EURAMED) established by the above-mentioned societies.

  14. 78 FR 72755 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...-approved CIP Reliability Standards. The CIP version 5 Standards adopt new cyber security controls and... Standards adopt new cyber security controls and extend the scope of the systems that are protected by the... category. The CIP version 5 Standards also include 12 requirements with new cyber security controls,...

  15. Small Entity Compliance Guide for the Revised Respiratory Protection Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and the Occupational Safety and... Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. The Respiratory Protection standard will protect an estimated 5 million respirator wearers.

  16. Radiation From Solar Activity | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-18

    Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and geomagnetic storms from the sun can send extreme bursts of ionizing radiation and magnetic energy toward Earth. Some of this energy is in the form ionizing radiation and some of the energy is magnetic energy.

  17. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  18. [Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].

    PubMed

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity.

  19. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  20. The European standard for sun-protective clothing: EN 13758.

    PubMed

    Gambichler, T; Laperre, J; Hoffmann, K

    2006-02-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for sun protection. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some summer fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), has developed a new standard on requirements for test methods and labelling of sun-protective garments. This document has now been completed and is published. Within CEN, a working group, CEN/TC 248 WG14 'UV protective clothing', was set up with the mission to produce standards on the UV-protective properties of textile materials. This working group started its activities in 1998 and included 30 experts (dermatologists, physicists, textile technologists, fabric manufacturers and retailers of apparel textiles) from 11 European member states. Within this working group, all medical, ethical, technical and economical aspects of standardization of UV-protective clothing were discussed on the basis of the expertise of each member and in consideration of the relevant literature in this field. Decisions were made in consensus. The first part of the standard (EN 13758-1) deals with all details of test methods (e.g. spectrophotometric measurements) for textile materials and part 2 (EN 13758-2) covers classification and marking of apparel textiles. UV-protective cloths for which compliance with this standard is claimed must fulfill all stringent instructions of testing, classification and marking, including a UV protection factor (UPF) larger than 40 (UPF 40+), average UVA transmission lower than 5%, and design requirements as specified in part 2 of the standard. A pictogram, which is marked with the number of the standard EN 13758-2 and the UPF of 40+, shall be attached to the garment if it is in compliance with the standard. The dermatology community should take cognizance of this new standard document. Garment manufacturers and retailers may now follow these official guidelines for testing and labelling of UV-protective summer clothes, and the

  1. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection; Correction of Notice of Proposed...) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate confusion resulting... follows: a. Remove paragraph (c). b. Revise paragraph (b) to read as follows: 1926.100 Head...

  2. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place; the policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the model layer uses a validated modelling approach to calculate protection standards. The policy layer and the model layer can be considered adequate proxies for actual protection standards included in the design layer, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  3. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Jongman, B.; Bouwer, L. M.; Winsemius, H. C.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    With the projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of the flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place, while the Policy layer and the Model layer are proxies for such protection standards, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. The Policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the Model layer uses a validated modeling approach to calculate protection standards. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  4. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  5. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors.

  6. Radiation protection aspects of EMITEL Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, M; Tabakov, S; Lewis, C; Tabakova, V; Thurston, J; Smith, P

    2015-07-01

    The Encyclopaedia of Medical Physics EMITEL was developed under the EU pilot project European Medical Imaging Technology e-Encyclopaedia for Lifelong Learning. This large reference material includes 3400 articles on 2100 pages supported by thousands of illustrations. All materials are available free at the website, www.emitel2.eu. The articles are grouped in seven categories--physics of: X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, radiation protection and general terms. The radiation protection part of EMITEL includes 450 articles. These were organised in several sub-groups including: nuclear and atomic physics; ionizing radiation interactions and biological effects; radiation detection and measurement; dosimetric quantities and units; and general radiation protection and international bodies. EMITEL project was developed over 3 y and attracted as contributors 250+ senior specialists from 35 countries. After its successful launching, EMITEL is actively used by thousands of professionals around the world.

  7. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  8. Has radiation protection become a health hazard?

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1996-12-31

    Scientists and engineers have a responsibility to speak out when their findings and recommendations lead to public harm. This can happen in several ways. One is when the media misinterpret or sensationalize a scientific fact misleading the public and creating unwarranted fear. Another is when regulations or public policy decision are purportedly based on scientific data but are, in fact, scientifically invalid. Fear of radiation has been far more detrimental to health than radiation itself. The author knows of no deaths to the public from accidental release of radiation, but the consequences of fear have been deadly.

  9. DOE plan for UMTRA Project water protection standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This plan was developed to define DOE's implementation of water protection standards for the UMTRA Project, on an interim basis, until the EPA promulgates revised standards in response to the September, 1985, decision by the Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals. This plan presents the historical background of the development of the Title I standards and the rationale for the DOE implementation approach.

  10. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  11. Radiation protection guidance for activities in low-Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Fry, R J M

    2002-01-01

    Scientific Committee 75 (SC 75) of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was assembled for the purpose of providing guidance to NASA concerning radiation protection in low-Earth orbit. The report of SC 75 was published in December 2000 as NCRP Report No. 132. In this presentation an overview of the findings and recommendations of the committee report will be presented.

  12. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  13. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major

  14. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  15. 77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and... standards for general industry at 29 CFR 1910.135, shipyard employment at 29 CFR 1915.155, marine...

  16. [Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles].

    PubMed

    Aleksakhin, R M; Fesenko, S V

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the XX century was dominated in the field of radiation protection of the environment by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept "if man is adequately protected by radiological standards then biota are also adequately protected". At the end of the XX--beginning of the XXI centuries in the area of area of radiation protection of nature an ecocentric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthroposentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, nonequidosal irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity.

  17. 75 FR 81152 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has submitted a petition (Petition) requesting approval of NERC's interpretation of Requirement R1 of Commission-approved...

  18. Pesticide Worker Protection Standard “How to Comply” Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The “How to Comply” manual provides information for employers on complying with the worker protection standard for agricultural workers. It has been updated to cover the 2015 revisions to the WPS.

  19. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  20. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  1. The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Czarwinski, Renate; Mettler, Fred

    2010-10-01

    Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers, there are many parts of the world without adequate equipment, where the ability to perform additional medical procedures would likely result in a net benefit. Medicine accounts for more than 99.9% of the per caput effective dose from man-made sources. The goal in medical exposure is not to give the lowest dose, but to provide the correct dose to enable the practitioner to make the diagnosis or cure a tumour. Too little or too much dose is problematic and the risk of any given procedure ranges from negligible to potentially fatal. Radiation protection in medicine must deal with the issues of not having dose limits, purposely exposing sensitive subgroups, and purposely using doses that could cause deterministic effects. Radiation accidents involving medical uses have accounted for more acute radiation deaths than from any other source including Chernobyl. Many physicians have little or no training in radiation protection, and many have no qualified medical physics support. In many countries, medical radiation devices and uses are only minimally regulated and the rapidly evolving technology is a challenge. Medicine also accounts for the largest number of occupationally exposed workers and collective dose.

  2. [About Dose-Effect Relationship in the Environment Radiation Protection].

    PubMed

    Udalova, A A

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important stages in the development of a methodology for the environment radiation protection is the assessment and justification of critical radiation exposure levels for ecosystem components. In this study application of the approach for critical dose level estimation is demonstrated on the example of the data about ionizing radiation effect on reproduction and survival of agricultural plants after acute and chronic exposures. Influence of the type of dose-effect relationship on the estimated values of the critical doses and dose rates is studied using three models (linear, logarithmic and logistic). The findings obtained do not provide any robust recommendations in favor of one of the three tested functions. The models of dose-effect relationship (threshold or non-threshold) and types of radiation-induced effects (stochastic and deterministic) are discussed from the viewpoint of developing a system for radiation protection of human and non-human biota.

  3. 77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection AGENCY: Occupational Safety...: OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises the Head Protection..., OSHA published a direct final rule (DFR) in the Federal Register that revised its Head...

  4. Retinal phototoxicity: a review of standard methodology for evaluating retinal optical radiation hazards.

    PubMed

    Landry, Robert J; Bostrom, Robert G; Miller, Sharon A; Shi, Dexiu; Sliney, David H

    2011-04-01

    Optical radiation (light) safety standards can be difficult to use for the evaluation of light hazards to the retina, even for persons experienced in radiometry and photometry. This paper reviews terminology and methodology for evaluating optical radiation hazards to the retina in accordance with international standard ISO 15004-2 Ophthalmic instruments-Fundamental requirements and test methods, Part 2: Light hazard protection (2007). All optical radiation safety standards use similar methods. Specifically, this paper illustrates how to evaluate the retinal hazards from various ophthalmic instruments including the following: diffuse illumination of the cornea; incident light diverging at the cornea (direct ophthalmoscope, operation microscope, fixation lamp); and incident light converging at the cornea (indirect ophthalmoscope, fundus camera, slit lamp biomicroscope). A brief review of radiometry and the use of certified optical components by manufacturers as specified by the ISO standard is also provided. Finally, the authors provide examples of the use of photometric measurements in hazard evaluation.

  5. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, MTO; Saidu, SA; Ma’aji, SM; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, EU; Ikhuenbor, DB; Ige, TA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. Aim To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). Results The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in

  6. Protecting Lunar Colonies From Space Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2009-08-01

    When Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham blasted off from Earth on 11 October 1968, the last thing he was thinking about was radiation risks or any risks at all. “Fear doesn’t even enter your mind because you have confidence in yourself, your own ability, your training, and your knowledge,” Cunningham told Space Weather. As a crew member of the first manned mission in the Apollo program and the first three-man American space mission, Cunningham spent 11 days in Earth orbit, testing life-support, propulsion, and control systems on a redesigned command module. In retrospect, compared with immediate risks such as those associated with launch and reentry, “exposure to radiation, which could have long-term effects—we just never gave that a thought,” Cunningham said.

  7. General tissue reactions and implications for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, S; Hill, C

    2015-06-01

    Non-cancer effects and risks at low doses from ionising radiation are controversial topics within the field of radiation protection. These issues are discussed in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 118, 'ICRP statement on tissue reactions'. Both non-cancer effects and risks are expected to become increasingly important to the system of radiation protection. Before this can happen, several factors must be considered: thorough characterisation of the relationship between dose and risk; verification of the biological mechanisms for any noted excess risk; and adjustment of noted excess risks through the use of a detriment factor. It is difficult to differentiate the relatively small risks associated with radiation from other risk factors in the low-dose region of the dose-response curve. Several recent papers have indicated the possibility of a non-linear dose-response relationship for non-cancer effects. In addition, there are still many uncertainties associated with the biological mechanisms for non-cancer effects. Finally, it is essential to consider the incorporation of detriment into a well-defined system of radiological protection. Given the recent interest in non-cancer effects, it is essential to facilitate discussions in order to define dose limits more clearly within the existing system of radiation protection for both cancer and non-cancer effects.

  8. Transporting Radioactive Material | Radiation Protection | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-09-07

    Radioactive material can be transported by truck, train, plane or ship. The shipment of radioactive material has been regulated since 1939. Shipping routes for radioactive materials are picked very carefully and shipments are tracked. Markings on containers and vehicles explain the contents of each package using standard terms and codes.

  9. Cysteamine as a protective agent with high-LET radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, R.P.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments to measure the radiation protection of cysteamine for high-LET radiations were carried out with synchronized Chinese hamster V79 cells. A high concentration (75 mM) of cysteamine was found to provide protection against x rays and 90 and 170 keV/..mu..m helium ions. The extent of protection decreased with increased LET value but was substantial with the highest-LET radiation. Thus the approximate dose-modifying factor for G/sub 1//S cells was decreased from 4.8 to 1.6 and for late-S cells from 3.2 to 1.5. The shape of the high-LET survival curves for both cell cycle times was preserved as expected for a dose-modifying agent.

  10. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  11. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  12. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 191.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage §...

  13. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 191.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage §...

  14. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 191.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage §...

  15. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 191.04 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage §...

  16. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  17. 40 CFR 190.10 - Standards for normal operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 190.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR NUCLEAR POWER OPERATIONS Environmental Standards for the Uranium Fuel Cycle § 190.10 Standards for normal operations. Operations covered by...

  18. Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

    Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

  19. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-12-19

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm²), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  20. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ikuko; Yoneda, Toshikazu; Omura, Yoshihiko; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Kazuo; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Murahata, Yusuke; Ito, Norihiko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Minami, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs). We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs) and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2), and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs) tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation. PMID:26703629

  1. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    English, T.C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N.J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily. The total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  2. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily; the total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  3. X-Ray Protection Standards for Home Television Receivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    Levels of X-Ray emission and exposure from home television receivers are being questioned and found greater than previous public health and safety cautions and measurement limits have suggested. The latest changes in television components, designs, function, and manufacturing, have caused equipment standards and the effects of radiation to be…

  4. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards. PMID:20205835

  5. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, H. IV

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab.

  6. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  7. Optimal shield mass distribution for space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.

    1972-01-01

    Computational methods have been developed and successfully used for determining the optimum distribution of space radiation shielding on geometrically complex space vehicles. These methods have been incorporated in computer program SWORD for dose evaluation in complex geometry, and iteratively calculating the optimum distribution for (minimum) shield mass satisfying multiple acute and protected dose constraints associated with each of several body organs.

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Fortieth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Radiation Protection and Regulatory Science.

    PubMed

    Poston, John W

    2017-02-01

    It took about 30 y after Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen's discovery of x rays and Henri Becquerel's discovery of natural radioactivity for scientists in the civilized world to formulate recommendations on exposure to ionizing radiation. We know of these efforts today because the organizations that resulted from the concerns raised in 1928 at the Second International Congress of Radiology still play a role in radiation protection. The organizations are known today as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and, in the United States, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Today, as we have many times in the past, we honor Dr. Lauriston Sale Taylor, the U.S. representative to the 1928 Congress, for his dedication and leadership in the early growth of NCRP. NCRP's mission is "to support radiation protection by providing independent scientific analysis, information, and recommendations that represent the consensus of leading scientists." The developments in science and technology, including radiation protection, are occurring so rapidly that NCRP is challenged to provide its advice and guidance at a faster pace than ever before. NCRP's role has also expanded as the Council considers newer uses and applications of ionizing radiation in research and medicine as well as the response to nuclear or radiological terrorism. In such a technical world, new areas have been established to deal with the nexus of science and regulation, especially in the United States. Lord Ernest Rutherford supposedly said, "That which is not measurable is not science. That which is not physics is stamp collecting." I wonder what he would say if he were alive today as now many embrace a new field called "regulatory science." This term was suggested by Professor Mitsuru Uchiyama in Japan in 1987 and was reviewed in literature published in English in 1996. Some have attributed a similar idea to Dr. Alvin Weinberg, for many years Director of the Oak Ridge

  11. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  12. Looking into future: challenges in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is becoming more and more important with increasing wider use of X-rays, documentation of effects besides the potential for long-term carcinogenic effects. With computed tomography (CT) likely to become sub-mSv in coming years, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and some of the nuclear medical examination will become focus of attraction as high-dose examinations, even though they are less-frequent ones. Clarity will be needed on radiation effects at levels of radiation doses encountered in a couple of CT scans and if effects are really cumulative. There is challenge to develop radiation metrics that can be used as easily as units of temperature and length and avoidance of multiple meaning of a single dose metric. Other challenges include development of biological indicators of radiation dose, transition from dose to a representative phantom to dose to individual patient, system for tracking of radiation exposure history of patient, avoidance of radiation-induced skin injury in patients and radiation cataract in staff, cutting down inappropriate referrals for radiological examinations, confidence building in patient and patient safety in radiotherapy.

  13. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic X rays for radiation protection purposes.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Delis, Harry; Kandarakis, Ioannis; Panayiotakis, George

    2015-07-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated.

  14. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  15. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  16. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  17. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  18. 10 CFR 63.343 - Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Severability of individual protection and ground-water protection standards. 63.343 Section 63.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Postclosure Public...

  19. Habitat Design Considerations for Implementing Solar Particle Event Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Mathew A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Walker, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection is an important habitat design consideration for human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. Fortunately, radiation shelter concepts can effectively reduce astronaut exposure for the relatively low proton energies of solar particle events, enabling moderate duration missions of several months before astronaut exposure (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event) approaches radiation exposure limits. In order to minimize habitat mass for increasingly challenging missions, design of radiation shelters must minimize dedicated, single-purpose shielding mass by leveraging the design and placement of habitat subsystems, accommodations, and consumables. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems RadWorks Storm Shelter Team has recently designed and performed radiation analysis on several low dedicated mass shelter concepts for a year-long mission. This paper describes habitat design considerations identified during the study's radiation analysis. These considerations include placement of the shelter within a habitat for improved protection, integration of human factors guidance for sizing shelters, identification of potential opportunities for habitat subsystems to compromise on individual subsystem performances for overall vehicle mass reductions, and pre-configuration of shelter components for reduced deployment times.

  20. Flagellin treatment protects against chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and radiation.

    PubMed

    Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Aitken, Jesse D; Sanders, Catherine J; Frias, Amena; Sloane, Valerie M; Xu, Jianguo; Neish, Andrew S; Rojas, Mauricio; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2008-06-15

    Sudden exposure of human populations to chemicals, pathogens, or radiation has the potential to result in substantial morbidity. A potential means of rapidly protecting such populations might be to activate innate host defense pathways, which can provide broad protection against a variety of insults. However, innate immune activators can, by themselves, result in severe inflammatory pathology, which in large part is driven by hemopoietic-derived cytokines such as TNF-alpha. We reasoned that, because it preferentially activates epithelial cells, the TLR5 agonist flagellin might not induce severe inflammatory pathology and yet be an ideal agent to provide such non-specific protection, particularly at the mucosal surfaces that serve as a front line of host defense. In accordance, we observed that systemic treatment of mice with purified flagellin did not induce the serologic, histopathologic, and clinical hallmarks of inflammation that are induced by LPS but yet protected mice against chemicals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation. Flagellin-elicited radioprotection required TLR5, the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88, and was effective if given between 2 h before to 4 h after exposure to irradiation. Flagellin-elicited radioprotection was, in part, mediated via effects on cells in bone marrow but yet rescued mortality without a pronounced rescue of radiation-induced anemia or leukopenia. Thus, systemic administration of flagellin may be a relatively safe means of providing temporary non-specific protection against a variety of challenges.

  1. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)- presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  2. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  3. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  4. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  5. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  6. Radiative breaking of conformal symmetry in the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.

    2016-02-01

    Radiative mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking in a comformal-invariant version of the Standard Model is considered. The Coleman-Weinberg mechanism of dimensional transmutation in this system gives rise to finite vacuum expectation values and, consequently, masses of scalar and spinor fields. A natural bootstrap between the energy scales of the top quark and Higgs boson is suggested.

  7. The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

  8. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  9. Development of a proposed international standard for certification of aircraft to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    1993-01-01

    Avionic systems performing critical functions in modern aircraft are potentially susceptible to the hazards of electromagnetic radiation from ground and airborne transmitters. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requested that the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) coordinate the development of procedures and guidance material which can be used during the aircraft certification process to ensure adequate protection against high intensity radiated fields (HIRF). This paper addresses both the technical challenge of drafting a certification procedure and guidance standard as well as the management process used by the SAE subcommittee AE4R to converge a diverse range of opinions by its international membership in the shortest possible time.

  10. Advances in lightning protection that satisfies contemporary standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Roy B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the LEC, Inc. Spline Ball Ionizer (trademark) (SBI) and the Spline Ball Terminal (trademark) (SBT) families and how their use in a conventional lightning protection system can achieve strike prevention in a conventional setting. A properly completed standards based system which is composed of the SBI and SBT in a hybrid system will provide two modes of lightning protection: (1) a stroke prevention mode that reduces the risk of a strike to the protected facility in proportion to the size of that facility and the size and number of SBI/SBT's used; and (2) a Stroke Collector-Diverter System that is far superior to any system now in use because it collects strokes entering the protected area from any direction and angle.

  11. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.

  12. Current issues and actions in radiation protection of patients.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Ola; Malone, Jim; Rehani, Madan; McLean, Donald; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-10-01

    Medical application of ionizing radiation is a massive and increasing activity globally. While the use of ionizing radiation in medicine brings tremendous benefits to the global population, the associated risks due to stochastic and deterministic effects make it necessary to protect patients from potential harm. Current issues in radiation protection of patients include not only the rapidly increasing collective dose to the global population from medical exposure, but also that a substantial percentage of diagnostic imaging examinations are unnecessary, and the cumulative dose to individuals from medical exposure is growing. In addition to this, continued reports on deterministic injuries from safety related events in the medical use of ionizing radiation are raising awareness on the necessity for accident prevention measures. The International Atomic Energy Agency is engaged in several activities to reverse the negative trends of these current issues, including improvement of the justification process, the tracking of radiation history of individual patients, shared learning of safety significant events, and the use of comprehensive quality audits in the clinical environment.

  13. Issues in Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

    1995-01-01

    With shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current status of space shielding technology and its impact on radiation health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen gas is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

  14. Meteoroid Protection Methods for Spacecraft Radiators Using Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of achieving a low mass heat pipe radiator for the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft were studied. Specific emphasis was placed on a concept applicable to a closed Brayton cycle power sub-system. Three aspects of inter-related problems were examined: (1) the armor for meteoroid protection, (2) emissivity of the radiator surface, and (3) the heat pipe itself. The study revealed several alternatives for the achievement of the stated goal, but a final recommendation for the best design requires further investigation.

  15. Radiation protection aspects of the operation in a cyclotron facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, P. P. N.; Carneiro, J. C. G. G.

    2014-02-01

    The activated accelerator cyclotron components and the radioisotope production may impact on the personnel radiation exposure of the workers during the routine maintenance and emergency repair procedures and any modification of the equipment. Since the adherence of the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) constitutes a major objective of the cyclotron management, it has become imperative to investigate the radiation levels at the workplace and the probable health effects to the worker caused by radiation exposure. The data analysis in this study was based on the individual monitoring records during the period from 2007 to 2011. Monitoring of the workplace was also performed using gamma and neutron detectors to determine the dose rate in various predetermined spots. The results of occupational radiation exposures were analysed and compared with the values established in national standards and international recommendations. Important guidelines have been developed to reduce the individual dose.

  16. Pragmatic ethical basis for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    PubMed Central

    Zölzer, Friedo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical ethics has a tried and tested literature and a global active research community. Even among health professionals, literate and fluent in medical ethics, there is low recognition of radiation protection principles such as justification and optimization. On the other hand, many in healthcare environments misunderstand dose limitation obligations and incorrectly believe patients are protected by norms including a dose limit. Implementation problems for radiation protection in medicine possibly flow from apparent inadequacies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) principles taken on their own, coupled with their failure to transfer successfully to the medical world. Medical ethics, on the other hand, is essentially global, is acceptable in most cultures, is intuitively understood in hospitals, and its expectations are monitored, even by managements. This article presents an approach to ethics in diagnostic imaging rooted in the medical tradition, and alert to contemporary social expectations. ICRP and the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), both alert to growing ethical concerns, organized a series of consultations on ethics for general radiation protection in the last few years. Methods: The literature on medical ethics and implicit ICRP ethical values were reviewed qualitatively, with a view to identifying a system that will help guide contemporary behaviour in radiation protection of patients. Application of the system is illustrated in six clinical scenarios. The proposed system is designed, as far as is possible, so as not to be in conflict with the conclusions emerging from the ICRP/IRPA consultations. Results and conclusion: A widely recognized and well-respected system of medical ethics was identified that has global reach and claims acceptance in all cultures. Three values based on this system are grouped with two additional values to provide an ethical framework for application in diagnostic

  17. Evaluation of Spacecraft Shielding Effectiveness for Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    The potential for serious health risks from solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a critical issue in the NASA strategic plan for the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). The excess cost to protect against the GCR and SPE due to current uncertainties in radiation transmission properties and cancer biology could be exceedingly large based on the excess launch costs to shield against uncertainties. The development of advanced shielding concepts is an important risk mitigation area with the potential to significantly reduce risk below conventional mission designs. A key issue in spacecraft material selection is the understanding of nuclear reactions on the transmission properties of materials. High-energy nuclear particles undergo nuclear reactions in passing through materials and tissue altering their composition and producing new radiation types. Spacecraft and planetary habitat designers can utilize radiation transport codes to identify optimal materials for lowering exposures and to optimize spacecraft design to reduce astronaut exposures. To reach these objectives will require providing design engineers with accurate data bases and computationally efficient software for describing the transmission properties of space radiation in materials. Our program will reduce the uncertainty in the transmission properties of space radiation by improving the theoretical description of nuclear reactions and radiation transport, and provide accurate physical descriptions of the track structure of microscopic energy deposition.

  18. New advances in protection against solar ultraviolet radiation in textiles for summer clothing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for photoprotection against harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The standard for sun-protective clothing is based on erythema despite other biological effects of UVR on the skin. We analyzed the potential protection against UVR in fabrics destined for summer clothing based on several action spectra. We examined 50 garments classified by type of fabric composition, structure of the fiber yarn and color. The ultraviolet protection factor was calculated based on fabric ultraviolet transmittance corrected for erythema according to the EU standard E-13758 as well as the UVA transmittance of fabrics. UVR protection was also analyzed in base of different action spectra as for previtamin D3, nonmelanoma skin cancer, photoimmunosuppression and photoaging. Most knitted fabrics used for sports T-shirts offered excellent ratings for ultraviolet protection while normal shirts showed very low ratings, particularly against photoaging. The cover is the most influential variable in fabric photoprotection, having an exponential relationship with the UPF. The relation between cover and UVA protection was linearly negative. Information about ultraviolet protection in textiles used for summer clothing should be included in labeling as some types of fabrics, especially those used for shirts, offer very low UVR protection.

  19. Implications of radiation dose and exposed populations on radiation protection in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is in the public eye because of Fukushima, computed tomography examinations, airport screenings, and possible terrorist attacks. What if the Boston Marathon pressure cooker had also contained a radioactive source? Nuclear power may be on the resurgence. Because of the increasing uses of radiation, the increases in population exposures, and the increasing knowledge of radiation effects, constant vigilance is needed to keep up with the changing times. Psychosocial disorders associated with the inappropriate (but real) fear of radiation need to be recognized as radiation detriments. Radiation risk communication, radiation education, and communication must improve at all levels: to members of the public, to the media, to other scientists, and to radiation professionals. Stakeholders must continue to be involved in all radiation protection initiatives. Finally, we are at a crisis as the number of war babies (me) and baby boomers (you?) who are also radiation professionals continues its rapid decline, and there are few in the pipeline to fill the current and looming substantial need: "The old road is rapidly agin'" (Dylan). NCRP has begun the WARP initiative-Where Are the Radiation Professionals?-an attempt to rejuvenate the pipeline of future professionals before the trickle becomes tiny drops. A Workshop was held in July 2013 with government agencies, military, private sector, universities, White House representatives, and societies to develop a coordinated and national action plan. A "Manhattan Project" is needed to get us "Back to the Future" in terms of the funding levels that existed in years past that provided the necessary resources to train, engage, and retain (a.k.a., jobs) the radiation professionals needed for the nation. If we don't keep swimmin' (Disney's Nemo) we'll "sink like a stone" (Dylan).Introduction of Implications of Radiation Dose and Exposed Populations (Video 2:06, http://links.lww.com/HP/A25).

  20. NUCLEAR NEW BUILD-INTEGRATING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN RADIATION PROTECTION.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, Valentin; Bryant, Peter A; Cole, Peter

    2016-11-24

    Across the world, we are seeing a resurgence in Nuclear New Build. In the UK alone, plans are under way for the construction of 10 new reactors, using 4 different reactor designs all of which are to be provided by foreign vendors, and operated by 3 newly formed licensees within the UK. As these new licensees embark on the task of establishing themselves and progressing the design and build of these reactors, there are challenges faced in integrating the Radiation Protection Requirements and Culture from the various Foreign Investors and Vendors into the UK 'Context'. The following paper identifies the origin of the Radiation Protection Requirements within the UK and foreign investor/vendor countries, in an attempt to integrate them into the UK licensing and approval process. Thus, allowing due credit to be taken for the regulatory regime of the foreign countries where these reactors originate.

  1. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  2. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N.; Tashlykov, O. L. Shcheklein, S. E.

    2015-12-15

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  4. [Radiomitigators: prospects for use in medical radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Grebeniuk, A N; Legeza, V I; Tarumov, R A

    2014-06-01

    Prospects of creation and use of radiomitigators--the treatment-and-prophylactic means intended for rendering medical care by the victim of influence of ionizing radiation in the earliest terms after irradiation (hours, days) are presented. It is shown that the most effective radiomitigators are found among natural biopolymers of a microbic origin (a vaccine from bacteria of enterotyphus group, preparations of lipopolysaccharide or protein-polysaccharide components of these microbes). Very perspective such preparations as desoxinate, translame and flagellin are represented. The expressed radiomitigate properties such antioxidants as a-tocopherole, xantosine, caffeine, selenium methionine, inosine, guanosine and antioxidant complexes are possess. Among steroids the greatest interest represents 5-androstenediol. Radiomitigate properties have some cytokines, for example interleukine-1beta (betaleukine), trombopoetin, stem cell factor, and also their combination with colony stimulated factors. Tasks of increase of efficiency of medical radiation protection at early stages of a radiation injures are formulated.

  5. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect

    Cotrim, Ana P.; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu; Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  6. [Protection of cadaver tissues exposed to high gamma radiation].

    PubMed

    Matus-Jiménez, J; Flores-Fletes, J R; Carrillo, A

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is the most widely used tissue for the treatment of various conditions. As a result of this, allografts are used at an increasing frequency and processes for their harvest, preservation and sterilization have improved. The sterilization method that grants the greatest sterilization is high-dose gamma radiation, which destroys prions and any microorganism thus assuring that patients will not experience any infection. But given that radiation use has proven to deteriorate bone and tendon tissue, efforts have been made to protect the latter. One way to do this is a commercially available substance called Clearant. Studies conducted elsewhere have found that it does protect bone and tendon tissue. This study was therefore conducted with allograft samples exposed to high-dose radiation. Its purpose was to assess, with photon microscopy using various dyes and electron microscopy, the presence of color changes as well as the destruction of the anatomical structure. The same tissue was followed-up throughout the process until it was placed in the patient. The review found no structural changes in bone and tendon tissues exposed to high radiation doses (60 kilograys) when the Clearant process was used, and concluded that the former may be used safely in orthopedic or traumatologic diseases.

  7. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose-response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  8. 49 CFR 571.220 - Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.220 Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection. S1. Scope. This standard establishes performance requirements for school bus rollover protection....

  9. Monochromator-Based Absolute Calibration of a Standard Radiation Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, J. M.; Hernanz, M. L.; Campos, J.; Martín, M. J.; Pons, A.; del Campo, D.

    2014-04-01

    Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) is disseminating the International Temperature Scale (ITS-90), at high temperatures, by using the fixed points of Ag and Cu and a standard radiation thermometer. However, the future mise-en-pratique for the definition of the kelvin ( MeP-K) will include the dissemination of the kelvin by primary methods and by indirect approximations capable of exceptionally low uncertainties or increased reliability. Primary radiometry is, at present, able to achieve uncertainties competitive with the ITS-90 above the silver point with one of the possible techniques the calibration for radiance responsivity of an imaging radiometer (radiance method). In order to carry out this calibration, IO-CSIC (Spanish Designated Institute for luminous intensity and luminous flux) has collaborated with CEM, allowing traceability to its cryogenic radiometer. A monochromator integrating sphere-based spectral comparator facility has been used to calibrate one of the CEM standard radiation thermometers. The absolute calibrated standard radiation thermometer has been used to determine the temperatures of the fixed points of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C, and Re-C. The results obtained are 1357.80 K, 1597.10 K, 2011.66 K, and 2747.64 K, respectively, with uncertainties ranging from 0.4 K to 1.1 K.

  10. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as otherwise... of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP Report No. 33 “Medical...

  11. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as otherwise... of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP Report No. 33 “Medical...

  12. 78 FR 20103 - Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures AGENCY..., on Radiation Protection Guidance for Diagnostic and Interventional X-Ray Procedures. This document is Federal Guidance Report No. 14. It replaces Federal Guidance Report No. 9, ``Radiation Protection...

  13. 42 CFR 37.43 - Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by... § 37.43 Protection against radiation emitted by roentgenographic equipment. Except as otherwise... of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in NCRP Report No. 33 “Medical...

  14. Status of optical disk standards and copy protection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di

    2000-07-01

    Optical data storage is now well into the second decade of continuing market and technology expansion. Media removability, which is the main attribute of this technology, presented the optical recording industry with unmatched opportunities and also new challenges. On the one hand, data interchange between the media and drives from different sources becomes a major concern, which can only be solved if international standards for all optical recording disk/cartridge are available. Many standards organizations, with the help of world wide industrial support, took up the challenge, and numerous international standards were established which are now being adapted. On the other hand, copy protection technology must be developed to prevent illegal copying and distribution of contents using this removable media. This need is accentuated by the proliferation of low cost CD and now DVD disks replication means and the availability of recordable and rewritable CD and DVD devices. This paper provides an update of the brief summary of the current status of the international optical disk standards published earlier and a brief review of the copy protection technology.

  15. Standards for the Protection of Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Arnau, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a vital organ, and through our skin we are in close contact with the entire environment. If we lose our skin we lose our life. The barrier function of the skin is mainly driven by the sophisticated epidermis in close relationship with the dermis. The epidermal epithelium is a mechanically, chemically, biologically and immunologically active barrier submitted to continuous turnover. The barrier function of the skin needs to be protected and restored. Its own physiology allows its recovery, but many times this is not sufficient. This chapter is focused on the standards to restore, treat and prevent barrier function disruption. These standards were developed from a scientific, academic and clinical point of view. There is a lack of standardized administrative recommendations. Still, there is a walk to do that will help to reduce the social and economic burden of diseases characterized by an abnormal skin barrier function.

  16. 40 CFR 191.15 - Individual protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....15 Section 191.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Disposal §...

  17. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  18. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  19. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    SciTech Connect

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; Roesler, S.; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  20. The MCART radiation physics core: the quest for radiation dosimetry standardization.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Abdul M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be compared meaningfully when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories use a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250-320 kVp x-ray generators, Cs irradiators, Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers use a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. This paper will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date.

  1. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality standards have not been effectively applied to coral reefs. The Environmental Protection Agency is promoting biocriteria and other water quality standards through collaborative development of bioassessment procedures, indicators and monitoring strategies. To support regulatory action, bioassessment indicators must be biologically meaningful, relevant to management, responsive to human disturbance, and relatively immune to natural variability. A rapid bioassessment protocol for reef-building stony corals was developed and tested for regulatory applicability. Preliminary testing in the Florida Keys found indicators had sufficient precision and provided information relevant to coral reef management. Sensitivity to human disturbance was demonstrated in the U.S. Virgin Islands for five of eight indicators tested. Once established, monitoring programs using these indicators can provide valuable, long-term records of coral condition and regulatory compliance. Development of a rapid bioassement protocol for reef-building stony corals was tested for regulatory applicability.

  2. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  3. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  4. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    PubMed

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  5. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

  6. Radiation protection issues in galactic cosmic ray risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, W K

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection involves the limitation of exposure to below threshold doses for direct (or deterministic) effects and a knowledge of the risk of stochastic effects after low doses. The principal stochastic risk associated with low dose rate galactic cosmic rays is the increased risk of cancer. Estimates of this risk depend on two factors (a) estimates of cancer risk for low-LET radiation and (b) values of the appropriate radiation weighting factors, WR, for the high-LET radiations of galactic cosmic rays. Both factors are subject to considerable uncertainty. The low-LET cancer risk derived from the late effects of the atomic bombs is vulnerable to a number of uncertainties including especially that from projection in time, and from extrapolation from high to low dose rate. Nevertheless, recent low dose studies of workers and others tend to confirm these estimates. WR, relies on biological effects studied mainly in non-human systems. Additional laboratory studies could reduce the uncertainties in WR and thus produce a more confident estimate of the overall risk of galactic cosmic rays.

  7. Calcium protects differentiating neuroblastoma cells during 50 Hz electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Tonini, R; Baroni, M D; Masala, E; Micheletti, M; Ferroni, A; Mazzanti, M

    2001-11-01

    Despite growing concern about electromagnetic radiation, the interaction between 50- to 60-Hz fields and biological structures remains obscure. Epidemiological studies have failed to prove a significantly correlation between exposure to radiation fields and particular pathologies. We demonstrate that a 50- to 60-Hz magnetic field interacts with cell differentiation through two opposing mechanisms: it antagonizes the shift in cell membrane surface charges that occur during the early phases of differentiation and it modulates hyperpolarizing K channels by increasing intracellular Ca. The simultaneous onset of both mechanisms prevents alterations in cell differentiation. We propose that cells are normally protected against electromagnetic insult. Pathologies may arise, however, if intracellular Ca regulation or K channel activation malfunctions.

  8. [Radiation protection in the operation of accelerator and plasma equipment].

    PubMed

    Ewen, K

    1984-07-01

    Relatively great problems of radioprotection can be caused by accelerator units, above all in the field of science, because all kinds of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances can be produced in all states of aggregation. Furthermore, activities with relatively long half-lives are induced by high particle streams with energies beyond the thresholds of many nuclear reactions, so that the conditions of a control zone, even of a prohibited zone exist at many points after having switched off the accelerator. Not all of these radioprotective problems can be solved by constructive or technical measures. A sufficient skill of the persons responsible for radioprotection is very important in this connection. Efficient radioprotective measures are only possible by a close cooperation between the radiation protection officer, the competent authority, and the expert.

  9. Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2014-07-01

    The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity.

  10. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  11. Comparison of radiation dose to operator between transradial and transfemoral coronary angiography with optimised radiation protection: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiliang; Jin, Zhigeng; Jing, Limin

    2014-03-01

    A growing concern in applying radial access in cardiac catheterisation is the increased operator radiation exposure. This study used an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate transradial and transfemoral coronary angiography with optimised radiation protection conditions. Operator radiation exposure was measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters at predefined locations. Compared with the femoral route, the radial route was associated with a dose decrease of 15 % at the operator's chest level with optimised radiation shielding. However, radiation exposure to the operator's hand remained significantly higher when applying radial access even with collective protective equipment used (by a factor of 2). Furthermore, the efficiency of operator radiation protection was found to be dependent on the tube incidence. Awareness should be raised about the significant increase of radiation exposure to operators' hands in transradial coronary angiography. Protection to reduce the dose level to the hands is necessary and should be further improved.

  12. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  13. Issues In Space Radiation Protection: Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Badavi, F. F.; Thibeault, S. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Shinn, J. L.; Kiefer, R.

    1995-01-01

    When shielding from cosmic heavy ions, one is faced with limited knowledge about the physical properties and biological responses of these radiations. Herein, the current health is discussed in terms of conventional protection practice and a test biological response model. The impact of biological response on optimum materials selection for cosmic ray shielding is presented in terms of the transmission characteristics of the shield material. Although liquid hydrogen is an optimum shield material, evaluation of the effectiveness of polymeric structural materials must await improvement in our knowledge of both the biological response and the nuclear processes.

  14. Radionuclide and radiation protection data handbook 2nd edition (2002).

    PubMed

    Delacroix, D; Guerre, J P; Leblanc, P; Hickman, C

    2002-01-01

    This handbook is a reference source of radionuclide and radiation protection information. Its purpose is to provide users of radionuclides in medicine, research and industry with consolidated and appropriate information and data to handle and transport radioactive substances safely. It is mainly intended for users in low and intermediate activity laboratories. Individual data sheets are provided for a wide range of commonly used radionuclides (144 in total). These radionuclides are classified into five different groups as a function of risk level, represented by colours red, orange, yellow, green and blue, in descending order of risk.

  15. Radiation Protection by the Antioxidant Alpha-Tocopherol Succinate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    family of 8 tocols—4 each of α, β, γ, and δ tocopherols and tocotrienols (Figure 1). O CH3 R1 R2 HO CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 R1 = R2 = CH3 d- alpha ...CH3 CH3 R1 = R2 = CH3 R1 = R2 = H R1 = H, R2 = CH3 R1 = CH3, R2 = H d- alpha - tocotrienol d-beta- tocotrienol d-gamma- tocotrienol d-delta- tocotrienol ...Radiation Protection by the Antioxidant Alpha -Tocopherol Succinate Vijay K. Singh1, V. Srinivasan1, Raymond Toles1, Patience Karikari1, Thomas

  16. Radiation Protection Challenges for a Human Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    A human mission to Mars presents many challenges, not least of which is the radiation exposure that crew members will certainly receive in all phases of the journey, but most critically during the transits to and from Mars. Measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, made both in flight and on the surface of Mars, confirm previous estimates that crew members under reasonable shielding would receive a dose equivalent of about 1 Sievert on a 1000-day mission. In standard radiation biology, an acute exposure to 1 Sievert would be expected to increase lifetime fatal cancer risk by about 5%. This is well beyond the currently allowed 3% risk increase limit used by NASA and JAXA. Perhaps more significantly, the nature of exposure in space differs greatly from the terrestrial exposures that lead to the 5% estimate -- in space, the exposure is received at a very low dose rate, and includes a significant component from heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). Acute exposures to Solar Energetic Particles are also possible, but the generally lower energies of SEPs (kinetic energies typically below 100 MeV/nuc) mean that modest amounts of shielding are effective against them. Thus the greater concern for long-duration deep-space missions is the GCR exposure. In this presentation, I will briefly review the MSL-RAD data and discuss current approaches to radiation risk estimation, including the NASA limit of 3% at the 95% confidence level. Recent results from the NASA radiation biology program indicate that cancer may not be the only risk that needs to be considered, with emerging concerns about cardiovascular and central nervous system health. These health effects are not accounted for in the current methodology and could potentially be threatening to mission success if they manifest in the course of the mission, rather than appearing many years after the exposure as radiation-induced cancer typically does.

  17. 10 CFR 71.47 - External radiation standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false External radiation standards for all packages. 71.47... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.47 External radiation standards for all packages. (a) Except as... the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external surface of...

  18. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  19. 10 CFR 71.47 - External radiation standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false External radiation standards for all packages. 71.47... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.47 External radiation standards for all packages. (a) Except as... the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external surface of...

  20. 10 CFR 71.47 - External radiation standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false External radiation standards for all packages. 71.47... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.47 External radiation standards for all packages. (a) Except as... the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external surface of...

  1. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  2. 10 CFR 71.47 - External radiation standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false External radiation standards for all packages. 71.47... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.47 External radiation standards for all packages. (a) Except as... the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external surface of...

  3. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  4. 10 CFR 71.47 - External radiation standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External radiation standards for all packages. 71.47... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.47 External radiation standards for all packages. (a) Except as... the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external surface of...

  5. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  6. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  7. 78 FR 21120 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Member agencies include the EPA; Nuclear Regulatory... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... Agency (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS)...

  8. 76 FR 70130 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Agencies represented as members of...

  9. 75 FR 66092 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) on... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Agencies represented as members of...

  10. 78 FR 54248 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... of regulatory issues associated with radiation standards. Member agencies include: EPA; the Nuclear... AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards AGENCY... Agency (EPA) will host a meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS)...

  11. Wound scabs protect regenerating tissue against harmful ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, E; Mudde, Y D; Coumans, F A W; van Leeuwen, T G; Sturk, A; Nieuwland, R

    2016-11-01

    Benefits attributed to wound scabs include prevention of blood loss and protection against infection. However, when formation of a wound scab is prevented, the risk of infection is reduced. Moreover, in the absence of a wound scab, wounds heal faster and scar formation is reduced. The question arises why we develop a wound scab. Here we show that wound scabs inhibit transmission of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We compared the UVR transmittance of human wound scabs to sunscreen by measuring the sun protection factor (SPF) with diffuse transmittance spectroscopy. Three wound scabs showed SPFs of 70, 84, and 300, which is more effective than the most protective commercially available sun block. Because our results demonstrate that a wound scab offers natural protection against UVR, and because no beneficial trait is attributed to wound scabs, we hypothesize that the main function of wound scabs is to limit DNA damage in underlying cells during regeneration of wound tissue exposed to sunlight, thereby reducing the risk of developing skin cancer.

  12. Twelfth Annual Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address--the Influence of the NCRP on Radiation Protection in the United States: Guidance and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Kase, Kenneth R

    2016-02-01

    The Warren K. Sinclair Keynote Address for the 2015 Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) describes the Council's influence in the development of radiation protection guidance in the United States since its founding in 1929 as the U.S. Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection. The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) was the coordinating agency for the Advisory Committee, and its reports were published as NBS handbooks. In 1946, the Advisory Committee was renamed the National Committee on Radiation Protection and remained so until NCRP was chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1964. In 1931, the U.S. Advisory Committee on X-Ray and Radium Protection proposed the first formal standard for protecting people from radiation sources as NBS Handbook 15 and issued the first handbook on radium protection, NBS Handbook 18. Revised recommendations for external exposure were issued in 1936 and for radium protection in 1938 and remained in force until 1948. Throughout its 86 y history, the Council and its predecessors have functioned as effective advisors to the nation on radiation protection issues and have provided the fundamental guidance and recommendations necessary for the regulatory basis of the control of radiation exposure, radiation-producing devices, and radioactive materials in the United States.

  13. Review of Gender and Racial Diversity in Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Gillenwalters, Elizabeth; Martinez, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The rapidly changing demographics of the United States workforce include a large number of women and members of minority groups that are currently underrepresented in science and engineering-related education and careers. Recent research indicates that while singular incidents of sexism do exist, gender bias more often affects women in various subtle ways. The effects of stereotype threat and the lack of appropriate mentoring and female role models are samples of the possible factors contributing to performance and longevity for women in math-intensive fields. To address how this issue affects those in radiation protection, the current status of women in the field is reviewed as a progression through the scientific pipeline, from education and employment to positions in scientific bodies and professional recognition, with primary focus on American women and institutions. Racial diversity demographics are reviewed where available. Findings indicate women and minority racial groups are underrepresented in multiple aspects of education, research, and leadership. While gender diversity across the field has not yet reached gender parity, trending indicates that the percentage of women earning degrees in radiation protection has consistently increased over the last four decades. Diversity of racial groups, however, has remained fairly consistent and is well below national averages. Diverse perspectives have been documented in collective problem-solving to lead to more innovative solutions.

  14. Modern Monte Carlo particle transport simulation for safety and radiation protection applications in accelerometer technology and in space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Detlef

    1992-04-01

    The application potential of modern particle radiation transport simulations to solve safety and radiation protection problems in accelerator technology and in space science and technology is presented. It is shown to what extent Monte Carlo simulation is helpful in defining safety regulations, safety standards and in determining corresponding safety proofs. For this purpose the basic methods are described and their performance together with particular examples are assessed. The state of the art of the computational methods is described together with the existing computer codes. The details of the current three dimensional geometry packages are also given. Necessary nuclear transport data and reaction cross sections in respect to shielding and safety protection problems are investigated. The performance and flexibility of HERMES (High Energy Radiation Monte Carlo Elaborate System), and its utilization in solving safety protection problems are demonstrated. Examples of radiation protection and high energy source shielding for medium and high energy particle accelerators and for high current particle accelerator target systems are summarized. Radiation protection and shielding of space vehicles against cosmic ray radiation are compiled and assessed. Validations of experimental results are also given.

  15. Two example applications of optimization techniques to US Department of Energy contractor radiation protection programs

    SciTech Connect

    Merwin, S.E.; Martin, J.B.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Six numerical examples of optimization of radiation protection are provided in the appendices of ICRP Publication 37. In each case, the calculations are based on fairly well defined parameters and assumptions that were well understood. In this paper, we have examined two numerical examples that are based on empirical data and less certain assumptions. These examples may represent typical applications of optimization principles to the evaluation of specific elements of a radiation protection program. In the first example, the optimum bioassay frequency for tritium workers was found to be once every 95 days, which compared well with ICRP Publication 10 recommendations. However, this result depended heavily on the assumption that the value of a potential undetected rem was US $1000. The second example showed that the optimum frequency for recalibrating Cutie Pie (CP) type ionization chamber survey instruments was once every 102 days, which compared well with the Hanford standard frequency of once every 90 days. This result depended largely on the assumption that an improperly operating CP instrument could lead to a serious overexposure. These examples have led us to conclude that optimization of radiation protection programs must be a very dynamic process. Examples must be recalculated as empirical data expand and improve and as the uncertainties surrounding assumptions are reduced.

  16. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  17. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  18. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  19. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  20. 10 CFR 35.24 - Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Authority and responsibilities for the radiation... MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.24 Authority and responsibilities for the radiation protection program. (a) In addition to the radiation protection program requirements of § 20.1101 of...

  1. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur.

  2. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; Carmichael, Ian; Gerstel, Markus; Shevtsov, Mikhail B.; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2016-04-26

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. We developed a methodology whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98 Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the largetrpRNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. In addition, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density.

  3. RNA protects a nucleoprotein complex against radiation damage

    DOE PAGES

    Bury, Charles S.; McGeehan, John E.; Antson, Alfred A.; ...

    2016-04-26

    Radiation damage during macromolecular X-ray crystallographic data collection is still the main impediment for many macromolecular structure determinations. Even when an eventual model results from the crystallographic pipeline, the manifestations of radiation-induced structural and conformation changes, the so-called specific damage, within crystalline macromolecules can lead to false interpretations of biological mechanisms. Although this has been well characterized within protein crystals, far less is known about specific damage effects within the larger class of nucleoprotein complexes. We developed a methodology whereby per-atom density changes could be quantified with increasing dose over a wide (1.3–25.0 MGy) range and at higher resolution (1.98more » Å) than the previous systematic specific damage study on a protein–DNA complex. Specific damage manifestations were determined within the largetrpRNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a single-stranded RNA that forms a belt around the protein. Over a large dose range, the RNA was found to be far less susceptible to radiation-induced chemical changes than the protein. The availability of two TRAP molecules in the asymmetric unit, of which only one contained bound RNA, allowed a controlled investigation into the exact role of RNA binding in protein specific damage susceptibility. The 11-fold symmetry within each TRAP ring permitted statistically significant analysis of the Glu and Asp damage patterns, with RNA binding unexpectedly being observed to protect these otherwise highly sensitive residues within the 11 RNA-binding pockets distributed around the outside of the protein molecule. In addition, the method enabled a quantification of the reduction in radiation-induced Lys and Phe disordering upon RNA binding directly from the electron density.« less

  4. Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A; Borowski, Markus; Noßke, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and

  5. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  7. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  8. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 35.2024 - Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation... MATERIAL Records § 35.2024 Records of authority and responsibilities for radiation protection programs. (a... of the Radiation Safety Officer as required by § 35.24(e), and a signed copy of each Radiation...

  10. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Zuguchi, Masayuki; Chida, Koichi; Taura, Masaaki; Inaba, Yohei; Ebata, Ayako; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh approximately 20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic.

  11. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  12. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondı, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  13. On a radiative origin of the Standard Model from trinification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo-Molina, José Eliel; Morais, António P.; Pasechnik, Roman; Wessén, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a trinification-based grand unified theory incorporating a global SU(3) family symmetry that after a spontaneous breaking leads to a left-right symmetric model. Already at the classical level, this model can accommodate the matter content and the quark Cabbibo mixing in the Standard Model (SM) with only one Yukawa coupling at the unification scale. Considering the minimal low-energy scenario with the least amount of light states, we show that the resulting effective theory enables dynamical breaking of its gauge group down to that of the SM by means of radiative corrections accounted for by the renormalisation group evolution at one loop. This result paves the way for a consistent explanation of the SM breaking scale and fermion mass hierarchies.

  14. Analysis of the selected optical parameters of filters protecting against hazardous infrared radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Owczarek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses the selected optical parameters of protective optic filters used for protection of the eyes against hazardous radiation within the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrum range. The indexes characterizing transmission and reflection of optic radiation incident on the filter are compared. As it follows from the completed analysis, the newly developed interference filters provide more effective blocking of infrared radiation in comparison with the currently used protective filters. PMID:26327153

  15. The protection of migrant workers and international labour standards.

    PubMed

    Bohning, W R

    1988-06-01

    International labor standards take the form of Conventions and Recommendations that embody the agreements reached by a 2/3 majority of the representatives of Governments, Employers, and Workers of International Labour Office (ILO) member states. Originally designed to guard against the danger that 1 country or other would keep down wages and working conditions to gain competitive advantage and thereby undermine advances elsewhere, international labor standards have also been inspired by humanitarian concerns--the visible plight of workers and the physical dangers of industrialization and by the notion of social justice, which embraces wellbeing and dignity, security, and equality as well as a measure of participation in economic and social matters. ILO standards apply to workers generally and therefore also to migrant workers, irrespective of the fact that the general standards are complemented by standards especially for migrant workers. The social security protection of migrant workers has been dealt with in ILO instruments primarily from the angle of equality of treatment but also from that of the maintenance of acquired rights and rights in course of acquisition, including the payment of benefits to entitled persons resident abroad. The ILO Conventions on migrant workers and the Recommendations which supplement them deal with practically all aspects of the work and life of non-nationals such as recruitment matters, information to be made available, contract conditions, medical examination and attention, customs, exemption for personal effects, assistance in settling into their new environment, vocational training, promotion at work, job security and alternative employment, liberty of movement, participation in the cultural life of the state as well as maintenance of their own culture, transfer of earnings and savings, family reunification and visits, appeal against unjustified termination of employment or expulsion, and return assistance. ILO's supervisory

  16. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  17. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  18. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  19. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  20. 10 CFR 63.321 - Individual protection standard for human intrusion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual protection standard for human intrusion. 63.321... Standards Human Intrusion Standard § 63.321 Individual protection standard for human intrusion. (a) DOE must determine the earliest time after disposal that the waste package would degrade sufficiently that a...

  1. Neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections for radiation therapy and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, M B

    1998-12-01

    I review recent work at Los Alamos undertaken to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross-sections up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. In radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross-section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given.

  2. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

  3. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  4. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the effective dose equivalent (EDE),'' which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a total risk'' or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  5. The use of total detriment in radiation protection and its potential extension to other hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Stansbury, P.S.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-10-01

    Before publication of the 1977 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), radiation protection standards were based on dose limits to single organs. These dose limits were only loosely linked to the expected effects in the first two generations from gonadal doses and to the risk of fatal cancer from doses to specific organs. In 1977, the ICRP recommended the use of the ``effective dose equivalent (EDE),`` which is a method of summing the doses (weighted with relative risk coefficients) to all organs and tissues, and recommended an annual limit for EDE. Since the 1977 recommendations were published, a ``total risk`` or total detriment approach has been extended to include nonfatal cancers and genetic effects for all subsequent generations, i.e., the total health detriment from low doses of ionizing radiation. This paper discusses the development of this total health detriment from ionizing radiation exposures, and explores potential methods for using it with other hazards (such as exposures to other physical agents, hazardous chemicals, and fatal and nonfatal accidents) in calculating the total detriment to a worker.

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  7. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, medical radiation exposure has increased rapidly. For medical radiation exposure control, Korea has two separate control systems. Regulation is essential to control medical radiation exposure. Physicians and radiologists must be aware of the radiation risks and benefits associated with medical exposure, and understand and implement the principles of radiation protection for patients. The education of the referring physicians and radiologists is also important. PMID:26908991

  8. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate

  9. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    PubMed

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups.

  10. Radiation protection considerations along a radioactive ion beam transport line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarchiapone, Lucia; Zafiropoulos, Demetre

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the SPES project is to produce accelerated radioactive ion beams for Physics studies at “Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro” (INFN, Italy). This accelerator complex is scheduled to be built by 2016 for an effective operation in 2017. Radioactive species are produced in a uranium carbide target, by the interaction of 200 μA of protons at 40 MeV. All of the ionized species in the 1+ state come out of the target (ISOL method), and pass through a Wien filter for a first selection and an HMRS (high mass resolution spectrometer). Then they are transported by an electrostatic beam line toward a charge state breeder (where the 1+ to n+ multi-ionization takes place) before selection and reacceleration at the already existing superconducting linac. The work concerning dose evaluations, activation calculation, and radiation protection constraints related to the transport of the radioactive ion beam (RIB) from the target to the mass separator will be described in this paper. The FLUKA code has been used as tool for those calculations needing Monte Carlo simulations, in particular for the evaluation of the dose rate due to the presence of the radioactive beam in the selection/interaction points. The time evolution of a radionuclide inventory can be computed online with FLUKA for arbitrary irradiation profiles and decay times. The activity evolution is analytically evaluated through the implementation of the Bateman equations. Furthermore, the generation and transport of decay radiation (limited to gamma, beta- and beta+ emissions) is possible, referring to a dedicated database of decay emissions using mostly information obtained from NNDC, sometimes supplemented with other data and checked for consistency. When the use of Monte Carlo simulations was not feasible, the Bateman equations, or possible simplifications, have been used directly.

  11. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  12. Modulating Radiation Resistance: Novel Protection Paradigms Based on Defenses against Ionizing Radiation in the Extrempohile Deinococcus radiodurans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    AFOSR/NL Program Manager: Dr. Hugh C. De Long, 875 N. Randolph Street Suite 325, RM 3112, Arlington, VA 22203-1768. Phone : (703)-696-7722; Fax...the protective functions devised by these microorganisms for the practical purpose of products that will provide us with radiation protection and/or...Deinococcus radiodurans exposed to intense radiation stress, and in Lactobacillus plantarum, which lacks antioxidant enzymes. In other microorganisms , Mn

  13. Radiation protection of the eye lens in medical workers—basis and impact of the ICRP recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Quinlan, Roy A; Bouffler, Simon D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the evidence for the revised European Union basic safety standard (BSS) radiation dose limits to the lens of the eye, in the context of medical occupational radiation exposures. Publications in the open literature have been reviewed in order to draw conclusions on the exposure profiles and doses received by medical radiation workers and to bring together the limited evidence for cataract development in medical occupationally exposed populations. The current status of relevant radiation-protection and monitoring practices and procedures is also considered. In conclusion, medical radiation workers do receive high doses in some circumstances, and thus working practices will be impacted by the new BSS. However, there is strong evidence to suggest that compliance with the new lower dose limits will be possible, although education and training of staff alongside effective use of personal protective equipment will be paramount. A number of suggested actions are given with the aim of assisting medical and associated radiation-protection professionals in understanding the requirements. PMID:26828972

  14. Anomalously small blackbody radiation shift in the Tl+ frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhrianda, Z.; Safronova, M. S.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2012-02-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. In the present work, we used configuration interaction + coupled-cluster method to evaluate polarizabilities of the 6s21S0 and 6s6p3P0 states of the Tl+ ion; we find α0(1S0)=19.6 a.u. and α0(3P0)=21.4 a.u. The resulting BBR shift of the 6s6p3P0-6s21S0 Tl+ transition at 300 K is ΔνBBR=-0.0157(16) Hz. This result demonstrates that near cancellation of the 1S0 and 3P0 state polarizabilities in divalent B+, Al+, and In+ ions of group IIIB [M. S. Safronova , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.143006 107, 143006 (2011)] continues for much heavier Tl+, leading to anomalously small BBR shift for this system. This calculation demonstrates that the BBR contribution to the fractional frequency uncertainty of the Tl+ frequency standard at 300 K is 1×10-18. We find that Tl+ has the smallest fractional BBR shift among all present or proposed frequency standards with the exception of Al+.

  15. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  16. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  17. 42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....45 Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as otherwise specified...

  18. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  19. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  20. 10 CFR 35.2026 - Records of radiation protection program changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of radiation protection program changes. 35.2026 Section 35.2026 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Records § 35.2026 Records of radiation protection program changes. A licensee shall retain a record of each...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 25.1317 Section 25.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 29.1317 Section 29.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 23.1308 Section 23.1308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1317 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. 27.1317 Section 27.1317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section,...

  18. 49 CFR 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior... inboard point is the door opening. Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means...

  19. 49 CFR 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior... inboard point is the door opening. Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means...

  20. 49 CFR 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior... inboard point is the door opening. Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means...

  1. 49 CFR 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior... inboard point is the door opening. Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means...

  2. 49 CFR 571.201 - Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.201 Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior... inboard point is the door opening. Dynamically deployed upper interior head protection system means...

  3. The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as <100 mSv) is highly uncertain, and several policy alternatives, including threshold and non-linear dose-response functions, are scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists. PMID:22740781

  4. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    PubMed

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities.

  5. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kevin W; Muenzer, Jared T; Chang, Kathy C; Davis, Chris G; McDunn, Jonathan E; Coopersmith, Craig M; Hilliard, Carolyn A; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Grigsby, Perry W; Hunt, Clayton R

    2007-04-06

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues.

  6. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  7. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  8. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  9. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  10. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  11. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  12. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  13. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  14. 47 CFR 80.227 - Special requirements for protection from RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.227 Section 80.227 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... requirements for protection from RF radiation. As part of the information provided with transmitters for ship... help prevent human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess of the RF exposure...

  15. 47 CFR 80.83 - Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiation. 80.83 Section 80.83 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Requirements-Ship Stations § 80.83 Protection from potentially hazardous RF radiation. Any license or renewal application for a ship earth station that will cause exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation in excess...

  16. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  17. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric-Powered Vehicles: Electrolyte Spillage and Electrical Shock Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA.... (Toyota), American Honda Motor Co., Inc. (Honda), Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan), Porsche Cars...

  18. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation in a regulatory context (protect): proposed numerical benchmark values.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pål; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beresford, Nicholas A; Copplestone, David; Howard, Brenda J; Howe, Paul; Oughton, Deborah; Whitehouse, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Criteria are needed to be able to judge the level of risk associated with dose rates estimated for non-human biota. In this paper, European guidance on the derivation of predicted no-effect chemical concentrations has been applied to appropriate radiation sensitivity data. A species sensitivity distribution fitted to the data for all species resulted in a generic predicted no-effect dose rate of 10 microGy h(-1).Currently, data are inadequate to derive screening values for separate organism groups. A second, higher, benchmark could aid in decision making by putting results into context on the scale of no effect to a risk of 'serious' effect. The need for, meaning and use of such a value needs to be debated by the wider community. This paper explores potential approaches of deriving scientific input to this debate. The concepts proposed in this paper are broadly consistent with the framework for human protection.

  19. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  20. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: Researching radiation protection. USTUR annual report for February 1, 1999 through January 31, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhart, Susan M.; Filipy, Ronald E.

    2000-07-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) comprise a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This report covers USTUR activities during the year from February 1999 through January 2000.

  1. Statistical aspects of determining compliance with radiation standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Kinnison, R.R.; Gilbert, R.O.; Watson, E.C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation surveys are an important tool used to monitor the safety of operations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as well as determining if contaminated sites require remedial action before license termination or unrestricted release. It is important that radiation surveys are carefully designed to provide the right quantity and quality of useful information for making valid decisions concerning public safety. The validity of survey information is especially important when low-level radiation detection techniques are required such as for environmental radiation monitoring. Thus, statistical aspects of radiation surveys are important in demonstrating compliance with radiation guidelines and for deciding when remedial action or cleanup is required. In this paper, we discuss the statistical aspects of evaluating whether guidelines are, in fact, being exceeded.

  2. 78 FR 24107 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Electric Reliability Corporation, the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. The proposed Reliability Standards, which pertain to the cyber security of the bulk electric system, represent an... Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of Reliability Standards and Security, Federal...

  3. Meeting the Needs of the Nation for Radiation Protection: Summary of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    PubMed

    Toohey, Richard E

    2017-02-01

    The 52nd Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) was held in Bethesda, MD, 11-12 April 2016, on the topic of "Meeting National Needs for Radiation Protection." This meeting was an outgrowth of the NCRP initiative "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" (WARP), which addresses looming shortages in professional personnel trained in the radiological disciplines, including but not limited to health physics, radiological engineering, radiobiology, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation emergency response; and the medical disciplines of diagnostic and interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A shortage of radiation professionals has been predicted for at least 20 y but now seems to be imminent. Obviously radiation professionals are needed for regulatory responsibilities at both state and federal levels, national defense, energy production, waste management, industrial applications, education, and medicine. Although the supply of radiation professionals in medicine appears to be adequate for the next decade or so, the use of radiation in medical diagnosis and therapy will continue to increase with the aging of the general population.

  4. The Australasian Radiation Protection Society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Higson, Donald

    2007-09-30

    Controversy continues on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The position of the Australasian Radiation Protection Society on this matter is set out in a statement adopted by the Society in 2005. Its salient features are: --There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls.--Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. --The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted.

  5. An update on standards for radiation in the environment and associated estimates of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1989-06-21

    This presentation reviews current and proposed standards, recommendations, and guidances for limiting routine radiation exposures of the public, and estimates the risk corresponding to standards, recommendations, and guidances. These estimates provide a common basis for comparing different criteria for limiting public exposures to radiation, as well as hazardous chemicals.

  6. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space exploration.

  7. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most effect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  8. Determine Important Nuclear Fragmentation Processes for Space Radiation Protection in Human Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2004-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for long-term human space explorations such as a permanent moon base or a trip to Mars. Material shielding may provide significant radiation protection to astronauts, and models have been developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials and to predict radiation environment inside the spacecraft. In this study we determine the nuclear fragmentation cross sections which will most affect the radiation risk behind typical radiation shielding materials. These cross sections thus need more theoretical studies and accurate experimental measurements in order for us to more precisely predict the radiation risk in human space explorations.

  9. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  10. Main principles of radiation protection and their applications in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The average exposure for an individual from such background in the United States is about 300 mrem per year with approximately 200 mrem of this coming from radon exposure alone. In addition to the natural sources of background radiation, a very small amount of the background radiation occurs due to the nuclear weapons test fallout. Manmade sources of radiation also include certain consumer products, industrial and research use of radioisotopes, medical X-rays, and radiopharmaceuticals. When all sources, natural and man-made, are taken into account, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has estimated that the average annual dose to individuals in the US population is 360 mrem (NCRP Report No. 93). In this report the fundamental principles of radiation protection are reviewed, as well as the relevant laws and regulations in the United States and discuss application of radiation protection in radioactive waste management.

  11. 49 CFR 571.214 - Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.214 Standard No. 214; Side impact protection. S1Scope and purpose... shown in Figure 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (49 CFR 571.210)) and...

  12. 49 CFR 571.214 - Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.214 Standard No. 214; Side impact protection. S1Scope and purpose... shown in Figure 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (49 CFR 571.210)) and...

  13. 49 CFR 571.214 - Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.214 Standard No. 214; Side impact protection. S1Scope and purpose... shown in Figure 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (49 CFR 571.210)) and...

  14. 49 CFR 571.214 - Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.214 Standard No. 214; Side impact protection. S1Scope and purpose... shown in Figure 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 (49 CFR 571.210)) and...

  15. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  16. Privacy Protection Standards for the Information Sharing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    recognizing the immense growth of electronic data processing, in 1981 the Council of Europe promulgated the Convention for the Protection of...Processing Convention, 1981 , Articles 1-8). State parties are allowed to derogate from the Convention for “protecting State security, public safety, the...monetary interests of the State or the suppression of criminal offences” (Bignami, 2007; Data Processing Convention, 1981 , Article 9). Parties to

  17. Lauriston S. Taylor lecture: Radiation Protection and Public Policy in an Uncertain World.

    PubMed

    Land, Charles E

    2011-11-01

    Ionizing radiation is a known, well-documented, and reasonably well-quantified human cancer risk factor based on a remarkably consistent body of dose-response information from epidemiological studies of exposed populations supported by experimental studies using animal and cellular models. This fact is largely ascribable to the relative ease, compared to other carcinogens, of estimating radiation dose to organs and local tissues. Statistical models for radiation-related cancer risk are increasingly relevant to both radiation protection policy and the adjudication of compensation claims for cancers diagnosed following occupational and environmental exposures to ionizing radiation, as discussed in a number of expert committee reports of national and international organizations concerned with radiation-related risks. These and other publications increasingly emphasize the relevance of well-quantified uncertainties in radiation-related risk projections, including upper and lower confidence or uncertainty bounds, for radiation protection. Finally, the wealth of detailed information provided by such quantitative uncertainty analysis approaches is highly relevant to radiation protection, which might be viewed as a political process that involves a diverse group of stakeholders who, individually, may be primarily concerned with avoiding possible radiation-related risks or with avoiding possibly unnecessary costs of risk reduction or unnecessary denial of benefits that require some radiation exposure, or with balancing both considerations to some degree.

  18. 77 FR 29235 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...

  19. AN APPROACH FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS OZONE AIR QUALITY STANDARDS FOR PROTECTING TREES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We demonstrate an approach for evaluating the level of protection attained using a variety of forms and levels of past, current, and proposed Air Quality Standards (AQSs). The U.S. Clean Air Act requires the establishment of ambient air quality standards to protect health and pub...

  20. Radiation Protection of the Child from Diagnostic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rebecca S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years due to the technological advances in imaging techniques, which have undoubtedly improved diagnostic accuracy and resulted in improved patient care, the utilization of ionizing radiation in diagnostic imaging has significantly increased. Computed tomography is the major contributor to the radiation burden, but fluoroscopy continues to be a mainstay in paediatric radiology. The rise in the use of ionizing radiation is of particular concern with regard to the paediatric population, as they are up to 10 times more sensitive to the effects of radiation than adults, due to their increased tissue radiosensitivity, increased cumulative lifetime radiation dose and longer lifetime in which to manifest the effects. This article will review the estimated radiation risk to the child from diagnostic imaging and summarise the various methods through which both the paediatrician and radiologist can practice the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, which underpins the safe practice of radiology. Emphasis is on the justification for an examination, i.e. weighing of benefits versus radiation risk, on the appropriate utilization of other, non-ionizing imaging modalities such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, and on optimisation of a clinically indicated examination. It is essential that the paediatrician and radiologist work together in this decision making process for the mutual benefit of the patient. The appropriate practical application of ALARA in the workplace is crucial to the radiation safety of our paediatric patients.

  1. Concepts of radiation safety and protection: beyond BEIR V.

    PubMed

    Farman, A G

    1991-01-01

    The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

  2. Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

  3. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  4. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  5. Faecal microbiota transplantation protects against radiation-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming; Xiao, Huiwen; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Lixin; Zhao, Shuyi; Luo, Dan; Zheng, Qisheng; Dong, Jiali; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Junling; Lu, Lu; Wang, Haichao; Fan, Saijun

    2017-04-01

    Severe radiation exposure may cause acute radiation syndrome, a possibly fatal condition requiring effective therapy. Gut microbiota can be manipulated to fight against many diseases. We explored whether intestinal microbe transplantation could alleviate radiation-induced toxicity. High-throughput sequencing showed that gastrointestinal bacterial community composition differed between male and female mice and was associated with susceptibility to radiation toxicity. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) increased the survival rate of irradiated animals, elevated peripheral white blood cell counts and improved gastrointestinal tract function and intestinal epithelial integrity in irradiated male and female mice. FMT preserved the intestinal bacterial composition and retained mRNA and long non-coding RNA expression profiles of host small intestines in a sex-specific fashion. Despite promoting angiogenesis, sex-matched FMT did not accelerate the proliferation of cancer cells in vivo FMT might serve as a therapeutic to mitigate radiation-induced toxicity and improve the prognosis of tumour patients after radiotherapy.

  6. Project FIRES [Firefighters' Integrated Response Equipment System]. Volume 2: Protective Ensemble Performance Standards, Phase 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abeles, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of the prototype protective ensemble was finalized. Prototype ensembles were fabricated and then subjected to a series of qualification tests which were based upon the protective ensemble performance standards PEPS requirements. Engineering drawings and purchase specifications were prepared for the new protective ensemble.

  7. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for... notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the availability of and...: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its mission by...

  8. Relevant aspects of radiation protection in oil and gas well logging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R S; Lopes Gomes, J D R; Costa, M L L; Miranda, M V F E S

    2013-12-01

    Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which should be established in a national normative framework. Recently, due to discovery of new oil and gas reservoirs on the Brazilian continental shelf, especially in deep water and the pre-salt layer, there has been a large and rapid increase in the use of radiation sources for well logging. Generic radiation protection regulations have been used for licensing the use of radiation sources for well logging, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Therefore it is necessary to establish specific Brazilian safety regulations for this purpose. In this work, an assessment is presented of the relevant radiation protection aspects of nuclear well logging not covered by generic regulations, with the aim of contributing to the future development of specific safety regulations for the licensing of radioactive facilities for oil and gas well logging in Brazil. The conclusions of this work relate to four areas, which include the specific requirements to control (1) radiation sources, (2) radiation survey meters and (3) access to radiation workplaces and (4) to control and identify the workers who are occupationally exposed.

  9. Use and workload factors in dental radiation-protection design

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.A.; MacDonald, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    A dosimetric and photographic record of the pattern of radiation on the walls of a dental x-ray operatory was obtained. This indicates that there is an overlap of the radiation fields with ''hot spots'' on the side wall opposite the patient's head, with the rest of the room receiving minimal exposures. In the course of this investigation, it was found that use of the long-cone x-ray machine resulted in less radiation reaching the walls of the room. The presently accepted concept of mAs per week proves to be less relevant than the number of films being taken.

  10. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation-protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A Practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  11. Base-level management of radio-frequency radiation-protection program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rademacher, S.E.; Montgomery, N.D.

    1989-04-01

    AFOEHL developed this report to assist the base-level aerospace medical team manage their radio-frequency radiation protection program. This report supersedes USAFOEHL Report 80-42, 'A practical R-F Guide for BEES.'

  12. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  13. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  14. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Indoor Air Top of Page Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) What We Do OAQPS’s ... Programs and projects managed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards AIRNow - Air Quality Forecast Air ...

  15. ULTRAVIOLET PROTECTIVE COMPOUNDS AS A RESPONSE TO ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life on Earth has evolved adaptations to many environmental stresses over the epochs. One consistent stress has been exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In response to UVR organisms have adapted myriad responses; behavioral, morphological and physiological. Behaviorally, some orga...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2057 - Thermal radiation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Each LNG container and LNG transfer system must have a thermal exclusion zone in accordance with... computer model GTI-04/0032 LNGFIRE3: A Thermal Radiation Model for LNG Fires (incorporated by...

  17. Nuclear Fragmentation Processes Relevant for Human Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Zi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from cosmic ray particles is one of the main challenges for human space explorations such-as a moon base or a trip to Mars. Models have been developed in order to predict the radiation exposure to astronauts and to evaluate the effectiveness of different shielding materials, and a key ingredient in these models is the physics of nuclear fragmentations. We have developed a semi-analytical method to determine which partial cross sections of nuclear fragmentations most affect the radiation dose behind shielding materials due to exposure to galactic cosmic rays. The cross sections thus determined will require more theoretical and/or experimental studies in order for us to better predict, reduce and mitigate the radiation exposure in human space explorations.

  18. On the Retirement of E.P. Goldfinch, Founder of Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Horowitz, Yigal S.

    2004-08-01

    This special issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry commemorates the many years of service Eddie has dedicated to the international radiation protection community. Beginning with its first issue in 1981, Eddie led RPD to its current prominence with a guiding hand and Solomon-like wisdom, coupled with keen common sense which will be sorely missed. But, there is no doubt that the journal he created will continue to flourish in the foreseeable future.

  19. Synthesis of amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as Potential Radiation Protective Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    ation Management S SI ____ K> AD Synthesis of Amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as Potential Radiation Protective Agents * 0 Annual Report "TIi: o DTIC...Sftcuntiy Clatuftcatio") Synthesis of Amino Derivatives of Dithio Acids as PotentitI- Radiation Protective Agents 12l PERISONAL. Ak.TI4OR(S) * William...methyl- picoline derivatives was accomplished. Use of N-mthyl-2,6-dimethylpyridine also allowed the synthesis of a bis(dithioacetic acid) function not

  20. The Road To Radiation Protection: A Rocky Path

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Preeti; Khare, Amit; Singh, Vandana; Chatterjee, Rhiti

    2014-01-01

    Radiation has intrigued us with its magnificent properties of imaging and healing. But this discovery, like many others, came with a heavy price. The pioneers of this form of energy themselves often succumbed to its devastating effects and hence, paved a way for future generations to be wary of it, while continuing to use it. This paper attempts to salute those masters who have helped make the radiation world a safer place to live and work in. PMID:25654052

  1. Development and implementation of surface water quality standards for protection of human health in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kwak, Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; Jung, Myung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Current water quality standards for the protection of human health in Korea include 17 substances found in rivers and streams. Due to increasing concern over the release of hazardous chemicals into the aquatic environment, there has been a demand for additional water quality standards. Therefore, the Korean Ministry of the Environment plans to gradually increase the number of water quality standards to 30 substances, including 22 substances for protection of human health and 8 substances for protection of aquatic ecosystems by 2015. In this study, new water quality standards for protection of human health were established for 1,4-dioxane, formaldehyde, and hexachlorobenzene. We selected candidate hazardous chemicals, conducted a human health risk assessment to determine priority chemicals, established water quality standards based on technical analyses and comparison with domestic and developed countries' water quality standards, and conducted an expert review. Water quality standards for protection of aquatic ecosystems will be derived in the near future. This study describes how the water quality standards for protection of human health were developed and implemented. Current status, recent expansion, and future plans for water quality standards in Korea are also covered.

  2. A summary of recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Durán, Ariel; Hian, Sim Kui; Miller, Donald L; Le Heron, John; Padovani, Renato; Vano, Eliseo

    2013-02-01

    The radiation dose received by cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions, electrophysiology procedures, and other interventional cardiology procedures can vary by more than an order of magnitude for the same type of procedure and for similar patient doses. There is particular concern regarding occupational dose to the lens of the eye. This document provides recommendations for occupational radiation protection for physicians and other staff in the interventional suite. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance program; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. These recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology and electrophysiology have been endorsed by the Asian Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology, the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions, the Latin American Society of Interventional Cardiology, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

  3. 42 CFR 37.45 - Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. 37.45 Section 37.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... against radiation emitted by radiographic equipment. Except as otherwise specified in § 37.41 and §...

  4. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  5. Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

  6. 14 CFR 23.1308 - High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF... Equipment General § 23.1308 High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection. (a) Except as provided in... reduce the capability of the airplane or the ability of the flightcrew to respond to an adverse...

  7. 49 CFR 571.208 - Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection. 571.208 Section 571.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  8. 49 CFR 571.208 - Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection. 571.208 Section 571.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  9. 49 CFR 571.208 - Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection. 571.208 Section 571.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  10. 49 CFR 571.208 - Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection. 571.208 Section 571.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  11. 49 CFR 571.208 - Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection. 571.208 Section 571.208 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards...

  12. 49 CFR 571.214 - Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.214 Standard No. 214; Side impact protection. Link to an amendment... H-point and shoulder reference point (as shown in Figure 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  13. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards.

    PubMed

    Manley, Stephen; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  14. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, Stephen Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  15. Society's valuation of life saving in radiation protection and other contexts.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B L

    1980-01-01

    Various situations are described in which societal action may be interpreted as a dollar value placed on averting a human fatality, and numerical values are derived in each case. Situations included are a variety of medical screening and medical care programs and of automobile and highway safety measures, food for overseas relief, air pollution control, fire prevention, industrial safety, and several radiation-related activities including standards for radium in drinking water, radwaste systems in nuclear plants, and defense and civilian high-level waste management. Values varying from a few thousand dollars to hundreds of millions of dollars per fatality averted are obtained. An attempt to derive data of this type from polling is described. The problem of discounting when money is spent now to save lives far in the future (as with nuclear waste) is discussed. It is concluded that nearly all of the vast variation in the results is unjustified and represents a need for educating the public, especially in the area of radiation protection.

  16. Radioadaptive response for protection against radiation-induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the radioadaptive response in mice, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations in ICR mice. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a priming dose of 2 cGy (667 muGy/min) on day 9.5 of gestation and to a challenging dose of 2 Gy (1.04 Gy/min) 4 h later and were killed on day 18.5 of gestation. The incidence of malformations and prenatal death and fetal body weights were studied. The incidence of external malformations was significantly lower (by approximately 10%) in the primed (2 cGy + 2 Gy) mice compared to the unprimed (2 Gy alone) mice. However, there were no differences in the incidence of prenatal death or the skeletal malformations or the body weights between primed and unprimed mice. These results suggest that primary conditioning with low doses of radiation suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis.

  17. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  18. [Shielding during dental X-ray examinations. Effectiveness of radiation protection measures for patients during X-ray examinations].

    PubMed

    Roth, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    During dental X-ray examinations, lead rubber shields such as neck protections or half aprons are commonly used to protect the patient against unnecessary radiation. However, they are practically of no use to the patient as it has been shown by the present measurements. The scatter radiation produced in the body of the patient creates organ doses outside of the collimated radiation field. Other radiation protection measures are more effective and should be considered, although the doses are usually low.

  19. Process for producing radiation-induced self-terminating protective coatings on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A gas and radiation are used to produce a protective coating that is substantially void-free on the molecular scale, self-terminating, and degradation resistant. The process can be used to deposit very thin (.apprxeq.5-20 .ANG.) coatings on critical surfaces needing protection from degradative processes including, corrosion and contamination.

  20. The system of radiation protection for neutrons: does it fit the purpose?

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J

    2014-10-01

    The present system of radiation protection for neutrons is reviewed with particular reference to the development of the protection quantities and their relationships with the operational quantities. Some of the shortcomings of the system are outlined, and the difficulties of measuring the operational quantities. Suggestions are made for future developments.

  1. [Radiation protection using a gaseous hypoxic mixture in oncological practice].

    PubMed

    Strelkov, R B; Chizhov, A Ia; Il'ina, A I; Kuznetsova, L E; Pines, E V

    1979-01-01

    Studies on volunteers have shown that the gas hypoxic mixture containing 10% of oxygen and 90% of nitrogen (GHM-10) renders a protective action on the genetic apparatus of human skin cells but provides no protection of the peripheral blood leucocytes, which show the identical character of metabolic processes as neoplastic cells. Under clinically performed distant x-ray therapy for breast cancer the inhaling of GHM-10 was found to render the antiradiation protective action on different normal tissues (skin, subcellular connective tissue, muscle tissue, mammary gland tissue), but it fails to protect the tumor tissue and regional lymph nodes involved. The clinical observations were supported by pathomorphological examination of the operation material.

  2. Prevent Eye Damage: Protect Yourself from UV Radiation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contains at least 50% post-consumer fiber. EPA’s SunWise Program: Educating Youth About Sun Safety The ... and how you can participate, please visit www.epa.gov/sunwise . Protect Your Eyes The greatest amount ...

  3. Radiation protection at U.S. nuclear power plants--today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Michael R; Andersen, Ralph L

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear power industry work ethic and culture is founded on learning from experience and continuously finding ways to improve performance--especially in regard to radiation safety. Over the past 25 y, this process of continuous improvement has yielded exceptional results in regard to radiation protection of workers, the public and the environment. In light of the resurgence of nuclear energy in the United States, the nuclear power industry is developing strategies to achieve continuous improvements to performance and address emerging challenges in the area of radiation protection.

  4. New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation.

  5. The Knowledge of Radiation and the Attitude Towards Radio-Protection among Urology Residents in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to radiation is a hazard and precautions are necessary to limit it. This study was done to assess the knowledge of radiation and the attitude towards radio-protection among urology residents in India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge and attitude of urology residents who came from all over the country to attend a clinical meeting at Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India. Results All the respondents agreed to being exposed to radiation, with 78.2% using radiation in more than five cases a week. Only 65.2% always took some steps for radio-protection. Lead aprons and thyroid shields were the most common radiation protection devices used. None of the residents ever used lead gloves or protective eye glasses or dosimeters. An 82.6% felt that they did not have adequate knowledge, 85.4% of residents did not receive any formal classes regarding the risk of radiation, 21.7% either rarely or never moved out of the operating room when the radiation was being used, 42.4% did not know that the SI unit of the equivalent absorbed dose of radiation & 52.1% did not know about the amount of radiation delivered to an adult during a contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. Conclusion Results of the present study reveal that the urology residents of India lack knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure. Majority of them did not take necessary precautions to limit their exposure to radiation. PMID:26816919

  6. Blackbody radiation shift in ^87Rb frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, Marianna; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-03-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in ^87Rb using the relativistic all-order method and evaluated the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly-excited states. Various Rb atomic properties, including E1, E2, and E3 ground state polarizabilities, np and nd E1 polarizabilities, and hyperfine constants are also calculated. The results are compared with experiment and other theory where available.

  7. Setting a protective PM standard: A view from the frontline

    SciTech Connect

    John Paul; Eddie Terrill

    2006-06-15

    Several aspects of the US EPA's recent proposal to revise the particulate matter (PM) standards deeply concern state and local air agencies and their representatives with the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Offices (STAPPA and ALAPCO). STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to follow the recommendations of its appointed scientific experts and lower the annual average standard to 13 or 14 {mu}mg/m{sup 3} in addition to lowering the daily standard to 35 {mu}m/m{sup 3}. Unless EPA strengthens its proposal consistent with the recommendations of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), STAPPA and ALAPCO are extremely concerned that we will continue to see significant increased premature mortality and adverse health effects throughout the country. For the reasons described in the article STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to eliminate the exemptions for agriculture, mining and rural windblown dust. STAPPA and ALAPCO are troubled that EPA has ignored any commitment to funding the proposed coarse PM network scheduled for deployment in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. EPA has estimated that the capital costs of this monitoring network could easily exceed US$ 14 million, with annual operating expenses of approximately US$ 13 million. State and local agencies will simply not be able to assume these significant costs. 33 refs.

  8. Radiation Standards: The Last Word or at Least a Definitive One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the report of the National Academy of Science Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation, with particular reference to the possibilities for lowering maximum permissible standards for exposure to man-made radiation. The excessive use of diagnostic X-rays is considered. (AL)

  9. Modern Methods of Real-Time Gamma Radiation Monitoring for General Personal Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Real-time radiation detectors become an essential part of emergency personnel who may have to respond to unknown accidents, incidents or terrorist attacks, which could involve radioactive material. More and more ordinary citizens are interested in personal radiation protection as well. Reasons include lost sources, nuclear industrial accidents, nuclear or radiological terrorism and the possibility of nuclear weapons being used in a war. People want to have the ability to measure it for themselves and they want to be notified when the radiation levels are increased. To meet this demand, considerable research into new sensors is underway, including efforts to enhance the sensor performance through both the material properties and manufacturing technologies. Deep understanding of physical properties of the materials under the influence of radiation exposure is vital for the effective design of dosimeter devices. Detection of radiation is based on the fact that both the electrical and the optical properties of the materials undergo changes upon the exposure to ionizing radiation. It is believed that radiation causes structural defects. The influence of radiation depends on both the dose and the parameters of the films including their thickness: the degradation is more severe for the higher dose and the thinner films. This paper presents overview of modern methods of real-time gamma radiation monitoring for personal protection of radiation workers and general public and suggests further developments in this area.

  10. Two-dimensional multilevel radiative transfer with standard partial frequency redistribution in isolated solar atmospheric structures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, F.

    1995-10-01

    We have implemented standard partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in a two-dimensional multilevel non-LTE radiative transfer code. The Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) method is used. First, a numerical approach for treating standard PRD effects is described, as well as a simple method for treating an optically thick bound-free transition with MALI. Then, the method is validated in mono-dimensional geometry. Finally, preliminary results from two-dimensional radiative modelling of solar prominences are presented.

  11. Low-Dose-Radiation Stimulated Natural Chemical and Biological Protection Against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scott, B. R.

    2008-01-01

    Research is being conducted world-wide related to chemoprevention of future lung cancer among smokers. The fact that low doses and dose rates of some sparsely ionizing forms of radiation (e.g., x rays, gamma rays, and beta radiation) stimulate transient natural chemical and biological protection against cancer in high-risk individuals is little known. The cancer preventative properties relate to radiation adaptive response (radiation hormesis) and involve stimulated protective biological signaling (a mild stress response). The biological processes associated with the protective signaling are now better understood and include: increased availability of efficient DNA double-strand break repair (p53-related and in competition with normal apoptosis), stimulated auxiliary apoptosis of aberrant cells (presumed p53-independent), and stimulated protective immune functions. This system of low-dose radiation activated natural protection (ANP) requires an individual-specific threshold level of mild stress and when invoked can efficiently prevent the occurrence of cancers as well as other genomic-instability-associated diseases. In this paper, low, essentially harmless doses of gamma rays spread over an extended period are shown via use of a biological-based, hormetic relative risk (HRR) model to be highly efficient in preventing lung cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. PMID:18846259

  12. Radiation protection issues related to Canadian museum operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2008-02-01

    Museums in Canada have been found to possess radioactive items. The origin of the radiation can be broadly categorized as either natural (generally, radioactive ores) or anthropogenic (generally, luminous gauges). Radioluminescent gauges, especially bearing radium (226Ra), can also generate significant radiation fields. This is especially true if many gauges are located in close proximity. In addition, the radon may out-gas from these gauges, and generate a loose contamination problem in enclosed spaces (such as display cases). Radioactive ores, bearing naturally occurring uranium and thorium, can generate radiation fields many times greater than the ambient background levels. In addition, they will increase the ambient radon level and potentially generate loose contamination. In this paper, we discuss the specific results of radiological decommissioning at three museums: the National Air Force Museum of Canada (Trenton, Ontario); the Quebec Air and Space Museum (Montreal, PQ); and the Canadian Museum of Nature (Aylmer, PQ). In addition, a radiological survey performed at Canadian Forces Detachment Mountain View (Mountain View, Ontario) of surplus aircraft is included. The primary conclusion is that museums holding radioactive materials may have detectable levels of loose Ra and progeny contamination. They, therefore, have a requirement to be surveyed for loose contamination periodically with the potential for periodic decontamination caused by radon out-gassing. In addition, public access to displays bearing radioactive material should generally be restricted, and comprehensive radiation safety and security programs at museum facilities should be developed and enacted.

  13. Experimental Determination of Ultraviolet Radiation Protection of Common Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Susana C. A.; da Silva, Joaquim C. G. Esteves; Paiva, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at a better understanding of the problems associated with the depletion of the ozone layer, we propose several experiments to be performed by students of different levels: secondary and first-year undergraduate students. The oxidation of iodide induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, generated by a mercury lamp, is used as an indicator for…

  14. Protective mechanisms and acclimation to solar ultraviolet-B radiation in Oenothera stricta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    Plant adaptations ameliorating or repairing the damaging effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on plant tissue were investigated. The degree of phenotype plasticity in UV protective mechanisms and acclimation in relation to the natural solar UV-B radiation flux and in an enhanced UV-B irradiance environment was also examined. Mechanisms by which plants avoid radiation, adaptations altering the path of radiation incident on the leaf, and repair processes were considered. Attenuation of UV-B by tissues, UV-B irradiation into the leaf, and the effects of UV-B on photosynthesis were investigated.

  15. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of Therapeutic Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation proposes a hypothesis to use therapeutic gases in space to enhance the biological protection for astronauts from space radiation. The fundamental role in how radiation causes biological damage appears to be radiolysis, the dissociation of water by radiation. A chain of events appears to cause molecular and biological transformations that ultimately manifest into medical diseases. The hypothesis of this work is that applying medical gases may increase resistance to radiation, by possessing the chemical properties that effectively improve the radical scavenging and enhance bond repair and to induce biological processes which enhance and support natural resistance and repair mechanisms.

  16. Open source tools for standardized privacy protection of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chung-Yueh; Onken, Michael; Eichelberg, Marco; Kao, Tsair; Hein, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    In addition to the primary care context, medical images are often useful for research projects and community healthcare networks, so-called "secondary use". Patient privacy becomes an issue in such scenarios since the disclosure of personal health information (PHI) has to be prevented in a sharing environment. In general, most PHIs should be completely removed from the images according to the respective privacy regulations, but some basic and alleviated data is usually required for accurate image interpretation. Our objective is to utilize and enhance these specifications in order to provide reliable software implementations for de- and re-identification of medical images suitable for online and offline delivery. DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) images are de-identified by replacing PHI-specific information with values still being reasonable for imaging diagnosis and patient indexing. In this paper, this approach is evaluated based on a prototype implementation built on top of the open source framework DCMTK (DICOM Toolkit) utilizing standardized de- and re-identification mechanisms. A set of tools has been developed for DICOM de-identification that meets privacy requirements of an offline and online sharing environment and fully relies on standard-based methods.

  17. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus–nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus–nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus–nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  18. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  19. Petition for Rulemaking to Amend Agricultural Worker Protection Standard Effective Date

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This petition from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and the American Farm Bureau Federation, dated December 21, 2016, asks that the Agency amend the Agricultural Worker Protection Standard by postponing the effective date.

  20. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  1. Radiation protection design considerations for man in geosynchronous orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, M. L.; Stauber, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of preliminary studies which have been carried out to identify design requirements and mission constraints imposed by the geosynchronous radiation environment. The radiation species of dominant impact are the trapped electrons and solar flare particles. The criterion used in the conducted shielding design analysis has been to limit the skin dose to 100 rems for 3 months. The analysis included the optimization of an electron/bremsstrahlung shield for residence within the vehicle, the minimization of the dose received in extravehicular activity, and the calculation of special shield requirements for solar flares. An investigation was conducted of the potential benefits accruing from a three-layered composite shield with part of the aluminum layer replaced with a lower atomic number material. The materials considered were polyethylene, carbon, beryllium, and lithium hydride.

  2. LAURISTON S. TAYLOR LECTURE ON RADIATION PROTECTION AND MEASURMENTS: WHAT MAKES PARTICLE RADIATION SO EFFECTIVE?

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma, and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted vs. nontargeted effects remain a thorny, but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye. PMID:23032880

  3. Blackbody radiation shift in the {sup 87}Rb frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Jiang Dansha; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-08-15

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature, of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in {sup 87}Rb using the relativistic all-order method and carried out a detailed evaluation of the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly excited states. Our predicted value for the Stark coefficient, k{sub S}=-1.240(4)x10{sup -10} Hz/(V/m){sup 2}, is three times more accurate than the previous calculation [E. J. Angstman, V. A. Dzuba, and V. V. Flambaum, Phys. Rev. A 74, 023405 (2006)].

  4. Blackbody radiation shift in the Rb87 frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Jiang, Dansha; Safronova, U. I.

    2010-08-01

    The operation of atomic clocks is generally carried out at room temperature, whereas the definition of the second refers to the clock transition in an atom at absolute zero. This implies that the clock transition frequency should be corrected in practice for the effect of finite temperature, of which the leading contributor is the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift. Experimental measurements of the BBR shifts are difficult. In this work, we have calculated the blackbody radiation shift of the ground-state hyperfine microwave transition in Rb87 using the relativistic all-order method and carried out a detailed evaluation of the accuracy of our final value. Particular care is taken to accurately account for the contributions from highly excited states. Our predicted value for the Stark coefficient, kS=-1.240(4)×10-10Hz/(V/m)2, is three times more accurate than the previous calculation [E. J. Angstman, V. A. Dzuba, and V. V. Flambaum, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.74.023405 74, 023405 (2006)].

  5. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  6. The Constitution, waste facility performance standards, and radioactive waste classification: Is equal protection possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Eye, R.V.

    1993-03-01

    The process for disposal of so-called low-level radioactive waste is deadlocked at present. Supporters of the proposed near-surface facilities assert that their designs will meet minimum legal and regulatory standards currently in effect. Among opponents there is an overarching concern that the proposed waste management facilities will not isolate radiation from the biosphere for an adequate length of time. This clash between legal acceptability and a perceived need to protect the environment and public health by requiring more than the law demand sis one of the underlying reasons why the process is deadlocked. Perhaps the most exhaustive public hearing yet conducted on low-level radioactive waste management has recently concluded in Illinois. The Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Sitting Commission conducted 71 days of fact-finding hearings on the safety and suitability of a site near Martinsville, Illinois, to serve as a location for disposition of low-level radioactive waste. Ultimately, the siting commission rejected the proposed facility site for several reasons. However, almost all the reasons were related, to the prospect that, as currently conceived, the concrete barrier/shallow-land burial method will not isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. This paper reviews the relevant legal framework of the radioactive waste classification system and will argue that it is inadequate for long-lived radionuclides. Next, the paper will present a case for altering the classification system based on high-level waste regulatory considerations.

  7. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... July 15, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 153 Patient Protection and... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Health and...

  8. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. )

    1990-05-01

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

  9. Strategies for engaging with future radiation protection professionals: a public outreach case study.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Gornall, B T; Wood, M D; Whitcher, R; Bannon, A; Bloomer, S; Fear, J; Hale, H; Humphries, J; Hunak, S; Jones, C; Matthewman, C; Matthews, A; Slater, S; Stephens, C; Stewart, J

    2015-12-01

    It is evident that there is a nuclear skills shortage within the UK, and logically it can be assumed that the shortfall extends to the radiation protection arena. Plans for nuclear new-build and the decommissioning of existing nuclear sites will require many more people with radiological knowledge and practical competencies. This converts to a nuclear industry requirement in the order of 1000 new recruits per year over at least the next ten years, mainly as new apprentices and graduates. At the same time, the strong demand for persons with radiation protection know-how in the non-nuclear and health care sectors is unlikely to diminish. The task of filling this skills gap is a significant one and it will require a determined effort from many UK stakeholders. The Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) has adopted a strategy in recent years to help address this skills gap. The aim is to engage the interest of secondary school students in the science of radiation and inspire them to follow a career in radiation protection. This paper presents the reasoning behind this strategy and, in an 'outreach case study', describes the establishment of the annual SRP Schools Event. This event is becoming an important addition to the national efforts aimed at increasing the numbers of skilled UK radiation protection professionals over the forthcoming decades.

  10. CDDO-Me protects normal lung and breast epithelial cells but not cancer cells from radiation.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients.

  11. CDDO-Me Protects Normal Lung and Breast Epithelial Cells but Not Cancer Cells from Radiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Ashmawy, Mariam; Delgado, Oliver; Cardentey, Agnelio; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    Although radiation therapy is commonly used for treatment for many human diseases including cancer, ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species that can damage both cancer and healthy cells. Synthetic triterpenoids, including CDDO-Me, act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant modulators primarily by inducing the transcription factor Nrf2 to activate downstream genes containing antioxidant response elements (AREs). In the present series of experiments, we determined if CDDO-Me can be used as a radioprotector in normal non-cancerous human lung and breast epithelial cells, in comparison to lung and breast cancer cell lines. A panel of normal non-cancerous, partially cancer progressed, and cancer cell lines from both lung and breast tissue was exposed to gamma radiation with and without pre-treatment with CDDO-Me. CDDO-Me was an effective radioprotector when given ∼18 hours before radiation in epithelial cells (average dose modifying factor (DMF) = 1.3), and Nrf2 function was necessary for CDDO-Me to exert these radioprotective effects. CDDO-Me did not protect cancer lines tested from radiation-induced cytotoxicity, nor did it protect experimentally transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) with progressive oncogenic manipulations. CDDO-Me also protected human lymphocytes against radiation-induced DNA damage. A therapeutic window exists in which CDDO-Me protects normal cells from radiation by activating the Nrf2 pathway, but does not protect experimentally transformed or cancer cell lines. This suggests that use of this oral available, non-toxic class of drug can protect non-cancerous healthy cells during radiotherapy, resulting in better outcomes and less toxicity for patients. PMID:25536195

  12. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  13. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  14. 77 FR 37617 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... following section titled ADDRESSES describes methods available for making submissions.) ADDRESSES: Submit...-02 Colorimetry--Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object- Color Evaluation... and test methods. Accordingly, the 2009 edition includes fundamental updates such as more...

  15. Thermal, Radiation and Impact Protective Shields (TRIPS) for Robotic and Human Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, M. P.; Arnold, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    New concepts for protective shields for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEVs) and planetary probes offer improved mission safety and affordability. Hazards include radiation from cosmic rays and solar particle events, hypervelocity impacts from orbital debris/ micrometeorites, and the extreme heating environment experienced during entry into planetary atmospheres. The traditional approach for the design of protection systems for these hazards has been to create single-function shields, i.e. ablative and blanket-based heat shields for thermal protection systems (TPS), polymer or other low-molecular-weight materials for radiation shields, and multilayer, Whipple-type shields for protection from hypervelocity impacts. This paper introduces an approach for the development of a single, multifunctional protective shield, employing nanotechnology- based materials, to serve simultaneously as a TPS, an impact shield and as the first line of defense against radiation. The approach is first to choose low molecular weight ablative TPS materials, (existing and planned for development) and add functionalized carbon nanotubes. Together they provide both thermal and radiation (TR) shielding. Next, impact protection (IP) is furnished through a tough skin, consisting of hard, ceramic outer layers (to fracture the impactor) and sublayers of tough, nanostructured fabrics to contain the debris cloud from the impactor before it can penetrate the spacecraft s interior.

  16. [Health promotion and computer science in radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Pennarola, R; Porzio, G; Cavaliere, L

    2007-01-01

    An automatic system of clinical-diagnostic information has been applied to workers exposed to ionising radiation at the University of Naples Federico II with reference to the last 5 years. For every person exposed a computerized case sheet was elaborated recording clinical, biological, dosimetric and other preventive data. In the localized risk, capillaroscopic monitoring was used. This research has highlighted the role of medical surveillance in developing health promotion criteria and the planning of the interventions with the complete control of all data in real time.

  17. Perspective on the use of LNT for radiation protection and risk assessment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Puskin, Jerome S

    2009-08-21

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bases its risk assessments, regulatory limits, and nonregulatory guidelines for population exposures to low level ionizing radiation on the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, which assumes that the risk of cancer due to a low dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. The use of LNT for radiation protection purposes has been repeatedly endorsed by authoritative scientific advisory bodies, including the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR Committees, whose recommendations form a primary basis of EPA's risk assessment methodology. Although recent radiobiological findings indicate novel damage and repair processes at low doses, LNT is supported by data from both epidemiology and radiobiology. Given the current state of the science, the consensus positions of key scientific and governmental bodies, as well as the conservatism and calculational convenience of the LNT assumption, it is unlikely that EPA will modify this approach in the near future.

  18. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  19. 77 FR 20743 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... on the proposed rule to amend the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access... proposed rule to revise the standards for medical, physical performance, training, and access...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 1046 RIN 1992-AA40 Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical...

  20. 75 FR 68663 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Rear Impact Guards; Rear Impact Protection; Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...; Rear Impact Protection; Technical Report, on the Effectiveness of Underride Guards for Heavy Trailers...: Request for comments on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report, its existing Safety Standard 223, Rear Impact Guards and Safety Standard 224, Rear...