Science.gov

Sample records for radiation safety criteria

  1. [Relation between radiation safety criteria of human and the environment].

    PubMed

    Kazakov, S V; Utkin, S S

    2008-01-01

    System approach is used for developing of procedures of complex radiation safety of human and the environment. Relation between radiation safety criteria of human and the environment is considered by the example of different strategies of water bodies using. It is demonstrated that as to water bodies (though the methodology and conclusions are correct to terrestrial ecosystems too) observance of human radiation safety standards on condition that environment resources are used unrestrictedly (considering radiation factor) is necessary and sufficient to protection of objects of the environment. It allows reaching compromise between anthropocentric and ecological approaches to radiation protection of the environment from general biospheric principles.

  2. Addressing patient safety through the use of 'criteria of acceptability' for medical radiation equipment.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Debbie Bray; Holmberg, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety should be considered in the use of ionising radiation equipment in medicine. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes standards of safety and provides for the application of these standards, also in the area of medical use of radiation. Equipment acceptability, as it relates to radiation in medicine, is the need to satisfy the requirements or standards prior to the use of the device in patient imaging or treatment. Through IAEA activities in establishing and developing Safety Standards, Safety Reports and recommendations to regulatory authorities and end-users, it encourages the adoption of acceptability criteria that are relevant to the medical equipment and its use.

  3. Attitude of the Korean dentists towards radiation safety and selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Do; Ludlow, John B

    2013-09-01

    X-ray exposure should be clinically justified and each exposure should be expected to give patients benefits. Since dental radiographic examination is one of the most frequent radiological procedures, radiation hazard becomes an important public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude of Korean dentists about radiation safety and use of criteria for selecting the frequency and type of radiographic examinations. The study included 267 Korean dentists. Five questions related to radiation safety were asked of each of them. These questions were about factors associated with radiation protection of patients and operators including the use of radiographic selection criteria for intraoral radiographic procedures. The frequency of prescription of routine radiographic examination (an example is a panoramic radiograph for screening process for occult disease) was 34.1%, while that of selective radiography was 64.0%. Dentists' discussion of radiation risk and benefit with patients was infrequent. More than half of the operators held the image receptor by themselves during intraoral radiographic examinations. Lead apron/thyroid collars for patient protection were used by fewer than 22% of dental offices. Rectangular collimation was utilized by fewer than 15% of dental offices. The majority of Korean dentists in the study did not practice radiation protection procedures which would be required to minimize exposure to unnecessary radiation for patients and dental professionals. Mandatory continuing professional education in radiation safety and development of Korean radiographic selection criteria is recommended.

  4. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  5. Radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Radiation safety is rapidly becoming a major concern of every patient. Poor understanding of ionizing radiation and its effects frequently heightens anxiety. The average United States resident receives about 125 mrem of radiation per year from natural background radiation and another 120 mrem from man-made sources. The 240 million x-ray procedures performed annually contribute 90 percent of the man-made portion. It is assumed that the risks of medical radiation are outweighed by the benefits gained from the information obtained. If present in sufficiently high dosage, radiation can have harmful effects, such as induction of leukemia and thyroid malignancy. No deleterious effects have been shown to have been caused by diagnostic radiation. It is reassuring that the risks of medical radiation appear to be quite small compared with other common hazards most people face daily. Careful attention to the use of radiographic safety and protective technique will ensure the lowest possible radiation dose. The physician's discretion in ordering only appropriate and indicated x-ray films will ensure the patients are exposed to the lowest possible amount of radiation.

  6. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  7. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  8. Aerostructural safety factor criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    The present modification of the conventional safety factor method for aircraft structures evaluation involves the expression of deterministic safety factors in probabilistic tolerance limit ratios; these are found to involve a total of three factors that control the interference of applied and resistive stress distributions. The deterministic expression is extended so that it may furnish a 'relative ultimate safety' index that encompasses all three distribution factors. Operational reliability is developed on the basis of the applied and the yield stress distribution interferences. Industry standards are suggested to be derivable from factor selections that are based on the consequences of failure.

  9. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Safety criteria for ferrocyanide watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, A.K.; Meacham, J.E.; Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a technical basis for closing the ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) at the Hanford Site. Three work efforts were performed in developing this technical basis. The efforts described herein are: 1. The formulation of criteria for ranking the relative safety of waste in each ferrocyanide tank. 2. The current classification of tanks into safety categories by comparing available information on tank contents with the safety criteria; 3. The identification of additional information required to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue.

  10. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  11. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  12. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  13. Radiation Safety Committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.

    1986-01-01

    There are three groups of people concerned with the radiation safety and health hazards associated with californium. These three groups are the general public, hospital personnel who are involved in californium treatments, and the patients themselves. There is also a subgroup in groups one and two, and possibly group three, although very unlikely, and that is the unborn child or fetus. This subgroup is applicable when the mother is in the very early stages of pregnancy, at which time the mother does not know that she is pregnant. The author discusses the concerns for the three groups in detail.

  14. [Safety criteria in working with metallic beryllium].

    PubMed

    Petrin, S V; Petrina, L S; Pinaev, V S

    2004-01-01

    The concept of an acceptable risk was used to elaborate criteria required to analyze the safety of operations with metallic beryllium at dangerous industrial enterprises. To follow these criteria ensures the high level of beryllium work safety, follows the present-day tendency for the development of approaches to evaluating the safety of devices using toxically hazard substances. The criteria involve a human death risk due to the single entry of beryllium into the body during accidents, as well as the level of its chronic intake in different groups of subjects on secondary dust formation after an accident. The accident that occurred at the beryllium works, the industrial association "Ulbinsk Metallurgic Plant, in Ust-Kamenogorsk on September 12, 1990, has been analyzed by using the computer program "GAUSS". The results of calculations are in good agreement with those of observations.

  15. Radiation Safety in Pediatric Orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Caird, Michelle S

    2015-01-01

    Patients, surgeons, and staff are exposed to ionizing radiation in pediatric orthopaedic surgery from diagnostic studies and imaging associated with procedures. Estimating radiation dose to pediatric patients is based on complex algorithms and dose to surgeons and staff is based on dosimeter monitoring. Surgeons can decrease radiation exposure to patients with careful and thoughtful ordering of diagnostic studies and by minimizing exposure intraoperatively. Surgeon and staff radiation exposure can be minimized with educational programs, proper shielding and positioning intraoperatively, and prudent use of intraoperative imaging. Overall, better awareness among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons of our role in radiation exposure can lead to improvements in radiation safety.

  16. Safety Criteria for the Private Spaceflight Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Andy; Maropoulos, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) has set specific rules and generic guidelines to cover experimental and operational flights by industry forerunners such as Virgin Galactic and XCOR. One such guideline Advisory Circular(AC) 437.55-1[1] contains exemplar hazard analyses for spacecraft designers and operators to follow under an experimental permit. The FAA’s rules and guidelines have also been ratified in a report to the United States Congress, Analysis of Human Space Flight Safety[2] which cites that the industry is too immature and has ‘insufficient data’ to be proscriptive and that ‘defining a minimum set of criteria for human spaceflight service providers is potentially problematic’ in order not to ‘stifle the emerging industry’. The authors of this paper acknowledge the immaturity of the industry and discuss the problematic issues that Design Organisations and Operators now face.

  17. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  18. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  19. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  20. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  1. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.124 Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. (a) Design for...

  2. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a license..., shielding, or other safety features of the product from wear and abuse likely to occur in normal...

  3. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a license..., shielding, or other safety features of the product from wear and abuse likely to occur in normal...

  4. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a) The vehicle safety inspection...

  5. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a) The vehicle safety inspection...

  6. 32 CFR 636.33 - Vehicle safety inspection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Vehicle safety inspection criteria. 636.33... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.33 Vehicle safety inspection criteria. (a) The vehicle safety inspection...

  7. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  8. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  9. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  10. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  11. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  12. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  13. 10 CFR 32.27 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.27 Section 32.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.27 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  14. 10 CFR 32.23 - Same: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Same: Safety criteria. 32.23 Section 32.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.23 Same: Safety criteria. An applicant for a...

  15. Studies Concerned with Basic Radiation Protection Criteria and Studies Concerned with Guidance and Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    has been completed and is ready to enter the review stage. Task Group 2 Uranium Mining and Milling - Radiation Safety Programs - A draft report is in...8217RD-fl158 319 STUDIES CONCERNED WITH BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION i/i I CRITERIA AND STUDIES CO..(U) N T ONAL COUNCIL ON I RADIATION PROTECTION AND...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1963 A ’--- ( National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 7910 WOODMONT AVENUE, SUITE 1016, BETHESDA

  16. Radiation safety education in vascular surgery training.

    PubMed

    Bordoli, Stefano J; Carsten, Christopher G; Cull, David L; Johnson, Brent L; Taylor, Spence M

    2014-03-01

    Endovascular volume during vascular surgery training has increased profoundly over recent decades, providing heavy exposure to ionizing radiation. The study purpose was to examine the radiation safety training and practices of current vascular surgery trainees. An anonymous survey was distributed to all current U.S. trainees. Responses were compared according to the presence of formal radiation safety training and also the trainees' perception of their attendings' adherence to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) strategies. The response rate was 14%. Forty-five percent had no formal radiation safety training, 74% were unaware of the radiation safety policy for pregnant females, 48% did not know their radiation safety officer's contact information, and 43% were unaware of the yearly acceptable levels of radiation exposure. Trained residents knew more basic radiation safety information, and more likely wore their dosimeter badges (P < .05). Trained residents found their radiation safety officer helpful in developing safety habits; untrained residents relied on other residents (P < .05). Trainees who felt their attendings consistently practiced ALARA strategies more likely practiced ALARA themselves (P < .05). The lack of formal radiation safety training in respondents may reflect an inadequate state of radiation safety education and practices among U.S. vascular surgery residents. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  18. Radiation Safety among Workers in Health Services.

    PubMed

    Jones, Eric; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey health service workers regarding their radiation safety knowledge and practice. Participants were health service workers (n = 721) who received an anonymous online survey by email to test their radiation safety knowledge. A knowledge test of 15 questions was completed by 412 respondents. The overall average percent correct was 77.9%. Health physicists/medical physicists had the highest average percent score (93.5%), while physician assistants scored the lowest (60.0%). Of all the respondents, only 64.0% reported they participated in periodic radiation safety training at their place of employment. The most common topic selected where participants wanted additional training was in biological effects of radiation (41.0%). In conclusion, radiation safety training and education needs to be developed and planned effectively. Areas or specialties with poor radiation safety knowledge need to be addressed with corresponding safety measures.

  19. Radiation safety systems at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, T.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes design principles that were used to establish the radiation safety systems at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The author described existing safety systems and the history of partial system failures. 1 fig. (TEM)

  20. 76 FR 20070 - Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria... received, a safety approval for the ability of its Space Training System: Model 400 (STS-400) to replicate....19 (a)(4). NASTAR's ] STS-400 suborbital space flight simulator (a multi-axis centrifuge) is capable...

  1. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  2. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  3. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. This paper will describe the manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility will be presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  4. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. The manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria are described. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility is presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  5. Radiation safety calculations for residual radiation in dwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, G.

    1981-03-01

    Safety calculations for remaining radiation after reactor accident at different locations in townhouses and apartment buildings are presented. The safety factor for one and two story townhouses was calculated to be 0.4 for wooden houses and 0.2 for stone houses. The safety factors for six story apartment buildings were 0.01-0.12, depending on location.

  6. Risk-based versus deterministic explosives safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) is actively considering ways to apply risk-based approaches in its decision- making processes. As such, an understanding of the impact of converting to risk-based criteria is required. The objectives of this project are to examine the benefits and drawbacks of risk-based criteria and to define the impact of converting from deterministic to risk-based criteria. Conclusions will be couched in terms that allow meaningful comparisons of deterministic and risk-based approaches. To this end, direct comparisons of the consequences and impacts of both deterministic and risk-based criteria at selected military installations are made. Deterministic criteria used in this report are those in DoD 6055.9-STD, `DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standard.` Risk-based criteria selected for comparison are those used by the government of Switzerland, `Technical Requirements for the Storage of Ammunition (TLM 75).` The risk-based criteria used in Switzerland were selected because they have been successfully applied for over twenty-five years.

  7. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835...

  8. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835...

  9. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835...

  10. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835...

  11. 10 CFR 835.901 - Radiation safety training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation safety training. 835.901 Section 835.901 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radiation Safety Training § 835.901 Radiation safety training. (a) Each individual shall complete radiation safety training on the topics established at § 835...

  12. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  13. Industrial irradiator radiation safety program assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Mark A.

    2000-03-01

    Considerable attention is typically given to radiation safety in the design of irradiators and initially establishing the program. However, one component that may not receive enough attention is applying the continuous improvement philosophy to the radiation safety program. Periodic total program assessments of radiation safety can ensure that the design and implementation of the program continues to be applicable to the operations. The first step in the process must be to determine what is to be covered in the program assessment. While regulatory compliance audits are a component, the most useful evaluation will extend beyond looking only at compliance and determine whether the radiation safety program is the most appropriate for the particular operation. Several aspects of the irradiator operation, not all of which may routinely be considered "radiation safety", per se, should be included: Design aspects of the irradiator and operating system, system controls, and maintenance procedures, as well as the more traditional radiation safety program components such as surveys, measurements and training.

  14. Radiation safety in aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Nealy, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Data from a 7-yr flight experiment program to measure the significant biological components (tissue ionization rates, neutron flux, and nuclear reaction star rates) as a function of solar cycle, altitude, latitude and longitude from which biological risk from radiation is estimated are used to evaluate radiation dose and dose equivalents along specific flight trajectories. The data base used and the corresponding time-dependent global model are described. Ionization rates in air measured by argon filled chambers at solar minimum and maximum, and radiation measurements of the Brookhaven National Laboratory instrument compared to the present model are illustrated in tabular form. The global pressure distribution for solstice conditions at 14 km is shown.

  15. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C

    2001-10-17

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  16. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

    2001-10-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  17. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J W; Clowdsley, M S; Nealy, J E; Humes, D H; Clem, J M

    2002-12-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  18. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  19. Lunar lava tube radiation safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Angelis, Giovanni; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    For many years it has been suggested that lava tubes on the Moon could provide an ideal location for a manned lunar base, by providing shelter from various natural hazards, such as cosmic radiation, meteorites, micrometeoroids, and impact crater ejecta, and also providing a natural environmental control, with a nearly constant temperature, unlike that of the lunar surface showing extreme variation in its diurnal cycle. An analysis of radiation safety issues on lunar lava tubes has been performed by considering radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) interacting with the lunar surface, modeled as a regolith layer and rock. The chemical composition has been chosen as typical of the lunar regions where the largest number of lava tube candidates are found. Particles have been transported all through the regolith and the rock, and received particles flux and doses have been calculated. The radiation safety of lunar lava tubes environments has been demonstrated.

  20. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  1. Safety-related operator actions: methodology for developing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kozinsky, E.J.; Gray, L.H.; Beare, A.N.; Barks, D.B.; Gomer, F.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents a methodology for developing criteria for design evaluation of safety-related actions by nuclear power plant reactor operators, and identifies a supporting data base. It is the eleventh and final NUREG/CR Report on the Safety-Related Operator Actions Program, conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The operator performance data were developed from training simulator experiments involving operator responses to simulated scenarios of plant disturbances; from field data on events with similar scenarios; and from task analytic data. A conceptual model to integrate the data was developed and a computer simulation of the model was run, using the SAINT modeling language. Proposed is a quantitative predictive model of operator performance, the Operator Personnel Performance Simulation (OPPS) Model, driven by task requirements, information presentation, and system dynamics. The model output, a probability distribution of predicted time to correctly complete safety-related operator actions, provides data for objective evaluation of quantitative design criteria.

  2. Radiation safety in commercial air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    A recalculation of radiation dose rates in the stratosphere indicates that near 45,000 ft. the level is 1 to 1.6 m-rem/hour depending on solar activity. Consequently, flight crews operating at that height should be considered radiation workers with respect to safety level calculations. Uncertainties are introduced by the difficulty in ascertaining how many hours flight crews actually spend at that altitude and by the unresolved effects of galactic heavy ion collisions on the atmospheric neutron spectrum.

  3. Methods and criteria for safety analysis (FIN L2535)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    In response to the NRC request for a proposal dated October 20, 1992, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) submit this proposal to provide contractural assistance for FIN L2535, ``Methods and Criteria for Safety Analysis,`` as specified in the Statement of Work attached to the request for proposal. The Statement of Work involves development of safety analysis guidance for NRC licensees, arranging a workshop on this guidance, and revising NRC Regulatory Guide 3.52. This response to the request for proposal offers for consideration the following advantages of WSRC in performing this work: Experience, Qualification of Personnel and Resource Commitment, Technical and Organizational Approach, Mobilization Plan, Key Personnel and Resumes. In addition, attached are the following items required by the NRC: Schedule II, Savannah River Site - Job Cost Estimate, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 1, NRC Form 189, Project and Budget Proposal for NRC Work, page 2, Project Description.

  4. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Murashov, V.; Kuempel, E. D.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Castranova, V.; Hoover, M. D.; Hodson, L.; Martinez, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels—if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  5. Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Murashov, V; Kuempel, E D; Zumwalde, R D; Castranova, V; Hoover, M D; Hodson, L; Martinez, K F

    2014-01-01

    Organizations around the world have called for the responsible development of nanotechnology. The goals of this approach are to emphasize the importance of considering and controlling the potential adverse impacts of nanotechnology in order to develop its capabilities and benefits. A primary area of concern is the potential adverse impact on workers, since they are the first people in society who are exposed to the potential hazards of nanotechnology. Occupational safety and health criteria for defining what constitutes responsible development of nanotechnology are needed. This article presents five criterion actions that should be practiced by decision-makers at the business and societal levels-if nanotechnology is to be developed responsibly. These include (1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially hazardous nanomaterials in the workplace; (2) assess workers' exposures to nanomaterials; (3) assess and communicate hazards and risks to workers; (4) manage occupational safety and health risks; and (5) foster the safe development of nanotechnology and realization of its societal and commercial benefits. All these criteria are necessary for responsible development to occur. Since it is early in the commercialization of nanotechnology, there are still many unknowns and concerns about nanomaterials. Therefore, it is prudent to treat them as potentially hazardous until sufficient toxicology, and exposure data are gathered for nanomaterial-specific hazard and risk assessments. In this emergent period, it is necessary to be clear about the extent of uncertainty and the need for prudent actions.

  6. Perceptions of radiation safety training among interventionalists in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rose, André; Rae, William Ian

    Exposure to ionising radiation may have deterministic and stochastic health effects, which include skin changes, chromosomal aberrations, cataracts and carcinomas. Formalised training in radiation safety and protection improves knowledge on the subject and facilitates greater compliance in safety practices. This qualitative study included 54 interventionalists (adult and paediatric cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). The participants were purposively selected and interviewed to explore their perceptions about radiation safety. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was done using a deductive and inductive approach. Findings showed participating cardiologists had less knowledge about radiation safety than participating radiologists. Cardiologists reported little or no formal training on radiation safety and did not display a culture of radiation safety. There was no consensus on how the training gap should be addressed. There is a perceived need to change and enhance the radiation safety culture among interventionists, and the participants proffered some ideas. These included the need for re-curricularisation of cardiologists' training to create awareness of radiation safety practices.

  7. Transportation of Organs by Air: Safety, Quality, and Sustainability Criteria.

    PubMed

    Mantecchini, L; Paganelli, F; Morabito, V; Ricci, A; Peritore, D; Trapani, S; Montemurro, A; Rizzo, A; Del Sordo, E; Gaeta, A; Rizzato, L; Nanni Costa, A

    2016-03-01

    The outcomes of organ transplantation activities are greatly affected by the ability to haul organs and medical teams quickly and safely. Organ allocation and usage criteria have greatly improved over time, whereas the same result has not been achieved so far from the transport point of view. Safety and the highest level of service and efficiency must be reached to grant transplant recipients the healthiest outcome. The Italian National Transplant Centre (CNT), in partnership with the regions and the University of Bologna, has promoted a thorough analysis of all stages of organ transportation logistics chains to produce homogeneous and shared guidelines throughout the national territory, capable of ensuring safety, reliability, and sustainability at the highest levels. The mapping of all 44 transplant centers and the pertaining airport network has been implemented. An analysis of technical requirements among organ shipping agents at both national and international level has been promoted. A national campaign of real-time monitoring of organ transport activities at all stages of the supply chain has been implemented. Parameters investigated have been hospital and region of both origin and destination, number and type of organs involved, transport type (with or without medical team), stations of arrival and departure, and shipping agents, as well as actual times of activities involved. National guidelines have been issued to select organ storage units and shipping agents on the basis of evaluation of efficiency, reliability, and equipment with reference to organ type and ischemia time. Guidelines provide EU-level standards on technical equipment of aircrafts, professional requirements of shipping agencies and cabin crew, and requirements on service provision, including pricing criteria. The introduction in the Italian legislation of guidelines issuing minimum requirements on topics such as the medical team, packaging, labeling, safety and integrity, identification

  8. Reflected laser radiation - relevance for laser safety?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaeh, M. F.; Braunreuther, S.; Daub, R.; Stadler, T.

    Safety is compulsory in today's production lines. Those lines often use laser material processing applications. The highest risk for the operator or a bystander of a laser application is the exposure to the direct beam. With the present laser beam intensities, an accident at least causes sudden blindness or severe burns. Even if the process works correctly, which means the beam is always oriented towards the workpiece, the scattered and reflected parts of the laser beam still can be powerful enough to cause serious harm. The state-of-the-art safety measures are passive laser safety cabins around the application. Because of the high intensities and the low beam divergence of the highly brilliant laser beam sources, they cannot guarantee a safe use of these laser applications. An option is to use active laser safety barriers that react to an impinging laser beam on its surface. A new approach to guarantee laser safety is to monitor the system and watch for incidents, to ensure that the laser spot never reaches the safety barrier. Assuming that accidents with the direct laser beam cannot occur, the passive safety measures still have to withstand the reflected laser radiation. In this paper a theoretical model is presented with which the energy distribution in a hemisphere above a deep-welding-process can be calculated. The model was calibrated and validated with intensity measurements during a welding process. The results of the measurement can be used to develop a process-tailored safety cabin. Because of the increased mobility such a system increases the flexibility of the production cell. Furthermore, the costs for laser-safety may be decreased significantly.

  9. Radiation detectors for occupational safety measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaase, Heinrich; Chen, Mai; Grothmann, Knut

    1995-09-01

    The effective radiant exposures for artificial and natural UV-sources are determined by temporal integration over an 8 h working day. Therefore the spectrally weighted integration of the spectral irradiance from the radiation source in the plane of the exposure is to measure. Such measaurements are made with two different detector systems: measurements of UV radiation according to the integral method should be possible according to a quasi partial filtering method using different individually filtered photodiodes. A spectroradiometer for UV radiation analysis was tested due to its application in field measurements for meteorology, medicin, and occupational safety. The optical part of this compact instrument consists of a cosentrance optic, a monochromator and detector system. A comparison with commercial instruments is described.

  10. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color... SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.42 Criteria for evaluating the safety of color... listed color additive will be safe for its intended use or uses in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics. The...

  11. Evaluation of selection criteria for graduate students in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn

    2006-12-01

    Selection of suitable students into graduate medical and specialist health professional courses can be difficult. Historically, selection of students was primarily based on prior academic performance. Recently, however, more emphasis has been placed on considering broader academic backgrounds and personal characteristics and attitudes of students, but no reliable measurement tool is available to predict student success and satisfaction with their choice of profession. The aim of this study was to survey practising radiation therapists in Australia to seek their opinions regarding suitable selection criteria for graduate entry radiation therapy (RT) students in order to optimize selection procedures for future applicants. Four hundred questionnaires were sent to nine RT centres in three states within Australia. All nine clinics participated in the survey and 189 questionnaires were returned. Results show that the majority of radiation therapists place a high level of importance upon a sound knowledge of physics and mathematics, as well as life experience, and agree that a visit to an RT clinic plus an interview comprise important components of the selection process. Humanities, psychology and a psychometric test were not viewed as essential entry requirements. Experienced radiation therapists placed less value on academic performance in the primary degree and were more likely to include an interview as a selection criterion than junior practitioners. Empathy for patients was identified as the most important personal attribute. It is thus recommended that not only cognitive but also personal skills be evaluated during the selection of prospective radiation therapists.

  12. The dragon's tail: Radiation safety in the Manhattan Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book's contents are: Introduction: radiation safety in World War II. Foundations of Manhattan Project radiation safety. Role of the Chicago Health Division. Radiation safety at Los Alamos, Trinity. From Japan to Bikini. Crossroads. Epilogue: continuity and change in radiation safety. Appendix: chronological index of radiation exposure standards. Index. The United States Department of Energy and the Energy Research and Development Administration financially supported this book which provides a historical account of radiological safety in nuclear weapons testing during World War II. The author relied on archival sources and the oral testimony of participants and eyewitnesses. He provides a bibliography with full citations.

  13. [Radiation safety of exploitation of radiation sources at the civil aviation airlines].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, R V; Zuev, V G; Berezin, G I; Sereda, V N; Zasiad'ko, A K

    2004-01-01

    Radiation risks from isotope-containing equipment, and ionizing and unused X-ray radiation sources are characterized and relevant normative documents with safety requirements to radiation sources installation, radiation safety of aircraft servicing and repair, hand luggage control and heavy luggage registration, personal protection items, system of radiation monitoring at airlines and aircraft works, and liability for breach of performance guidelines are cited.

  14. Toward improved ionizing radiation safety standards.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Otto G

    2011-07-01

    Ionizing radiation safety standards developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) during the past 50-plus years have provided guidance for effective protection of workers and the public from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, including cancer. Earlier standards were based primarily on radiation dose rate to organs of the body. More recent recommendations have calculated cancer risk as a function of cumulative dose using a linear no-threshold cancer risk model based on the acute high dose rate exposures received by the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The underlying assumption in these current recommendations is that risk of radiation-induced cancer is proportional to cumulative dose without threshold. In conflict with this position are the studies of protracted exposures from internally-deposited radionuclides in people and laboratory animals that have demonstrated that cancer induction risk is a function of average dose rate for protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. At lower average dose rates, cancer latency can exceed natural lifespan leading to a virtual threshold. This forum statement proposes that the conflict of these two cancer risk models is explained by the fact that the increased risk of cancer observed in the atomic bomb survivor studies was primarily the result of acute high dose rate promotion of ongoing biological processes that lead to cancer rather than cancer induction. In addition, ionizing radiation-induced cancer is not the result of a simple stochastic event in a single living cell but rather a complex deterministic systemic effect in living tissues. It is recommended that the ICRP consider revising its position in light of this important distinction between cancer promotion and cancer induction.

  15. Developing glovebox robotics to meet the national robot safety standard and nuclear safety criteria

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Development of a glove box based robotic system by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is reported. Safety issues addressed include planning to meet the special constraints of operations within a hazardous material glove box and with hostile environments, compliance with the current and draft national robotic system safety standards, and eventual satisfaction of nuclear material handling requirements. Special attention has been required for the revision to the robot and control system models which antedate adoption of the present national safety standard. A robotic test bed, using non-radioactive surrogates is being activated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop the material handling system and the process interfaces for future special nuclear material processing applications. Part of this effort is to define, test, and revise adequate safety controls to ensure success when the system is eventually deployed at a DOE site. The current system is primarily for demonstration and testing, but will evolve into the baseline configuration from which the production system is to be derived. This results in special hazards associated with research activities which may not be present on a production line. Nuclear safety is of paramount importance and has been successfully addressed for 50 years in the DOE weapons production complex. It carries its particular requirements for robot systems and manual operations, as summarized below: Criticality must be avoided (materials cannot consolidate or accumulate to approach a critical mass). Radioactive materials must be confined. The public and workers must be protected from accountable radiation exposure. Nuclear material must be readily retrievable. Nuclear safety must be conclusively demonstrated through hazards analysis. 7 refs.

  16. [Problems of radiation safety of a Martian expedition crew].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M; Bengin, V V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the radiation conditions during a piloted expedition to Mars made it evident that the radiation safety system will be one of the most critical components of life support aboard the future Martian vehicle. The concept and main functions of the system have been considered. The authors give their vision of the radiation monitoring system based on the present-day radiation safety postulates, comparison and contrasting methods and equipment applied for the purpose in current orbital and projected interplanetary flights.

  17. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  18. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    , from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

  19. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  20. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  1. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria A Appendix A to Part 385 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Pt. 385, App. A Appendix A to Part 385—Explanation of Safety...

  3. 76 FR 30232 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... evaluate the Zero Gravity Corporation (Zero Gravity) safety approval application. SUMMARY: The FAA issued Zero Gravity a safety approval, subject to the provisions of Title 51 U.S.C Subtitle V, ch. 509, and... the criteria that were used to evaluate the safety approval application. Background: Zero...

  4. Human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria for the safety parameter display

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.; Peterson, L.R.

    1981-10-02

    This report contains human factors engineering design review acceptance criteria developed by the Human Factors Engineering Branch (HFEB) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to use in evaluating designs of the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS). These criteria were developed in response to the functional design criteria for the SPDS defined in NUREG-0696, Functional Criteria for Emergency Response Facilities. The purpose of this report is to identify design review acceptance criteria for the SPDS installed in the control room of a nuclear power plant. Use of computer driven cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is anticipated. General acceptance criteria for displays of plant safety status information by the SPDS are developed. In addition, specific SPDS review criteria corresponding to the SPDS functional criteria specified in NUREG-0696 are established.

  5. Provisional standards of radiation safety during flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects during space flights are discussed in the context of the sources and dangers of such radiation and the radiobiological prerequisites for establishing safe levels of radiation dosage. Standard safe levels of radiation during space flight are established.

  6. Structural deterministic safety factors selection criteria and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1992-01-01

    Though current deterministic safety factors are arbitrarily and unaccountably specified, its ratio is rooted in resistive and applied stress probability distributions. This study approached the deterministic method from a probabilistic concept leading to a more systematic and coherent philosophy and criterion for designing more uniform and reliable high-performance structures. The deterministic method was noted to consist of three safety factors: a standard deviation multiplier of the applied stress distribution; a K-factor for the A- or B-basis material ultimate stress; and the conventional safety factor to ensure that the applied stress does not operate in the inelastic zone of metallic materials. The conventional safety factor is specifically defined as the ratio of ultimate-to-yield stresses. A deterministic safety index of the combined safety factors was derived from which the corresponding reliability proved the deterministic method is not reliability sensitive. The bases for selecting safety factors are presented and verification requirements are discussed. The suggested deterministic approach is applicable to all NASA, DOD, and commercial high-performance structures under static stresses.

  7. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  8. Forms for Documenting Radiation Safety Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    06/18, 18/02,06,07 18. Subject Termsf ’ IONIZING RADIATION, NUCLEAR RADIATION, RADIATION DOSAGE , RADIATION CONTAMINATIONRADMION WASTE, RADIATION MEA...MonthlyArea Swvipes_________________ I / Boo- 3/1(0 14) Upt ake Probe Monthly Chi Square_________________ 18 Bti -<k 38 (1) 14) Chi Square Weekly Aut.o Well

  9. Training course for radiation safety technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasuk, S. R.; Moe, H. J.

    1967-01-01

    Course of instruction includes sections on basic information, natural radioactivity, properties of alpha, beta, gamma, X rays, and neutrons, concepts of radiation units and dose determinations, shielding, biological effects, background radiation, radiation protection standards, and internal dose calculation.

  10. Developing Criteria and Judgment of Safety for Crossing Streets with Gaps in Traffic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1999-01-01

    Discusses using the Timing Method for Assessing the Detection of Vehicles (TMAD) to help individuals with visual impairments develop the ability to judge their safety for crossing streets with no traffic control. Functional criteria for assessing risks are discussed. (CR)

  11. Developing Criteria and Judgment of Safety for Crossing Streets with Gaps in Traffic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1999-01-01

    Discusses using the Timing Method for Assessing the Detection of Vehicles (TMAD) to help individuals with visual impairments develop the ability to judge their safety for crossing streets with no traffic control. Functional criteria for assessing risks are discussed. (CR)

  12. Comparison of approaches to weighting of multiple criteria for selecting equipment to optimise performance and safety.

    PubMed

    Agarski, Boris; Hadzistevic, Miodrag; Budak, Igor; Moraca, Slobodan; Vukelic, Djordje

    2017-06-12

    Nowadays every piece of working equipment and tool has to comply with safety standards and laws. This study investigated multi-criteria methods for selecting working equipment in order to optimise performance and occupational safety. The multi-criteria decision-making (MDCM) method was applied to the problem of selecting optimal working equipment using four different criterion weighting approaches (direct weighting, revised Simos procedure, Fuller's triangle and analytic hierarchy process). Groups of economic, technical, and safety criteria were defined and five weighting scenarios were developed. Although the four weighting methods produced similar results, in some situations they produced different criterion weighting factors. The final output of the MCDM method was the identification of the optimal forklift in the five weighting scenarios. Although we have applied the MCDM method to a forklift selection problem it can be applied to all sorts of working equipment in contexts where economic, technical and safety selection criteria can be identified.

  13. Radiation safety considerations in proton aperture disposal.

    PubMed

    Walker, Priscilla K; Edwards, Andrew C; Das, Indra J; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2014-04-01

    Beam shaping in scattered and uniform scanned proton beam therapy (PBT) is made commonly by brass apertures. Due to proton interactions, these devices become radioactive and could pose safety issues and radiation hazards. Nearly 2,000 patient-specific devices per year are used at Indiana University Cyclotron Operations (IUCO) and IU Health Proton Therapy Center (IUHPTC); these devices require proper guidelines for disposal. IUCO practice has been to store these apertures for at least 4 mo to allow for safe transfer to recycling contractors. The devices require decay in two staged secure locations, including at least 4 mo in a separate building, at which point half are ready for disposal. At 6 mo, 20-30% of apertures require further storage. This process requires significant space and manpower and should be considered in the design process for new clinical facilities. More widespread adoption of pencil beam or spot scanning nozzles may obviate this issue, as apertures then will no longer be necessary.

  14. Radiation safety attached to radioactive sources management - additional aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kositsyn, V.F.

    1993-12-31

    Radiation sources are used in many scientific areas. Safety management requirements are determined for them with guarantee of the international and national dose limits unexceeding. As a rule, such dose limits are being developed concerning the type, energy, and flux of main radiation. Lack of knowledge of these attendant radiations can put personnel in danger. The study of the attendant neutron and gamma-radiations for plutonium 128 alpha sources was made.

  15. Updating of Safety Criteria for Basic Diagnostic Indicators of Dam at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L. A.; Skvortsova, A. E.

    2013-09-15

    Values of diagnostic indicators [K]-limitations placed on radial displacements and turn angles of horizontal sections of the dam - which are permitted for each upper-pool level within the range from 520 to 539 m are determined and proposed for inclusion in the Declaration of Safety. Empirical relationships used to develop safety criteria K1 and K2 are modified.

  16. 15 CFR 970.801 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... property at sea. 970.801 Section 970.801 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 970.801 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  17. 15 CFR 971.701 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property at sea. 971.701 Section 971.701 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 971.701 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  18. 15 CFR 971.701 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property at sea. 971.701 Section 971.701 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 971.701 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  19. 15 CFR 970.801 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... property at sea. 970.801 Section 970.801 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 970.801 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  20. 15 CFR 970.801 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... property at sea. 970.801 Section 970.801 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 970.801 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  1. 15 CFR 971.701 - Criteria for safety of life and property at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... property at sea. 971.701 Section 971.701 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Safety of Life and Property at Sea § 971.701 Criteria for safety of life and property at sea. Response...

  2. Evaluation of proposed German safety criteria for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A.W.

    1980-05-01

    This work reviews proposed safety criteria prepared by the German Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) for future licensing of gas-cooled high-temperature reactor (HTR) concepts in the Federal Republic of Germany. Comparison is made with US General Design Criteria (GDCs) in 10CFR50 Appendix A and with German light water reactor (LWR) criteria. Implications for the HTR design relative to the US design and safety approach are indicated. Both inherent characteristics and design features of the steam cycle, gas turbine, and process heat concepts are taken into account as well as generic design options such as a pebble bed or prismatic core.

  3. [Radiation protection agents to provide the radiation safety of astronauts].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Ivanov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Taking into consideration the complexity of radiation factors and stressogenic factors of non-radiation nature in cosmic flights and prognostic difficulties of radiation situation, the authors propose to distinguish several stages of pharmacological protection for cosmonauts. The preparatory stage is realized on the Earth. The next stage is monitoring and correction of radioresistance during a flight. A possible stage consists of treatment of the radiation damage using a traditional protocol. The permanent stage includes pharmacological prevention of the distant consequences of irradiation.

  4. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  5. Evaluation of criteria for developing traffic safety materials for Latinos.

    PubMed

    Streit-Kaplan, Erica L; Miara, Christine; Formica, Scott W; Gallagher, Susan Scavo

    2011-03-01

    This quantitative study assessed the validity of guidelines that identified four key characteristics of culturally appropriate Spanish-language traffic safety materials: language, translation, formative evaluation, and credible source material. From a sample of 190, the authors randomly selected 12 Spanish-language educational materials for analysis by 15 experts. Hypotheses included that the experts would rate materials with more of the key characteristics as more effective (likely to affect behavioral change) and rate materials originally developed in Spanish and those that utilized formative evaluation (e.g., pilot tests, focus groups) as more culturally appropriate. Although results revealed a weak association between the number of key characteristics in a material and the rating of its effectiveness, reviewers rated materials originally created in Spanish and those utilizing formative evaluation as significantly more culturally appropriate. The findings and methodology demonstrated important implications for developers and evaluators of any health-related materials for Spanish speakers and other population groups.

  6. Radiation Safety During Interventions of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phillip; Phan, Hung; R Shah, Sara; Latif, Faisal; Nguyen, Thach

    2015-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO), prolonged procedures increase the risk of excessive radiation exposure. These situations harbor a major concern to protect patients and personnel in the cardiac interventional laboratory (CCL). Important questions regarding radiation safety for interventional cardiologists performing PCI for CTO lesions are discussed and concrete applications are suggested.

  7. Uncertainties in the effects of burnup and their impact on criticality safety licensing criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.W.; Fisher, L.E.

    1990-07-13

    Current criteria for criticality safety for spent fuel shipping and storage casks are conservative because no credit is permitted for the effects of burnup of the fuel inside the cask. Cask designs that will transport and store large numbers of fuel assemblies (20 or more) must devote a substantial part of their payload to criticality control measures if they are to meet this criteria. The Department of Energy is developing the data necessary to support safety analyses that incorporate the effects of burnup for the next generation of spent fuel shipping casks. The efforts described here are devoted to the development of acceptance criteria that will be the basis for accepting safety analyses. Preliminary estimates of the uncertainties of the effects of burnup have been developed to provide a basis for the consideration of critically safety criteria. The criticality safety margins in a spent fuel shipping or storage cask are dominated by the portions of a fuel assembly that are in low power regions of a reactor core, and the reactor operating conditions are very different from spent fuel storage or transport cask conditions. Consequently, the experience that has been gathered during years of reactor operation does not apply directly to the prediction of criticality safety margins for spent fuel shipping or storage casks. The preliminary estimates of the uncertainties presented in this paper must be refined by both analytical and empirical studies that address both the magnitude of the uncertainties and their interdependence. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Safety criteria for flying E-sail through solar eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Toivanen, Petri

    2015-09-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) propellantless propulsion device uses long, charged metallic tethers to tap momentum from the solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. If flying through planetary or moon eclipse, the long E-sail tethers can undergo significant thermal contraction and expansion. Rapid shortening of the tether increases its tension due to inertia of the tether and a Remote Unit that is located on the tether tip (a Remote Unit is part of typical E-sail designs). We analyse by numerical simulation the conditions under which eclipse induced stresses are safe for E-sail tethers. We calculate the closest safe approach distances for Earth, Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Ceres and an exemplary 300 km main belt asteroid Interamnia for circular, parabolic and hyperbolic orbits. We find that any kind of eclipsing is safe beyond approximately 2.5 au distance, but for terrestrial planets safety depends on the parameters of the orbit. For example, for Mars the safe distance with 20 km E-sail tether lies between Phobos and Deimos orbits.

  9. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  10. 78 FR 64030 - Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Monitoring Criteria and Methods To Calculate Occupational Radiation Doses AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S....

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  12. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986.

  13. MO-AB-201-00: Radiation Safety Officer Update

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The role of the Radiation Safety Officer at a medical facility can be complicated. The complexity of the position is based on the breadth of services provided at the institution and the nature of the radioactive materials license. Medical practices are constantly changing and the use of ionizing radiation continues to rise in this area. Some of the newer medical applications involving radiation have unique regulatory and safety issues that must be addressed. Oversight of the uses of radiation start at the local level (radiation safety officer, radiation safety committee) and are heavily impacted by outside agencies (i.e. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, State Radiologic Health, The Joint Commission (TJC), etc). This session will provide both an overview of regulatory oversight and essential compliance practices as well as practical ways to assess and introduce some of the new applications utilizing radioactive materials into your medical facility. Learning Objectives: Regulatory Compliance and Safety with New Radiotherapies: Spheres and Ra-223 (Lance Phillips) Understand the radioactive materials license amendment process to add new radiotherapies (i.e., SIR-Spheres, Therasphere, Xofigo). Understand the AU approval process for microspheres and Xofigo. Examine the training and handling requirements for new procedures. Understand the process involved with protocol development, SOP in order to define roles and responsibilities. The RSO and The RSC: Challenges and Opportunities (Colin Dimock) Understand how to form an effective Committee. Examine what the Committee does for the Program and the RSO. Understand the importance of Committee engagement. Discuss the balance of the complimentary roles of the RSO and the Committee. The Alphabet Soup of Regulatory Compliance: Being Prepared for Inspections (Linda Kroger) Recognize the various regulatory bodies and organizations with oversight or impact in Nuclear Medicine, Radiology and Radiation Oncology. Examine 10CFR35

  14. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... listed color additive will be safe for its intended use or uses in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics....

  15. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... listed color additive will be safe for its intended use or uses in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics....

  16. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... listed color additive will be safe for its intended use or uses in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics....

  17. 21 CFR 70.42 - Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for evaluating the safety of color additives. 70.42 Section 70.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... listed color additive will be safe for its intended use or uses in or on food, drugs, or cosmetics....

  18. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items §...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disabilities Act of 1990 requirements, but failure to comply with these requirements does not affect the... Evaluation Criteria I. General (a) Section 210 of the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act (49 U.S.C. 31144....C. 31144; 2. Meet the requirements of Section 350 of the DOT Appropriations Act; and 3. In the event...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requirements, but failure to comply with these requirements does not... Evaluation Criteria I. General (a) Section 210 of the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act (49 U.S.C. 31144... Appropriations Act; and 3. In the event that a carrier is found not to be in compliance with applicable FMCSRs...

  1. 10 CFR 32.31 - Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certain industrial devices containing byproduct material: Safety criteria. 32.31 Section 32.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.31...

  2. 76 FR 43825 - Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 417 RIN 2120-AJ84 Launch Safety: Lightning Criteria for Expendable Launch Vehicles AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule... flight of an expendable launch vehicle through or near an electrified environment in or near a...

  3. Criteria for Personal Dosimetry in Mixed Radiation Fields in Space,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-16

    of neutrons has not been reported on any manned mussion. Only limited data on thermal neutrons recorded with activation f9 ils and on a small section...the center. The bottom graph shows the distribution for neutron recoil protons from thermal fission of U-235 as reported by Kronenberg and Murphy (3...an equilibrium spectrum is established. For neutrons of galactic radiation, the equilibrium spectrum is a wide continuum extending from thermal to

  4. Criteria for Nearly Omnidirectional Radiation Patterns for Printed Antennas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    which pertain to this configuration cm be generalized to the case of a dipole in a substrate- superstrate configura- II’ tion of different materials, shown...dipole from being at the substrate- superstrate Interface (z° = B) in achieving radiation into the horizon in either the E-plane or the H-plane, since...interface of a sub- strate- superstrate geometry involving different materials. Plots are shown -13- .... to indicate the degree of omnidirectionality

  5. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.S. )

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended tolerance doses in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them. 35 references.

  6. The controversy over radiation safety. A historical overview.

    PubMed

    Walker, J S

    1989-08-04

    The hazards of ionizing radiation have aroused concern since a short time after the discovery of x-rays and natural radioactivity in the 1890s. Misuse of x-rays and radium prompted efforts to encourage radiation safety and to set limits on exposure, culminating in the first recommended "tolerance doses" in 1934. After World War II, the problems of radiation protection became more complex because of the growing number of people subjected to radiation injury and the creation of radioactive elements that had never existed before the achievement of atomic fission. Judging the hazards of radiation became a matter of spirited controversy. Major public debates over the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric bomb testing in the 1950s and early 1960s and the risks of nuclear power generation in later periods focused attention on the uncertainties about the consequences of exposure to low-level radiation and the difficulties of resolving them.

  7. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  8. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  9. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.L.

    1997-05-06

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable.

  10. Safety review of the design, operation, and radiation sections of the General Electric Morris Operation Consolidated Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.P.

    1981-01-30

    A safety review was made of Sections 4 through 9 of the Consolidated Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the GE Morris Operation spent-fuel storage facility. The sections reviewed include Design Criteria and Compliance, Facility Design and Description, Radiation Protection, Accident Analysis, and Conduct of Operations. The safety review was performed in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 72, ''Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation'' and contains independent estimations of source terms and dose-commitments from postulated accidents in the storage facility and a structural analysis of the Morris Operation cranes as an appendix. The review confirms that the features of the facility as described in Sections 4 through 9 of the CSAR fulfilled the safety requirements of 10 CFR 72, and it is concluded that spent-fuel handling and storage at the Morris Operation do not present significant risks to public health and safety. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  12. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  13. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  14. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  15. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  16. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product Radiation...

  17. A Radiation Safety Analysis for Lunar Lava Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAngelis, G.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Clem, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is an assessment of the lunar lava tubes physical characteristics and an evaluation of the their actual safety features from the point of view of the ionizing radiation environment as potential habitats for future lunar exploration crews. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Radiation safety of sealed radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Kathryn H

    2015-02-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between U.S. regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed and that fail can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threaten to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material, and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way for which it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high dose-rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that have resulted in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to

  19. Corporate Functional Management Evaluation of the LLNL Radiation Safety Organization

    SciTech Connect

    Sygitowicz, L S

    2008-03-20

    A Corporate Assess, Improve, and Modernize review was conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to evaluate the LLNL Radiation Safety Program and recommend actions to address the conditions identified in the Internal Assessment conducted July 23-25, 2007. This review confirms the findings of the Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program (RSP) including the noted deficiencies and vulnerabilities to be valid. The actions recommended are a result of interviews with about 35 individuals representing senior management through the technician level. The deficiencies identified in the LLNL Internal Assessment of the Institutional Radiation Safety Program were discussed with Radiation Safety personnel team leads, customers of Radiation Safety Program, DOE Livermore site office, and senior ES&H management. There are significant issues with the RSP. LLNL RSP is not an integrated, cohesive, consistently implemented program with a single authority that has the clear roll and responsibility and authority to assure radiological operations at LLNL are conducted in a safe and compliant manner. There is no institutional commitment to address the deficiencies that are identified in the internal assessment. Some of these deficiencies have been previously identified and corrective actions have not been taken or are ineffective in addressing the issues. Serious funding and staffing issues have prevented addressing previously identified issues in the Radiation Calibration Laboratory, Internal Dosimetry, Bioassay Laboratory, and the Whole Body Counter. There is a lack of technical basis documentation for the Radiation Calibration Laboratory and an inadequate QA plan that does not specify standards of work. The Radiation Safety Program lack rigor and consistency across all supported programs. The implementation of DOE Standard 1098-99 Radiological Control can be used as a tool to establish this consistency across LLNL. The establishment of a site

  20. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksenov, A. F.; Burnazyan, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  1. Radiation safety of crew and passengers of air transportation in civil aviation. Provisional standards

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenov, A.F.; Burnazyan, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose and application of the provisional standards for radiation safety of crew and passengers in civil aviation are given. The radiation effect of cosmic radiation in flight on civil aviation air transport is described. Standard levels of radiation and conditions of radiation safety are discussed.

  2. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Padula

    2000-09-13

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations.

  3. Radiation safety role in institutional disaster planning.

    PubMed

    Classic, K L; Knutson, A H; Smith, G D

    2000-05-01

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) materials license applicants (non-nuclear power) must submit spill procedures with their application. While our counterparts in the nuclear power industry historically have concerned themselves with disaster drills and evacuation plans as a result of fire, explosion, or an act of terrorism, other licensees are looking only at minor spills of unsealed radioactive material and only at tile radiation hazard. Beyond NRC regulations, various oversight and accrediting organizations require, or at a minimum encourage, a written disaster plan outlining actions to be taken for events likely to occur in the region of the institution. Some of these organizations require drills to practice implementation of the written plan. On 5 May 1999, Mayo Clinic performed a wide-scale disaster drill involving Rochester City and Olmsted County response organizations, and several Mayo Clinic departments. Planning took several months; the drill took approximately three hours. Participants gathered at several meetings post-drill for "debriefing" sessions to discuss successes, areas for improvement, and lessons learned. There were three overriding lessons learned: critical responders need special identification to allow access to the disaster site; initial victim surveys are for gross contamination only; and access to the potentially contaminated disaster site might take weeks or months following a real event.

  4. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Radiation Safety of Sealed Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Kathryn H.

    2015-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in a wide variety of occupational settings and under differing regulatory/licensing structures. The definition of a sealed radioactive source varies between US regulatory authorities and standard-setting organizations. Potential problems with sealed sources cover a range of risks and impacts. The loss of control of high activity sealed sources can result in very high or even fatal doses to members of the public who come in contact with them. Sources that are not adequately sealed, and that fail, can cause spread of contamination and potential intake of radioactive material. There is also the possibility that sealed sources may be (or threatened to be) used for terrorist purposes and disruptive opportunities. Until fairly recently, generally-licensed sealed sources and devices received little, if any, regulatory oversight, and were often forgotten, lost or unaccounted for. Nonetheless, generally licensed devices can contain fairly significant quantities of radioactive material and there is some potential for exposure if a device is treated in a way that it was never designed. Industrial radiographers use and handle high activity and/or high-dose rate sealed sources in the field with a high degree of independence and minimal regulatory oversight. Failure to follow operational procedures and properly handle radiography sources can and has resulted in serious injuries and death. Industrial radiographers have experienced a disproportionately large fraction of incidents that result in unintended exposure to radiation. Sources do not have to contain significant quantities of radioactive material to cause problems in the event of their failure. A loss of integrity can cause the spread of contamination and potential exposure to workers and members of the public. The NCRP has previously provided recommendations on select aspects of sealed source programs. Future efforts to provide recommendations for sealed source programs are discussed.

  6. Radiation Safety Design for SSRL Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Fasso, Alberto; Prinz, Alyssa; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    In 2003, the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) has upgraded its storage ring to a 3rd generation storage ring (SPEAR3). SPEAR3 is deigned to operate at 500 mA stored beam current and 3 GeV energy. The 234-meter circumference SPEAR3 ring utilizes 60-cm-thick concrete lateral walls, 30-cm-thick concrete roof, as well as 60-cm or 90-cm-thick concrete ratchet walls. A total of 3.5 x 10{sup 15} e{sup -}/y will be injected into the ring with an injection power of 4 W and an injection efficiency of 75%. Normal beam losses occur due to both injection and stored beam operations in the total of 20 low loss as well as 3 high loss limiting apertures. During the 6-minutes injection period, an instantaneous power loss of 0.05 W occurs at each low loss aperture. When averaged over the operational year, the loss of both the injection and stored beams is equivalent to an average loss of 2 mW at each low loss aperture. On the other hand, the average losses in the high loss apertures are 16 mW for the injection septum, 47 mW for the beam abort dump, and 13 mW for the ring stoppers. The shielding requirements for losses in the new ring were based on a generic approach that used both FLUKA Monte Carlo particle generation and transport code and empirical computer codes and formulae.

  7. A new standard for core training in radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new American National Standard for radiation worker training was recently developed. The standard emphasizes performance-based training and establishing a training program rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. This paper presents an overview of the new standard and the philosophy behind it. The target audience includes radiation workers, management and supervisory personnel, contractors, students, emergency personnel, and visitors.

  8. Image Gently, Step Lightly: promoting radiation safety in pediatric interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Manrita; Goske, Marilyn J; Connolly, Bairbre; Racadio, John; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Strauss, Keith J; Coley, Brian D; Utley, Tara

    2010-10-01

    The Image Gently, Step Lightly campaign is an education and awareness campaign focusing on radiation safety in pediatric interventional radiology. To promote radiation safety by standardizing workflow and encouraging team responsibility, the campaign Website includes a procedural checklist that the medical team may use to review radiation safety steps before each pediatric interventional procedure. Use of this checklist can be an effective tool in the ongoing effort to maximize radiation safety during interventional procedures.

  9. Problems and conception of ensuring radiation safety during Mars missions.

    PubMed

    Petrov, V M

    2004-01-01

    The Mars mission differs from near-Earth manned space flights by radiation environment and duration. The importance of effective using the weight of the spacecraft increases greatly because all the necessary things for the mission must be included in its starting weight. For this reason the development of optimal systems of radiation safety ensuring (RSES) acquires especial importance. It is the result of sharp change of radiation environment in the interplanetary space as compared to the one in the near-Earth orbits and significant increase of the interplanetary flight duration. The demand of a harder limitation of unfavorable factors effects should lead to radiation safety (RS) standards hardening. The main principles of ensuring the RS of the Mars mission (optimizing, radiation risk, ALARA) and the conception of RSES, developed on the basis of the described approach and the experience obtained during orbital flights are presented in the report. The problems that can impede the ensuring of the crew members' RS are also given here.

  10. Problems and conception of ensuring radiation safety during Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars mission differs from near-Earth manned space flights by radiation environment and duration. The importance of effective using the weight of the spacecraft increases greatly because all the necessary things for the mission must be included in its starting weight. For this reason the development of optimal systems of radiation safety ensuring (RSES) acquires especial importance. It is the result of sharp change of radiation environment in the interplanetary space as compared to the one in the near-Earth orbits and significant increase of the interplanetary flight duration. The demand of a harder limitation of unfavorable factors effects should lead to radiation safety (RS) standards hardening. The main principles of ensuring the RS of the Mars mission (optimizing, radiation risk, ALARA) and the conception of RSES, developed on the basis of the described approach and the experience obtained during orbital flights are presented in the report. The problems that can impede the ensuring of the crew members' RS are also given here.

  11. Survey on radiation safety management (RSM) among Korean radiation workers who operate radiation generators or handle radioactive isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong; Choi, Eun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of radiation workers to radiation safety management (RSM) using survey questionnaires. Radiation workers are those who handle radiation generators, radioactive isotopes, and other radioactive materials for industrial uses. The survey was distributed to 861 radiation workers between 1 August to 5 September 2011. A knowledge of, awareness of, attitude toward, and behaviors related to RSM were analyzed by comparing the means and standard deviations. Both the knowledge and awareness of RSM among radiation workers were high. Although all questions about the awareness of RSM were answered correctly, there were also many negative responses. All questions regarding the attitude of radiation workers toward RSM were answered correctly, and their attitude toward and awareness of RSM were high. Overall, the results demonstrated that safety management is not taken seriously in many cases, highlighting the need for proper education in the future to raise awareness among radiation workers. Furthermore, it is important to establish a foundation for the efficient use of radiation based on the continuous management of radiation workers.

  12. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.57 Training for experienced Radiation Safety... pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. (a)(1) An individual identified as a Radiation Safety Officer...

  13. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  14. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.57 Training for experienced Radiation Safety... pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. (a)(1) An individual identified as a Radiation Safety Officer...

  15. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  16. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.57 Training for experienced Radiation Safety... pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. (a)(1) An individual identified as a Radiation Safety Officer...

  17. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.57 Training for experienced Radiation Safety... pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. (a)(1) An individual identified as a Radiation Safety Officer...

  18. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  19. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  20. 10 CFR 35.57 - Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer, teletherapy or medical physicist, authorized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training for experienced Radiation Safety Officer... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Administrative Requirements § 35.57 Training for experienced Radiation Safety... pharmacist, and authorized nuclear pharmacist. (a)(1) An individual identified as a Radiation Safety Officer...

  1. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.42...

  2. RTOG, CTCAE and WHO criteria for acute radiation dermatitis correlate with cutaneous blood flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Jen; Hou, Ming-Feng; Luo, Kuei-Hau; Wei, Shu-Yi; Huang, Ming-Yii; Su, Suh-Jen; Kuo, Hung-Ying; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Chen, Gwo-Shing; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Various clinician-assessed scoring criteria have been used to grade acute radiation dermatitis. However, it is not known whether these scoring criteria correlate with changes in objective skin biophysical parameters and patient-reported symptoms following radiotherapy. We seek to correlate three different clinician-assessed scoring criteria with skin biophysical changes and patient-reported symptoms in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. A prospective cohort study was performed in a university hospital medical center. The severity of acute radiation dermatitis in 101 breast cancer patients was graded using the RTOG, CTCAE and WHO clinical scoring criteria. We also measured various skin biophysical parameters (skin blood flow, pigmentation, hydration, and pH) by non-invasive techniques before and after radiotherapy. Patient-reported breast symptoms (pain, itching, local heat, and tightness) were evaluated using a questionnaire. The three different clinician-assessed scoring criteria correlated most strongly with changes in cutaneous blood flow following radiotherapy for breast cancer (correlation coefficient 0.70 for RTOG, 0.68 for CTCAE, and 0.50 for WHO). All three scoring criteria also showed moderate correlation with changes in skin pigmentation (correlation coefficients 0.4-0.5), but showed no significant correlation with skin hydration or pH (correlation coefficients <0.2). The scoring criteria correlated poorly with patient-reported breast symptoms (correlation coefficients <0.3). The three clinician-assessed scoring criteria (especially the RTOG and CTCAE criteria) show strong correlation with cutaneous blood flow measurements, but correlate less well with other skin biophysical parameters and patient-reported symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation dose reduction in the invasive cardiovascular laboratory: implementing a culture and philosophy of radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Mathew, Verghese; Lennon, Ryan; Bell, Malcolm R; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S

    2012-08-01

    This paper investigates the effects of sustained practice and x-ray system technical changes on the radiation dose administered to adult patients during invasive cardiovascular procedures. It is desirable to reduce radiation dose associated with medical imaging to minimize the risk of adverse radiation effects to both patients and staff. Several clinical practice and technical changes to elevate radiation awareness and reduce patient radiation dose were implemented under the guidance of a cardiovascular invasive labs radiation safety committee. Practice changes included: intraprocedure radiation dose announcements; reporting of procedures for which the air-kerma exceeded 6,000 mGy, including procedure air-kerma in the clinical report; and establishing compulsory radiation safety training for fellows. Technical changes included establishing standard x-ray imaging protocols, increased use of x-ray beam spectral filters, reducing the detector target dose for fluoroscopy and acquisition imaging, and reducing the fluoroscopy frame rate to 7.5 s(-1). Patient- and procedure-specific cumulative skin dose was calculated from air-kerma values and evaluated retrospectively over a period of 3 years. Data were categorized to include all procedures, percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary angiography, noncardiac vascular angiography and interventions, and interventions to treat structural heart disease. Statistical analysis was based on a comparison of the cumulative skin dose for procedures performed during the first and last quarters of the 3-year study period. A total of 18,115 procedures were performed by 27 staff cardiologists and 65 fellows-in-training. Considering all procedures, the mean cumulative skin dose decreased from 969 to 568 mGy (40% reduction) over 3 years. This work demonstrates that a philosophy of radiation safety, implemented through a collection of sustained practice and x-ray system changes, can result in a significant decrease in the radiation dose

  4. Thyroid cancer radioiodine therapy: health service performance and radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Liossis, A; Lamprinakou, M

    2015-07-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission collected data related to radioiodine I-131 therapy (RAIT) delivery to differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients, for the period 2003-13, corresponding to 100 % of hospitals at national level. Radiation safety and health service performance outcome indicators were assessed. The numbers of hospitals and nuclear medicine (NM) therapy wards, as well as RAIT annual frequencies, have increased. Geographical inhomogeneous distribution of existing infrastructure is recorded. In some cases, the observed inefficient use of NM therapy wards seems to be due to lack of human resources (e.g. nurses). Regular assessment of appropriate key indicators could serve as a useful tool for radiation safety monitoring and health service performance improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers’ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw)] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products. PMID:27800354

  6. Evaluation of Hygiene and Safety Criteria in the Production of a Traditional Piedmont Cheese.

    PubMed

    Astegiano, Sara; Bellio, Alberto; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gallina, Silvia; Gorlier, Alessandra; Gramaglia, Monica; Lombardi, Giampiero; Macori, Guerrino; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Traditional products and related processes must be safe to protect consumers' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological criteria of a traditional Piedmont cheese, made by two different cheese producers (A and B). Three batches of each cheese were considered. The following seven samples of each batch were collected: raw milk, milk at 38°C, curd, cheese at 7, 30, 60, 90 days of ripening. During cheese making process, training activities dealing with food safety were conducted. Analyses regarding food safety and process hygiene criteria were set up according to the EC Regulation 2073/2005. Other microbiological and chemical-physical analyses [lactic streptococci, lactobacilli, pH and water activity (Aw)] were performed as well. Shiga-toxin Escherichia coli, aflatoxin M1 and antimicrobial substances were considered only for raw milk. All samples resulted negative for food safety criteria; Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were high in the first phase of cheese production, however they decreased at the end of ripening. A high level of CPS in milk was found in producer A, likewise in some cheese samples a count of >5 Log CFU/g was reached; staphylococcal enterotoxins resulted negative. The pH and Aw values decreased during the cheese ripening period. The competition between lactic flora and potential pathogen microorganisms and decreasing of pH and Aw are considered positive factors in order to ensure safety of dairy products. Moreover, training activities play a crucial role to manage critical points and perform corrective action. Responsible application of good manufacturing practices are considered key factors to obtain a high hygienic level in dairy products.

  7. Developing the radiation protection safety culture in the UK.

    PubMed

    Cole, P; Hallard, R; Broughton, J; Coates, R; Croft, J; Davies, K; Devine, I; Lewis, C; Marsden, P; Marsh, A; McGeary, R; Riley, P; Rogers, A; Rycraft, H; Shaw, A

    2014-06-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere, there is potential to improve how radiological challenges are addressed through improvement in, or development of, a strong radiation protection (RP) safety culture. In preliminary work in the UK, two areas have been identified as having a strong influence on UK society: the healthcare and nuclear industry sectors. Each has specific challenges, but with many overlapping common factors. Other sectors will benefit from further consideration.In order to make meaningful comparisons between these two principal sectors, this paper is primarily concerned with cultural aspects of RP in the working environment and occupational exposures rather than patient doses.The healthcare sector delivers a large collective dose to patients each year, particularly for diagnostic purposes, which continues to increase. Although patient dose is not the focus, it must be recognised that collective patient dose is inevitably linked to collective occupational exposure, especially in interventional procedures.The nuclear industry faces major challenges as work moves from operations to decommissioning on many sites. This involves restarting work in the plants responsible for the much higher radiation doses of the 1960/70s, but also performing tasks that are considerably more difficult and hazardous than those original performed in these plants.Factors which influence RP safety culture in the workplace are examined, and proposals are considered for a series of actions that may lead to an improvement in RP culture with an associated reduction in dose in many work areas. These actions include methods to improve knowledge and awareness of radiation safety, plus ways to influence management and colleagues in the workplace. The exchange of knowledge about safety culture between the nuclear industry and medical areas may act to develop RP culture in both sectors, and have a wider impact in other sectors where exposures to ionising radiations can occur.

  8. Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Najafipour, Farshad; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Arabloo, Jalal; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Norouzi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy. The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. RESULTS from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intraoperative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications; and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer. According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology.

  9. Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Farshad; Hamouzadeh, Pejman; Arabloo, Jalal; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza; Norouzi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy. Methods: The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. Results from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intraoperative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications; and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer. Conclusion: According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology. PMID:26793649

  10. Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. )

    1991-03-01

    Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Laser sources in dentistry and radiation safety regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, D.; Gaeta, G. M.; Lepore, M.

    2007-02-01

    Nowadays laser sources are largely adopted in dentistry due to their unique properties making them good candidates to substitute traditional scalpel and conventional diamond bur in the surgery of the soft and hard oral tissue, respectively. The large use of laser sources outside the research laboratories without the need of highly specialized personnel can ask for a widespread knowledge of safety issues related to this kind of equipment. The main hazard of accidental exposures regards eyes injury but increasing the power of the laser beam also skin can be involved. Safety legislations in Europe and U.S.A. take into account non ionizing radiations and laser radiation for the hazards for the health deriving from physical agents. Laser safety standards introduce 3 useful parameters for hazard characterization: "Accessible Emission Limit" (AEL), "Maximum Permissible Exposure" (MPE) and "Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance" (NOHD). We measured the MPE and NOHD for Er:YAG and other laser sources currently adopted in dentistry and we compared our results with data elaborated from standards in order to single out safe and comfortable working conditions. In fact an experimental assessment of the hazard parameters and the comparison with those of reference from safety standards turns out to be useful in order to estimate the residual hazard that can be still present after applying all the engineering protection and administrative rules.

  12. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--initial report: radiation protection supervisor, radiation safety organization, and education and training].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2005-11-20

    In this study, a questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management systems in Japanese medical institutions with nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the Radiation Protection Supervisor license, safety management organizations, and problems related to education and training in safety management. Analysis was conducted according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60%, and no significant difference in response rate was found among regions. Medical institutions that performed nuclear medicine practices without a radiologist participating accounted for 10% of the total. Medical institutions where nurses gave patients intravenous injections of radiopharmaceuticals as part of the nuclear medicine practices accounted for 28% of the total. Of these medical institutions, 59% provided education and training in safety management for nurses. The rate of acquisition of Radiation Protection Supervisor licenses was approximately 70% for radiological technologists and approximately 20% for physicians (regional difference, p=0.02). The rate of medical institutions with safety management organizations was 71% of the total. Among the medical institutions (n=208) without safety management organizations, approximately 56% had 300 beds or fewer. In addition, it became clear that 35% of quasi-public organizations and 44% of private organizations did not provide education and training in safety management (p<0.001, according to establishment).

  13. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-04-28

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit.

  14. Radiation exposure and safety practices during pediatric central line placement

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; Burkhalter, Lorrie S.; Blackburn, Timothy J.; Murphy, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pediatric surgeons routinely use fluoroscopy for central venous line (CVL) placement. We examined radiation safety practices and patient/surgeon exposure during fluoroscopic CVL. Methods Fluoroscopic CVL procedures performed by 11 pediatric surgeons in 2012 were reviewed. Fluoroscopic time (FT), patient exposure (mGy), and procedural data were collected. Anthropomorphic phantom simulations were used to calculate scatter and dose (mSv). Surgeons were surveyed regarding safety practices. Results 386 procedures were reviewed. Median FT was 12.8 seconds. Median patient estimated effective dose was 0.13 mSv. Median annual FT per surgeon was 15.4 minutes. Simulations showed no significant difference (p = 0.14) between reported exposures (median 3.5 mGy/min) and the modeled regression exposures from the C-arm default mode (median 3.4 mGy/min). Median calculated surgeon exposure was 1.5 mGy/year. Eight of 11 surgeons responded to the survey. Only three reported 100% lead protection and frequent dosimeter use. Conclusion We found non-standard radiation training, safety practices, and dose monitoring for the 11 surgeons. Based on simulations, the C-arm default setting was typically used instead of low dose. While most CVL procedures have low patient/surgeon doses, every effort should be used to minimize patient and occupational exposure, suggesting the need for formal hands-on training for non-radiologist providers using fluoroscopy. PMID:25837269

  15. Importance of bladder radioactivity for radiation safety in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

    2013-12-01

    Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. None declared.

  16. Ultraviolet radiation and safety behaviours at an outdoor community event.

    PubMed

    Manion, I G; Cloutier, P F; Klassen, T P

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is rising drastically and is believed to be at epidemic proportions. Although preventive efforts have focused mainly on increasing public knowledge of the dangers associated with ultraviolet radiation, increased knowledge does not consistently translate into safe sun practices. The present study provided a "snapshot" of knowledge, attitudes and actual behaviour related to sun safety in a sample of 2,064 individuals attending a major community event. Despite almost uniform acknowledgement of a sun-cancer link, and the belief that certain behaviours can reduce the chances of getting skin cancer, only 38% of respondents reported wearing sun screen. Differences in sun safe behaviours were observed across age groups. The present results emphasize the need to target behaviours as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding sun safety.

  17. Exclusion criteria for assuring safety of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Nagata, Rihito; Kaneko, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Aoki, Taku; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing popularity of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC), indication criteria assuring safety of SILC has yet to be established. In the present study, the subjects consisted of 146 consecutive patients undergoing conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) or SILC. SILC was indicated after excluding patients who met following criteria: age > 75 years, obesity, operative scar, cardiopulmonary diseases, acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis and abnormal bile duct anatomy. Thirty-four patients were excluded from the SILC candidates (moderate/high-risk CLC group). Among the 112 potential candidates, SILC was indicated for 23 patients (21%, SILC group) and the remaining 89 patients (79%) underwent CLC (low-risk CLC group). In the SILC group, operation time was longer than in the low-risk CLC group (171 [113-286] vs. 126 [72-240] min, p < 0.01), but the periods requiring painkiller was shorter. That led to reduced length of hospital stay compared to low-risk CLC group (2 [2-4] vs. 4 [2-12] days, p < 0.01). Between the low-risk CLC and moderate/high-risk CLC group, operation time was significantly longer and amount of blood loss was larger in the latter group. No complications were encountered in the SILC group. SILC can be indicated safely as far as appropriate criteria is adopted for excluding patients in whom complicated laparoscopic procedures are needed.

  18. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  19. An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing often lead to similar conclusions. Management acknowledges the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) or Director of Radiation Safety's concern but asks the RSO to provide benchmarking and justification for additional full-time equivalents (FTEs). The RSO must determine a method to benchmark and justify additional staffing needs while struggling to maintain a safe and compliant radiation safety program. Benchmarking and justification are extremely important tools that are commonly used to demonstrate the need for increased staffing in other disciplines and are tools that can be used by radiation safety professionals. Parameters that most RSOs would expect to be positive predictors of radiation safety staff size generally are and can be emphasized in benchmarking and justification report summaries. Facilities with large radiation safety departments tend to have large numbers of authorized users, be broad-scope programs, be subject to increased controls regulations, have large clinical operations, have significant numbers of academic radiation-producing machines, and have laser safety responsibilities.

  20. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety education at radiological technology schools].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2004-10-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey of all radiological technology schools, to investigate the status of radiation safety education. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning full-time teachers, measures being taken for the Radiation Protection Supervisor Qualifying Examination, equipment available for radiation safety education, radiation safety education for other departments, curriculum of radiation safety education, and related problems. The returned questionnaires were analyzed according to different groups categorized by form of education and type of establishment. The overall response rate was 55%, and there were statistically significant differences in the response rates among the different forms of education. No statistically significant differences were found in the items relating to full-time teachers, measures for Radiation Protection Supervisor Qualifying Examination, and radiation safety education for other departments, either for the form of education or type of establishment. Queries on the equipment used for radiation safety education revealed a statistically significant difference in unsealed radioisotope institutes among the forms of education. In terms of curriculum, the percentage of radiological technology schools which dealt with neither the shielding calculation method for radiation facilities nor with the control of medical waste was found to be approximately 10%. Other educational problems that were indicated included shortages of full-time teachers and equipment for radiation safety education. In the future, in order to improve radiation safety education at radiological technology schools, we consider it necessary to develop unsealed radioisotope institutes, to appoint more full-time teachers, and to educate students about risk communication.

  1. Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2009-03-15

    The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria.

  2. Head and Neck Radiation Dose and Radiation Safety for Interventional Physicians.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, Kenneth; Schueler, Beth; Grams, Michael; Sturchio, Glenn; Bell, Malcolm; Gulati, Rajiv

    2017-03-13

    The first aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck of physicians performing x-ray-guided interventional procedures. The second aim was to assess protection of tissues of the head offered by select wearable radiation safety devices. Radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck is of significant interest to practicing interventional physicians. However, methods to estimate radiation dose are not generally available, and furthermore, some of the available research relating to protection of these tissues is misleading. Using a single representative geometry, scatter radiation dose to a humanoid phantom was measured using radiochromic film and normalized by the radiation dose to the left collar of the radioprotective thorax apron. Radiation protection offered by leaded glasses and by a radioabsorbent surgical cap was measured. In the test geometry, average radiation doses to the unprotected brain, carotid arteries, and ocular lenses were 8.4%, 17%, and 50% of the dose measured at the left collar, respectively. Two representative types of leaded glasses reduced dose to the ocular lens on the side of the physician from which the scatter originates by 27% to 62% but offered no protection to the contralateral eye. The radioabsorbent surgical cap reduced brain dose by only 3.3%. A method by which interventional physicians can estimate dose to head and neck tissues on the basis of their personal dosimeter readings is described. Radiation protection of the ocular lenses by leaded glasses may be incomplete, and protection of the brain by a radioabsorbent surgical cap was minimal. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  4. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  6. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  7. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  8. A Criteria Standard for Conflict Resolution: A Vision for Guaranteeing the Safety of Self-Separation in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky; Narkawicz, Anthony; Maddalon, Jeffrey; Hagen, George

    2010-01-01

    Distributed approaches for conflict resolution rely on analyzing the behavior of each aircraft to ensure that system-wide safety properties are maintained. This paper presents the criteria method, which increases the quality and efficiency of a safety assurance analysis for distributed air traffic concepts. The criteria standard is shown to provide two key safety properties: safe separation when only one aircraft maneuvers and safe separation when both aircraft maneuver at the same time. This approach is complemented with strong guarantees of correct operation through formal verification. To show that an algorithm is correct, i.e., that it always meets its specified safety property, one must only show that the algorithm satisfies the criteria. Once this is done, then the algorithm inherits the safety properties of the criteria. An important consequence of this approach is that there is no requirement that both aircraft execute the same conflict resolution algorithm. Therefore, the criteria approach allows different avionics manufacturers or even different airlines to use different algorithms, each optimized according to their own proprietary concerns.

  9. Choices, choices: the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to a food safety decision-making problem.

    PubMed

    Fazil, A; Rajic, A; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S

    2008-11-01

    In the food safety arena, the decision-making process can be especially difficult. Decision makers are often faced with social and fiscal pressures when attempting to identify an appropriate balance among several choices. Concurrently, policy and decision makers in microbial food safety are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their policies and decisions are made using transparent and accountable processes. In this article, we present a multi-criteria decision analysis approach that can be used to address the problem of trying to select a food safety intervention while balancing various criteria. Criteria that are important when selecting an intervention were determined, as a result of an expert consultation, to include effectiveness, cost, weight of evidence, and practicality associated with the interventions. The multi-criteria decision analysis approach we present is able to consider these criteria and arrive at a ranking of interventions. It can also provide a clear justification for the ranking as well as demonstrate to stakeholders, through a scenario analysis approach, how to potentially converge toward common ground. While this article focuses on the problem of selecting food safety interventions, the range of applications in the food safety arena is truly diverse and can be a significant tool in assisting decisions that need to be coherent, transparent, and justifiable. Most importantly, it is a significant contributor when there is a need to strike a fine balance between various potentially competing alternatives and/or stakeholder groups.

  10. Criteria for the operation of federally-owned secondary calibration laboratories (ionizing radiation). Special pub. (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1991-08-01

    The document contains standards of performance for laboratories that calibrate instrumentation used to measure ionizing radiation. Such standards are useful for the development of a secondary level of calibration laboratories that can provide a high-quality link between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and those who make routine measurements at the field level. The standards may also be used as criteria on which a decision is based regarding accreditation of a particular laboratory. They were developed by representatives of federally-owned laboratories that perform calibrations of the type addressed by the document. The first major part contains general criteria that must be satisfied by all laboratories seeking accreditation. It includes requirements relating to management and staff, physical aspects of the laboratory, calibrations facilities and equipment, operational procedures, accuracy and quality assurance, and records and reports. Five subsequent major parts establish criteria for calibration of survey instruments, irradiation of personnel dosimeters, calibration of sources, calibration of instruments for diagnostic levels, and calibration of reference-class instruments. The types of radiation covered include gamma rays, x rays, beta particles, neutrons, and alpha particles. An appendix describes the proficiency tests administered by NIST to secondary laboratories as a prerequisite for their accreditation.

  11. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S.; Felseghi, R.-A.; Rǎboacǎ, S.; Aşchilean, I.; Giurca, I.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  12. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    SciTech Connect

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S. Felseghi, R.-A.; Giurca, I.; Răboacă, S.; Aşchilean, I.

    2015-12-23

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  13. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  14. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... pertaining to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation...

  15. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... to the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry;...

  16. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  17. 10 CFR 35.50 - Training for Radiation Safety Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity, radiation biology, and radiation dosimetry; or (2)(i) Hold a master's or doctor's degree in... the use and measurement of radioactivity; (D) Radiation biology; and (E) Radiation dosimetry; and...

  18. A multiple methods approach: radiation associated cataracts and occupational radiation safety practices in interventionalists in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rose, A; Rae, W I D; Chikobvu, P; Marais, W

    2017-06-26

    Ionising radiation is a modality used in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The technology has improved and resulted in lower dose exposure but there has been an escalation in the quantity of procedures, their duration and complexity. These factors have meant increased occupational radiation exposure for interventionalists. Ionising radiation exposure can have detrimental health effects and includes radiation skin burns, various carcinomas, genetic and chromosomal aberrations and cataractogenesis of the lenses of the eye. The lenses of the eye are of the most radiosensitive organs and the risk of cataracts is high despite low radiation dose exposures. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is a method that can be used to mitigate the risk for developing lens opacifications. The consistent and effective utilisation of PPE is marred by availability, proper fit and ease of use when performing procedures. Radiation safety training is imperative to enforce a culture of radiation safety among interventionalists. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe cataracts among South African interventionalists and to understand their radiation safety practices. For this purpose, a cross sectional study was designed using multiple methods. A survey was conducted to determine the demographics and the risk factors of doctors exposed to radiation to doctors not exposed. The radiation workload and radiation safety practices of interventionalists were explored. Both groups had slit lamp examinations. The data were analysed analytically and a regression model developed looking at the outcomes and the risk factors. Qualitative in-depth interviews and group interviews were conducted to explore the perceptions of interventionalists regarding radiation safety. Deductive and inductive thematic analysis was done. Interdisciplinary research is challenging but offers tremendous opportunity for exploring and tackling complex issues related to securing a safe radiation work

  19. Microbiological safety evaluations and recommendations on sprouted seeds. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    In 1997, the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF/the Committee) was asked to review the current literature on sprout-associated outbreaks: identify the organisms and production practices of greatest public health concern: prioritize research needs: and provide recommendations on intervention and prevention strategies. In response to this charge, the Fresh Produce Work Group (FPWG) documented the relevant epidemiology and microbial ecology of sprout-associated outbreaks and reviewed current industry practices and initiatives related to the growing of seed and the production of sprouts. Sprouts have been identified as a special problem because of the potential for pathogen growth during the sprouting process. If pathogens are present on or in the seed, sprouting conditions may favor their proliferation. There is no inherent step in the production of raw sprouts to reduce or eliminate pathogens. Contaminated seed is the likely source for most reported sprout-associated outbreaks. Research has been initiated on methods to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria on seeds and sprouts and some treatments show promise. However, to date, no single treatment has been shown to completely eliminate pathogens under experimental conditions used. Finally, the Committee found that, at the time of the charge, there was a lack of fundamental food safety knowledge along the continuum from seed production through sprout consumption. More recently, many have become aware of the potential for this food to be a vehicle for foodborne illness and the need for appropriate controls: however, such awareness is not universal. Although seed appears to be the most likely source of contamination in sprout associated outbreaks, practices and conditions at the sprouting facility may also impact on the safety of the finished product. In recent sprout-associated outbreak investigations, facilities associated with outbreaks did not consistently apply seed

  20. Comparison of Smith-Purcell radiation models and criteria for their verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlovets, D. V.; Potylitsyn, A. P.

    2006-08-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the angular distributions of the incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) generated by a charged particle passing over a periodic conducting structure (grating). The calculations were carried out for a grating which consists of conducting strips separated by vacuum gaps and a lamellar grating with the use of three models of this radiation: van den Berg‘s model, the surface current model, and the resonant diffraction radiation model. The two last models predict sufficiently close results for different geometries, while the results obtained with van den Berg‘s model predict primarily the SPR intensity which is by a few orders of magnitude lower for the electron energy ≈6MeV. The authors propose simple criteria to verify the SPR models by comparing the SPR yields between the volume (with the thickness comparable with a grating period) and flat (with the thickness which is much less than that of a period) gratings; by comparing the azimuth dependencies of the SPR intensities from the flat gratings; by comparing the dependencies of the SPR intensity on the Lorentz factor of a particle.

  1. Neuro-oncology update: radiation safety and nursing care during interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.M.; Drake, D.K.; Sewchand, W.

    1987-12-01

    Radiation control and safety are major considerations for nursing personnel during the care of patients receiving brachytherapy. Since the theory and practice of radiation applications are not part of the routine curriculum of nursing programs, the education of nurses and other health care professionals in radiation safety procedures is important. Regulatory agencies recommend that an annual safety course be given to all persons frequenting, using, or associated with patients containing radioactive materials. This article presents pertinent aspects of the principles and procedures of radiation safety, the role of personnel dose-monitoring devices, and the value of additional radiation control features, such as a lead cubicle, during interstitial brain implants. One institution's protocol and procedures for the care of high-intensity iridium-192 brain implants are discussed. Preoperative teaching guidelines and nursing interventions included in the protocol focus on radiation control principles.

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues.

    PubMed

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L

    2013-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  3. What Parents Should Know about Medical Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation- related cancer risks at low doses among atomic bomb survivors. Radiation Research 2000; 154:178-186. Preston ... E, Tokuoka S, et al. Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958-1998. Radiation Research 2007; 168:1- ...

  4. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  5. Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation Protection. Module SH-35. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on ionizing and nonionizing radiation protection is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module describes various types of ionizing and nonionizing radiation, and the situations in the workplace where potential hazards from radiation may exist. Following the introduction, 13 objectives (each keyed to a…

  6. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture.

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Retreatment of Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer After Prior Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Lawson, Joshua; Garg, Madhur Kumar; Quon, Harry; Ridge, John A.; Saba, Nabil; Salama, Joseph K.; Smith, Richard V.; Yeung, Anamaria Reyna; Yom, Sue S.; Beitler, Jonathan J.

    2011-08-01

    Recurrent and second primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas arising within or in close proximity to previously irradiated fields are a common clinical challenge. Whereas surgical salvage therapy is recommended for resectable disease, randomized data support the role of postoperative reirradiation in high-risk patients. Definitive reirradiation is an established approach for patients with recurrent disease who are medically or technically inoperable or decline radical surgery. The American College of Radiology Expert Panel on Head and Neck Cancer reviewed the relevant literature addressing re-treatment after prior definitive radiation and developed appropriateness criteria for representative clinical scenarios. Examples of unresectable recurrent disease and microscopic residual disease after salvage surgery were addressed. The panel evaluated the appropriateness of reirradiation, the integration of concurrent chemotherapy, radiation technique, treatment volume, dose, and fractionation. The panel emphasized the importance of patient selection and recommended evaluation and treatment at tertiary-care centers with a head-and-neck oncology team equipped with the resources and experience to manage the complexities and toxicities of re-treatment.

  8. Safety in radiation oncology: the role of international initiatives by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Holmberg, Ola; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a wide range of initiatives that address the issue of safety. Quality assurance initiatives and comprehensive audits of radiotherapy services, such as the Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology, are available through the IAEA. Furthermore, the experience of the IAEA in thermoluminescence dosimetric audits has been transferred to the national level in various countries and has contributed to improvements in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. The IAEA is also involved in the development of a safety reporting and analysis system (Safety in Radiation Oncology). In addition, IAEA publications describe and analyze factors contributing to safety-related incidents around the world. The lack of sufficient trained, qualified staff members is addressed through IAEA programs. Initiatives include national, regional, and interregional technical cooperation projects, educational workshops, and fellowship training for radiation oncology professionals, as well as technical assistance in developing and initiating local radiation therapy, safety education, and training programs. The agency is also active in developing staffing guidelines and encourages advanced planning at a national level, aided by information collection systems such as the Directory of Radiotherapy Centers and technical cooperation project personnel planning, to prevent shortages of staff. The IAEA also promotes the safe procurement of equipment for radiation therapy centers within a comprehensive technical cooperation program that includes clinical, medical physics, and radiation safety aspects and review of local infrastructure (room layout, shielding, utilities, and radiation safety), the availability of qualified staff members (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists and therapists), as well as relevant imaging, treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality control items. The IAEA has taken the lead in developing a

  9. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-05-25

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common radiation area monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF), in safety class, safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the instructions provided on ECN 658230. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  10. Radiation safety issues with positron-emission/computed tomography simulation for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kearns, William T; Urbanic, James J; Hampton, Carnell J; McMullen, Kevin P; Blackstock, A William; Stieber, Volker W; Hinson, William H

    2008-06-23

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) simulations using a Stereotactic Body Frame (SBF: Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) were expanded to include 18F-deoxyglucosone positron-emission tomography (FDG PET) for treatment planning. Because of the length of time that staff members are in close proximity to the patient, concerns arose over the radiation safety issues associated with these simulations. The present study examines the radiation exposures of the staff performing SBRT simulations, and provides some guidance on limiting staff exposure during these simulations. Fifteen patients were simulated with PET/CT using the SBF. Patients were immobilized in the SBF before the FDG was administered. The patients were removed from the frame, injected with FDG, and allowed to uptake for approximately 45 minutes. After uptake, the patients were repositioned in the SBF. During the repositioning, exposure rates were recorded at the patient's surface, at the SBF surface, and at 15 cm, 30 cm, and 1 m from the SBF. Administered dose and the approximate time spent on patient repositioning were also recorded. The estimated dose to staff was compared with the dose to staff performing conventional diagnostic PET studies. The average length of time spent in close proximity (<50 cm) to the patient after injection was 11.7 minutes, or more than twice the length of time reported for diagnostic PET staff. That time yielded an estimated average dose to the staff of 26.5 microSv per simulation. The annual occupational exposure limit is 50 mSv. Based on dose per simulation, staff would have to perform nearly 1900 SBRT simulations annually to exceed the occupational limit. Therefore, at the current rate of 50-100 simulations annually, the addition of PET studies to SBRT simulations is safe for our staff. However, ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable") principles still require some radiation safety considerations during SBRT simulations. The PET/CT-based SBRT simulations are safe and

  11. 14 CFR 414.19 - Technical criteria for reviewing a safety approval application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determine whether a safety element is eligible for and may be issued a safety approval. We will base our... regulations. (2) Government-developed or adopted standards. (3) Industry consensus performance-based...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Part 17, 21, and 23. (vi) Safety of High-Speed Ground Transportation Systems. Analytical Methodology... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...: 2003, Railway Applications: Communications, Signaling, and Processing Systems-Safety Related Electronic...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Part 17, 21, and 23. (vi) Safety of High-Speed Ground Transportation Systems. Analytical Methodology... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE...: 2003, Railway Applications: Communications, Signaling, and Processing Systems-Safety Related Electronic...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 385 - Explanation of Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... management controls. The Secretary, in turn, delegated this to the FMCSA. (b) To meet the safety standard, a motor carrier must demonstrate to the FMCSA that it has basic safety management controls in place which..., provisional operating authority, or provisional Certificate of Registration has basic safety management...

  15. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Asano, Yoshihiro; Casey, William R.; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  16. Radiation safety awareness among medical interns: are EU guidelines being implemented?

    PubMed

    Lee, A M; Lee, M J

    2016-11-14

    European recommendations suggest that medical students should be taught radiation safety before entering clinical practice. The aim of this study was to produce a summative assessment of radiation protection training in medical school in Ireland. A web-based questionnaire was distributed to the 2014 intern population (n = 683) via network intern-coordinators. The survey encompassed knowledge of radiation dose in X-ray investigations, laws governing the prescribing of radiation and complications of radiation exposure to staff and patients. Response rate was 14.2% (97/683) with all Irish medical schools represented. 64% of interns reported no formal training in radiation safety. 80% correctly identified MRI and 94% US as not posing a radiation risk. 54% identified CT PET as emitting the highest radiation dose to patients. Only 32% correctly identified one CT abdomen/pelvis as equivalent to the dose from 300 to 500 chest X-rays and 22% correctly identified the theoretical lifetime risk of cancer induction from CT abdomen/pelvis as 1 in 2000. While 71% thought it was very important that prescribers should be aware of patient radiation dose and 28% thought it was moderately important, 74% were not aware of any laws governing the prescribing of radiology investigations. Currently, there is little formal radiation safety training in Irish medical schools. Knowledge of radiation dose and the laws governing prescribing is limited among qualifying interns. Implementation of a formal radiation safety curriculum in Irish Medical Schools would adhere to EU guidelines and improve prescriber knowledge, patient, and personal radiation safety.

  17. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E.K.; Jackson, E.J.; Eggers, A.G.

    1992-12-31

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided.

  18. Radiation safety analysis of the ISS bone densitometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul; Vellinger, John C.; Barton, Kenneth; Faget, Paul

    A Bone Densitometer (BD) has been developed for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) with delivery by the Space-X Dragon spacecraft planned for mid 2014. After initial tests on orbit the BD will be used in longitudinal measurements of bone mineral density in experimental mice as a means of evaluating countermeasures to bone loss. The BD determines bone mineral density (and other radiographic parameters) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). In a single mouse DEXA “scan” its 80 kV x-ray tube is operated for 15 seconds at 35 kV and 3 seconds at 80 kV in four repetitions, giving the subject a total dose of 2.5 mSv. The BD is a modification of a commercial mouse DEXA product known as PIXImus(TM). Before qualifying the BD for utilization on ISS it was necessary to evaluate its radiation safety features and any level of risk to ISS crew members. The BD design reorients the PIXImus so that it fits in an EXPRESS locker on ISS with the x-ray beam directed into the crew aisle. ISS regulation SSP 51700 considers the production of ionizing radiation to be a catastrophic-level hazard. Accidental exposure is prevented by three independent levels of on-off control as required for a catastrophic hazard. The ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principle was applied to the BD hazard just as would be done on the ground, so deliberate exposure is limited by lead shielding according to ALARA. Hot spots around the BD were identified by environmental dosimetry using a Ludlum 9DP pressurized ionization chamber survey meter. Various thicknesses of lead were applied to the BD housing in areas where highest dose-per-scan readings were made. It was concluded that 0.4 mm of lead shielding at strategic locations, adding only a few kg of mass to the payload, would accomplish ALARA. With shielding in place the BD now exposes a crew member floating 40 cm away to less than 0.08 microSv per mouse scan. There is an upper limit of 20 scans per day, or 1.6 microSv per day

  19. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety www.imagegently.org What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses radioactive isotopes to create pictures of the human body. These pictures ...

  20. Comparison of Choi criteria and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with glass-microspheres Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT).

    PubMed

    Beuzit, Luc; Edeline, Julien; Brun, Vanessa; Ronot, Maxime; Guillygomarc'h, Anne; Boudjema, Karim; Gandon, Yves; Garin, Etienne; Rolland, Yan

    2016-08-01

    To compare Choi criteria with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) for the prediction of overall survival (OS) in patients treated with glass-microspheres, Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Between 2010 and 2014, 45 adult patients with locally advanced ICC treated with SIRT were retrospectively analyzed. Computed tomography scans performed before and after treatment were analyzed using both RECIST 1.1 and Choi criteria. Response was correlated with survival. Patients who achieved an objective response according to Choi had a longer OS than non-responders (median OS 19.9 months [95% CI, 1.1-38.7 months] vs. 7.5 months if stable disease [uncountable CI] and 3 months if progressive disease [95% CI, 0-6.2 months], log-rank test: p=0.003) whereas there was no significant survival difference according to the RECIST response (p=0.339). Among the 39 RECIST non-responding patients, those identified as responders by Choi (n=31) had significantly better OS than Choi non-responders (median OS 19.9 months (95% CI, 5.1-34.7 months) and 5.4 months (95% CI, 0-11.6 months), p=0.005). Choi criteria appear more appropriate than RECIST to identify responders with long survival among patients who received SIRT for ICC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. (latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation protection methods and techniques are described for both patients and operators. Safety techniques for dental radiology, routine x-rays, radiotherapy, thoracic radiography and other radiology procedures are included. Radiation exposure limits for patients and healthcare workers are defined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Assessing the service provided by an institutional radiation safety survey program

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, R.J.; Sawyer, R.L.; Sprau, D.D.

    1996-05-01

    Routine radiation safety surveys are a required part of every institutional radiation protection program. Although mandated by regulation, surveys are really performed to help clinicians and researchers establish and maintain radiologically-safe working and learning environments. In some cases, however, the priorities established by a radiation protection program may not coincide with the needs perceived by the institution`s workers, leading to possible alienation, dissatisfaction, and non-compliance with policies, procedures, and regulations. To determine if a typical survey program was perceived as providing a good or valued service to workers, a simple questionnaire was created and utilized for a 6-mo period. The results obtained from this targeted assessment tool indicate that the radiation safety survey services were perceived as useful by most of the workers. In addition, the actual process of comment solicitation provided a positive feedback mechanism from the service recipients to the radiation safety staff, managers, committee members, and institution administrators. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Intraoperative radiation safety in orthopaedics: a review of the ALARA (As low as reasonably achievable) principle.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel J; Patel, Jay N; Liporace, Frank A; Yoon, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluoroscopy has become commonplace in many orthopaedic surgery procedures. The benefits of fluoroscopy are not without risk of radiation to patient, surgeon, and operating room staff. There is a paucity of knowledge by the average orthopaedic resident in terms proper usage and safety. Personal protective equipment, proper positioning, effective communication with the radiology technician are just of few of the ways outlined in this article to decrease the amount of radiation exposure in the operating room. This knowledge ensures that the amount of radiation exposure is as low as reasonably achievable. Currently, in the United States, guidelines for teaching radiation safety in orthopaedic surgery residency training is non-existent. In Europe, studies have also exhibited a lack of standardized teaching on the basics of radiation safety in the operating room. This review article will outline the basics of fluoroscopy and educate the reader on how to safe fluoroscopic image utilization.

  4. Hypofractionated radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in prostate cancer: A systematic review of its safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, L M; Polo-deSantos, M; Rodríguez-Melcón, J I; Angulo, J C; Luengo-Matos, S

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic alternatives can improve the safety and efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. To assess whether hypofractionated radiation therapy results in better safety and efficacy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Systematic review of the literature through searches on PubMed, Cochrane Library, CRD, ClinicalTrials and EuroScan, collecting indicators of safety and efficacy. We included 2 systematic reviews and a clinical trial. In terms of efficacy, there is considerable heterogeneity among the studies, and no conclusive results were found concerning the superiority of the hypofractionated option over the normal fractionated option. In terms of safety, there were no significant differences in the onset of acute genitourinary complications between the 2 treatments. However, one of the reviews found more acute gastrointestinal complications in patients treated with hypofractionated radiation therapy. There were no significant differences in long-term complications based on the type of radiation therapy used, although the studies did have limitations. To date, there are no conclusive results that show that hypofractionated radiation therapy is more effective or safer than normal fractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 236 - Safety Assurance Criteria and Processes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES... results of system safety analyses provided in the RSPP, PSP, PTCIP, PTCDP, and PTCSP documents as... associated with the design principle not followed. (1) System safety under normal operating conditions....

  6. PCES 2.0. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  7. Generalized Safety and Efficacy of Simplified Intravenous Thrombolysis Treatment (SMART) Criteria in Acute Ischemic Stroke: The MULTI SMART Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sigrid B; Barazangi, Nobl; Chen, Charlene; Wong, Christine; Grosvenor, David; Rose, Jack; Bedenk, Ann; Morrow, Megan; McDermott, Dan; Hove, Jens D; Tong, David C

    2016-05-01

    Common intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA) exclusion criteria may substantially limit the use of thrombolysis. Preliminary data have shown that the SMART (Simplified Management of Acute stroke using Revised Treatment) criteria greatly expand patient eligibility by reducing thrombolysis exclusions, but they have not been assessed on a large scale. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of general adoption of SMART thrombolysis criteria to a large regional stroke network. Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who received IV thrombolysis within a regional stroke network was performed. Patients were divided into those receiving thrombolysis locally versus at an outside hospital. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score (≤1) at discharge and the main safety outcome was symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rate. There were 539 consecutive patients, and 50.5% received thrombolysis at an outside facility. Ninety percent of the patients possessed common conventional IV rt-PA contraindications. There were no significant differences between local and network treated patients in favorable outcome (45.4% versus 37.4%; odds ratio [OR], .72; P > .09), mortality (9% versus 14%; OR, 1.6; P > .07), or sICH rate (2.6% versus 5.1%; OR, 2.0; P = .13). Multivariate analysis showed no association between receiving IV rt-PA at an outlying spoke hospital and higher rate of sICH or worse outcome at discharge. Generalized application of SMART criteria is safe and effective. Widespread application of these criteria could substantially increase the proportion of patients who might qualify for treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

  9. Concepts of radiation safety and protection: beyond BEIR V.

    PubMed

    Farman, A G

    1991-01-01

    The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

  10. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-10-01

    Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure.

  11. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  12. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  13. Radiation safety for anaesthesia providers in the orthopaedic operating room.

    PubMed

    Rhea, E B; Rogers, T H; Riehl, J T

    2016-04-01

    In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  15. [Problems of ensuring human radiation safety during interplanetary flights].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Petrov, V M; Shafirkin, A V; Shtemberg, A S

    2011-01-01

    The work contains the analyses and discussion of the main sources of space radiation specified for interplanetary flights, the dosimetric functionals used for describing the processes of radiation lesions and reparation of the organism in the conditions of the complex radiation impact with a broad charge composition of cosmic rays and a peculiar spatial and temporal dose behavior. It represents the results of calculations of the radiation risks during the flight and the total lifelong radiation risk with taking into account all the delayed unfavorable biological consequences. The main uncertainties in the calculated values of radiation risk leading to its undervaluation are analyzed. In addition, also provided is the range of theoretical and experimental investigations necessary for the adjustment of coefficient values used in the algorithm of radiation risk calculations, as well as in the nomenclature of experiments for estimating the individual resistance of man to the extreme influence and investigations aimed at estimating and increasing the reliability of the operator activity of cosmonauts.

  16. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-12-28

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  17. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  18. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance..., Licensing and Evaluation Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800... Space Transportation. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  19. An FMEA Evaluation of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Dose Delivery Failures at Tolerance Criteria Levels.

    PubMed

    Faught, Jacqueline Tonigan; Balter, Peter A; Johnson, Jennifer L; Kry, Stephen F; Court, Laurence E; Stingo, Francesco C; Followill, David S

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to assess both the perception of failure modes in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) when the linac is operated at the edge of tolerance given in AAPM TG-40(1) and TG-142(2) as well as the application of FMEA to this specific section of the IMRT process. An online survey was distributed to approximately 2000 physicists worldwide that participate in quality services provided by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core - Houston (IROC-H). The survey briefly described eleven different failure modes covered by basic quality assurance in step-and-shoot IMRT at or near TG-40(1) and TG-142(2) tolerance criteria levels. Respondents were asked to estimate the worst case scenario percent dose error that could be caused by each of these failure modes in a head and neck patient as well as the FMEA scores: Occurrence, Detectability, and Severity. Risk probability number (RPN) scores were calculated as the product of these scores. Demographic data was also collected. 181 individual and three group responses were submitted. 84% were from North America. Most (76%) individual respondents performed at least 80% clinical work and 92% were nationally certified. Respondent medical physics experience ranged from 2.5-45 years (average 18 years). 52% of individual respondents were at least somewhat familiar with FMEA, while 17% were not familiar. Several IMRT techniques, treatment planning systems, and linear accelerator manufacturers were represented. All failure modes received widely varying scores ranging from 1-10 for occurrence, at least 1-9 for detectability, and at least 1-7 for severity. Ranking failure modes by RPN scores also resulted in large variability, with each failure mode being ranked both most risky (1st) and least risky (11th) by different respondents. On average MLC modeling had the highest RPN scores. Individual estimated percent dose errors and severity scores positively correlated (p<0.01) for each FM as expected. No universal

  20. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  1. Proposal of New Triggered Lightning Launch Commit Criteria for Japan's Safety Rocket Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Saito, Toshiya; Okita, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    Triggered lightning for rocket launch can cause the failure.The current Japanese criteria to postpone the launch opportunity is the thickness of cloud 1.8km with 0 -20 degrees Celsius. Of all H2A launches during these ten years, slipping launches have occurred over half of its flights. So, we have initiated a research on Triggered Lightning Launch Commit Criteria, two years ago.We present the overall activities with the observation campaign (RAIJIN*) in Feb/2012 and Jan-Feb/2013, by means of air-born field mill with airplane, X-band dual polarization radar, ground based field mill and Videosonde. Also, the analytical results and proposal of the new criteria will be shown.*) Raijin is originally a name for Thunder god in Japanese and here it stands for Rocket launch Atmospheric electricity Investigation by Jaxa IN cooperation with academia.

  2. Radiation Dose and Safety in Cardiac Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Thomas C; Kantor, Birgit; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis As a result of the changes in utilization of imaging procedures that rely on ionizing radiation, the collective dose has increased by over 700% and the annual per-capita dose, by almost 600% over recent years. It is certainly possible that this growing use may have significant effects on public health. Although there are uncertainties related to the accuracy of calculated radiation exposure and the estimated biologic risk, there are measures that can be taken to reduce any potential risks while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. This article will review the existing data regarding biological hazards of radiation exposure associated to medical diagnostic testing, the methodology used to estimate radiation exposure and the measures that can be taken to effectively reduce it. PMID:19766923

  3. 49 CFR 240.109 - General criteria for eligibility based on prior safety conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS Component Elements of the Certification Process § 240.109 General criteria for....117, or § 240.119. (c) The program shall require evaluation of data which reflect the person's prior..., § 240.113, § 240.115, § 240.117, § 240.119, and § 240.217. (e) When evaluating a person's motor...

  4. Non-ionizing radiation safety program management--one corporation's approach.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Michael A; Hinz, Michael W; Entwistle, Frederick B

    2004-08-01

    Development and implementation of non-ionizing radiation safety programs differ from ionizing radiation safety programs primarily due to the absence of prescriptive state and federal regulations. Industry consensus standards and research publications provide the basis for non-ionizing radiation safety program development. This work discusses the methodology used to develop a non-ionizing radiation safety program suitable, with minimal modification, for use both in research and industrial facilities. This program includes identification of industry consensus standards, measurement of actual or potential exposure, establishment of engineering and administrative controls, training and orientation of the workforce, and tracking of changes. Implementation of the program involves cooperation between a small corporate staff and many individuals representing various environmental, safety and health as well as manufacturing and research disciplines located in the facilities that contain the actual radiation sources. Challenges in program implementation include the wide variation in types, numbers, and uses of non-ionizing sources in numerous facilities located throughout the United States. Additional opportunities include providing advice and support to facilities located outside of the United States.

  5. Climate change and safety at work with ionizing radiations.

    PubMed

    Contessa, Gian Marco; Grandi, Carlo; Scognamiglio, Mario; Genovese, Elisabetta; Sandri, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO's) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has been one of the dominant topic in nuclear safety and it has brought new attention on the matter of accidents in NPPs due to external events related to natural causes. Climate change has risen new risks and the growing probability of extreme external events has increased exposure and vulnerability of workers in the nuclear sector. However extreme natural events are a threat not only to NPPs but to all facilities dealing with radioactive material and in an emergency scenario they can affect the effectiveness and implementation of safety devices and procedures and also prevent communications, causing delays in the readiness of response. It is clear that adaptation strategies are necessary to cope with emerging changes in climate and a new nuclear safety culture is growing, that addresses accidents initiated not only by internal but also by external events.

  6. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards. PMID:20205835

  7. Flat detectors and new aspects of radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Gurley, John C

    2009-08-01

    Flat detectors are the heart of high-performance imaging systems that provide new capabilities as well as new hazards. The superior image quality enables operators to work with heavier patients and steeper projections. Under these conditions, exposure control computers automatically increase the production of x-rays to compensate for absorption by body tissues. Image quality is preserved, and operators may not be aware of the very high skin doses delivered during prolonged procedures. Although it is assumed that flat detector systems are safe, the potential for radiation overexposure and skin injury is real. This article examines the unique radiation hazards of flat detector fluoroscopy and suggests practical steps that clinicians can take to protect themselves and their patients from radiation injury.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365 Transportation... OPERATING AUTHORITY Special Rules for Certain Mexico-domiciled Carriers Pt. 365, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365—Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Evaluation Criteria for Mexico-Domiciled Motor Carriers A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365 Transportation... OPERATING AUTHORITY Special Rules for Certain Mexico-domiciled Carriers Pt. 365, Subpt. E, App. A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 365—Explanation of Pre-Authorization Safety Audit Evaluation Criteria for Mexico...

  10. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  11. MO-E-213-00: What Is Medical Physics Without Radiation Safety?

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  12. Radiation Safety and Quality Assurance in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Hines, Vickie G.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of dental schools that revealed processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are being carried out in a timely manner is discussed. However, methods for reducing patient exposure to radiation are not being fully implemented, and some dental students are being exposed to x-rays. (Author/MLW)

  13. Radiation Safety and Quality Assurance in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farman, Allan G.; Hines, Vickie G.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of dental schools that revealed processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are being carried out in a timely manner is discussed. However, methods for reducing patient exposure to radiation are not being fully implemented, and some dental students are being exposed to x-rays. (Author/MLW)

  14. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  15. Safety of {sup 90}Y Radioembolization in Patients Who Have Undergone Previous External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H.K.; Chang, Daniel T.; Eclov, Neville C.; Chung, Melody P.; Koong, Albert C.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Previous external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is theoretically contraindicated for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization (RE) because the liver has a lifetime tolerance to radiation before becoming vulnerable to radiation-induced liver disease. We analyzed the safety of RE as salvage treatment in patients who had previously undergone EBRT. Methods and Materials: Between June 2004 and December 2010, a total of 31 patients who had previously undergone EBRT were treated with RE. Three-dimensional treatment planning with dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the liver was used to calculate the EBRT liver dose. Liver-related toxicities including RE-induced liver disease (REILD) were reviewed and classified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. Results: The mean EBRT and RE liver doses were 4.40 Gy (range, 0-23.13 Gy) and 57.9 Gy (range, 27.0-125.9 Gy), respectively. Patients who experienced hepatotoxicity (≥grade2; n=12) had higher EBRT mean liver doses (7.96 ± 8.55 Gy vs 1.62 ± 3.39 Gy; P=.037), the only independent predictor in multivariate analysis. DVH analysis showed that the fraction of liver exposed to ≥30 Gy (V30) was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (10.14% ± 12.75% vs 0.84% ± 3.24%; P=.006). All patients with V30 >13% experienced hepatotoxicity. Fatal REILD (n=2) occurred at the 2 highest EBRT mean liver doses (20.9 Gy and 23.1 Gy) but also at the highest cumulative liver doses (91.8 Gy and 149 Gy). Conclusions: Prior exposure of the liver to EBRT may lead to increased liver toxicity after RE treatment, depending on fractional liver exposure and dose level. The V30 was the strongest predictor of toxicity. RE appears to be safe for the treatment of hepatic malignancies only in patients who have had limited hepatic exposure to prior EBRT.

  16. Academic training in radiation safety awareness and practice among Iranian residents/fellows

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Morteza; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Namazi, Mohammad Hassan; Vakili, Hossein; Saadat, Habibollah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the current state of radiation safety awareness and practice among Iranian radiology/cardiology residents. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 725 Iranian cardiology/radiology fellows/residents (685 residents and 40 fellows) were studied. Radiation safety awareness and practice were assessed using a 13-item survey questionnaire. Based on academic trainings provided in their medical centres, the subjects were divided into two groups (trained vs untrained). Results Trained residents/fellows had better performance compared with untrained ones regarding awareness of radiation dealing instructions, knowing safety experts of their centres (43.8% vs 20.1%, p<0.001) and their contact information (38.4% vs 11.4%, p<0.001), date of the last CBC (complete blood count) checking (15.1% vs 2.5%, p<0.001), use of lead glass (61.6% vs 41.8%, p=0.003), apron (94.5% vs 90%, p=0.016) and radiation shield (71.2% vs 46.2%, p<0.001). Conclusions Awareness/practice of Iranian cardiology/radiology residents/fellows about radiation exposure safety issues is not acceptable currently. Those who received formal training courses at their academic centres about the safety measures had significantly better knowledge compared with those who did not. It is suggested that radiation safety training be offered at the beginning of residency/fellowship for residents/fellows in a comprehensive and uniform way throughout medical universities. PMID:27326189

  17. Radiation Safety System of the B-Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.

    1998-10-12

    The radiation safety system (RSS) of the B-Factory accelerator facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is described. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation exposure due to beam operation, consists of the access control system (ACS) and the radiation containment system (RCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation levels inside a beamline shielding housing. The ACS consists of barriers, a standard entry module at every entrance, and beam stoppers. The RCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a shielding housing, due to either normal or abnormal operation. The RCS consists of power limiting devices, shielding, dump/collimator, and an active radiation monitor system. The inter-related system elements for the ACS and RCS, as well as the associated interlock network, are described. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS are also compared with the regulatory requirements.

  18. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered.

  19. A review of educational philosophies as applied to radiation safety training at medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Dauer, Lawrence T; St Germain, Jean

    2006-05-01

    This paper examines the educational philosophy of radiation safety education programs at medical institutions. The regulatory mandates for radiation safety training have traditionally emphasized competency-based training. This emphasis led to the adoption of a behaviorist philosophy that requires predetermined responses to certain situations. The behaviorist approach determines the roles of teacher and learner as well as the methods to be used. This paper examines these roles and methods and the influence of a highly regulated environment on the adoption of the behaviorist model. The paper also suggests that other educational philosophies, such as the progressive philosophy, should be examined to provide a rich foundation for improving the educational experience and outcomes.

  20. Attitude and awareness of general dental practitioners toward radiation hazards and safety

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, B. S.; Joy, E. Tatu; Kiran, M. Shashi; Sherubin, J. Eugenia; Sajesh, S.; Manchil, P. Redwin Dhas

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: The aim and objective is to evaluate the level of awareness and attitude about radiation hazards and safety practices among general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 general dental practitioners in Trivandrum District, Kerala, India. Postanswering the questions, a handout regarding radiation safety and related preventive measures was distributed to encourage radiation understanding and protection. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis were done by assessing the results using Chi-square statistical test, t-test, and other software (Microsoft excel + SPSS 20.0 trail version). Results: Among 300 general practitioners (247 females and 53 males), 80.3% of the practitioners were found to have a separate section for radiographic examination in their clinics. Intraoral radiographic machines were found to be the most commonly (63.3%) used radiographic equipment while osteoprotegerin was the least (2%). Regarding the practitioner's safety measures, only 11.7% of them were following all the necessary steps while 6.7% clinicians were not using any safety measure in their clinic, and with respect to patient safety, only 9.7% of practitioners were following the protocol. Conclusion: The level of awareness of practitioners regarding radiation hazards and safety was found to be acceptable. However, implementation of their knowledge with respect to patient and personnel safety was found wanting. Insisting that they follow the protocols and take necessary safety measures by means of continuing medical education programs, pamphlets, articles, and workshops is strongly recommended. PMID:27829748

  1. Radiation safety aspects of commercial high-speed flight transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Reginatto, Marcel; Goldhagen, Paul

    1995-05-01

    High-speed commercial flight transportation is being studied for intercontinental operations in the 21st century, the projected operational characteristics for these aircraft are examined, the radiation environment as it is now known is presented, and the relevant health issues are discussed. Based on a critical examination of the data, a number of specific issues need to be addressed to ensure an adequate knowledge of the ionizing radiation health risks of these aircraft operations. Large uncertainties in our knowledge of the physical fields for high-energy neutrons and multiply-charged ion components need to be reduced. Improved methods for estimating risks in prenatal exposure need to be developed. A firm basis for solar flare monitoring and forecasting needs to be developed with means of exposure abatement.

  2. Radiation safety aspects of commercial high-speed flight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Reginatto, Marcel; Goldhagen, Paul

    1995-01-01

    High-speed commercial flight transportation is being studied for intercontinental operations in the 21st century, the projected operational characteristics for these aircraft are examined, the radiation environment as it is now known is presented, and the relevant health issues are discussed. Based on a critical examination of the data, a number of specific issues need to be addressed to ensure an adequate knowledge of the ionizing radiation health risks of these aircraft operations. Large uncertainties in our knowledge of the physical fields for high-energy neutrons and multiply-charged ion components need to be reduced. Improved methods for estimating risks in prenatal exposure need to be developed. A firm basis for solar flare monitoring and forecasting needs to be developed with means of exposure abatement.

  3. Radiation safety and quality assurance in North American dental schools

    SciTech Connect

    Farman, A.G.; Hines, V.G.

    1986-06-01

    A survey of North American dental schools revealed that processing quality control and routine maintenance checks on x-ray generators are, in most instances, being carried out in a timely manner. Available methods for reducing patient exposure to ionizing radiation are, however, not being fully implemented. Furthermore, in some instances, dental students are still being exposed to x-rays primarily for teaching purposes.

  4. Radiation safety in high-altitude air traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foelsche, T.

    1977-01-01

    Results of an experimental and theoretical study on dose equivalent rates at high altitudes are presented. The flight personnel flying 500 hours per year at SST cruise altitude in high latitudes (maximum of radiation) would be exposed to less than 14% of the maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) for radiation workers (5 rem/yr), averaged over the solar cycle. One-half or more is due to energetic secondary neutrons that are penetrant and highly biologically effective. Passengers would, in general, be exposed only to the low-level galactic cosmic rays, except for a relative few who encounter rare, intense, and energetic solar-particle events. If the airplane descends to subsonic altitudes during events such as that of Feb. 23, 1956 - the most intense and unique giant energy event of the last 35 years - passenger exposure even then remains at or below permissible levels (0.5 rem for the general population). Systems of radiation monitoring are briefly discussed which will prevent false alarms and which would be useful in disproving overexposure in potential malpractice suits against the airlines. In subsonic jet transports the exposure of the crews is lower by a factor 3 to 4; for passengers it is about the same for the same distance traveled. Solar events, except for giant energy events, will yield only a minor fraction of the MPD of the general population.

  5. ASCO steam generators operating experience. Safety criteria for defect management and effectiveness of preventive measures

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, E.L.

    1997-02-01

    ASCO NPP is a two W-PWR 930 Mwe Units. Each Unit is provided with three Westinghouse Model D3 steam generators which are of preheater type and Inconel 600 MA as tube material. The Secondary side was designed and erected with copper alloys. Unit I: 81.072 EFPH, and Unit II: 69.720 EFPH. The results of the Eddy Currents Inspections performed during the first refueling outage showed Denting at tube support plates and PWSCC at roll transition zone in Unit I and Denting in Unit II. Later inspections showed other types of damages, such as: (1) ODSCC at tube support plates intersections. (2) Circumferential cracks OD and ID at roll transition zone. (3) Wear at antivibration bars and preheater baffles level. Consequently, in order to limit the plugging rate, A.N. ASCO decided to license new plugging criteria in addition to the 40% depth criterion included in Technical Specification. The new licensing criteria and surveillance requirements, varying with tube zone, are explained in the paper.

  6. Using tablet technology in operational radiation safety applications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Linsley, Mark; Houser, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Tablet computers have become a mainstream product in today's personal, educational, and business worlds. These tablets offer computing power, storage, and a wide range of available products to meet nearly every user need. To take advantage of this new computing technology, a system was developed for the Apple iPad (Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014) to perform health and safety inspections in the field using editable PDFs and saving them to a database while keeping the process easy and paperless.

  7. Designing, implementing, and conducting a web-based radiation safety training program to meet Texas standards for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Cerecero, Jennifer A; Charlton, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    The implementation of a web-based radiation safety training program for a large biomedical research institution has the capability of increasing the knowledge of proper use of radionuclides in the laboratories in a more cost effective and efficient way of demonstrating this material. The design and implementation of the web-based course for the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio must meet Texas radioactive material regulations while ensuring that the content engages and challenges the student's health physics knowledge. The implementation of this course required updating the existing course to reflect current regulatory requirements for radiation safety training, emergency response, and biological effects risk coefficients. The final web-based radiation safety training program was evaluated by a standard examination that it is equivalent to the knowledge gained in the classroom course. The results of the scores for the standard examination were equivalent for both the classroom and the web-based course. However, the web-based version with 1 h in the classroom has saved 5,407 h total throughout the institution.

  8. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  9. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  10. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals.

    PubMed

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle

    2016-02-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed.

  11. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Emery, RJ; Rios, J

    2017-01-01

    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty”, defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed. PMID:26710164

  12. The role of the radiation safety specialist as witness: risk communication with attorneys, judges, and jurors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R H

    2001-12-01

    As nuclear workers and members of the public continue to fear radiation in this litigious society, specialists in radiation safety will often be called upon as experts to explain the significance of radiation exposures or as fact witnesses to explain radiation safety practices. Radiation risk communication with attorneys, judges, and jurors presents special challenges to the communication skills of health physicists. Your role as the radiation specialist is to present testimony, either in the form of a deposition or as a trial witness, in a way that a judge or jury can understand. As a specialist in radiation safety, you will also need to educate the attorney that you work with so that he or she can ask the right questions and defend challenges in the case. The way that you communicate to attorneys, judges, and jurors could have a great impact on the case's outcome. As a radiation specialist, your testimony is not only to present the scientific basis for radiation health risks, but also to persuade the judge or jurors in the direction of the desired outcome of the case. Insights from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator show that judges and jurors are most likely persuaded by "Sensing" language that is specific, detailed, measurable, and verifiable with their five senses. Thus, the conceptual, abstract, and theoretical "Intuitive" language often favored by radiation experts may not be understood or appreciated by a judge or jurors. They may also prefer the more personal, empathetic, and caring "Feeling" language rather than the impersonal, logical, and analytical "Thinking" language favored by health physicists. People's feelings about radiation risks are a big factor in radiation cases and providing testimony to address feeling-based conclusions requires a very different communication approach than normally used by health physicists. An understanding of language preferences can be crucial for effective communication with attorneys, judges, and jurors. These insights

  13. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  14. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  15. [Radiation protectors within the radiation safety system for extended duration exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Vasin, M V

    2011-01-01

    Radiation environment in extended duration exploration missions is scrutinized in the context of the probability of the risks of deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation. Though the probability of severe radiation damage due to solar flare is very low, nonetheless it is requisite that the crew must be provided with appropriate, including pharmacological safeguards. The current nomenclature of radiation protectors composes short-term agents against acute radiation damage. Among the others, preparation B-190 is distinguished by particularly high effectiveness and universal action, and good tolerance even when organism is exposed to the extreme factors of space flight Regimen of B-290 therapy alone and with combination with aminothiol preparations have been developed to render treatment following multiple solar events. Effectiveness of radioprotectors can be increased substantially by local shielding of the abdomen and pelvis. The most promising nonspecific stimulators of total resistance of organism are riboxin (inosin) and combined preparation aminotetravit as well as vitamins tocopherol and retinol. Therapy combining B-190 with riboxin and aminotetravit is also under discussion. Cytokine neipogen is also viewed as a candidate agent for early therapy. Concern is raised about possible development of chronic oxidative stress in long-duration exploration missions. Highlighted is the significance of adequate nutrition supplemented with fresh vegetables as a source of the most valuable bioflavonoids. Antioxidants L-selenomethionine and melatonin proved their effectiveness against heavy nuclei of galactic radiation. An open issue is how to make natural antioxidants beneficial to oxidative stress control and attenuation of low-intensity galactic radiation.

  16. Ultraviolet radiation and the athlete: risk, sun safety, and barriers to implementation of protective strategies.

    PubMed

    Jinna, Sphoorthi; Adams, Brian B

    2013-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a pivotal role in the development of both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Numerous factors potentially place athletes at high risk for developing these cancers. Various prevention strategies ameliorate this risk, including avoiding sun exposure during peak UV exposure hours, applying sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 30 or above before participating in outdoor sports, wearing hats and sunglasses, and reducing exposure with long pants and long-sleeve shirts. The literature, however, cites several barriers to these prevention approaches, including sports' competition rules, the lack of availability of sunscreen, and the lack of information about sun safety behaviors. Sun safety education programs prove effective in getting athletes to participate in prevention strategies. This article reviews the effect of UV radiation on athletes' skin and provides sports medicine clinicians with suggestions to improve the sun safety behaviors of their athletes.

  17. Integrating an academic radiation safety program into an environmental management system.

    PubMed

    Zurosky, Daniel M

    2003-08-01

    The Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Program at the University of South Carolina recently developed an environmental management system (EMS) based on the ISO 14001 International Standard. Since our radiation safety program must already meet strict state licensing requirements, the process of conforming to this standard was relatively easy to accomplish. The EH&S program achieved certification to the ISO 14001 standard in August of 2002. The benefits of the EMS include: better interaction between radiation safety and other EH&S program entities, holds all employees accountable by closely tracking program activities, presents a clear picture of program accomplishments to the university administration, allows for better use of limited resources and provides for continuous program improvement.

  18. Approaches to enhancing radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Reza; Gerber, Thomas C; Balter, Stephen; Brenner, David J; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Chen, Jersey; Einstein, Andrew J; Krumholz, Harlan M; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCollough, Cynthia H; Min, James K; Morin, Richard L; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Nasir, Khurram; Redberg, Rita F; Shaw, Leslee J

    2014-11-04

    Education, justification, and optimization are the cornerstones to enhancing the radiation safety of medical imaging. Education regarding the benefits and risks of imaging and the principles of radiation safety is required for all clinicians in order for them to be able to use imaging optimally. Empowering patients with knowledge of the benefits and risks of imaging will facilitate their meaningful participation in decisions related to their health care, which is necessary to achieve patient-centered care. Limiting the use of imaging to appropriate clinical indications can ensure that the benefits of imaging outweigh any potential risks. Finally, the continually expanding repertoire of techniques that allow high-quality imaging with lower radiation exposure should be used when available to achieve safer imaging. The implementation of these strategies in practice is necessary to achieve high-quality, patient-centered imaging and will require a shared effort and investment by all stakeholders, including physicians, patients, national scientific and educational organizations, politicians, and industry.

  19. Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

  20. Development of a Quality and Safety Competency Curriculum for Radiation Oncology Residency: An International Delphi Study.

    PubMed

    Adleman, Jenna; Gillan, Caitlin; Caissie, Amanda; Davis, Carol-Anne; Liszewski, Brian; McNiven, Andrea; Giuliani, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    To develop an entry-to-practice quality and safety competency profile for radiation oncology residency. A comprehensive list of potential quality and safety competency items was generated from public and professional resources and interprofessional focus groups. Redundant or out-of-scope items were eliminated through investigator consensus. Remaining items were subjected to an international 2-round modified Delphi process involving experts in radiation oncology, radiation therapy, and medical physics. During Round 1, each item was scored independently on a 9-point Likert scale indicating appropriateness for inclusion in the competency profile. Items indistinctly ranked for inclusion or exclusion were re-evaluated through web conference discussion and reranked in Round 2. An initial 1211 items were compiled from 32 international sources and distilled to 105 unique potential quality and safety competency items. Fifteen of the 50 invited experts participated in round 1: 10 radiation oncologists, 4 radiation therapists, and 1 medical physicist from 13 centers in 5 countries. Round 1 rankings resulted in 80 items included, 1 item excluded, and 24 items indeterminate. Two areas emerged more prominently within the latter group: change management and human factors. Web conference with 5 participants resulted in 9 of these 24 items edited for content or clarity. In Round 2, 12 participants rescored all indeterminate items resulting in 10 items ranked for inclusion. The final 90 enabling competency items were organized into thematic groups consisting of 18 key competencies under headings adapted from Deming's System of Profound Knowledge. This quality and safety competency profile may inform minimum training standards for radiation oncology residency programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  2. Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Cohen, Samuel M; Doull, John; Feron, Victor J; Goodman, Jay I; Marnett, Lawrence J; Munro, Ian C; Portoghese, Philip S; Waddell, William J; Wagner, Bernard M; Adams, Timothy B

    2005-08-01

    The current status of the GRAS evaluation program of flavoring substances operated by the Expert Panel of FEMA is discussed. The Panel maintains a rigorous rotating 10-year program of continuous review of scientific data related to the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Panel concluded a comprehensive review of the GRAS (GRASa) status of flavors in 1985 and began a second comprehensive review of the same substances and any recently GRAS materials in 1994. This second re-evaluation program of chemical groups of flavor ingredients, recognized as the GRAS reaffirmation (GRASr) program, is scheduled to be completed in 2005. The evaluation criteria used by the Panel during the GRASr program reflects the significant impact of advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and toxicology that have allowed for a more complete understanding of the molecular events associated with toxicity. The interpretation of novel data on the relationship of dose to metabolic fate, formation of protein and DNA adducts, enzyme induction, and the cascade of cellular events leading to toxicity provides a more comprehensive basis upon which to evaluate the safety of the intake of flavor ingredients under conditions of intended use. The interpretation of genotoxicity data is evaluated in the context of other data such as in vivo animal metabolism and lifetime animal feeding studies that are more closely related to actual human experience. Data are not viewed in isolation, but comprise one component that is factored into the Panel's overall safety assessment. The convergence of different methodologies that assess intake of flavoring substances provides a greater degree of confidence in the estimated intake of flavor ingredients. When these intakes are compared to dose levels that in some cases result in related chemical and biological effects and the subsequent toxicity, it is clear that exposure to these substances through flavor use presents no significant human health risk.

  3. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® external-beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Mahmoud, Omar; Merrick, Gregory; Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Arterbery, V Elayne; Ciezki, Jay P; Frank, Steven J; Mohler, James Lloyd; Moran, Brian J; Rosenthal, Seth A; Rossi, Carl J; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2012-04-01

    Image-based radiation treatment planning and localization have contributed to better targeting of the prostate and sparing of normal tissues. Guidelines are needed to address radiation dose delivery, including patient setup and immobilization, target volume definition, treatment planning, treatment delivery methods, and target localization. Guidelines for external-beam radiation treatment planning have been updated and are presented here. The use of appropriate doses, simulation techniques, and verification of field setup are essential for the accurate delivery of radiation therapy. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  4. [Radiation safety in orthopaedic operating theatres. What is the current situation?].

    PubMed

    Torres-Torres, M; Mingo-Robinet, J; Moreno Barrero, M; Rivas Laso, J Á; Burón Álvarez, I; González Salvador, M

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the exposure of two Orthopaedic Surgeons to ionizing radiations in their daily work, and to review the main national and international recommendations on this subject. A retrospective study was conducted on the surgical treatments that use fluoroscopy performed by two Orthopaedic Surgeons during a one year period. An evaluation was made of the radiation received, based on measurements of the processes published in the bibliography section. A literature review of international recommendations and regulations is also presented. The radiation received by the two Orthopaedic Surgeons during one year did not exceed the limits of present-day legislation or the new European and international recommendations. The exposure was asymmetrical, with the hands being the most radiated part. The new recommendations reduce the permitted level of radiation on eyes. The evaluation of the radiation received demonstrates the need for radiation protection, paying particular attention to the hands and eyes. Good knowledge of operating a fluoroscope and radiation safety measures are also essential. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The advantages of creating a positive radiation safety culture in the higher education and research sectors.

    PubMed

    Coldwell, T; Cole, P; Edwards, C; Makepeace, J; Murdock, C; Odams, H; Whitcher, R; Willis, S; Yates, L

    2015-12-01

    The safety culture of any organisation plays a critical role in setting the tone for both effective delivery of service and high standards of performance. By embedding safety at a cultural level, organisations are able to influence the attitudes and behaviours of stakeholders. To achieve this requires the ongoing commitment of heads of organisations and also individuals to prioritise safety no less than other competing goals (e.g. in universities, recruitment and retention are key) to ensure the protection of both people and the environment. The concept of culture is the same whatever the sector, e.g. medical, nuclear, industry, education, and research, but the higher education and research sectors within the UK are a unique challenge in developing a strong safety culture. This report provides an overview of the challenges presented by the sector, the current status of radiation protection culture, case studies to demonstrate good and bad practice in the sector and the practical methods to influence change.

  6. Enhancement of a radiation safety system through the use of a microprocessor-controlled speech synthesizer

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.

    1980-01-01

    A speech synthesizer is being used to differentiate eight separate safety alarms on a high energy accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. A single board microcomputer monitors eight signals from an existing radiation safety logic circuit. The microcomputer is programmed to output the proper code at the proper time and sequence to a speech synthesizer which supplies the audio input to a local public address system. This eliminates the requirement for eight different alarm tones and the personnel training required to differentiate among them. A twenty-word vocabulary was found adequate to supply the necessary safety announcements. The article describes the techniques used to interface the speech synthesizer into the existing safety logic circuit.

  7. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  8. Low interrater reliability in grading of rectal bleeding using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity scales: a survey of radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Zhang, Zhe; Tran, Phuoc T; DeWeese, Theodore L; Song, Daniel Y

    2014-12-01

    To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both reporting and interpretation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  9. Ranking of stopping criteria for log domain diffeomorphic demons application in clinical radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Peroni, M; Golland, P; Sharp, G C; Baroni, G

    2011-01-01

    Deformable Image Registration is a complex optimization algorithm with the goal of modeling a non-rigid transformation between two images. A crucial issue in this field is guaranteeing the user a robust but computationally reasonable algorithm. We rank the performances of four stopping criteria and six stopping value computation strategies for a log domain deformable registration. The stopping criteria we test are: (a) velocity field update magnitude, (b) vector field Jacobian, (c) mean squared error, and (d) harmonic energy. Experiments demonstrate that comparing the metric value over the last three iterations with the metric minimum of between four and six previous iterations is a robust and appropriate strategy. The harmonic energy and vector field update magnitude metrics give the best results in terms of robustness and speed of convergence.

  10. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  11. Are we failing to communicate? Internet-based patient education materials and radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Ramchand, Tekchand; Patel, Shyam; Kraus, Carl; Jung, Jin; Agarwal, Nitin; Gonzales, Sharon F; Baker, Stephen R

    2014-09-01

    Patients frequently turn to the Internet when seeking answers to healthcare related inquiries including questions about the effects of radiation when undergoing radiologic studies. We investigate the readability of online patient education materials concerning radiation safety from multiple Internet resources. Patient education material regarding radiation safety was downloaded from 8 different websites encompassing: (1) the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency, (3) the European Society of Radiology, (4) the Food and Drug Administration, (5) the Mayo Clinic, (6) MedlinePlus, (7) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and (8) the Society of Pediatric Radiology. From these 8 resources, a total of 45 articles were analyzed for their level of readability using 10 different readability scales. The 45 articles had a level of readability ranging from 9.4 to the 17.2 grade level. Only 3/45 (6.7%) were written below the 10th grade level. No statistical difference was seen between the readability level of the 8 different websites. All 45 articles from all 8 websites failed to meet the recommendations set forth by the National Institutes of Health and American Medical Association that patient education resources be written between the 3rd and 7th grade level. Rewriting the patient education resources on radiation safety from each of these 8 websites would help many consumers of healthcare information adequately comprehend such material. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Implementation of ANSI 13.36 - Radiation Safety Training for Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Trinosky, P.A.; Wells, L.

    2000-11-18

    ''Radiation Safety Training for Workers'' (ANSI 13.36) specifies a process for developing and implementing radiation safety training using performance-based concepts. In general, radiation safety training includes radiological safety policies, fundamental radiological controls, and the technical functions of specific facilities. Actual training, however, can vary significantly from one site to another, depending on the requirements and potential risks associated with the specific work involved. Performance-based training focuses on the instruction and practices required to develop job-related knowledge, skills, and abilities, rather than on simply prescribing training content and objectives. The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) working group recommended performance-based training, as opposed to a broad training program with prescribed performance objectives, for two main reasons: (1) the wide range of radiological workers to be trained and (2) the concern that a prescriptive program (i.e., 40 hours of training) could be misapplied. In addition, the working group preferred that the scope and depth of training be based on specific hazards and the magnitude of risk posed by those hazards. The group also proposed that passing scores be based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions used. For instance, where passing scores are established (e.g., multiple-choice exams), they should be based on an analysis of the test questions rather than simply an arbitrary passing score. This standard is not intended to replace regulatory or contractual training requirements that establish minimum objectives, topics, class duration, or passing scores. Nor does it address radiation safety training received as part of an academic program of study. Such individuals would still require site-specific and on-the-job training for certain tasks.

  13. A Radiation Safety Training Program Results in Reduced Radiation Exposure for Orthopaedic Residents Using the Mini C-arm.

    PubMed

    Gendelberg, David; Hennrikus, William; Slough, Jennifer; Armstrong, Douglas; King, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Fluoroscopy during fracture reduction allows a physician to assess fractures and immediately treat a pediatric patient. However, concern regarding the effects of radiation exposure has led us to find ways to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable. One potentially simple way, which to our knowledge has not been explored, to decrease radiation exposure is through formal education before mini C-arm use. We questioned whether a radiation safety educational program decreases radiation (1) time and (2) exposure among residents and patients. This is a retrospective study in which second-year residents underwent a 3-hour educational program regarding mini C-arm use and radiation safety taught by our institution's health physics department. We evaluated the records of all patients who underwent a pediatric both-bone forearm or distal radius fracture reduction in the emergency department 3 months before the educational program or after the program. To be included in the study, records included simple both-bone forearm fractures, simple distal radius fractures, and patient age younger than 18 years, and could not include patients with multiple fractures in the same limb. This resulted in study groups of 53 and 45 patients' records in the groups before and after the educational session, respectively. Radiation emission from the mini C-arm between both groups were compared. Exposure time with the mini C-arm was longer in patients treated before the educational intervention than in those treated after the intervention (patients with both-bone forearm fractures: mean = 41.2, SD = 24.7, 95% CI, 23.14-59.26 vs mean = 28.9, SD = 14.4, 95% CI, 15.91-41.89, p = 0.066; patients with distal radius fractures: mean = 38.1, SD = 26.1, 95% CI, 25.1-51.1 vs mean = 26.7, SD = 15.8, 95% CI, 16.44-36.96, p = 0.042). Calculated radiation exposure with the mini C-arm was larger in patients treated before the educational intervention than in those treated after the intervention

  14. CT Radiation Dose Management: A Comprehensive Optimization Process for Improving Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Parakh, Anushri; Kortesniemi, Mika; Schindera, Sebastian T

    2016-09-01

    Rising concerns of radiation exposure from computed tomography have caused various advances in dose reduction technologies. While proper justification and optimization of scans has been the main focus to address increasing doses, the value of dose management has been largely overlooked. The purpose of this article is to explain the importance of dose management, provide an overview of the available options for dose tracking, and discuss the importance of a dedicated dose team. The authors also describe how a digital radiation tracking software can be used for analyzing the big data on doses for auditing patient safety, scanner utilization, and productivity, all of which have enormous personal and institutional implications. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  15. Advances in Atmospheric Radiation Measurements and Modeling Needed to Improve Air Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Atwell, William; Beck, Peter; Benton, Eric; Copeland, Kyle; Dyer, Clive; Gersey, Brad; Getley, Ian; Hands, Alex; Holland, Michael; Hong, Sunhak; Hwang, Junga; Jones, Bryn; Malone, Kathleen; Meier, Matthias M.; Mertens, Chris; Phillips, Tony; Ryden, Keith; Schwadron, Nathan; Wender, Stephen A.; Wilkins, Richard; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2015-04-01

    Air safety is tied to the phenomenon of ionizing radiation from space weather, primarily from galactic cosmic rays but also from solar energetic particles. A global framework for addressing radiation issues in this environment has been constructed, but more must be done at international and national levels. Health consequences from atmospheric radiation exposure are likely to exist. In addition, severe solar radiation events may cause economic consequences in the international aviation community due to exposure limits being reached by some crew members. Impacts from a radiation environment upon avionics from high-energy particles and low-energy, thermalized neutrons are now recognized as an area of active interest. A broad community recognizes that there are a number of mitigation paths that can be taken relative to the human tissue and avionics exposure risks. These include developing active monitoring and measurement programs as well as improving scientific modeling capabilities that can eventually be turned into operations. A number of roadblocks to risk mitigation still exist, such as effective pilot training programs as well as monitoring, measuring, and regulatory measures. An active international effort toward observing the weather of atmospheric radiation must occur to make progress in mitigating radiation exposure risks. Stakeholders in this process include standard-making bodies, scientific organizations, regulatory organizations, air traffic management systems, aircraft owners and operators, pilots and crew, and even the public.

  16. [Use of system of radiation and hygienic certification of territories for ensuring supervision of radiation safety of the population at the regional level].

    PubMed

    Rakitin, I A; Gorsky, G A

    2013-01-01

    In article the experience of Department of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare in St. Petersburg, related with performing of radiation and hygienic certification of the organizations and territories is considered. The annual assessment of individual and collective risks of emergence of stochastic effects for the population and the personnel of radiation objects shows the significance of radiation and hygienic certification for hygienic justification of the measures directed on a decrease in radiation exposure of the population from technogenic, natural and medical sources of ionizing radiation. The long-term analysis of the structure and dynamics of annual individual and collective effective doses of radiation of the population within the framework of radiation and hygienic certification and the Universal state system for control and accounting for individual doses of radiation of citizens allows to estimate efficiency of address target programs for the solution of actual problems of radiation safety at the regional level.

  17. Retinal safety of near infrared radiation in photovoltaic restoration of sight

    PubMed Central

    Lorach, H.; Wang, J.; Lee, D. Y.; Dalal, R.; Huie, P.; Palanker, D.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic restoration of sight requires intense near-infrared light to effectively stimulate retinal neurons. We assess the retinal safety of such radiation with and without the retinal implant. Retinal damage threshold was determined in pigmented rabbits exposed to 880nm laser radiation. The 50% probability (ED50) of retinal damage during 100s exposures with 1.2mm diameter beam occurred at 175mW, corresponding to a modeled temperature rise of 12.5°C. With the implant, the same temperature was reached at 78mW, close to the experimental ED50 of 71mW. In typical use conditions, the retinal temperature rise is not expected to exceed 0.43°C, well within the safety limits for chronic use. PMID:26819813

  18. Radiation safety assessment of a system of small reactors for distributed energy.

    PubMed

    Odano, N; Ishida, T

    2005-01-01

    A passively safe small reactor for a distributed energy system, PSRD, is an integral type of light-water reactor with a thermal output of 100 or 300 MW aimed to be used for supplying district heat, electricity to small grids, and so on. Candidate locations for the PSRD as a distributed energy source are on-ground, deep underground, and in a seaside pit in the vicinity of the energy consumption area. Assessments of the radiation safety of a PSRD were carried out for three cases corresponding to normal operation, shutdown and a hypothetical postulated accident for several siting candidates. Results of the radiation safety assessment indicate that the PSRD design has sufficient shielding performance and capability and that the exposure to the general public is very low in the case of a hypothetical accident.

  19. [SUBSTANTIATION OF DOSE LIMITS FOR A NEW NORMATIVE DOCUMENT ON RADIATION SAFETY OF LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AT ORBIT ALTITUDES OF UP TO 500 KM].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Grigoriev, Yu G; Shafirkin, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the data of experimental radiobiology and epidemiological follow-up of large groups of people subjected to radiation exposures on Earth has been undertaken to substantiate dose limits for critical organs of cosmonauts in order to ensure good performance and vitality while on long-duration orbital missions. The career dose limits for cosmonauts and astronauts established earlier in the USSR and USA amounted to nothing more but banning the risk of cancer death increase to 3%. To apply more rigorous criteria of delayed radiation risks, the Russian limits for cosmonauts were revised to substantiate a 4-fold reduction of the average tissue equivalent dose maximum to 1 Sv. The total of cancer and non-cancer radiation risks over lifetime and probable reduction of mean life expectancy (MLE) were calculated using the model of radiation-induced mortality for mammals and taken as the main damage to health. The established dose limit is equal to the career dose for nuclear industry personnel set forth by Russian standard document NRB 99/2009. For better agreement of admissible threshold doses to critical human organs (bone marrow, lens and skin) in the revised radiation limits for long-duration space missions and radiation safety limits on Earth, reduction of dose limits for the critical organs were substantiated additionally; these limits comply with those for planned over-exposure on Earth in document NRB 99/2009.

  20. Radiation safety requirements for radioactive waste management in the framework of a quality management system

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, M.M.; Benitez, J.C.; Pernas, R.; Gonzalez, N.

    2007-07-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) is the institution responsible for the management of radioactive wastes generated from nuclear applications in medicine, industry and research in Cuba. Radioactive Waste Management Service is provided at a national level and it includes the collection and transportation of radioactive wastes to the Centralized Waste Management Facilities, where they are characterized, segregated, treated, conditioned and stored. A Quality Management System, according to the ISO 9001 Standard has been implemented for the RWM Service at CPHR. The Management System includes the radiation safety requirements established for RWM in national regulations and in the Licence's conditions. The role of the Regulatory Body and the Radiation Protection Officer in the Quality Management System, the authorization of practices, training and personal qualification, record keeping, inspections of the Regulatory Body and internal inspection of the Radiation Protection Officer, among other aspects, are described in this paper. The Quality Management System has shown to be an efficient tool to demonstrate that adequate measures are in place to ensure the safety in radioactive waste management activities and their continual improvement. (authors)

  1. Comparison of radiation sources and filtering safety glasses for fluorescent nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Richard Daniel

    This study was directed toward the question of whether recent advancements in radiation sources and test media offered significant improvements over the current state of the art. Included were experiments characterizing common penetrant and magnetic particle materials to determine their fluorescent excitation spectra, and a comparison between the fluorescent excitation spectra and the emission spectra of common excitation sources. The relationship between exciter and test medium directly controls the luminance of a defect indication. As indication luminance increases, the probability of it being detected by the inspector increases. Fluorescent penetrant and magnetic particle test media were originally designed around the widely available filtered medium pressure mercury vapor lamp, which remains the standard excitation radiation source. Test media properties, and the types of available excitation sources have changed with time, and it was unclear whether present-day media was still best excited by the historical standard ultraviolet radiation source. Predictions and experimental work was performed to determine the optimal excitation source for fluorescent nondestructive testing, and to determine which safety lens option would offer the highest probability of detection. Improvement in radiation sources was primarily judged by an increase in fluorophore luminance versus background, which led to an increase in signal-to-noise ratio facilitating better indication detectability. Other factors considered were improved health and safety, and ease of use.

  2. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-01

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel + whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines.

  3. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-15

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7 days). The typical prescription dose was 60 Gy delivered at 0.5 cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9 to 750.0 mCi and measured exposure rates at 1 m from the head were less than 14 mR/h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel+ whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6 mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8 mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines.

  4. Legitimating a nuclear critic: John Gofman, radiation safety, and cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2008-01-01

    Whether low-level ionizing radiation has an effect on humans has been a polarizing issue for the last fifty years. The epicenter of this controversy has been the validity of the linear non-threshold dose-response model, according to which any amount of radiation, however small, causes damage to human genes and health. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the nuclear scientist and medical researcher John Gofman (1918-2007) played a pivotal role in the debate. Historical accounts have treated Gofman as a radical antinuclear scientist whose unscientific arguments put enormous political pressure on the nuclear power industry and regulatory agencies. Gofman's bitter struggle with the Atomic Energy Commission, which funded his research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, partly accounts for this view. However, my analysis of Gofman's involvement in the low-level radiation debate shows how he also helped shift the focus in radiation safety from the risks of genetic damage or leukemia to somatic or cancer risks. His arguments led to the introduction of the linear non-threshold radiation model as a means of numerically estimating cancer risks. This was a watershed event in radiation-safety science and politics. Gofman's case sheds light on the process by which a scientist could secure legitimation even when his technical arguments threatened the government's interests. I conclude that it also points to an open issue in the history of antinuclear scientists, or of other politically active scientists or technology critics: treating them as critics should not preclude historians from treating them as scientists.

  5. Posttherapy radiation safety considerations in radiomicrosphere treatment with 90Y-microspheres.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Seza A; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2007-12-01

    Radiomicrosphere treatment involves the intrahepatic arterial administration of (90)Y-resin or (90)Y-glass microspheres. The microspheres are biocompatible, but not biodegradable, and little to no (90)Y leaches from the microspheres. Without any bioelimination, the beta-dose delivery is generally confined to the liver. Although U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements permit patients treated with these microspheres to be released without the need for dose determination or patient instructions, there are important radiation safety issues that need scientific clarification. We carefully evaluated the radiation exposure mechanisms, including the bremsstrahlung radiation doses to others, for a variety of lifestyle behaviors. Dose estimates were also made for several practical and theoretic situations involving the patient's gonads, an embryo or fetus, and a nursing infant. For the infant, we evaluated the potential beta-dose that might be introduced via breast milk ingestion. The bremsstrahlung component of the decay scheme of the pure beta-emitter (90)Y has traditionally been ignored in internal and external dose calculations. Because the production of in vivo bremsstrahlung with the high-energy pure beta-particle-emitting radionuclides used for therapeutic purposes is sufficient to permit external detection and imaging, we believe that the contribution of such radiation should be considered with regard to patient release; we therefore chose to evaluate this potential external radiation hazard. In all cases, the estimated doses were very small, indicating that no patient restrictions are required for radiation safety purposes after the release of a patient who has been treated with (90)Y-microspheres.

  6. Radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization lab: A time series quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Abuzeid, Wael; Abunassar, Joseph; Leis, Jerome A; Tang, Vicky; Wong, Brian; Ko, Dennis T; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    Interventional cardiologists have one of the highest annual radiation exposures yet systems of care that promote radiation safety in cardiac catheterization labs are lacking. This study sought to reduce the frequency of radiation exposure, for PCI procedures, above 1.5Gy in labs utilizing a Phillips system at our local institution by 40%, over a 12-month period. We performed a time series study to assess the impact of different interventions on the frequency of radiation exposure above 1.5Gy. Process measures were percent of procedures where collimation and magnification were used and percent of completion of online educational modules. Balancing measures were the mean number of cases performed and mean fluoroscopy time. Information sessions, online modules, policies and posters were implemented followed by the introduction of a new lab with a novel software (AlluraClarity©) to reduce radiation dose. There was a significant reduction (91%, p<0.05) in the frequency of radiation exposure above 1.5Gy after utilizing a novel software (AlluraClarity©) in a new Phillips lab. Process measures of use of collimation (95.0% to 98.0%), use of magnification (20.0% to 14.0%) and completion of online modules (62%) helped track implementation. The mean number of cases performed and mean fluoroscopy time did not change significantly. While educational strategies had limited impact on reducing radiation exposure, implementing a novel software system provided the most effective means of reducing radiation exposure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modern Monte Carlo particle transport simulation for safety and radiation protection applications in accelerometer technology and in space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Detlef

    1992-04-01

    The application potential of modern particle radiation transport simulations to solve safety and radiation protection problems in accelerator technology and in space science and technology is presented. It is shown to what extent Monte Carlo simulation is helpful in defining safety regulations, safety standards and in determining corresponding safety proofs. For this purpose the basic methods are described and their performance together with particular examples are assessed. The state of the art of the computational methods is described together with the existing computer codes. The details of the current three dimensional geometry packages are also given. Necessary nuclear transport data and reaction cross sections in respect to shielding and safety protection problems are investigated. The performance and flexibility of HERMES (High Energy Radiation Monte Carlo Elaborate System), and its utilization in solving safety protection problems are demonstrated. Examples of radiation protection and high energy source shielding for medium and high energy particle accelerators and for high current particle accelerator target systems are summarized. Radiation protection and shielding of space vehicles against cosmic ray radiation are compiled and assessed. Validations of experimental results are also given.

  8. Radiation safety and ergonomics in the electrophysiology laboratory: update on recent advances.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish M; Nery, Pablo B; Redpath, Calum J; Sadek, Mouhannad M; Birnie, David H

    2016-01-01

    Risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation in patients undergoing electrophysiology procedures and interventional cardiac electrophysiologists performing these procedures are a serious concern. Strategies to reduce radiation exposure are of obvious importance. In addition, interventional cardiac electrophysiologists have to perform procedures wearing heavy lead protection for prolonged periods, making them prone to cervical and lumbar spinal injuries. Recently developed technologies, such as low-exposure radiographic imaging, novel radiographic imaging protection systems, nonfluoroscopic mapping systems using image integration, and remote catheter manipulation systems have been successful in reducing ionizing radiation exposure in the electrophysiology laboratory. The efficacy and safety of these technologies are being evaluated in clinical trials. In addition, economic analyses are being performed to evaluate these novel systems. The use of nonweight-bearing radiation protection devices and ergonomic design of the electrophysiology laboratory aim to reduce the incidence of occupational injuries in interventional cardiac electrophysiologists. There is need for ongoing development and evaluation of new technologies to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation during electrophysiologic procedures. In addition, ergonomic planning of the electrophysiology laboratory and training of interventional cardiac electrophysiologists are crucial to occupational injury prevention.

  9. Sample size allocation for food item radiation monitoring and safety inspection.

    PubMed

    Seto, Mayumi; Uriu, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to identify a procedure for determining sample size allocation for food radiation inspections of more than one food item to minimize the potential risk to consumers of internal radiation exposure. We consider a simplified case of food radiation monitoring and safety inspection in which a risk manager is required to monitor two food items, milk and spinach, in a contaminated area. Three protocols for food radiation monitoring with different sample size allocations were assessed by simulating random sampling and inspections of milk and spinach in a conceptual monitoring site. Distributions of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations were determined in reference to (131)I and radiocesium concentrations detected in Fukushima prefecture, Japan, for March and April 2011. The results of the simulations suggested that a protocol that allocates sample size to milk and spinach based on the estimation of (131)I and radiocesium concentrations using the apparent decay rate constants sequentially calculated from past monitoring data can most effectively minimize the potential risks of internal radiation exposure.

  10. Radiation Oncology Quality and Safety Considerations in Low-Resource Settings: A Medical Physics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Dyk, Jacob; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The past few years have seen a significant growth of interest in the global radiation therapy (RT) crisis. Various organizations have quantified the need and are providing aid in support of addressing the shortfalls existing in many low-to-middle income countries. With the tremendous demand for new facilities, equipment, and personnel, it is very important to recognize the quality and safety challenges and to address them directly. An examination of publications on quality and safety in RT indicates a consistency in a number of the recommendations; however, these authoritative reports were generally based on input from high-resourced contexts. Here, we review these recommendations with a special emphasis on issues that are significant in low-to-middle income countries. Although multidimensional, training, and staffing are top priorities, any support provided to lower-resourced settings must address the numerous facets associated with quality and safety indicators. Strong partnerships between high income and other countries will enhance the development of safe and resource-appropriate strategies for advancing the radiation treatment process. The real challenge is the engagement of a strong spirit of cooperation, collaboration, and communication among the multiple organizations in support of reducing the cancer divide and improving the provision of safe and effective RT.

  11. [Experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk population health].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Tutelyan, V A; Shur, P Z; Khotimchenko, S A; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is presented the experience of justification of hygienic standards of food safety with the use of criteria for the risk for population health. Health risk assessment under the impact of tetracyclines with food showed that the content of residual amounts of these antibiotics at the level of 10 mg/kg (permissible residual tetracycline accepted in Customs Union Member Countries (CUMC) will not increase the risk to public health, including the most sensitive groups of the population. The assessment ofthe health risk associated with the receipt of ractopamine with food, showed that eating foods containing ractopamine at ADI level (0-1 mg/kg body weight), and even at the limit of quantification levels in meat products, is inadmissible because of unacceptable risk of functional disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular system. The results of the substantiation of the permissible levels of nitrates content in crop production showed that at the level of exposure according to hygienic standards established in the CUMC as at the recommended and actual consumption levels of products ofplant origin, the health risk as carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic, does not exceed acceptable levels. The results of the assessment of the risk associated with the permissible levels of L. monocytogenes in certain food groups showed that an exposure level of hygienic standards established in the CUMC, standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and EU documents (before release to the market by the manufacturer) the health risk does not exceed the maximum permissible level of the appearance of serious diseases. Adoption of standards of Codex Alimentarius Commission and the EU (for handling products in the market) is not acceptable because it can lead to an unacceptable risk of listeriosis for the population of the Russian Federation as a whole, and for the most sensitive groups.

  12. Improving patient safety in the radiation oncology setting through crew resource management.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Srinath; Babbo, Angela E; Brown, John A; Doss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the communication patterns and protocol rigors of a methodology called crew resource management (CRM) can be adapted to a radiation oncology environment to create a culture of patient safety. CRM training was introduced to our comprehensive radiation oncology department in the autumn of 2009. With 34 full-time equivalent staff, we see 100-125 patients daily on 2 hospital campuses. We were assisted by a consulting group with considerable experience in helping hospitals incorporate CRM principles and practices. Implementation steps included developing change initiative skills for key leaders, providing training in teamwork and communications, creating site-specific tools for safety and efficiency, and collecting data to document results. Our goals were to improve patient safety, teamwork, communication, and efficiency through the use of tools we developed that emphasized teamwork and communication, cross-checking, and routinizing specific protocols. Our CRM plan relies on the following 4 pillars: patient identification methods; "pause for the cause"; enabling all staff to halt treatment and question decisions; and daily morning meetings. We discuss some of the hurdles to change we encountered. Our safety record has improved. Our near-miss rate before CRM implementation averaged 11 per month; our near-miss rate currently averages 1.2 per month. In the 5 years prior to CRM implementation, we experienced 1 treatment deviation per year, although none rose to the level of "mis-administration." Since implementing CRM, our current patient treatment setup and delivery process has eliminated all treatment deviations. Our practices have identified situations where ambiguity or conflicting documentation could have resulted in inappropriate treatment or treatment inefficiencies. Our staff members have developed an extraordinary sense of teamwork combined with a high degree of personal responsibility to assure patient safety and have spoken up when

  13. Safety and security of radiation sources in the aftermath of 11 September 2001.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, Joel O; Strom, Daniel J

    2002-08-01

    The attack on the United States on 11 September 2001 resulted in an increased awareness of the need for safety and security measures to protect against terrorism. The potential use of radiation sources in terrorism, in particular radioactive sources, was recognized prior to 11 September 2001, but has taken on new significance since. The planning of security measures for radioactive sources must take greater account of the potential for deliberate acts to attack or use radioactive sources to expose people and cause contamination. The potential consequences of an act of terrorism using radioactive sources can be gauged from the consequences of serious accidents that have occurred involving radioactive sources. These include fatal and injurious radiation exposures, contamination of the environment, and serious economic and psychosocial costs the total effect of which is mass disruption. Steps are being taken to improve security for radioactive sources but strategic approaches that can minimize the threat of radiological terrorism should be considered. When justifying a practice that uses radioactive sources, the potential for diversion or use in terrorism should be considered to be a detriment. In this regard, the consideration and development of alternatives to radioactive sources, such as radiation producing machines, have been recommended by terrorism experts as measures to reduce the threat of radiological terrorism. If a practice using radioactive sources is determined to be justified, the need for special security measures to protect against terrorism should then become part of the safety assessment.

  14. An analysis of radiation therapy medical events in New York State: the role of the state radiation programs in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Janaki; Salame-Alfie, Adela; O'Connell, John

    2014-05-01

    From 2001 through 2009, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) has documented 244 reports of radiation therapy events, of which 228 have resulted from the delivery of radiation beam therapy using linear accelerators (LINACs). Historically, radiation therapy events involving LINACs have not been uniformly reported across the country because LINACs are regulated by state radiation control programs, and reporting requirements vary among states. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Material Events Database (NMED) only tracks events involving radioactive materials (RAM). Efforts to track medical events involving LINACs at a national level have begun only recently. This article highlights the importance of tracking and analyzing all medical radiation events in order to improve quality of care and patient safety. An analysis of a subset of the data collected by the NYSDOH from 2001-2009 is presented. This subset consists of only events arising from the use of LINACs in radiation therapy. There are very few publications on errors and error rates in the use of medical accelerators in radiation therapy. This analysis highlights the most common types of errors, causes and contributing factors, areas for improvement and actions taken to bring this information to the regulated community. An error rate of 0.07% per patient receiving radiation treatment is estimated using these data and the New York State Tumor Registry data for the same period. NY State Regulations governing the practice of Radiation Oncology have been revised recently to reflect the increased complexity in the delivery of therapeutic radiation. Collaboration and sharing of data such as those presented here, between federal, state and local regulators, professional organizations such as the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD), American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American College of Radiology (ACR), American

  15. Incident Learning and Failure-Mode-and-Effects-Analysis Guided Safety Initiatives in Radiation Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Ajay; Goode, Gina; Riehl, Catherine; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Adair, Nilda; Interrante, Michael; Bloom, Beatrice; Lee, Lucille; Sharma, Rajiv; Sharma, Anurag; Antone, Jeffrey; Riegel, Adam; Vijeh, Lili; Zhang, Honglai; Cao, Yijian; Morgenstern, Carol; Montchal, Elaine; Cox, Brett; Potters, Louis

    2013-01-01

    By combining incident learning and process failure-mode-and-effects-analysis (FMEA) in a structure-process-outcome framework we have created a risk profile for our radiation medicine practice and implemented evidence-based risk-mitigation initiatives focused on patient safety. Based on reactive reviews of incidents reported in our departmental incident-reporting system and proactive FMEA, high safety-risk procedures in our paperless radiation medicine process and latent risk factors were identified. Six initiatives aimed at the mitigation of associated severity, likelihood-of-occurrence, and detectability risks were implemented. These were the standardization of care pathways and toxicity grading, pre-treatment-planning peer review, a policy to thwart delay-rushed processes, an electronic whiteboard to enhance coordination, and the use of six sigma metrics to monitor operational efficiencies. The effectiveness of these initiatives over a 3-years period was assessed using process and outcome specific metrics within the framework of the department structure. There has been a 47% increase in incident-reporting, with no increase in adverse events. Care pathways have been used with greater than 97% clinical compliance rate. The implementation of peer review prior to treatment-planning and use of the whiteboard have provided opportunities for proactive detection and correction of errors. There has been a twofold drop in the occurrence of high-risk procedural delays. Patient treatment start delays are routinely enforced on cases that would have historically been rushed. Z-scores for high-risk procedures have steadily improved from 1.78 to 2.35. The initiatives resulted in sustained reductions of failure-mode risks as measured by a set of evidence-based metrics over a 3-years period. These augment or incorporate many of the published recommendations for patient safety in radiation medicine by translating them to clinical practice. PMID:24380074

  16. TH-E-19A-01: Quality and Safety in Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E; Ezzell, G; Miller, B; Yorke, E

    2014-06-15

    Clinical radiotherapy data clearly demonstrate the link between the quality and safety of radiation treatments and the outcome for patients. The medical physicist plays an essential role in this process. To ensure the highest quality treatments, the medical physicist must understand and employ modern quality improvement techniques. This extends well beyond the duties traditionally associated with prescriptive QA measures. This session will review the current best practices for improving quality and safety in radiation therapy. General elements of quality management will be reviewed including: what makes a good quality management structure, the use of prospective risk analysis such as FMEA, and the use of incident learning. All of these practices are recommended in society-level documents and are incorporated into the new Practice Accreditation program developed by ASTRO. To be effective, however, these techniques must be practical in a resource-limited environment. This session will therefore focus on practical tools such as the newly-released radiation oncology incident learning system, RO-ILS, supported by AAPM and ASTRO. With these general constructs in mind, a case study will be presented of quality management in an SBRT service. An example FMEA risk assessment will be presented along with incident learning examples including root cause analysis. As the physicist's role as “quality officer” continues to evolve it will be essential to understand and employ the most effective techniques for quality improvement. This session will provide a concrete overview of the fundamentals in quality and safety. Learning Objectives: Recognize the essential elements of a good quality management system in radiotherapy. Understand the value of incident learning and the AAPM/ASTRO ROILS incident learning system. Appreciate failure mode and effects analysis as a risk assessment tool and its use in resource-limited environments. Understand the fundamental principles of good

  17. [Implementing new technology in radiation oncology: The French agency for nuclear safety (ASN) report].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, É-F; Lisbona, A; Isambert, A; Cadot, P; Derreumaux, S; Dupuis, O; Gérard, J-P; Ledu, D; Mahé, M-A; Marchesi, V; Mazurier, J; De Oliveira, A; Phare, O; Aubert, B

    2015-10-01

    In August 2013, the French nuclear safety agency (ASN) requested the permanent group of experts in radiation protection in medicine (GPMED) to propose recommendations on the implementation of new technology and techniques in radiation oncology. These recommendations were finalized in February 2015 by the GPMED. In April 2015, the ASN sent a letter to the French ministry of health (DGS/DGOS), and its national health agencies (ANSM, INCa, HAS). In these letters, ASN proposed that, from the 12 recommendations made by the GPMED, an action plan should be established, whose control could be assigned to the French national cancer institute (INCa), as a pilot of the national committee for radiotherapy and that this proposal has to be considered at the next meeting of the national committee of radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Radiation safety in the Russian atomic power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Aleksandr S.; Kiselev, Gennadii V.

    2003-07-01

    Of all the radioactive wastes known in nuclear power industry and engineering, long-lived actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel are the most hazardous. One way to reduce their radiation hazard is to resort to nuclear transmutation, which can be performed either in reactors of various types or in accelerator-driven subcritical systems, whose nuclear safety is superior to that of conventional reactors. Fundamentally resolving the problem of the destruction of long-lived radioactive wastes is likely to stimulate progress in the development of the nuclear power industry.

  19. Aspects of Maintenance Radiating Safety of Population of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra

    SciTech Connect

    Migunov, V. I.

    2007-05-22

    Dialogue with you in the given audience was to be begun with accent on a certain similarity in fields of activity. You are engaged in exotic conditions of kernels. We think that similar civil structures exist in other regions of Russian Federation. It is characteristic both for Department as a whole, and for its structures, for example, such as management of radiation safety on which work it will be informed hardly later. It speaks, mainly, that our district, as well as Russia as a whole, aspires to be the civilized, advanced community adequating to the world standards.

  20. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    2017-06-29

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P < .001). Time spent on safety reviews remained the same (20% of the allocated interval), but the peer review component increased. The Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are

  1. A Radiation Dose Reduction Technology to Improve Patient Safety During Cardiac Catheterization Interventions.

    PubMed

    Bracken, John A; Mauti, Maria; Kim, Michael S; Messenger, John C; Carroll, John D

    2015-10-01

    A novel radiation dose reduction technology was evaluated in a cardiac catheterization laboratory during routine clinical care to determine if it could reduce radiation dose to patients undergoing coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention. These results were compared to patients undergoing similar procedures in a cardiac catheterization laboratory without this technology. There is a safety priority in clinical care to reduce X-ray radiation dose to patients in order to lower the risk of deterministic and stochastic effects. Dose reduction technologies must be verified in clinical settings to prove if they reduce X-ray radiation dose and to what extent. Radiation dose data and procedure characteristics of 268 consecutive patients were collected and analyzed from a cardiac catheterization laboratory with dose reduction technology installed (referred to as Lab A, n = 135) and from a cardiac catheterization laboratory without this technology (referred as Lab B, n = 133). For diagnostic procedures, the median total dose-area product in Lab A was reduced by 46% (P < 0.0001) compared to Lab B, with no differences in terms of body mass index (P = 0.180), total fluoroscopy times (P = 1), number of acquired images (P = 0.920), and contrast medium (P = 0.660). For interventional procedures, the median total dose-area product in Lab A was reduced by 34% (P = 0.015) compared to Lab B, with no differences in terms of body mass index (P = 0.665), total fluoroscopy times (P = 0.765), number of acquired images (P = 0.923), and contrast medium (P = 0.969). This new dose reduction technology significantly reduces X-ray radiation dose without affecting fluoroscopy time, number of images, and contrast medium used during diagnostic and interventional coronary procedures. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.; /SLAC

    2007-12-17

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference.

  3. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. January 1970-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation-protection methods and techniques are described, and safety techniques for specific radiology procedures are detailed. Radiation exposure of health workers and patients is discussed. Safety limits are defined. (Contains 166 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  4. Journey Toward High Reliability: A Comprehensive Safety Program to Improve Quality of Care and Safety Culture in a Large, Multisite Radiation Oncology Department.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Volz, Edna; Maity, Amit; Gabriel, Peter E; Solberg, Timothy D; Bergendahl, Howard W; Hahn, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    High-reliability organizations (HROs) focus on continuous identification and improvement of safety issues. We sought to advance a large, multisite radiation oncology department toward high reliability through the implementation of a comprehensive safety culture (SC) program at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Radiation Oncology. In 2011, with guidance from safety literature and experts in HROs, we designed an SC framework to reduce radiation errors. All state-reported medical events (SRMEs) from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a control chart. Changes in SC grade were assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey. Outcomes measured included the number of radiation treatment fractions and days between SRMEs, as well as SC grade. Multifaceted safety initiatives were implemented at our main academic center and across all network sites. Postintervention results demonstrate increased staff fundamental safety knowledge, enhanced peer review with an electronic system, and special cause variation of SRMEs on control chart analysis. From 2009 to 2016, the number of days and fractions between SRMEs significantly increased, from a mean of 174 to 541 days (P < .0075) and 21,678 to 113,104 fractions (P < .0028) preintervention and postintervention, respectively. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality results demonstrate a high patient SC grade over time. Our journey toward becoming an HRO has led to the development of a robust SC through a comprehensive safety framework. Our multifaceted initiatives, focusing on culture and system changes, can be successfully implemented in a large academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in SC and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Six sigma tools for a patient safety-oriented, quality-checklist driven radiation medicine department.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Ajay; Potters, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and implement six sigma practices toward the enhancement of patient safety in an electronic, quality checklist-driven, multicenter, paperless radiation medicine department. A quality checklist process map (QPM), stratified into consultation through treatment-completion stages was incorporated into an oncology information systems platform. A cross-functional quality management team conducted quality-function-deployment and define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) six sigma exercises with a focus on patient safety. QPM procedures were Pareto-sorted in order of decreasing patient safety risk with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Quantitative metrics for a grouped set of highest risk procedures were established. These included procedural delays, associated standard deviations and six sigma Z scores. Baseline performance of the QPM was established over the previous year of usage. Data-driven analysis led to simplification, standardization, and refinement of the QPM with standard deviation, slip-day reduction, and Z-score enhancement goals. A no-fly policy (NFP) for patient safety was introduced at the improve-control DMAIC phase, with a process map interlock imposed on treatment initiation in the event of FMEA-identified high-risk tasks being delayed or not completed. The NFP was introduced in a pilot phase with specific stopping rules and the same metrics used for performance assessments. A custom root-cause analysis database was deployed to monitor patient safety events. Relative to the baseline period, average slip days and standard deviations for the risk-enhanced QPM procedures improved by over threefold factors in the NFP period. The Z scores improved by approximately 20%. A trend for proactive delays instead of reactive hard stops was observed with no adverse effects of the NFP. The number of computed potential no-fly delays per month dropped from 60 to 20 over a total of 520 cases. The fraction of computed

  6. Brachytherapy patient safety events in an academic radiation medicine program.

    PubMed

    Felder, Shira; Morley, Lyndon; Ng, Elizabeth; Chan, Kitty; Ballantyne, Heather; Di Tomasso, Anne; Borg, Jette; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Breen, Stephen; Waldron, John; Rink, Alexandra; Milosevic, Michael

    2017-07-27

    To describe the incidence and type of brachytherapy patient safety events over 10 years in an academic brachytherapy program. Brachytherapy patient safety events reported between January 2007 and August 2016 were retrieved from the incident reporting system and reclassified using the recently developed National System for Incident Reporting in Radiation Treatment taxonomy. A multi-incident analysis was conducted to identify common themes and key learning points. During the study period, 3095 patients received 4967 brachytherapy fractions. An additional 179 patients had MR-guided prostate biopsies without treatment as part of an interventional research program. A total of 94 brachytherapy- or biopsy-related safety events (incidents, near misses, or programmatic hazards) were identified, corresponding to a rate of 2.8% of brachytherapy patients, 1.7% of brachytherapy fractions, and 3.4% of patients undergoing MR-guided prostate biopsy. Fifty-one (54%) events were classified as actual incidents, 29 (31%) as near misses, and 14 (15%) as programmatic hazards. Two events were associated with moderate acute medical harm or dosimetric severity, and two were associated with high dosimetric severity. Multi-incident analysis identified five high-risk activities or clinical scenarios as follows: (1) uncommon, low-volume or newly implemented brachytherapy procedures, (2) real-time MR-guided brachytherapy or biopsy procedures, (3) use of in-house devices or software, (4) manual data entry, and (5) patient scheduling and handoffs. Brachytherapy is a safe treatment and associated with a low rate of patient safety events. Effective incident management is a key element of continuous quality improvement and patient safety in brachytherapy. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety Strategies in an Academic Radiation Oncology Department and Recommendations for Action

    PubMed Central

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Pronovost, Peter; Harris, Kendra; DeWeese, Theodore; Ford, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety initiatives in the United States continue to work on providing guidance as to how the average practitioner might make patients safer in the face of the complex process by which radiation therapy (RT), an essential treatment used in the management of many patients with cancer, is prepared and delivered. Quality control measures can uncover certain specific errors such as machine dose mis-calibration or misalignments of the patient in the radiation treatment beam. However, they are less effective at uncovering less common errors that can occur anywhere along the treatment planning and delivery process, and even when the process is functioning as intended, errors still occur. Prioritizing Risks and Implementing Risk-Reduction Strategies Activities undertaken at the radiation oncology department at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore) include Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), risk-reduction interventions, and voluntary error and near-miss reporting systems. A visual process map portrayed 269 RT steps occurring among four subprocesses—including consult, simulation, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Two FMEAs revealed 127 and 159 possible failure modes, respectively. Risk-reduction interventions for 15 “top-ranked” failure modes were implemented. Since the error and near-miss reporting system’s implementation in the department in 2007, 253 events have been logged. However, the system may be insufficient for radiation oncology, for which a greater level of practice-specific information is required to fully understand each event. Conclusions The “basic science” of radiation treatment has received considerable support and attention in developing novel therapies to benefit patients. The time has come to apply the same focus and resources to ensuring that patients safely receive the maximal benefits possible. PMID:21819027

  8. Implementation of a "No Fly" safety culture in a multicenter radiation medicine department.

    PubMed

    Potters, Louis; Kapur, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    The safe delivery of radiation therapy requires multiple disciplines and interactions to perform flawlessly for each patient. Because treatment is individualized and every aspect of the patient's care is unique, it is difficult to regiment a delivery process that works flawlessly. The purpose of this study is to describe one safety-directed component of our quality program called the "No Fly Policy" (NFP). Our quality assurance program for radiation therapy reviewed the entire process of care prior, during, and after a patient's treatment course. Each component of care was broken down and rebuilt within a matrix of multidisciplinary safety quality checklists (QCL). The QCL process map was subsequently streamlined with revised task due dates and stopping rules. The NFP was introduced to place a holding pattern on treatment initiation pending reconciliation of associated stopping events. The NFP was introduced in a pilot phase using a Six-Sigma process improvement approach. Quantitative analysis on the performance of the new QCLs was performed using crystal reports in the Oncology Information Systems. Root cause analysis was conducted. Notable improvements in QCL performance were observed. The variances among staff in completing tasks reduced by a factor of at least 3, suggesting better process control. Steady improvements over time indicated an increasingly compliant and controlled adoption of the new safety-oriented process map. Stopping events led to rescheduling treatments with average and maximum delays of 2 and 4 days, respectively, with no reported adverse effects. The majority of stopping events were due to incomplete plan approvals stemming from treatment planning delays. Whereas these may have previously solicited last-minute interventions, including intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance, the NFP enabled nonpunitive, reasonable schedule adjustments to mitigate compromises in safe delivery. Implementation of the NFP has helped to mitigate

  9. Radiation protection during space flight.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E

    1983-12-01

    The problem of ensuring space flight safety arises from conditions inherent to space flights and outer space and from the existing weight limitations of spacecraft. In estimating radiation hazard during space flights, three natural sources are considered: the Earth's radiation belt, solar radiation, and galactic radiation. This survey first describes the major sources of radiation hazard in outer space with emphasis on those source parameters directly related to shielding manned spacecraft. Then, the current status of the safety criteria used in the shielding calculations is discussed. The rest of the survey is devoted to the rationale for spacecraft radiation shielding calculations. The recently completed long-term space flights indicate the reliability of the radiation safety measures used for the near-Earth space exploration. While planning long-term interplanetary flights, it is necessary to solve a number of complicated technological problems related to the radiation protection of the crew.

  10. An improved maximum permissible exposure meter for safety assessments of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corder, D. A.; Evans, D. R.; Tyrer, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Current interest in laser radiation safety requires demonstration that a laser system has been designed to prevent exposure to levels of laser radiation exceeding the Maximum Permissible Exposure. In some simple systems it is possible to prove this by calculation, but in most cases it is preferable to confirm calculated results with a measurement. This measurement may be made with commercially available equipment, but there are limitations with this approach. A custom designed instrument is presented in which the full range of measurement issues have been addressed. Important features of the instrument are the design and optimisation of detector heads for the measurement task, and consideration of user interface requirements. Three designs for detector head are presented, these cover the majority of common laser types. Detector heads are designed to optimise the performance of relatively low cost detector elements for this measurement task. The three detector head designs are suitable for interfacing to photodiodes, low power thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. Design of the user interface was an important aspect of the work. A user interface which is designed for the specific application minimises the risk of user error or misinterpretation of the measurement results. A palmtop computer was used to provide an advanced user interface. User requirements were considered in order that the final implement was well matched to the task of laser radiation hazard audits.

  11. Radiation Safety Aspects of the Linac Coherent Light Source Project At SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Fasso, A.; Mao, S.; Vincke, H.; /SLAC /LCLS

    2005-07-06

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission based Free Electron Laser (FEL) that is being designed and built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) by a multilaboratory collaboration. This facility will provide ultra-short pulses of coherent x-ray radiation with the fundamental harmonic energy tunable over the energy range of 0.82 to 8.2 keV. One-third of the existing SLAC LINAC will compress and accelerate the electron beam to energies ranging from 4.5 GeV to 14.35 GeV. The beam will then be transported through a 130-meter long undulator, emit FEL and spontaneous radiation. After passing through the undulator, the electron beam is bent to the main electron dump. The LCLS will have two experiment halls as well as x-ray optics and infrastructure necessary to make use of the FEL for research and development in a variety of scientific fields. The facility design will incorporate features that would make it possible to expand in future such that up to 6 independent undulators can be used. While some of the radiation protection issues for the LCLS are similar to those encountered at both high-energy electron linacs and synchrotron radiation facilities, LCLS poses new challenges as well. Some of these new issues include: the length of the facility and of the undulator, the experimental floor in line with the electron beam and the occupancy near zero degrees, and the very high instantaneous intensity of the FEL. The shielding design criteria, methodology, and results from Monte Carlo and analytical calculations are presented.

  12. Probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of ready-to-eat foods with new European Union safety criteria for Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S

    2007-08-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, a(w), shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its "use-by" date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion.

  13. Probabilistic Modeling Approach for Evaluating the Compliance of Ready-To-Eat Foods with New European Union Safety Criteria for Listeria monocytogenes▿

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos; Angelidis, Apostolos S.

    2007-01-01

    Among the new microbiological criteria that have been incorporated in EU Regulation 2073/2005, of particular interest are those concerning Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to eat (RTE) foods, because for certain food categories, they no longer require zero tolerance but rather specify a maximum allowable concentration of 100 CFU/g or ml. This study presents a probabilistic modeling approach for evaluating the compliance of RTE sliced meat products with the new safety criteria for L. monocytogenes. The approach was based on the combined use of (i) growth/no growth boundary models, (ii) kinetic growth models, (iii) product characteristics data (pH, aw, shelf life) collected from 160 meat products from the Hellenic retail market, and (iv) storage temperature data recorded from 50 retail stores in Greece. This study shows that probabilistic analysis of the above components using Monte Carlo simulation, which takes into account the variability of factors affecting microbial growth, can lead to a realistic estimation of the behavior of L. monocytogenes throughout the food supply chain, and the quantitative output generated can be further used by food managers as a decision-making tool regarding the design or modification of a product's formulation or its “use-by” date in order to ensure its compliance with the new safety criteria. The study also argues that compliance of RTE foods with the new safety criteria should not be considered a parameter with a discrete and binary outcome because it depends on factors such as product characteristics, storage temperature, and initial contamination level, which display considerable variability even among different packages of the same RTE product. Rather, compliance should be expressed and therefore regulated in a more probabilistic fashion. PMID:17557858

  14. Radiation safety knowledge and perceptions among residents: a potential improvement opportunity for graduate medical education in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Khan, Ramsha; Kassin, Michael T; Applegate, Kimberly E

    2014-07-01

    To investigate residents' knowledge of adverse effects of ionizing radiation, frequency of their education on radiation safety, and their use of radioprotective equipment. Residents from 15/16 residency programs at Emory University were asked to complete a resident radiation safety survey through SurveyMonkey(®). The associations between the residents' knowledge and use of radioprotective equipment with residents' specialty and year of training were investigated. Response rate was 32.5% (173/532 residents). Thirty-nine percent residents reported radiation safety is discussed in their residency curriculum at least every 6 months. Ninety-five percent believed in a link between radiation exposure and development of cancer. Overall and Radiology residents' knowledge about specific estimated dose effects (correct responses) was limited: radiation dose associated with fetus brain malformation in pregnancy (10% vs. 26%), risk of developing cataract in interventional personnel (27% vs. 47%), lifetime risk of cancer mortality from a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) in children (22% vs. 29%), greater radiosensitivity of children compared to adults (35% vs. 50%), and relative radiation dose from an abdominal CT compared to a chest x-ray (51% vs. 48%). Radiology residents had modestly higher knowledge. There was no significant difference in residents' knowledge across their postgraduate training years. Use of lead thyroid shields was reported by 86% (97% radiology vs. 80% nonradiology; P = .03) and radiation-monitoring badges in 39% (68% radiology vs. 15% nonradiology; P < .001) of the residents. Although radiology residents scored higher, knowledge of radiation safety for patients and healthcare workers is limited among residents regardless of medical specialty. These findings emphasize the need for educational initiatives. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation safety protocol for high dose 131I therapy of thyroid carcinoma in patients on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Almodovar, Samuel; Bass, William B; Ojha, Buddhiwardhan

    2007-02-01

    Iodine ablation therapy for thyroid cancer on patients receiving dialysis poses unique radiation safety challenges. Exposure to gamma and beta negative particles by the hemodialysis (HD) staff is a concern that has not been well studied. A 53-y-old male patient on HD for chronic renal failure was scheduled for 131I high dose therapy as treatment for thyroid papillary carcinoma. The patient was on HD every other day, prior to ablation. A high dose of 131I (3,607.5 MBq) was required. The patient was admitted for 131I therapy, and continued HD. Thyroid cancer ablation therapy was administered according to our institutional protocol. New radiation safety measures were developed and implemented in order to give the patient an optimal treatment dose, reduce radiation to the patient (critical organs and whole body), and to protect the HD personnel. This included placing two lead shields between the patient and the HD nurse, and HD monitoring by two alternating nurses to reduce their radiation exposure. Film badges were used to measure radiation exposure to the nursing staff. Dosimetry calculations were obtained to determine radiation absorbed doses by the optic lens, skin, and whole body. Quality control verification for this shielding arrangement proved to be effective in protecting the HD staff against gamma and beta negative radiation from recent 131I high dose therapy. Implementation of this model proved to be an effective and adequate radiation safety protocol for limiting radiation exposure to the HD staff. The patient was given 3607.5 MBq for optimal treatment after HD. Hemodialysis was repeated after approximately 48 and 96 h to remove excess 131I and reduce radiation to the patient.

  16. Pregnant x-ray technologist: providing adequate radiation safety for the fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Caprio, M.L. Jr.

    1980-09-01

    The human embryo-fetus is highly radiosensitive and must be protected from excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. The maximum permissible dose equivalent for the developing embryo-fetus is set at 0.5 rem per year - the MPD level for members of the general public. Methods by which supervisory personnel can limit the fetal dose incurred by the occupational exposure of the mother are presented. It is recommended that supervisory personnel attempt to limit occupational exposure to the current non-occupational MPD levels for all x-ray technologists, thereby, insuring that the fetal dose limits are not surpassed and providing an added safety factor for personnel by keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable.

  17. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    DOE PAGES

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are alreadymore » present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.« less

  18. Application of an Informatics-Based Decision-Making Framework and Process to the Assessment of Radiation Safety in Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Mark D.; Myers, David S.; Cash, Leigh J.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R.; Boecker, Bruce B.; Grissom, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this article presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  19. Application of an informatics-based decision-making framework and process to the assessment of radiation safety in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Mark D; Myers, David S; Cash, Leigh J; Guilmette, Raymond A; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Oberdörster, Günter; Smith, Rachel; Cassata, James R; Boecker, Bruce B; Grissom, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established NCRP Scientific Committee 2-6 to develop a report on the current state of knowledge and guidance for radiation safety programs involved with nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at the nanoscale, at dimensions between ∼1 and 100 nm, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. While the full report is in preparation, this paper presents and applies an informatics-based decision-making framework and process through which the radiation protection community can anticipate that nano-enabled applications, processes, nanomaterials, and nanoparticles are likely to become present or are already present in radiation-related activities; recognize specific situations where environmental and worker safety, health, well-being, and productivity may be affected by nano-related activities; evaluate how radiation protection practices may need to be altered to improve protection; control information, interpretations, assumptions, and conclusions to implement scientifically sound decisions and actions; and confirm that desired protection outcomes have been achieved. This generally applicable framework and supporting process can be continuously applied to achieve health and safety at the convergence of nanotechnology and radiation-related activities.

  20. Knowledge management: Role of the the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Timothy

    2017-09-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an information analysis center that collects, archives, evaluates, synthesizes and distributes information, data and codes that are used in various nuclear technology applications. RSICC retains more than 2,000 software packages that have been provided by code developers from various federal and international agencies. RSICC's customers (scientists, engineers, and students from around the world) obtain access to such computing codes (source and/or executable versions) and processed nuclear data files to promote on-going research, to ensure nuclear and radiological safety, and to advance nuclear technology. The role of such information analysis centers is critical for supporting and sustaining nuclear education and training programs both domestically and internationally, as the majority of RSICC's customers are students attending U.S. universities. Additionally, RSICC operates a secure CLOUD computing system to provide access to sensitive export-controlled modeling and simulation (M&S) tools that support both domestic and international activities. This presentation will provide a general review of RSICC's activities, services, and systems that support knowledge management and education and training in the nuclear field.

  1. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author`s responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A.

  2. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. (a) During normal operations and... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation...

  3. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. (a) During normal operations and... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation...

  4. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. 72.104 Section 72.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS. (a) During normal operations and... radioactive materials, radon and its decay products excepted, to the general environment, (2) Direct radiation...

  5. Improvement of microbiological safety of sous-vide meals by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, J.; Polyák-Fehér, K.; Andrássy, É.; Mészáros, L.

    2002-03-01

    Experimental batches of smoked-cured pork in stewed beans sauce were inoculated with spores of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, more heat and radiation resistant than spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. After vacuum packaging, the meals were treated with combinations of pasteurizing heat treatments and gamma irradiation of 5 kGy. Prior and after treatments, and periodically during storage at 10°C, total aerobic and total anerobic viable cell counts, and selectively, the viable cell counts of B. cereus and sulphite-reducing clostridia have been determined. The effects of the treatment order as well as addition of nisin to enhance the preservative efficiency of the physical treatments were also studied. Heat-sensitization of bacterial spores surviving irradiation occurred. The quality-friendly sous-vide cooking in combination with this medium dose gamma irradiation and/or nisin addition increased considerably the microbiological safety and the keeping quality of the meals studied. However, approx. 40% loss of thiamin content occurred as an effect of combination treatments, and adverse sensorial effects may also limit the feasible radiation doses or the usable concentrations of nisin.

  6. Evaluation of Safety in a Radiation Oncology Setting Using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C. Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y.; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Results: Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. Conclusions: The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard.

  7. Evaluation of safety in a radiation oncology setting using failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric C; Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y; Wong, John; Deweese, Theodore L

    2009-07-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard.

  8. EVALUATION OF SAFETY IN A RADIATION ONCOLOGY SETTING USING FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Eric C.; Gaudette, Ray; Myers, Lee; Vanderver, Bruce; Engineer, Lilly; Zellars, Richard; Song, Danny Y.; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a widely used tool for prospectively evaluating safety and reliability. We report our experiences in applying FMEA in the setting of radiation oncology. Methods and Materials We performed an FMEA analysis for our external beam radiation therapy service, which consisted of the following tasks: (1) create a visual map of the process, (2) identify possible failure modes; assign risk probability numbers (RPN) to each failure mode based on tabulated scores for the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability, each on a scale of 1 to 10; and (3) identify improvements that are both feasible and effective. The RPN scores can span a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating the relative importance of a given failure mode. Results Our process map consisted of 269 different nodes. We identified 127 possible failure modes with RPN scores ranging from 2 to 160. Fifteen of the top-ranked failure modes were considered for process improvements, representing RPN scores of 75 and more. These specific improvement suggestions were incorporated into our practice with a review and implementation by each department team responsible for the process. Conclusions The FMEA technique provides a systematic method for finding vulnerabilities in a process before they result in an error. The FMEA framework can naturally incorporate further quantification and monitoring. A general-use system for incident and near miss reporting would be useful in this regard. PMID:19409731

  9. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  10. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of radiation-sterilized bone allografts in reconstructive oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Kamiński, Artur; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Piekarczyk, Piotr; Fiedor, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Bone grafting allows reconstruction of the atrophied or destroyed alveolar process. In orthopaedics and traumatology allogeneic grafting has been used to restore defects of osseous tissue for over 60 years. In order to improve safety of the graft recipient, sterilized allogeneic grafts have been use. The aim of the study was to assess the direct and long-term outcomes following augmentation of atrophied alveolar processes with the use of radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts. Sixty-eight patients were surgically treated between 2004 and 2011: 29 underwent open sinus floor elevation, post-extraction alveoli augmentation was performed in 16 subjects and 23 underwent reconstruction of the atrophied alveolar process. Augmentation of bone defects used bone granulate in 63 patients and bone blocks stabilized with titanium screws in 5 patients. PRF membranes collected from the patient's blood were also used in all the procedures. In each of the cases optimal dimensions of the alveolar process were obtained allowing embedment of BIOMET 3I dental implant/-s. In all the patients the defects were successfully restored with implant-supported prostheses. Radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts proved to be safe and effective for the patients and manageable for the surgeon constituting a good alternative to autogeneic material.

  11. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Dinakaran, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

  12. The implementation and assessment of a quality and safety culture education program in a large radiation oncology department.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Kristina D; Volz, Edna; Bellerive, Marc; Bergendahl, Howard W; Gabriel, Peter E; Maity, Amit; Hahn, Stephen M; Vapiwala, Neha

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology launched a national campaign to improve patient safety in radiation therapy. One recommendation included the expansion of educational programs dedicated to quality and safety. We subsequently implemented a quality and safety culture education program (Q-SCEP) in our large radiation oncology department. The purpose of this study is to describe the design, implementation, and impact of this Q-SCEP. In 2010, we instituted a comprehensive Q-SCEP, consisting of a longitudinal series of lectures, meetings, and interactive workshops. Participation was mandatory for all department members across all network locations. Electronic surveys were administered to assess employee engagement, knowledge retention, preferred learning styles, and the program's overall impact. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Survey on Patient Safety Culture was administered. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 100% of targeted staff participated in Q-SCEP. Thirty-three percent (132 of 400) and 30% (136 of 450) responded to surveys in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Mean scores improved from 73% to 89% (P < .001), with the largest improvement seen among therapists (+21.7%). The majority strongly agreed that safety culture education was critical to performing their jobs well. Full course compliance was achieved despite the sizable number of personnel and treatment centers. Periodic assessments demonstrated high knowledge retention, which significantly improved over time in nearly all department divisions. Additionally, our AHRQ patient safety grade remains high and continues to improve. These results will be used to further enhance ongoing internal safety initiatives and to inform future innovative efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 3: PRA and HRA; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1997-02-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Fourth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 21--23, 1996. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Czech Republic, Finland, France, Japan, Norway, Russia and United Kingdom. This volume is divided into the following sections: PRA and HRA and probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and seismic siting criteria. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Radiation Segmentectomy: A Novel Approach to Increase Safety and Efficacy of Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Baker, Talia; Kulik, Laura; Gupta, Ramona; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B.; Omary, Reed; Millender, Laura; Kennedy, Andrew; Salem, Riad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a technique of segmental radioembolization for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiation segmentectomy was defined as radioembolization of two or fewer hepatic segments. We sought to (1) calculate dose when activity is delivered segmentally assuming uniform and nonuniform distribution and, (2) determine safety and efficacy of this novel technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients with HCC who were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization using a segmental approach were included in this analysis. The dose delivered to the segment was calculated assuming uniform and nonuniform microsphere distribution within the treatment volume. To calculate dose assuming nonuniform distribution, a tumor hypervascularity ratio was assigned. Posttreatment response (using size and necrosis guidelines), toxicity, time to progression, and survival were determined. Results: The median treatment volume was 110 cm{sup 3}. The median radiation-naive liver volume was 1403 cm{sup 3}. The median dose delivered to the segment(s) assuming uniform distribution was 521 Gy. Taking into account tumor hypervascularity (nonuniform distribution), the median dose delivered to the tumor and normal infused hepatic volume was 1214 Gy and 210 Gy, respectively. Response by size and necrosis guidelines was seen in 59% and 81% of patients. Grade 3/4 biochemical toxicities were observed in 8 patients (9%). Median time to progression was 13.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.3-18.7 months); median survival was 26.9 months (95% confidence interval, 20.5-30.2 months). Conclusions: Radiation segmentectomy is a safe and efficacious method of selectively delivering high dose to the tumor with minimal exposure of normal parenchyma.

  15. Applications of radiation processing in combination with conventional treatments to assure food safety: New development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Turgis, M.; Borsa, J.; Millette, M.; Salmieri, S.; Caillet, S.; Han, J.

    2009-11-01

    Spice extracts under the form of essential oils (Eos) were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative bacterial radiosensitivity (RBR) of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonellatyphi in culture media under different atmospheric conditions. The selected Eos were tested for their ability to reduce the dose necessary to eliminate E. coli and S.typhi in medium fat ground beef (23% fat) and Listeria in ready-to-eat carrots when packed under air or under atmosphere rich in oxygen (MAP). Results have demonstrated that depending of the compound added and the combined treatment used, the RBR increased from 2 to 4 times. In order to evaluate the industrial feasibility, EOs were added in ground beef at a concentration which does not affect the taste and treated at a dose of 1.5 kGy. The content of total mesophilic aerobic, E. coli, Salmonella, total coliform, lactic acid bacteria, and Pseudomonas was determined during 28 days. The results showed that the combined treatment (radiation and EOs) can eliminate Salmonella and E. coli when done under air. When done under MAP, Pseudomonas could be eliminated and a shelf life of more than 28 days was observed. An active edible coating containing EOs was also developed and sprayed on ready-to-eat carrots before radiation treatment and Listeria was evaluated. A complete inhibition of Listeria was obtained at a dose of 0.5 kGy when applied under MAP. Our results have shown that the combination of an edible coating, MAP, and radiation can be used to maintain the safety of meat and vegetables.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of a radiation safety training intervention for oncology nurses: a pretest – intervention – posttest study

    PubMed Central

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Kelvin, Joanne F; Horan, Christopher L; St Germain, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Background Radiation, for either diagnosis or treatment, is used extensively in the field of oncology. An understanding of oncology radiation safety principles and how to apply them in practice is critical for nursing practice. Misconceptions about radiation are common, resulting in undue fears and concerns that may negatively impact patient care. Effectively educating nurses to help overcome these misconceptions is a challenge. Historically, radiation safety training programs for oncology nurses have been compliance-based and behavioral in philosophy. Methods A new radiation safety training initiative was developed for Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) adapting elements of current adult education theories to address common misconceptions and to enhance knowledge. A research design for evaluating the revised training program was also developed to assess whether the revised training program resulted in a measurable and/or statistically significant change in the knowledge or attitudes of nurses toward working with radiation. An evaluation research design based on a conceptual framework for measuring knowledge and attitude was developed and implemented using a pretest-intervention-posttest approach for 15% of the study population of 750 inpatient registered oncology nurses. Results As a result of the intervention program, there was a significant difference in nurse's cognitive knowledge as measured with the test instrument from pretest (58.9%) to posttest (71.6%). The evaluation also demonstrated that while positive nursing attitudes increased, the increase was significant for only 5 out of 9 of the areas evaluated. Conclusion The training intervention was effective for increasing cognitive knowledge, but was less effective at improving overall attitudes. This evaluation provided insights into the effectiveness of training interventions on the radiation safety knowledge and attitude of oncology nurses. PMID:16762060

  17. The Cold War legacy of regulatory risk analysis: The Atomic Energy Commission and radiation safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Joseph B.

    From its inception in 1946 the Atomic Energy Commission pioneered the use of risk analysis as a mode of regulatory rationality and political rhetoric, yet historical treatments of risk analysis nearly always overlook the important role it played in the administration of atomic energy during the early Cold War. How this absence from history has been achieved and why it characterizes most historical accounts are the subjects of Chapter II. From there, this study goes on to develop the thesis that the advent of the atomic bomb was a world-shattering event that forced the Truman administration to choose between two novel alternatives: (1) movement towards global governance based initially on cooperative control of atomic energy or (2) unsparing pursuit of nuclear superiority. I refer to these as nuclear internationalism and nuclear nationalism, respectively. Each defined a social risk hierarchy. With the triumph of nuclear nationalism, nuclear annihilation was designated the greatest risk and a strong nuclear defense the primary means of prevention. The AEC's mission in the 1950s consisted of the rapid development of a nuclear arsenal, continual improvements in weapons technologies, and the promotion of nuclear power. The agency developed a risk-based regulatory framework through its dominant position within the National Committee on Radiation Protection. It embraced a technocratic model of risk analysis whose articulation and application it controlled, largely in secret. It used this to undergird a public rhetoric of reassurance and risk minimization. In practice, safety officials adjusted exposure levels within often wide parameters and with considerable fluidity in order to prevent safety concerns from interfering with operations. Secrecy, the political climate of the time, and a lack of accountability enabled the agency to meld technical assessments with social value judgments in a manner reflective of nuclear nationalism's risk hierarchy. In the late fifties

  18. 78 FR 51754 - Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S. Department of the Army, Jefferson Proving Ground, Madison, Indiana AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  19. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.104 Criteria for radioactive...

  20. 10 CFR 72.104 - Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct radiation from an ISFSI or MRS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for radioactive materials in effluents and direct...) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.104 Criteria for radioactive...

  1. Space Tethers Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, Donald D.; Faile, Gwyn C.; Hayashida, Kazuo B.; Frost, Cynthia L.; Wagner, Carole Y.; Mitchell, Michael L.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Galuska, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    The small expendable deployable system and tether satellite system programs did not have a uniform written criteria for tethers. The JSC safety panel asked what criteria was used to design the tethers. Since none existed, a criteria was written based on past experience for future tether programs.

  2. SU-E-J-04: A Data-Driven, Response-Based, Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Personalized Lung Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y; McShan, D; Schipper, M; Matuszak, M; Ten Haken, R; Kong, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a decision support tool to predict a patient's potential overall survival (OS) and radiation induced toxicity (RIT) based on clinical factors and responses during the course of radiotherapy, and suggest appropriate radiation dose adjustments to improve therapeutic effect. Methods: Important relationships between a patient's basic information and their clinical features before and during the radiation treatment are identified from historical clinical data by using statistical learning and data mining approaches. During each treatment period, a data analysis (DA) module predicts radiotherapy features such as time to local progression (TTLP), time to distant metastases (TTDM), radiation toxicity to different organs, etc., under possible future treatment plans based on patient specifics or responses. An information fusion (IF) module estimates intervals for a patient's OS and the probabilities of RIT from a treatment plan by integrating the outcomes of module DA. A decision making (DM) module calculates “satisfaction” with the predicted radiation outcome based on trade-offs between OS and RIT, and finds the best treatment plan for the next time period via multi-criteria optimization. Results: Using physical and biological data from 130 lung cancer patients as our test bed, we were able to train and implement the 3 modules of our decision support tool. Examples demonstrate how it can help predict a new patient's potential OS and RIT with different radiation dose plans along with how these combinations change with dose, thus presenting a range of satisfaction/utility for use in individualized decision support. Conclusion: Although the decision support tool is currently developed from a small patient sample size, it shows the potential for the improvement of each patient's satisfaction in personalized radiation therapy. The radiation treatment outcome prediction and decision making model needs to be evaluated with more patients and demonstrated for

  3. SU-F-P-08: Medical Physics Perspective On Radiation Therapy Quality and Safety Considerations in Low Income Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, J; Meghzifene, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The last few years have seen a significant growth of interest in the global radiation therapy crisis. Various organizations are quantifying the need and providing aid in support of addressing the shortfall existing in many low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). The Lancet Oncology Commission report (Lancet Oncol. Sep;16(10):1153-86, 2015) projects a need of 22,000 new medical physicists in LMICs by 2035 if there is to be equal access globally. With the tremendous demand for new facilities, equipment and personnel, it is very important to recognize quality and safety considerations and to address them directly. Methods: A detailed examination of quality and safety publications was undertaken. A paper by Dunscombe (Front. Oncol. 2: 129, 2012) reviewed the recommendations of 7 authoritative reports on safety in radiation therapy and found the 12 most cited recommendations, summarized in order of most to least cited: training, staffing, documentation/standard operating procedures, incident learning, communication/questioning, check lists, QC/PM, dosimetric audit, accreditation, minimizing interruptions, prospective risk assessment, and safety culture. However, these authoritative reports were generally based on input from high income contexts. In this work, the recommendations were analyzed with a special emphasis on issues that are significant in LMICs. Results: The review indicated that there are significant challenges in LMICs with training and staffing ranking at the top in terms quality and safety. Conclusion: With the recognized need for expanding global access to radiation therapy, especially in LMICs, and the backing by multiple support organizations, quality and safety considerations must be overtly addressed. While multidimensional, training and staffing are top priorities. The use of outdated systems with poor interconnectivity, coupled with a lack of systematic QA in high patient load settings are additional concerns. Any support provided to lower

  4. Enhancing the role of case-oriented peer review to improve quality and safety in radiation oncology: Executive summary

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Adams, Robert D.; Pawlicki, Todd; Blumberg, Albert L.; Hoopes, David; Brundage, Michael D.; Fraass, Benedick A.

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of a series of white papers commissioned for the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Board of Directors as part of ASTRO's Target Safely Campaign, focusing on the role of peer review as an important component of a broad safety/quality assurance (QA) program. Peer review is one of the most effective means for assuring the quality of qualitative, and potentially controversial, patient-specific decisions in radiation oncology. This report summarizes many of the areas throughout radiation therapy that may benefit from the application of peer review. Each radiation oncology facility should evaluate the issues raised and develop improved ways to apply the concept of peer review to its individual process and workflow. This might consist of a daily multidisciplinary (eg, physicians, dosimetrists, physicists, therapists) meeting to review patients being considered for, or undergoing planning for, radiation therapy (eg, intention to treat and target delineation), as well as meetings to review patients already under treatment (eg, adequacy of image guidance). This report is intended to clarify and broaden the understanding of radiation oncology professionals regarding the meaning, roles, benefits, and targets for peer review as a routine quality assurance tool. It is hoped that this work will be a catalyst for further investigation, development, and study of the efficacy of peer review techniques and how these efforts can help improve the safety and quality of our treatments. PMID:24175002

  5. Quality assessment of medicinal herbs and their extracts: Criteria and prerequisites for consistent safety and efficacy of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2015-11-01

    Ingredients of commercial herbal medicines are assessed for quality primarily to ensure their safety. However, as complex mixtures of different groups of plant secondary metabolites, retention of overall phytochemical consistency of herbal medicines is pivotal to their efficacy. Authenticity and homogeneity of the herbs and strict regimes of physical processing and extract manufacturing are critical factors to maintain phytochemical consistency in commercial products. To ensure both safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, implementation of and adherence to good agricultural and collection practice (GACP), good plant authentication and identification practice (GPAIP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) before and during the manufacturing process, and good laboratory practice (GLP) in analysis are necessary. Establishment and application of harmonized multilaboratory-validated analytical methods and transparency in the supply (value) chain through vendor audits are additional requirements in quality assurance. In this article, we outline steps of a comprehensive quality assurance paradigm aimed at achieving and maintaining safety, consistent phytochemical composition, and clinical efficacy of ingredients of herbal medicines. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Botanicals for Epilepsy.

  6. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  7. Radiation safety during remediation of the SevRAO facilities: 10 years of regulatory experience.

    PubMed

    Sneve, M K; Shandala, N; Kiselev, S; Simakov, A; Titov, A; Seregin, V; Kryuchkov, V; Shcheblanov, V; Bogdanova, L; Grachev, M; Smith, G M

    2015-09-01

    In compliance with the fundamentals of the government's policy in the field of nuclear and radiation safety approved by the President of the Russian Federation, Russia has developed a national program for decommissioning of its nuclear legacy. Under this program, the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' is carrying out remediation of a Site for Temporary Storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) at Andreeva Bay located in Northwest Russia. The short term plan includes implementation of the most critical stage of remediation, which involves the recovery of SNF from what have historically been poorly maintained storage facilities. SNF and RW are stored in non-standard conditions in tanks designed in some cases for other purposes. It is planned to transport recovered SNF to PA 'Mayak' in the southern Urals. This article analyses the current state of the radiation safety supervision of workers and the public in terms of the regulatory preparedness to implement effective supervision of radiation safety during radiation-hazardous operations. It presents the results of long-term radiation monitoring, which serve as informative indicators of the effectiveness of the site remediation and describes the evolving radiation situation. The state of radiation protection and health care service support for emergency preparedness is characterized by the need to further study the issues of the regulator-operator interactions to prevent and mitigate consequences of a radiological accident at the facility. Having in mind the continuing intensification of practical management activities related to SNF and RW in the whole of northwest Russia, it is reasonable to coordinate the activities of the supervision bodies within a strategic master plan. Arrangements for this master plan are discussed, including a proposed programme of actions to enhance the regulatory supervision in order to support accelerated mitigation of threats related to the nuclear legacy in the

  8. Managing NIF safety equipment in a high neutron and gamma radiation environment.

    PubMed

    Datte, Philip; Eckart, Mark; Jackson, Mark; Khater, Hesham; Manuel, Stacie; Newton, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility that supports the Inertial Confinement Fusion program. During the ignition experimental campaign, the NIF is expected to perform shots with varying fusion yield producing 14 MeV neutrons up to 20 MJ or 7.1 × 10(18) neutrons per shot and a maximum annual yield of 1,200 MJ. Several infrastructure support systems will be exposed to varying high yield shots over the facility's 30-y life span. In response to this potential exposure, analysis and testing of several facility safety systems have been conducted. A detailed MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) model has been developed for the NIF facility, and it includes most of the major structures inside the Target Bay. The model has been used in the simulation of expected neutron and gamma fluences throughout the Target Bay. Radiation susceptible components were identified and tested to fluences greater than 10(13) (n cm(-2)) for 14 MeV neutrons and γ-ray equivalent. The testing includes component irradiation using a 60Co gamma source and accelerator-based irradiation using 4- and 14- MeV neutron sources. The subsystem implementation in the facility is based on the fluence estimates after shielding and survivability guidelines derived from the dose maps and component tests results. This paper reports on the evaluation and implementation of mitigations for several infrastructure safety support systems, including video, oxygen monitoring, pressure monitors, water sensing systems, and access control interfaces found at the NIF.

  9. Improving patient safety and workflow efficiency with standardized pretreatment radiation therapist chart reviews.

    PubMed

    Younge, Kelly Cooper; Naheedy, Katherine Woch; Wilkinson, Joel; Dekmak, Joumana; Covington, Elizabeth; Durbin, Bonnie; Nelson, Eric; Filpansick, Stephanie; Moran, Jean M

    Radiation therapists play a critical role in ensuring patient safety; however, they are sometimes given insufficient time to perform quality assurance (QA) of a patient's treatment chart and documentation before the start of treatment. In this work, we show the benefits of introducing a formal therapist prestart QA checklist, completed in a quiet space well in advance of treatment, into our workflow. A therapist prestart QA checklist was created by analyzing in-house variance reports and treatment unit delays over 6 months. Therapists were then given dedicated time and workspace to perform their checks within the dosimetry office of our department. The effectiveness of the checklist was quantified by recording the percentage of charts that underwent QA before treatment, the percentage of charts with errors needing intervention, and treatment unit delays during a nearly 2-year period. The frequency and types of errors found by the prestart QA were also recorded. Through the use of therapist prestart QA, instances of treatment unit delays were reduced by up to a factor of 9 during the first year of the program. At the outset of this new initiative, nearly 40% of charts had errors requiring intervention, with the majority being scheduling related. With upstream workflow changes and automation, this was reduced over the period of a year to about 10%. The number of treatment unit delays was dramatically reduced by using a formal therapist prestart QA checklist completed well in advance of treatment. The data collected via the checklist continue to be used for further quality improvement efforts. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Martian and extraterrestrial UV radiation environment. Part II: further considerations on materials and design criteria for artificial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    2001-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is an important natural physical influence on organism function and ecosystem interactions. The UV radiation fluxes in extraterrestrial environments are substantially different from those experienced on Earth. On Mars, the moon and in Earth orbit they are more biologically detrimental than on Earth. Based on previously presented fluxes and biologically weighted irradiances, this paper considers in more detail measures to mitigate UV radiation damage and methods to modify extraterrestrial UV radiation environments in artificial ecosystems that use natural sunlight. The transmission characteristics of a Martian material that will mimic the terrestrial UV radiation environment are presented. Transmissivity characteristics of other Martian and lunar materials are described. Manufacturing processes for the production of plastics and glass on the lunar and Martian surface are presented with special emphasis on photobiological requirements. Novel UV absorbing configurations are suggested.

  11. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Policy and Interpretation § 1000.15 Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for... illustrative examples of sources of electronic product radiation to which the regulations of this part...

  12. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Policy and Interpretation § 1000.15 Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for... illustrative examples of sources of electronic product radiation to which the regulations of this part...

  13. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. 1000.15 Section 1000.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Policy and Interpretation § 1000.15 Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for... illustrative examples of sources of electronic product radiation to which the regulations of this part...

  14. 10 CFR 62.25 - Criteria for a Commission determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR EMERGENCY ACCESS TO... emergency access create a serious and immediate threat to the public health and safety or the common defense... the denial of emergency access, including consideration of— (i) The standards for radiation protection...

  15. Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex: Cytotoxicity and safety evaluation on animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong, C. C.; Zin, W. M. Wan; Ibrahim, P.; Ibrahim, S.

    2010-05-01

    Radiation prevulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was claimed to be more user friendly than natural rubber latex prevulcanized by sulphur curing system. The absence of Type IV allergy inducing chemicals in RVNRL make it a suitable material for manufacturing of many kinds of latex products, especially those come into direct contact with users. This paper reveals and discusses the findings of cytotoxicity test and safety evaluation on animal for RVNRL. The test was done on RVNRL films prepared by coagulant dipping method and RVNRL dipped products produced by latex dipped product manufacturers. Cytotocixity test was carried out on mammalian cell culture American Type Culture Collection CCL 81, Vero. Results indicated that no cytotoxic effect from RVNRL films and products was found on the cell culture. Two animal studies, namely dermal sensitization study and primary skin irritation study, were done on gloves made from RVNRL. Albino white guinea pigs were used as test subjects in dermal sensitization study and results showed no sensitization induced by the application of test material in the guinea pigs. Primary skin irritation study was done on New Zealand white rabbits and results showed that the product tested was not corrosive and was not a primary irritant

  16. Radiation safety considerations for the parasitic Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rokni, S.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Keller, L.P.

    1996-11-01

    A low intensity electron beam parasitic to the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has been transported through the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility making secondary test beams available for users. Photons generated in collimation of the SLC electron and positron beams in the linac pass through a splitter magnet that deflects the primary beams away from the linac axis into the SLC beam lines. These photons are converted to electrons and positrons in a secondary production target located down beam on the linac axis. The secondary electrons are then transported through the FFTB beam line onto experimental detectors. The average power of the parasitic beam is very low, thus, it presents no hazards. However, various accident scenarios involving failure of the splitter magnet and the active protection devices could send much more powerful SLC beams (up to 90 kilo-watts) into this zero-degree secondary beam line. For the accident cases, the average power in the transmitted beam was calculated using the Monte Carlo programs EGS4 and TURTLE. Results from analysis of the radiation protection systems that assure safety during the parasitic operation are presented.

  17. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  18. A systems approach to evaluating ionizing radiation: six focus areas to improve quality, efficiency, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Jonathan B; Mower, Laura; Bushe, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an essential component of the care process. However, providers and patients may not be fully aware of the risks involved, the level of ionizing radiation delivered with various procedures, or the potential for harm through incidental overexposure or cumulative dose. Recent high-profile incidents demonstrating the devastating short-term consequences of radiation overexposure have drawn attention to these risks, but applicable solutions are lacking. Although various recommendations and guidelines have been proposed, organizational variability challenges providers to identify their own practical solutions. To identify potential failure modes and develop solutions to preserve patient safety within a large, national healthcare system, we assembled a multidisciplinary team to conduct a comprehensive analysis of practices surrounding the delivery of ionizing radiation. Workgroups were developed to analyze existing culture, processes, and technology to identify deficiencies and propose solutions. Six focus areas were identified: competency and certification; equipment; monitoring and auditing; education; clinical pathways; and communication and marketing. This manuscript summarizes this comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and systemic analysis of risk and provides examples to illustrate how these focus areas can be used to improve the use of ionizing radiation. The proposed solutions, once fully implemented, may advance patient safety and care.

  19. Criteria for personal dosimetry in mixed radiation fields in space. [analyzing trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The complexity of direct reading and passive dosimeters for monitoring radiation is studied to strike the right balance of compromise to simplify the monitoring procedure. Trapped protons, tissue disintegration stars, and neutrons are analyzed.

  20. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  1. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  2. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management

    PubMed Central

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis. PMID:26414772

  3. Analytical criteria for performance characteristics of IgE binding methods for evaluating safety of biotech food products.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Ree, Ronald van; Poulsen, Lars K; Bannon, Gary A

    2008-10-01

    There is detailed guidance on how to perform bioinformatic analyses and enzymatic degradation studies for genetically modified crops under consideration for approval by regulatory agencies; however, there is no consensus in the scientific community on the details of how to perform IgE serum studies. IgE serum studies are an important safety component to acceptance of genetically modified crops when the introduced protein is novel, the introduced protein is similar to known allergens, or the crop is allergenic. In this manuscript, we describe the characteristics of the reagents, validation of assay performance, and data analysis necessary to optimize the information obtained from serum testing of novel proteins and genetically modified (GM) crops and to make results more accurate and comparable between different investigations.

  4. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  5. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  6. [Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions--second report: radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-20

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of "leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination" and "contamination of radioactive substances in the air," the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome.

  7. Safety and efficacy of semiextended field intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in locally advanced cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Meng-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) are at risk of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis. Pelvic concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the current standard treatment for LACC, has a PALN failure rate of 9% according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90–01, suggesting that it may not completely eliminate all microscopic tumors in the PALNs. To minimize the toxicities associated with conventional prophylactic extended-field radiotherapy, our institute use prophylactic semiextended field radiotherapy that includes only the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels. Use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is another means of reducing the incidence of toxicity. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic semiextended field IMRT (SEF-IMRT) and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with LACC. We retrospectively assessed survival and toxicity in 76 patients with stage IB2–IVA cervical cancer and negative PALNs who received prophylactic SEF-IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) between 2004 and 2013. The region targeted by SEF-IMRT included the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels, and the prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Brachytherapy was administered at a dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions. Survival outcomes were calculated by using the Kaplan–Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. All patients completed the planned SEF-IMRT, as well as brachytherapy. Acute grade ≥3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematologic toxicities were observed in 2, 0, and 41 patients, respectively. The median follow-up time after SEF-IMRT was 55 (range, 11–124) months. Eight patients developed out-field distant recurrences without PALN failure, and 1 patient experienced out-field PALN failure with simultaneous distant metastasis. No patients had late genitourinary toxicities, and 3 patients had late

  8. Perspectives from the NanoSafety Modelling Cluster on the validation criteria for (Q)SAR models used in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Puzyn, Tomasz; Jeliazkova, Nina; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Rallo, Robert; Richarz, Andrea-N; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Papadopulos, Manthos G; Hastings, Janna; Cronin, Mark T D; Benfenati, Emilio; Fernández, Alberto

    2017-09-21

    Nanotechnology and the production of nanomaterials have been expanding rapidly in recent years. Since many types of engineered nanoparticles are suspected to be toxic to living organisms and to have a negative impact on the environment, the process of designing new nanoparticles and their applications must be accompanied by a thorough risk analysis. (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship ([Q]SAR) modelling creates promising options among the available methods for the risk assessment. These in silico models can be used to predict a variety of properties, including the toxicity of newly designed nanoparticles. However, (Q)SAR models must be appropriately validated to ensure the clarity, consistency and reliability of predictions. This paper is a joint initiative from recently completed European research projects focused on developing (Q)SAR methodology for nanomaterials. The aim was to interpret and expand the guidance for the well-known "OECD Principles for the Validation, for Regulatory Purposes, of (Q)SAR Models", with reference to nano-(Q)SAR, and present our opinions on the criteria to be fulfilled for models developed for nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  10. Defining Radioiodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Efficacy and Safety of Lenvatinib by Radioiodine-Refractory Criteria in the SELECT Trial.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Naomi; Robinson, Bruce; Shah, Manisha; Hoff, Ana O; Taylor, Matthew H; Li, Di; Dutcus, Corina E; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sung-Bae; Tahara, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    RAI avidity, and extensive RAI exposure, respectively. Lenvatinib-related adverse events were similar across groups. Comparable efficacy and safety profiles were observed in lenvatinib-treated patients regardless of RR-DTC criteria, possibly because of a large overlap among patients fulfilling each criterion. However, differing definitions for RR-DTC may be equally valid because both lenvatinib and placebo arms exhibited similar PFS outcomes across groups.

  11. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26th and 28th, 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  12. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions.

  13. [A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities].

    PubMed

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Hiroto; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tsukada, Masaru; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Kusama, Keiji; Tanaka, Mamoru; Namiki, Norio; Fuiimura, Youko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Inoue, Tomio; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: 1) scale of an institution, 2) presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, 3) system of a tank, 4) size and number of each tank, 5) a form of draining-water system, 6) a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, 7) a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, 8) planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, 9) an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m3, the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0.

  14. Analysis of radiation environmental safety for China's Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Bin; Wu, Qing-Biao; Ma, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Qing-Jiang; Li, Nan; Wu, Jing-Min; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Gang

    2010-07-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is going to be located in Dalang Town, Dongguan City in the Guangdong Province. In this paper we report the results of the parameters related with environment safety based on experiential calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. The main project of the accelerator is an under ground construction. On top there is a 0.5 m concrete and 5.0 m soil covering for shielding, which can reduce the dose out of the tunnel's top down to 0.2 μSv/h. For the residents on the boundary of the CSNS, the dose produced by skyshine, which is caused by the penetrated radiation leaking from the top of the accelerator, is no more than 0.68 μSv/a. When CSNS is operating normally, the maximal annual effective dose due to the emission of gas from the tunnel is 2.40×10-3 mSv/a to the public adult, and 2.29×10-3 mSv/a to a child, both values are two orders of magnitude less than the limiting value for control and management. CSNS may give rise to an activation of the soil and groundwater in the nearest tunnels, where the main productions are 3H, 7Be, 22Na, 54Mn, etc. But the specific activity is less than the exempt specific activity in the national standard GB13376-92. So it is safe to say that the environmental impact caused by the activation of soil and groundwater is insignificant. To sum up, for CSNS, as a powerful neutron source device, driven by a high-energy high-current proton accelerator, a lot of potential factors affecting the environment exist. However, as long as effective shieldings for protection are adopted and strict rules are drafted, the environmental impact can be kept under control within the limits of the national standard.

  15. Workflow Enhancement (WE) Improves Safety in Radiation Oncology: Putting the WE and Team Together

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Meier, Tim; Hugebeck, Brian; Reddy, Chandana A.; Godley, Andrew; Kolar, Matt; Suh, John H.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To review the impact of a workflow enhancement (WE) team in reducing treatment errors that reach patients within radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: It was determined that flaws in our workflow and processes resulted in errors reaching the patient. The process improvement team (PIT) was developed in 2010 to reduce errors and was later modified in 2012 into the current WE team. Workflow issues and solutions were discussed in PIT and WE team meetings. Due to tensions within PIT that resulted in employee dissatisfaction, there was a 6-month hiatus between the end of PIT and initiation of the renamed/redesigned WE team. In addition to the PIT/WE team forms, the department had separate incident forms to document treatment errors reaching the patient. These incident forms are rapidly reviewed and monitored by our departmental and institutional quality and safety groups, reflecting how seriously these forms are treated. The number of these incident forms was compared before and after instituting the WE team. Results: When PIT was disbanded, a number of errors seemed to occur in succession, requiring reinstitution and redesign of this team, rebranded the WE team. Interestingly, the number of incident forms per patient visits did not change when comparing 6 months during the PIT, 6 months during the hiatus, and the first 6 months after instituting the WE team (P=.85). However, 6 to 12 months after instituting the WE team, the number of incident forms per patient visits decreased (P=.028). After the WE team, employee satisfaction and commitment to quality increased as demonstrated by Gallup surveys, suggesting a correlation to the WE team. Conclusions: A team focused on addressing workflow and improving processes can reduce the number of errors reaching the patient. Time is necessary before a reduction in errors reaching patients will be seen.

  16. Contributions to nuclear safety and radiation technologies in Ukraine by the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranenko, L.; Janouch, F.; Owsiacki, L.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) activities devoted to furthering nuclear and radiation safety, which is a prioritized STCU area. The STCU, an intergovernmental organization with the principle objective of non-proliferation, administers financial support from the USA, Canada, and the EU to Ukrainian projects in various scientific and technological areas; coordinates projects; and promotes the integration of Ukrainian scientists into the international scientific community, including involving western collaborators. The paper focuses on STCU's largest project to date "Program Supporting Y2K Readiness at Ukrainian NPPs" initiated in April 1999 and designed to address possible Y2K readiness problems at 14 Ukrainian nuclear reactors. Other presented projects demonstrate a wide diversity of supported directions in the fields of nuclear and radiation safety, including reactor material improvement ("Improved Zirconium-Based Elements for Nuclear Reactors"), information technologies for nuclear industries ("Ukrainian Nuclear Data Bank in Slavutich"), and radiation health science ("Diagnostics and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Injuries of Human Biopolymers").

  17. Goal Structured Notation in a Radiation Hardening Safety Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Reed, Robert; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Sierawski, Brian; Evans, John; LaBel, Ken

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structured Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  18. Feasibility and safety of outpatient brachytherapy in 37 patients with brain tumors using the GliaSite(®) Radiation Therapy System.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kazumi; Silvain, Daniel; Grace, Ana; Stubbs, James; Stea, Baldassarre

    2008-07-01

    Temporary, low dose rate brachytherapy to the margins of resected brain tumors, using a balloon catheter system (GliaSite(®) Radiation Therapy System) and liquid I-125 radiation source (Iotrex™), began in 2002 at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Initially, all patients were treated on an inpatient basis. For patient convenience, we converted to outpatient therapy. In this article we review the exposure data and safety history for the 37 patients treated as outpatients. Proper patient selection and instruction is crucial to having a successful outpatient brachytherapy program. A set of evaluation criteria and patient instructions were developed in compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's document NUREG-1556 Volume 9 (Appendix U) and Arizona State Nuclear regulatory guidelines, which specify acceptable exposure rates for outpatient release in this setting. Of the 37 patients monitored, 26 patients were treated for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), six for primary GBM, and five for metastatic brain tumors. All 37 patients and their primary caregivers gave signed agreement to follow a specific set of instructions and were released for the duration of brachytherapy (3-7days). The typical prescription dose was 60Gy delivered at 0.5cm from the balloon surface. Afterloaded activities in these patients ranged from 90.9to750.0mCi and measured exposure rates at 1m from the head were less than 14mR∕h. The mean exposure to the caretaker measured by personal radiation Landauer Luxel®+ whole body dosimeters for 25 caretakers was found to be 9.6mR, which was significantly less than the mean calculated exposure of 136.8mR. For properly selected patients, outpatient brachytherapy is simple and can be performed within established regulatory guidelines. © 2008 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  20. Progress and Status on the Development of NASA's Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W. K.; Blattnig, S. R.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Kunches, J.; Murray, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program recently selected a project for funding through the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) solicitation. The project objective is to develop a nowcast prediction of air-crew radiation exposure from both background galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particle events (SEP) that may accompany solar storms. The new air-crew radiation exposure model is called the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model. NAIRAS will provide global, data-driven, real-time radiation dose predictions of biologically harmful radiation at commercial airline altitudes. Observations are utilized from the ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the NCEP reanalysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the incident GCR and SEP particle flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. In this paper we discuss the concept and design of the NAIRAS model, and present recent progress in the implementation and give examples of the model results. Specifically, we show predictions of representative annual background exposure levels and radiation exposure levels for selected SEP events during solar cycle 23, with emphasis on the high-latitude and polar region. We also characterize the suppression of the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity during these storm periods and their subsequent influence on atmospheric radiation exposure. We discuss the key uncertainties and areas that need improvement in both model and data, the timeline for project completion, and access to model results.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in the Treatment of Pulmonary Metastases from High Grade Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Niraj; Selch, Michael; Lee, Jay M.; Eilber, Fritz C.; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Steinberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with high-grade sarcoma (HGS) frequently develop metastatic disease thus limiting their long-term survival. Lung metastases (LM) have historically been treated with surgical resection (metastasectomy). A potential alternative for controlling LM could be stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We evaluated the outcomes from our institutional experience utilizing SBRT. Methods. Sixteen consecutive patients with LM from HGS were treated with SBRT between 2009 and 2011. Routine radiographic and clinical follow-up was performed. Local failure was defined as CT progression on 2 consecutive scans or growth after initial shrinkage. Radiation pneumonitis and radiation esophagitis were scored using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) version 3.0. Results. All 16 patients received chemotherapy, and a subset (38%) also underwent prior pulmonary metastasectomy. Median patient age was 56 (12–85), and median follow-up time was 20 months (range 3–43). A total of 25 lesions were treated and evaluable for this analysis. Most common histologies were leiomyosarcoma (28%), synovial sarcoma (20%), and osteosarcoma (16%). Median SBRT prescription dose was 54 Gy (36–54) in 3-4 fractions. At 43 months, local control was 94%. No patient experienced G2-4 radiation pneumonitis, and no patient experienced radiation esophagitis. Conclusions. Our retrospective experience suggests that SBRT for LM from HGS provides excellent local control and minimal toxicity. PMID:24198717

  2. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radiation shielding, protection, and safety). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    Topics include: Shielding design, nuclear radiation transport properties of materials, decontamination; Container design and transportation requirements for radioactive materials; and Fallout shelters.

  3. Proposed new handbook for the Federal Emergency Management Agency: radiation safety in shelters

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1981-09-01

    This handbook is proposed to replace the portion of the current Handbook for Radiological Monitoring that deals with protection of people in shelters from radiation from fallout resulting from nuclear war. Basic information at a high-school level is given on how to detect nuclear radiation, how to find and improve the safest places in a shelter, the necessity for and how to keep records on individual radiation exposures, and how to minimize exposures. Several new procedures are introduced, some of which are based more on theoretical considerations than on actual experiments. These procedures include: (1) the method of time-averaging radiation readings taken with one instrument in different locations of a large shelter while fallout is coming down and radiation levels are climbing too rapidly for direct comparison of readings to determine the safest location; (2) the method of using one's own body to obtain directionality in radiation readings taken with a standard Civil Defense survey meter; (3) the method of using mutual shielding to reduce the average radiation exposure to shelter occupants; and (4) the ratio method for estimating radiation levels in hazardous areas.

  4. A proposed new handbook for the Federal Emergency Management Agency: Radiation safety in shelters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaland, C. M.

    1981-09-01

    A proposed replacement for the portion of the current Handbook for Radiological Monitoring that deals with protection of people in shelters from radiation from fallout resulting from nuclear war is presented. Basic information at a high school level is given on how to detect nuclear radiation, how to find and improve the safest places in a shelter, the necessity for and how to keep records on individual radiation exposures, and how to minimize exposures. Several procedures are introduced, some of which are based more on theoretical considerations than on actual experiments. These procedures include: (1) the method of time averaging radiation readings taken with one instrument in different locations of a large shelter while fallout is coming down and radiation levels ar climbing too rapidly for direct comparison of readings to determine the safest location; (2) the method of using one's own body to obtain directionality in radiation readings taken with a standard Civil Defense survey meter; (3) the method of using mutual shielding to reduce the average radiation exposure to shelter occupants; and (4) the ratio method for estimating radiation levels in hazardous areas.

  5. Historical Patterns in the Types of Procedures Performed and Radiation Safety Practices Used in Nuclear Medicine From 1945-2009.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Doody, Michele M; Lim, Hyeyeun; Bolus, Norman E; Simon, Steven L; Alexander, Bruce H; Kitahara, Cari M

    2016-07-01

    The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009. An overall increase in the proportion of technologists who performed specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was observed across the five time periods. Between 1945-1964 and 2000-2009, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed substantially increased (from 5 wk to 30 wk), attributable mainly to an increasing frequency of cardiac and non-brain PET scans, while the median frequency of therapeutic procedures performed modestly decreased (from 4 mo to 3 mo). Also a notable increase was observed in the use of most radiation safety practices from 1945-1964 to 2000-2009 (e.g., use of lead-shielded vials during diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation increased from 56 to 96%), although lead apron use dramatically decreased (e.g., during diagnostic imaging procedures, from 81 to 7%). These data describe historical practices in nuclear medicine and can be used to support studies of health risks for nuclear medicine technologists.

  6. Transient MR elastography (t-MRE) using ultrasound radiation force: theory, safety, and initial experiments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Souchon, Rémi; Salomir, Rares; Beuf, Olivier; Milot, Laurent; Grenier, Denis; Lyonnet, Denis; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the feasibility of using ultrasound radiation force as a safe vibration source for transient MR elastography (t-MRE). We present a theoretical framework to predict the phase shift of the complex MRE signal, the temperature elevation due to ultrasound, and safety indicators (I(SPPA), I(SPTA), MI). Next, we report wave images acquired in porcine liver samples in vitro. MR thermometry was used to estimate the temperature elevation induced by ultrasound. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results with regard to the feasibility of using radiation force for t-MRE in a clinical setting, and a specific echo-planar imaging (EPI) MRE sequence is proposed.

  7. The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency megavoltage photon thermoluminescence dosimetry postal audit service 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C P; Butler, D J; Webb, D V

    2012-03-01

    The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency (ARPANSA) has continuously provided a level 1 mailed thermoluminescence dosimetry audit service for megavoltage photons since 2007. The purpose of the audit is to provide an independent verification of the reference dose output of a radiotherapy linear accelerator in a clinical environment. Photon beam quality measurements can also be made as part of the audit in addition to the output measurements. The results of all audits performed between 2007 and 2010 are presented. The average of all reference beam output measurements calculated as a clinically stated dose divided by an ARPANSA measured dose is 0.9993. The results of all beam quality measurements calculated as a clinically stated quality divided by an ARPANSA measured quality is 1.0087. Since 2011 the provision of all auditing services has been transferred from the Ionizing Radiation Standards section to the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) which is currently housed within ARPANSA.

  8. Treatment for Infantile Hemangiomas: Selection Criteria, Safety, and Outcomes Using Oral Propranolol During the Early Phase of Propranolol Use for Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    MacIsaac, Zoe M; Nayar, Harry S; Gehris, Robin; Mehta, Deepak; Geisler, Susan; Grunwaldt, Lorelei J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of propranolol for treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH), there is need for further evidence of efficacy and safety. This study is a retrospective review of one institution's experience treating IH with propranolol using a standard protocol. Between 2009 and 2014, patients with IH were evaluated for treatment with propranolol. Exclusion criteria included a history of hypoglycemia, respiratory disorders, and cardiovascular disorders. Propranolol, 2 mg/kg/d, was initiated during 48-hour inpatient stay. Weight and complications were monitored. Appearance was assessed by Visual Analog Cosmetic Scale (VACS) via serial photography. Twenty-three patients were treated with propranolol. Average age at initiation of therapy was 14.9 weeks. Twenty-two lesions were on the head and neck, and 1 was on the trunk. Average treatment duration was 54.3 weeks (range 24-148 wk). Treatment was confirmed to be complete in 23 patients at the time of review (91.3%). Two patients were lost to follow-up. Posttreatment color, size, and VACS improved significantly (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between first and most recent weight. Two patients experienced hypoglycemia, 1 during a diarrheal illness and 1 during inpatient treatment initiation. The authors present a series of patients with IH safely treated with 2 mg/kg/d of propranolol. Using a strict protocol, few complications were observed. Patients achieved significant reduction in size and improvement of the overall appearance of IH.

  9. Initial experience with an 11 MeV self-shielded medical cyclotron on operation and radiation safety

    PubMed Central

    Pant, G. S.; Senthamizhchelvan, S.

    2007-01-01

    A self-shielded medical cyclotron (11 MeV) was commissioned at our center, to produce positron emitters, namely, 18F, 15O, 13N and 11C for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Presently the cyclotron has been exclusively used for the production of 18F- for 18F-FDG imaging. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18F- production were monitored. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were also monitored to assess the radiation safety status in the facility. The target material, 18O water, is bombarded with proton beam from the cyclotron to produce 18F- ion that is used for the synthesis of 18F-FDG. The operational parameters which influence the yield of 18F- were observed during 292 production runs out of a total of more than 400 runs. The radiation dose levels were also measured in the facility at various locations during cyclotron production runs and in the radiochemistry laboratory during 18F-FDG syntheses. It was observed that rinsing the target after delivery increased the number of production runs in a given target, as well as resulted in a better correlation between the duration of bombardment and the end of bombardment 18F- activity with absolutely clean target after being rebuilt. The radiation levels in the cyclotron and radiochemistry laboratory were observed to be well within prescribed limits with safe work practice. PMID:21157531

  10. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  11. Radiation safety issues regarding the cremation of the body of an I-125 prostate implant patient.

    PubMed

    Que, W

    2001-01-01

    Radiation exposure to the public is estimated if the body of an I-125 prostate implant patient is cremated. Precautions regarding the handling of cremated remains are suggested. Cremation can be performed safely at any time.

  12. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, R; Morant, J J; López, M; Hernández-Girón, I; Batalla, E; Salvadó, M

    2011-08-01

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities.

  13. Effect of a laser irradiation on the vascularisation of safety and X-ray radiated bone.

    PubMed

    Desmons, Sophie; Delfosse, Caroline; Rochon, Philippe; Buys, Bruno; Penel, Guillaume; Mordon, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Thermal preconditioning induces a cytoprotective effect and promotes tissue recovering. Laser is an appropriated method to generate a controlled and reproducible heating. Bone healing, a crucial challenge in medicine, is affected by X-ray radiation which induces a chronic antiangiogenic effect. So, this study aims to investigate the role of laser preconditioning on the vascularisation of bone after X-ray radiation. An optical bone chamber allowed the study of the vascularization process. The vascular density (VD) was determined using image processing. A longitudinal study was performed on 20 rabbits divided in four groups: #1: control group (n=5); #2: laser irradiation alone (diode laser 810nm, fluence= 48J/cm2) (n=5). #3: X-ray radiation (18.75Gy) alone (n=5), #4: laser preconditioning 24 hours before a X-ray radiation (n=5). VD remained stable during 12-week follow up for groups #1 and #2. X-ray radiation lead to an important decrease of the superficial bone vascularization in group #3. The decrease of the vascularization was limited in group #4 highlighting a different evolution between group #3 and #4. Those results were confirmed by histological analysis. Our preliminary findings show that laser preconditioning preserves vascularization in X-ray radiated bone site, outlining a novel approach for the bone healing in which the vascular supply has been injured.

  14. Radiation safety. The maximum permissible exposure levels: our knowledge of the hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, D. H.

    1989-08-01

    Many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser safety standards and personnel exposure limits (ELs), or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Safety standards may be limited in scope to codes of practice, to occupational ELs, to laser product safety, or to a combination of these three factors. Initially, in the 1960s, attention was drawn to setting ELs; however, as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained, safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971, after the first decade of laser use, that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users, and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today, most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AELs) were based upon the ELs. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPEs (that is, ELs) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation.

  15. SU-F-P-10: A Web-Based Radiation Safety Relational Database Module for Regulatory Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, C; Ramsay, B; Konerth, S; Roller, D; Ramsay, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Maintaining compliance with Radioactive Materials Licenses is inherently a time-consuming task requiring focus and attention to detail. Staff tasked with these responsibilities, such as the Radiation Safety Officer and associated personnel must retain disparate records for eventual placement into one or more annual reports. Entering results and records in a relational database using a web browser as the interface, and storing that data in a cloud-based storage site, removes procedural barriers. The data becomes more adaptable for mining and sharing. Methods: Web-based code was written utilizing the web framework Django, written in Python. Additionally, the application utilizes JavaScript for front-end interaction, SQL, HTML and CSS. Quality assurance code testing is performed in a sequential style, and new code is only added after the successful testing of the previous goals. Separate sections of the module include data entry and analysis for audits, surveys, quality management, and continuous quality improvement. Data elements can be adapted for quarterly and annual reporting, and for immediate notification of user determined alarm settings. Results: Current advances are focusing on user interface issues, and determining the simplest manner by which to teach the user to build query forms. One solution has been to prepare library documents that a user can select or edit in place of creation a new document. Forms are being developed based upon Nuclear Regulatory Commission federal code, and will be expanded to include State Regulations. Conclusion: Establishing a secure website to act as the portal for data entry, storage and manipulation can lead to added efficiencies for a Radiation Safety Program. Access to multiple databases can lead to mining for big data programs, and for determining safety issues before they occur. Overcoming web programming challenges, a category that includes mathematical handling, is providing challenges that are being overcome.

  16. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    PubMed

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  17. External Beam Radiation Therapy and Abiraterone in Men With Localized Prostate Cancer: Safety and Effect on Tissue Androgens

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eunpi; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Russell, Kenneth J.; Liao, Jay J.; Konodi, Mark A.; Kurland, Brenda F.; Marck, Brett T.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Dalkin, Bruce L.; Montgomery, R. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Optimizing androgen suppression may provide better control of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous trials have supported the benefit of combining androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiation therapy in men with locally advanced or high-grade disease. Addition of abiraterone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) with radiation has not been reported. We examined the safety of this combination as well as its impact on androgen suppression. Methods and Materials: A prospective, phase 2 study was conducted in men with localized PCa treated with 6 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent abiraterone with LHRHa and radiation. Duration of adjuvant LHRHa was at the discretion of the treating clinician. Prostate biopsy assays were obtained prior to the start of therapy and prior to radiation. Sera and tissue androgen levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: A total of 22 men with intermediate- (n=3) and high-risk PCa (n=19) received study therapy. Sixteen men completed the intended course of abiraterone, and 19 men completed planned radiation to 77.4 to 81 Gy. Radiation to pelvic nodes was administered in 20 men. The following grade 3 toxicities were reported: lymphopenia (14 patients), fatigue (1 patient), transaminitis (2 patients), hypertension (2 patients), and hypokalemia (1 patient). There were no grade 4 toxicities. All 21 men who complied with at least 3 months of abiraterone therapy had a preradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration nadir of <0.3 ng/mL. Median levels of tissue androgen downstream of CYP17A were significantly suppressed after treatment with abiraterone, and upstream steroids were increased. At median follow-up of 21 months (range: 3-37 months), only 1 patient (who had discontinued abiraterone at 3 months) had biochemical relapse. Conclusions: Addition of abiraterone to LHRHa with radiation is safe and achieves effective prostatic androgen suppression

  18. [Classification of Histopathological Findings in the Liver Cited in the Pesticides Risk Assessment Reports Published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan and Thesaurus Construction Based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Takahashi, Miwa; Umemura, Takashi; Yoshida, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Histopathological findings are important to the understanding of toxicity profiles of pesticides. The liver is often a target organ of chemicals. In the present study, histopathological findings in the liver cited in the pesticides risk assessment reports published by the Food Safety Commission of Japan were classified. The histopathological findings were obtained in repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity studies of mice, rats and dogs and carcinogenicity studies of rodents. After the classification, a thesaurus was constructed based on the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic (INHAND) Criteria. We recommend the use of INHAND criteria in risk assessment reports to improve mutual understanding between applicants and risk assessors.

  19. Radiation safety in commercial air traffic - A need for further study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of radiation exposure of crewmembers in high altitude supersonic commercial aircraft is addressed. As a result of recent changes in the quality factors for radiological protection, it is found that worst case estimates of radiation exposure are now well above the exposure limits of the general population, and a reassessment of radiation impact on commercial aviation is needed, if the proposed quality factors are adopted. Calculations are presented from a study on neutron dosage equivalent rates. It is shown that a crew flying at altitudes near 13 km (43,000 ft) for 40 hr/mo would receive exposure levels of 47-75 Sv/yr, and it is suggested that such crewmembers be considered as radiation workers, rather than general population members. However, since present exposure estimates need to be improved, and the maximum permissible dose limits are currently under revision, the final exposure limits are, as yet, unclear, suggesting the need for further study to clarify the work status of commercial aircrews.

  20. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Zhang, Zhe; Tran, Phuoc T.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Song, Daniel Y.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  1. Radiation Exposure and Safety Precautions Following 131Cs Brachytherapy in Patients with Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Yondorf, Menachem Z; Schwartz, Theodore H; Boockvar, John A; Pannullo, Susan; Stieg, Philip; Sabbas, Albert; Pavese, Albert; Trichter, Samuel; Nedialkova, Lucy; Parashar, Bhupesh; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, K S Clifford; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2017-04-01

    Cesium-131 (Cs) brachytherapy is a safe and convenient treatment option for patients with resected brain tumors. This study prospectively analyzes radiation exposure in the patient population who were treated with a maximally safe neurosurgical resection and Cs brachytherapy. Following implantation, radiation dose rate measurements were taken at the surface, 35 cm, and 100 cm distances. Using the half-life of Cs (9.69 d), the dose rates were extrapolated at these distances over a period of time (t = 30 d). Data from dosimetry badges and rings worn by surgeons and radiation oncologists were collected and analyzed. Postoperatively, median dose rate was 0.2475 mSv h, 0.01 mSv h, and 0.001 mSv h and at 30 d post-implant, 0.0298 mSv h, 0.0012 mSv h, and 0.0001 mSv h at the surface, 35 cm, and 100 cm, respectively. All but one badge and ring measured a dose equivalent corresponding to ~0 mSv h, while 1 badge measured 0.02/0.02/0.02 mSv h. There was a significant correlation between the number of seeds implanted and dose rate at the surface (p = 0.0169). When stratified by the number of seeds: 4-15 seeds (n = 14) and 20-50 seeds (n = 4) had median dose rates of 0.1475 mSv h and 0.5565 mSv h, respectively (p = 0.0015). Using National Council on Radiation Protection guidelines, this study shows that dose equivalent from permanent Cs brachytherapy for the treatment of brain tumors is limited, and it maintains safe levels of exposure to family and medical personnel. Such information is critical knowledge for the neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, nurses, hospital staff, and family as this method is gaining nationwide popularity.

  2. Evaluation of acute and late radiation morbidity in patients with gynaecologic malignancy using the RTOG criteria and Franco-Italian glossary.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, G; Ozsaran, Z; Yalman, D; Kamer, S; Aras, A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late radiation morbidity in patients with gynaecologic malignancy using the RTOG criteria and Franco-Italian glossary, and to compare the usefulness and disadvantages of each system. Between February 2001 and February 2003, 107 patients with gynaecologic malignancy who received either radical or djuvant external radiotherapy +/- intracavitary brachytherapy or radiochemotherapy were enrolled in this study. The patients were evaluated before radiotherapy and weekly during radiotherapy for acute morbidity using the RTOG grading system and Franco-Italian glossary. Postradiotherapy evaluation was done one month after radiotherapy and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Median follow-up duration was 17 months. Morbidity was graded and recorded according to each scoring system. Median age was 46 years (range 37-82). Sixty-four patients (59.8%) had endometrial cancer. Radical radiotherapy was applied to 26 patients because of inoperability and 81 patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Biologically effective doses for the bladder, rectum and vagina were 98.39, 103.54 and 121.81, respectively, for late morbidity (BED3); 70.88, 72.84 and 80.92, respectively, for acute morbidity (BED10). According to the RTOG grading system acute morbidity rate for the genitourinary and gastrointestinal systems, and skin were 52.3%, 83.2% and 63.5%, respectively. Late morbidity rate for the bladder, colon-rectum, skin and vagina were 16.8%, 20.6%, 47.7% and 51.4%, respectively. The morbidity rate for the bladder, nonspecific abdominal, hematopoietic system, uterus-vulva-vagina, skin and rectum were 35.4%, 29.9%, 5.6%, 60.8%, 40.1% and 32.7%, respectively using the Franco-Italian glossary. In patients with carcinoma of the vulva--whose treatment fields were wider--acute morbidity rate according to RTOG criteria was higher (p = 0.057); photon energy (6 Mv rather than 1.25 MV) (p = 0.01) and treatment interruption of more than eight days (p

  3. Advanced photon source proposal for upgrading the radiation safety of x-ray labs

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, N.

    1991-07-01

    There are two adjacent x-ray labs in building 360, each having two entrance doors. Lab A240 has two x-ray machines and lab A248 has one. All machines are equipped with sliding safety windows and microswitches to monitor the state of the windows - open or closed. Two modes of operation are possible. (1) Secure Mode in which all safety windows are closed as indicated by the microswitches. This satisfies the interlock system, allowing the high voltage power supply to be turned on. (2) Bypass Mode in which the interlock system is overridden by a key-controlled selector switch and high voltage can be turned on with machine hutch window(s) open. The bypass mode is potentially unsafe because it is possible for an operator to leave a running instrument unattended while the windows are open. Thus, it is possible for someone entering the lab to expose themselves to x-rays.

  4. MO-G-304-04: Generating Well-Dispersed Representations of the Pareto Front for Multi-Criteria Optimization in Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kirlik, G; Zhang, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present a novel multi-criteria optimization (MCO) solution approach that generates well-dispersed representation of the Pareto front for radiation treatment planning. Methods: Different algorithms have been proposed and implemented in commercial planning software to generate MCO plans for external-beam radiation therapy. These algorithms consider convex optimization problems. We propose a grid-based algorithm to generate well-dispersed treatment plans over Pareto front. Our method is able to handle nonconvexity in the problem to deal with dose-volume objectives/constraints, biological objectives, such as equivalent uniform dose (EUD), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), etc. In addition, our algorithm is able to provide single MCO plan when clinicians are targeting narrow bounds of objectives for patients. In this situation, usually none of the generated plans were within the bounds and a solution is difficult to identify via manual navigation. We use the subproblem formulation utilized in the grid-based algorithm to obtain a plan within the specified bounds. The subproblem aims to generate a solution that maps into the rectangle defined by the bounds. If such a solution does not exist, it generates the solution closest to the rectangle. We tested our method with 10 locally advanced head and neck cancer cases. Results: 8 objectives were used including 3 different objectives for primary target volume, high-risk and low-risk target volumes, and 5 objectives for each of the organs-at-risk (OARs) (two parotids, spinal cord, brain stem and oral cavity). Given tight bounds, uniform dose was achieved for all targets while as much as 26% improvement was achieved in OAR sparing comparing to clinical plans without MCO and previously proposed MCO method. Conclusion: Our method is able to obtain well-dispersed treatment plans to attain better approximation for convex and nonconvex Pareto fronts. Single treatment plan can

  5. The clinical safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry of flutemetamol (¹⁸F) injection in healthy Japanese adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Senda, Michio; Brooks, David J; Farrar, Gill; Somer, Edward J; Paterson, Carolyn L; Sasaki, Masahiro; McParland, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    The Phase I safety, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry study in adult healthy Japanese males of flutemetamol ((18)F) injection, an in vivo β-amyloid imaging agent, is reported and compared with previously obtained Caucasian data. Whole-body PET scans of 6 healthy volunteers (age 51.8-61.7 years) were acquired approximately 4 h post-injection (administered activity 102-160 MBq). Venous blood sampling determined (18)F activity concentrations in whole blood and plasma and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) established the percentages of parent [(18)F]flutemetamol and its metabolites. Voided urine activity was recorded. The decay-corrected and normalised (18)F activity of 14 source organ regions as a function of time was entered into the OLINDA/EXM software to calculate the internal radiation dosimetry and effective dose of each subject following the MIRD schema. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry profiles were compared to data obtained from a cohort of healthy Caucasian adult volunteers from a previous Phase I study of [(18)F]flutemetamol. Flutemetamol ((18)F) injection was well tolerated. The highest mean initial uptakes were measured in the liver (15.2%), lungs (10.2%) and brain (6.6%). The highest mean radiation absorbed doses were received by the gallbladder wall (366 μGy/MBq), upper large intestine (138 μGy/MBq) and small intestine (121 μGy/MBq). The mean effective dose was 34.9 μSv/MBq. HPLC analysis demonstrated that at 5-min post-injection about 75% of plasma (18)F radioactivity was in the form of parent [(18)F]flutemetamol, reducing to 8 and 2% at 25 and 90 min, respectively, giving rise to less lipophilic (18)F-labelled metabolites. Comparisons with the Caucasian cohort showed no differences that could be regarded as clinically significant. The clinical safety of [(18)F]flutemetamol demonstrated no differences of clinical significance in the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry

  6. On board electronic devices safety subject to high frequency electromagnetic radiation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Smirnova, M. N.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Spacecraft on board electronic devices are subjected to the effects of Space environment, in particular, electromagnetic radiation. The weight limitations for spacecraft pose an important material and structures problem: developing effective protection for on board electronic devices from high frequency electromagnetic radiation. In the present paper the problem of the effect of external high frequency electromagnetic field on electronic devices shielding located on orbital platforms is investigated theoretically. It is demonstrated that the characteristic time for the unsteady stage of the process is negligibly small as compared with characteristic time of electromagnetic field diffusion into a conductor for the studied range of governing parameters. A system of governing material parameters is distinguished, which contribute to protecting electronic devices from induced electrical currents.

  7. Velopharyngeal videofluoroscopy: Providing useful clinical information in the era of reduced dose radiation and safety.

    PubMed

    Ysunza, Pablo Antonio; Bloom, David; Chaiyasate, Kongkrit; Rontal, Matthew; VanHulle, Rachel; Shaheen, Kenneth; Gibson, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The state of the art for correcting velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a surgical procedure which is customized according to findings on imaging procedures: multiplanar videofluoroscopy (MPVF) and flexible videonasopharyngoscopy (FVNP). Recently, the use of MPVF has been challenged because of the potential risk of using ionizing radiation, especially in children. To study whether using a protocol for performing MPVF can effectively decrease radiation dose in patients with VPI while providing useful information for planning surgical correction of VPI in combination with FVNP. The methodology used for performing the imaging procedures is described as well as the effectiveness of the surgical procedure. Eighty - nine patients (Age range = 3-17 years; median = 5.5 years) with VPI resulting from multiple etiologies were studied. All patients underwent MPVF and FVNP for planning surgical correction of VPI. Radiation dosage data in each case was recorded. Forty of the 89 patients also completed a postoperative evaluation. Eleven out of the remaining 49 patients have not completed a postoperative evaluation and 38 patients are still pending surgical correction. Radiation dosage ranged from 1.00 to 8.75 miliSieverts (mSv); Mean = 2.88 mSv; SD = 1.575 mSv. Preoperative nasometry demonstrated mean nasalance ranging from 41%-95%; Mean = 72.30; SD = 4.54. Postoperatively mean nasalance was within normal limits in 36 (90%) out of 40 cases, ranging from 21% to 35%; Mean = 28.10; SD = 5.40. Nasal emission was eliminated postoperatively in all cases. MPVF provides useful information for planning the surgical procedure aimed at correcting VPI. The combination of MPVF and FVNP is a reliable procedure for assessing velopharyngeal closure and to surgically correcting VPI with a highly successful outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation and criticality safety analyses for the highly-enriched uranium core removal from a research reactor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Haile; Grant, Charles; Preston, John

    2017-11-01

    Analysis was performed to estimate radiation levels during removal and packaging of the highly-enriched uranium core of the JM-1 SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. Due to severe limitations of space in and around the reactor pool, the core could not be removed in the conventional manner as was done for previous SLOWPOKE defuelling operations. A transfer shield, with a balance between shielding efficacy, volume and weight was designed. Fuel depletion, Monte Carlo shielding and criticality calculations were performed. Comparisons of measured and calculated dose rates as well as results of the criticality safety assessment are presented. The designed transfer shield reduced the calculated unshielded dose rate from 29Sv/h to 8mSv/h. The maximum calculated effective neutron multiplication factor of approximately 0.89 was below the 0.91 upper subricital limit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Place of the radiation safety officer in the implementation of the ALARA principle through European directive 97-43 items].

    PubMed

    Mozziconacci, J G; Ayivi, J; Loat, A; Ifergan, J; Mourbrun, M; Drevet, B

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the role of the radiation safety officer in raising the awareness of the radiology staff to the ALARA (As low as reasonable achievable) principle specified in European directive 97-43. The actions taken and the techniques used in our hospital, as well as the potential improvements that could be achieved with extra funding, will be presented. The didactic value of flow charts recording technical factors and fluoroscopy times for quality improvement will be demonstrated. In the future, a dosimeter incorporated on the new equipment could allow direct recording of the dose. The different items presented in this paper should allow routine implementation of the required elements described in the law 2003-270, i.e the French translation of European Directive 97-43.

  10. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  11. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  12. Optimizing radiation use during fluoroscopic procedures: a quality and safety improvement project.

    PubMed

    Duncan, James R; Street, Mandie; Strother, Marshall; Picus, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The ionizing radiation used during fluoroscopically guided medical interventions carries risk. The teams performing these procedures seek to minimize those risks while preserving each procedure's benefits. This report describes a data-driven optimization strategy. Manual and automated data capture systems were used to collect a series of different metrics, including fluoroscopy time, kerma area product, and reference point air kerma, from both adult and pediatric interventional radiologic procedures. Tools from statistical process control were used to identify opportunities for improvement and assess which changes led to improvement. Initial efforts focused on creating a system capable of reliably capturing fluoroscopy time from all interventional radiologic procedures. Ongoing data analysis and feedback to frontline teams led to the development of a manual workflow that reliably captured fluoroscopy time. Data capture was later supplemented by automatic capture of electronic records. This process exploited the standardized format (DICOM Structured Reporting) that newer fluoroscopy units use to record the radiation metrics. Data analysis found marked differences between the imaging protocols used for adults and children. Revision of the adult protocols led to a stable twofold reduction in average exposure per adult procedure. Analysis of balancing measures found no impact on workflow. A systematic approach to improving radiation use during procedures led to a substantial and sustained reduction in risk with no reduction in benefits. Data were readily captured by both manual and automated processes. Concepts from cognitive psychology and information theory provided a theoretical basis for both data analysis and improvement opportunities. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10{sup {minus}4}/y.

  14. Electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy-guided fiducial markers for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy: analysis of safety, feasibility, and interfraction stability.

    PubMed

    Nabavizadeh, Nima; Zhang, Junan; Elliott, David A; Tanyi, James A; Thomas, Charles R; Fuss, Martin; Deffebach, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Embolization coils as fiducial markers for pulmonary stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are perceived to be the optimal marker type, given their ability to conform and anchor within the small airways. The aim of our study was to assess retention, placement, migration, feasibility, and safety of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB)-guided embolization coil markers throughout courses of SBRT. Thirty-one patients with 34 nodules underwent ENB-guided fiducial placement of several 4 mm fibered platinum embolization coils before SBRT. Patient and nodule positioning was confirmed with daily pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fiducial positional characteristics were analyzed utilizing radiation treatment-planning software comparing the simulation CT with daily CBCTs. Of 105 fiducials placed, 103 were identifiable on simulation CT (retention rate: 98.1%). Incidence of asymptomatic pneumothoraces was 6%. One patient experienced hemoptysis requiring hospitalization. Eighty-six percent of fiducials were placed within 1 cm of the nodule, with 52% of fiducials placed directly on the nodule surface. Throughout a 5-fraction SBRT course, fiducial displacement was <7, 5, and 2 mm in 98%, 96%, and 67% of pretreatment CBCTs. ENB placement of embolization coils as fiducials for lung SBRT image guidance is associated with a low rate of iatrogenic pneumothoraces, and resulted in reliable placement of the fiducials in close proximity to the lung nodule. Embolization coils retained their relative position to the nodule throughout the course of SBRT, and provide an excellent alternative to linear gold seeds.

  15. Nurses', physicians' and radiographers' perceptions of the safety of a nurse prescribing of ionising radiation initiative: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Abbey; Coughlan, Barbara; Naughton, Corina; Hegarty, Josephine; Savage, Eileen; Grehan, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Eoin; Moughty, Adrian; Drennan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    A new initiative was introduced in Ireland following legislative changes that allowed nurses with special training to prescribe ionising radiation (X-ray) for the first time. A small number of studies on nurse prescribing of ionising radiation in other contexts have found it to be broadly as safe as ionising radiation prescribing by physicians. Sociological literature on perceptions of safety indicates that these tend to be shaped by the ideological position of the professional rather than based on objective evidence. To describe, compare and analyse perceptions of the safety of a nurse prescribing of ionising radiation initiative across three occupational groups: nursing, radiography and medicine. A cross-sectional survey design. Participants were drawn from a range of clinical settings in Ireland. Respondents were 167 health professionals comprised of 49 nurses, 91 radiographers, and 27 physicians out of a total of 300 who were invited to participate. Non-probability sampling was employed and the survey was targeted specifically at health professionals with a specific interest in, or involvement with, the development of the nurse prescribing of ionising radiation initiative in Ireland. Comparisons of perspectives on the safety of nurse prescribing of ionising radiation across the three occupational groups captured by questionnaire were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis H test. Pairwise post hoc tests were conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test. While the majority of respondents from all three groups perceived nurse prescribing of ionising radiation to be safe, the extent to which this view was held varied. A higher proportion of nurses was found to display confidence in the safety of nurse prescribing of ionising radiation compared to physicians and radiographers with differences between nurses' perceptions and those of the other two groups being statistically significant. That an occupational patterning emerged suggests that perceptions about safety and risk of

  16. Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Sun, X.

    2012-07-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The RVACS can be characterized as a surface-based decay heat removal system. It is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to the core volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to the vessel surface area). Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environmental side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps or annular regions formed between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions among the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very

  17. Who Was Concerned about Radiation, Food Safety, and Natural Disasters after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Catastrophe? A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. Methods The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Results Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35–2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38–2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39–2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33–1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20–1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12–1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58–2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07–1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25–5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08–2.06 about food safety). Conclusions Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively. PMID:25181292

  18. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    PubMed

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  19. Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  20. SU-D-201-07: A Survey of Radiation Oncology Residents’ Training and Preparedness to Lead Patient Safety Programs in Clinics

    SciTech Connect

    Spraker, M; Nyflot, M; Ford, E; Kane, G; Zeng, J; Hendrickson, K

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Safety and quality has garnered increased attention in radiation oncology, and physicians and physicists are ideal leaders of clinical patient safety programs. However, it is not clear whether residency programs incorporate formal patient safety training and adequately equip residents to assume this leadership role. A national survey was conducted to evaluate medical and physics residents’ exposure to safety topics and their confidence with the skills required to lead clinical safety programs. Methods: Radiation oncology residents were identified in collaboration with ARRO and AAPM. The survey was released in February 2016 via email using REDCap. This included questions about exposure to safety topics, confidence leading safety programs, and interest in training opportunities (i.e. workshops). Residents rated their exposure, skills, and confidence on 4 or 5-point scales. Medical and physics residents responses were compared using chi-square tests. Results: Responses were collected from 56 of 248 (22%) physics and 139 of 690 (20%) medical residents. More than two thirds of all residents had no or only informal exposure to incident learning systems (ILS), root cause analysis (RCA), failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), and the concept of human factors engineering (HFE). Likewise, 63% of residents had not heard of RO-ILS. Response distributions were similar, however more physics residents had formal exposure to FMEA (p<0.0001) and felt they were adequately trained to lead FMEAs in clinic (p<0.001) than medical residents. Only 36% of residents felt their patient safety training was adequate, and 58% felt more training would benefit their education. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that, despite increasing desire for patient safety training, medical and physics residents’ exposure to relevant concepts is low. Physics residents had more exposure to FMEA than medical residents, and were more confident in leading FMEA. This suggests that increasing

  1. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    SciTech Connect

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V.; Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A.; Kemsky, I.

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data over three years - from March 2009 to

  2. SU-E-T-452: Identifying Inefficiencies in Radiation Oncology Workflow and Prioritizing Solutions for Process Improvement and Patient Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, N; Driewer, J; Denniston, K; Zhen, W; Enke, C; Jacobs, K; Poole, M; McMahon, R; Wilson, K; Yager, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Successful radiation therapy requires multi-step processes susceptible to unnecessary delays that can negatively impact clinic workflow, patient satisfaction, and safety. This project applied process improvement tools to assess workflow bottlenecks and identify solutions to barriers for effective implementation. Methods: We utilized the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) methodology, limiting our scope to the treatment planning process. From May through December of 2014, times and dates of each step from simulation to treatment were recorded for 507 cases. A value-stream map created from this dataset directed our selection of outcome measures (Y metrics). Critical goals (X metrics) that would accomplish the Y metrics were identified. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices, in order to stratify them into four groups: in/out of control and high/low impact. Solutions to each barrier were then categorized into benefit-effort matries to identify those of high benefit and low effort. Results: For 507 cases, the mean time from simulation to treatment was 235 total hours. The mean process and wait time were 60 and 132 hours, respectively. The Y metric was to increase the ratio of all non-emergent plans completed the business day prior to treatment from 47% to 75%. Project X metrics included increasing the number of IMRT QAs completed at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 19% to 80% and the number of non-IMRT plans approved at least 24 hours prior to treatment from 33% to 80%. Intervals from simulation to target contour and from initial plan completion to plan approval were identified as periods that could benefit from intervention. Barriers to actions were binned into control-impact matrices and solutions by benefit-effort matrices. Conclusion: The DMAIC method can be successfully applied in radiation therapy clinics to identify inefficiencies and prioritize solutions for the highest impact.

  3. An Excel-Based System for Managing the Radiation Safety of the (131)I Therapy Patient's Family, and Others.

    PubMed

    Steward, Palmer G

    2017-03-09

    Excel workbooks are developed that assist the radiation safety counseling of (131)I therapy patients and their families. Use of the workbooks provides individualized guidelines for meeting selected dose limits that avoid overly conservative restrictions to family members and others. Methods: The mathematical model includes biphasic patient radionuclide retention. The extra-thyroidal component is a cylindrical volume with a diameter corresponding to the patient's size and includes patient self-absorption, while the thyroidal component is a point source whose transmission is reduced by self-absorption. A separate model in which the thyroid, extra-thyroid, and bladder compartments feed serially from one to the next is developed in order to depict the radionuclide levels within the patient and to estimate the activity entering the environment at each urination. Results: The system is organized into a set of 4 workbooks: the first to be used with ablation patients prepared using thyrogen, the second with ablation patients prepared by deprivation, the third with hyperthyroid patients, and the fourth is used with the unusual hyperthyroid patient who finds the restrictions to be oppressive and returns 5 to 10 days post-administration for a measurement and reassessment. The workbooks evaluate the radiation field strength external to the patient and indicate restrictions based upon selected dose limits. To assist in suggesting contamination precautions, the workbooks also evaluate the radioactivity present within the patient and the estimated discharge into the environment as a function of time. Conclusion: The workbooks, a user's manual, and a document detailing the mathematics involved are available free of charge by email request sent to the author.

  4. [Current status of the problem of radiation protection in space flight].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, E E

    1984-01-01

    This review of radiation protection in space flight considers specific features of radiation effects (the composition of radiation, space-time changes of fluxes of charged particles, nonuniform radiation fields in spacecraft modules, formation of secondary radiations, etc) and the major sources of radiation hazards in space (Earth radiation belts, solar and galactic cosmic radiations). The paper presents estimates of the equivalent dose of protons and electrons of the Earth radiation belts at various orbits, as well as radiation characteristics of certain proton solar flares and galactic cosmic radiation. The paper also discusses the present-day criteria of radiation safety used in calculations of the shielding of manned spacecraft. The paper gives the standards of allowable radiation levels used in the USSR.

  5. Laser damage of skin by 1540-nm Er-glass laser radiation: impact on laser safety standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashev, Alexei V.; Denker, Boris I.; Pashinin, Pavel P.; Sverchkov, Sergey E.

    1996-11-01

    The skin response was studied for different radiant exposure of short and long laser pulses and reaction to multipulse action using Er-glass laser radiation. Lesion ranging from a mild erythema to tissue coagulation were produced on porcine skin. Radiant exposure producing 50 percent probability of a particular grade of lesion were established. A dependence of ED50 of minimum erythema versus number of pulses and beam cross section were studied. The dose-response relationship for producing different grades of burns were determined for energy densities of single laser pulse within the range 0.5- 35 J/cm2 and pulse duration 100 ns and 3 ms. The single pulse dose in a chain of repetitive pluses producing minimum erythema were determined for 2n(n equals 1-6 pulses). The minimum reaction of skin on laser irradiance were studied for different beam diameter. The reaction of skin is mostly considered as local super heating. The data obtained are adequate to update safety standards for cutaneous injury within thee ranges of radiant exposure and beam spotsize.

  6. Implications of Graphite Radiation Damage on the Neutronic, Operational, and Safety Aspects of Very High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman I

    2011-08-30

    In both the prismatic and pebble bed designs of Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR), the graphite moderator is expected to reach exposure levels of 1021 to 1022 n/cm2 over the lifetime of the reactor. This exposure results in damage to the graphite structure. In this work, molecular dynamic and ab initio molecular static calculations will be used to: 1) simulate radiation damage in graphite under various irradiation and temperature conditions, 2) generate the thermal neutron scattering cross sections for damaged graphite, and 3) examine the resulting microstructure to identify damage formations that may produce the high-temperature Wigner effect. The impact of damage on the neutronic, operational and safety behavior of the reactor will be assessed using reactor physics calculations. In addition, tests will be performed on irradiated graphite samples to search for the high-temperature Wigner effect, and phonon density of states measurements will be conducted to quantify the effect on thermal neutron scattering cross sections using these samples.

  7. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  8. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 4: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The scope of this study considered the first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (10C) during the early 1990's. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris.

  9. Space station crew safety alternatives study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Raasch, R. F.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris.

  10. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  11. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed.

  12. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  13. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  14. Radiation physics and shielding codes and analyses applied to design-assist and safety analyses of CANDU{sup R} and ACR{sup TM} reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aydogdu, K.; Boss, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the radiation physics and shielding codes and analyses applied in the design of CANDU and ACR reactors. The focus is on the types of analyses undertaken rather than the inputs supplied to the engineering disciplines. Nevertheless, the discussion does show how these analyses contribute to the engineering design. Analyses in radiation physics and shielding can be categorized as either design-assist or safety and licensing (accident) analyses. Many of the analyses undertaken are designated 'design-assist' where the analyses are used to generate recommendations that directly influence plant design. These recommendations are directed at mitigating or reducing the radiation hazard of the nuclear power plant with engineered systems and components. Thus the analyses serve a primary safety function by ensuring the plant can be operated with acceptable radiation hazards to the workers and public. In addition to this role of design assist, radiation physics and shielding codes are also deployed in safety and licensing assessments of the consequences of radioactive releases of gaseous and liquid effluents during normal operation and gaseous effluents following accidents. In the latter category, the final consequences of accident sequences, expressed in terms of radiation dose to members of the public, and inputs to accident analysis, e.g., decay heat in fuel following a loss-of-coolant accident, are also calculated. Another role of the analyses is to demonstrate that the design of the plant satisfies the principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) radiation doses. This principle is applied throughout the design process to minimize worker and public doses. The principle of ALARA is an inherent part of all design-assist recommendations and safety and licensing assessments. The main focus of an ALARA exercise at the design stage is to minimize the radiation hazards at the source. This exploits material selection and impurity specifications and relies

  15. Mosquito bite immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites: safety, tolerability, protective efficacy and humoral immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Bradley W; Lumsden, Joanne M; Reyes, Sharina; Sedegah, Martha; Hollingdale, Michael R; Freilich, Daniel A; Luke, Thomas C; Charoenvit, Yupin; Goh, Lucy M; Berzins, Mara P; Bebris, Lolita; Sacci, John B; De La Vega, Patricia; Wang, Ruobing; Ganeshan, Harini; Abot, Esteban N; Carucci, Daniel J; Doolan, Denise L; Brice, Gary T; Kumar, Anita; Aguiar, Joao; Nutman, Thomas B; Leitman, Susan F; Hoffman, Stephen L; Epstein, Judith E; Richie, Thomas L

    2016-07-22

    In this phase 1 clinical trial, healthy adult, malaria-naïve subjects were immunized with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfRAS) by mosquito bite and then underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). The PfRAS model for immunization against malaria had previously induced >90 % sterile protection against homologous CHMI. This study was to further explore the safety, tolerability and protective efficacy of the PfRAS model and to provide biological specimens to characterize protective immune responses and identify protective antigens in support of malaria vaccine development. Fifty-seven subjects were screened, 41 enrolled and 30 received at least one immunization. The true-immunized subjects received PfRAS via mosquito bite and the mock-immunized subjects received mosquito bites from irradiated uninfected mosquitoes. Sera and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected before and after PfRAS immunizations. Immunization with PfRAS was generally safe and well tolerated, and repeated immunization via mosquito bite did not appear to increase the risk or severity of AEs. Local adverse events (AEs) of true-immunized and mock-immunized groups consisted of erythaema, papules, swelling, and induration and were consistent with reactions from mosquito bites seen in nature. Two subjects, one true- and one mock-immunized, developed large local reactions that completely resolved, were likely a result of mosquito salivary antigens, and were withdrawn from further participation as a safety precaution. Systemic AEs were generally rare and mild, consisting of headache, myalgia, nausea, and low-grade fevers. Two true-immunized subjects experienced fever, malaise, myalgia, nausea, and rigours approximately 16 h after immunization. These symptoms likely resulted from pre-formed antibodies interacting with mosquito salivary antigens. Ten subjects immunized with PfRAS underwent CHMI and five subjects (50 %) were sterilely protected and

  16. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria. The... every five years. One of the criteria for a mine operator to certify the qualifications of a coal...

  17. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  18. Tritium dose criteria and radiological impact of a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbasov, B.N.

    1993-06-01

    Radiation safety criteria adopted in Russia (in the former USSR) distinguish five classes of tritium compounds. The lowest permissible tritium concentration in the air is set for insoluble tritium compounds (3 [times] 10[sup 5] times lower than that for HT). Russia's criteria for tritiated radioactive waste are outlined. It is explained why the tritium weighting factor of two is used as a basis for the tritium dose criteria development in this country. The ecological situation nearby a large tritium processing plant is considered. Amounts of tritiated waste produced at the plant, sources of tritium effluents, tritium content in the air, water, snow, soil and vegetation as well as HTO sorption parameters of various food products are reported. On the basis of HTO near-surface concentrations in the air and public doses measured 3 km away from the plant stack, the tritium dose factor was calculated.

  19. SU-F-R-11: Designing Quality and Safety Informatics Through Implementation of a CT Radiation Dose Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, JM; Samei, E

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent legislative and accreditation requirements have driven rapid development and implementation of CT radiation dose monitoring solutions. Institutions must determine how to improve quality, safety, and consistency of their clinical performance. The purpose of this work was to design a strategy and meaningful characterization of results from an in-house, clinically-deployed dose monitoring solution. Methods: A dose monitoring platform was designed by our imaging physics group that focused on extracting protocol parameters, dose metrics, and patient demographics and size. Compared to most commercial solutions, which focus on individual exam alerts and global thresholds, the program sought to characterize overall consistency and targeted thresholds based on eight analytic interrogations. Those were based on explicit questions related to protocol application, national benchmarks, protocol and size-specific dose targets, operational consistency, outliers, temporal trends, intra-system variability, and consistent use of electronic protocols. Using historical data since the start of 2013, 95% and 99% intervals were used to establish yellow and amber parameterized dose alert thresholds, respectively, as a function of protocol, scanner, and size. Results: Quarterly reports have been generated for three hospitals for 3 quarters of 2015 totaling 27880, 28502, 30631 exams, respectively. Four adult and two pediatric protocols were higher than external institutional benchmarks. Four protocol dose levels were being inconsistently applied as a function of patient size. For the three hospitals, the minimum and maximum amber outlier percentages were [1.53%,2.28%], [0.76%,1.8%], [0.94%,1.17%], respectively. Compared with the electronic protocols, 10 protocols were found to be used with some inconsistency. Conclusion: Dose monitoring can satisfy requirements with global alert thresholds and patient dose records, but the real value is in optimizing patient

  20. The safety and feasibility of diagnostic acoustic radiation force impulse elastography used for eyes. A preliminary in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Zha, Li; Chen, Ke Qi; Zheng, Xiao Zhi; Wu, Jing

    2017-04-22

    To assess the safety and feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the eyes of rats. Material and methods: One hundred and twenty-six SD rats were divided into 7 groups. Group 1 was the control group and Group 2 to Group 7 were investigated by ARFI elastography using increased powers of 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100% and repetitions of 5 or 10. The changes of ocular architecture structures and functions were examined by phthalmoscopic, histopathologic, and light reflex examination, and the expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α was determined in days 1, 3, and 7 after ARFI elastography, respectively. A satisfactory ARFI elastography was obtained in all SD rats. The shear wave velocity (SWV) values of soft tissues behind the eyeball were significantly greater than those of the eyes (1.89±0.95 vs. 0.84±0.36 m/s, p<0.05). The SWV values of eyes and the soft tissues behind the eyeball did not differ among any groups at any time-point (p>0.05). The SD rats of each group showed good light perception, pupillary light reflex, and avoidance reaction induced by the sudden bright light from the dark environment at any time. In each group, ocular architecture structures were well preserved, and with a normal expression level of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (p>0.05). Diagnostic ARFI elastography is a safe and feasible ultrasonic imaging mode and may potentially be applied for human eyes in its present form.

  1. Detection Efficacy of Hybrid (68)Ga-PSMA Ligand PET/CT in Prostate Cancer Patients with Biochemical Recurrence After Primary Radiation Therapy Defined by Phoenix Criteria.

    PubMed

    Einspieler, Ingo; Rauscher, Isabel; Düwel, Charlotte; Krönke, Markus; Rischpler, Christoph; Habl, Gregor; Dewes, Sabrina; Ott, Armin; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Maurer, Tobias; Eiber, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the detection rate of Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[(68)Ga(HBED-CC)] ((68)Ga-PSMA ligand; PSMA is prostate-specific membrane antigen) PET/CT in patients with biochemical recurrent prostate cancer defined by Phoenix criteria after external-beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy as primary treatment. Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 6.4 ng/mL (range, 2.2-158.4 ng/mL; interquartile range, 4.2-10.2 ng/mL) were finally eligible for this retrospective analysis. Seventy-seven and 41 patients had been treated by external-beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy, respectively. Of the 118 patients, 45 were receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) within at least 6 mo before the PET/CT. The detection rates were stratified by PSA. The influence of primary Gleason score and ADT was assessed. Relationships between SUV and clinical as well as pathologic features in patients with positive findings were analyzed using univariate and multivariable linear regression models. Results: One hundred seven of 118 patients (90.7%) showed pathologic findings indicative for tumor recurrence in (68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT. The detection rates were 81.8% (36/44), 95.3% (41/43), and 96.8% (30/31) for PSA of 2 to <5, 5 to <10, and ≥10 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.0377). (68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT indicated local recurrence in 68 of 107 patients (63.5%), distant lesions in 64 of 107 patients (59.8%), and local recurrence as well as distant lesions in 25 of 107 patients (23.4%). The detection rate was significantly higher in patients with ADT (97.7%) versus without ADT (86.3%, P = 0.0381), but independent from primary Gleason score ≥ 8 (92.0%) versus ≤ 7 (90.2%, P = 0.6346). SUVmax and SUVmean were significantly associated with PSA and ADT (P = 0.018 and 0.004 for SUVmax, respectively; P = 0.025 and 0.007 for SUVmean, respectively). Conclusion:(68)Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT demonstrates high detection rates

  2. Safety: Radiation Protection Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-30

    than that of uranium (92). All transuranics are radioactive. Transuranics are produced in spent fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear weapons... metals can be smelted and cast as parts for disposal containers for other EM 385-1-80 30 May 97 9-5 radioactive wastes. If a project involves...quantities within the human body. d. Another group of radionuclides are referred to as transuranics . These are merely elements with Z numbers greater

  3. 10 CFR 820.62 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES Exemption Relief § 820.62 Criteria. The criteria for granting an exemption to a DOE Nuclear Safety Requirement are determinations that the exemption: (a) Would be authorized by law; (b) Would not present an undue risk to public health and safety,...

  4. Radiation Exposure in X-Ray and CT Examinations

    MedlinePlus

    ... procedures. See the X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety page for more information. top of page ... and Radiation Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Radiation Dose in X- ...

  5. 30 CFR 104.3 - Pattern criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pattern criteria. 104.3 Section 104.3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS § 104.3 Pattern criteria. (a) The criteria of this section shall be used to identify those mines...

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Induction and Adjuvant Therapy for Stage N2 Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Ramesh S.; Dubey, Sarita; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Chang, Joe Yujiao; Decker, Roy; Gewanter, Richard M.; Kong Fengming; Lally, Brian E.; Langer, Corey J.; Lee, Hoon Ku; Movsas, Benjamin M.D.

    2010-11-15

    'The American College of Radiology seeks and encourages collaboration with other organizations on the development of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria through society representation on expert panels. Participation by representatives from collaborating societies on the expert panel does not necessarily imply society endorsement of the final document.'

  7. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  8. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  9. [Radiation safety provisions in a piloted mission to Mars based on calculated risks of overdose behind shielding].

    PubMed

    Shafirkin, A V; Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Petrov, V M

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the prime sources of radiation hazard in a mission to Mars, compares the radiation risk values in flight and over the life span with consideration for various shielding thicknesses in habitable compartments and radiation shelter, and estimates possible life shortening. Given the stochastic nature of solar cosmic rays effects in a two-year mission and probability of powerful solar proton events, calculated were not only the mean tissue-equivalent doses behind various thickness of the shelter but also probability of their violation, risks of immediate and delayed radiation consequences and conceivable approaches to risk mitigation.

  10. Poster - Thur Eve - 05: Safety systems and failure modes and effects analysis for a magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy system.

    PubMed

    Lamey, M; Carlone, M; Alasti, H; Bissonnette, J P; Borg, J; Breen, S; Coolens, C; Heaton, R; Islam, M; van Proojen, M; Sharpe, M; Stanescu, T; Jaffray, D

    2012-07-01

    An online Magnetic Resonance guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) system is under development. The system is comprised of an MRI with the capability of travel between and into HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy vaults. The system will provide on-line MR images immediately prior to radiation therapy. The MR images will be registered to a planning image and used for image guidance. With the intention of system safety we have performed a failure modes and effects analysis. A process tree of the facility function was developed. Using the process tree as well as an initial design of the facility as guidelines possible failure modes were identified, for each of these failure modes root causes were identified. For each possible failure the assignment of severity, detectability and occurrence scores was performed. Finally suggestions were developed to reduce the possibility of an event. The process tree consists of nine main inputs and each of these main inputs consisted of 5 - 10 sub inputs and tertiary inputs were also defined. The process tree ensures that the overall safety of the system has been considered. Several possible failure modes were identified and were relevant to the design, construction, commissioning and operating phases of the facility. The utility of the analysis can be seen in that it has spawned projects prior to installation and has lead to suggestions in the design of the facility. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. The potential carcinogenic hazards of electromagnetic radiation: a review.

    PubMed

    Horn, Y

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the experience gained thus far on the potential health hazards of electromagnetic radiation. Far less information is available in the medical literature on this kind of radiation than on ionizing radiation, which has been recognized as a health hazard long ago. Increased rates of cancer morbidity and mortality have been noted in populations exposed to ionizing radiation, and international quantitative safety criteria have been established. Electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency levels between several hundred kilohertz and 300 GHz) is not an infrequent phenomenon. The literature consists mainly of epidemiological studies out of which grew the assumption that this kind of radiation may be carcinogenic. However, only limited data are available on electromagnetic radiation as a potential cancer inducer. A review of the literature does not demonstrate a direct and clear linkage between electromagnetic radiation and the occurrence of malignant tumors, but much more research and clarification are necessary before reaching any conclusions.

  12. 16 CFR 1105.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS OF PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 1105.6 Criteria. The Commission...: (a) The participant represents particular interest, expertise or point of view that can reasonably be...

  13. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  14. High radon levels in subterranean environments: monitoring and technical criteria to ensure human safety (case of Castañar cave, Spain).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gallego, Miriam; Garcia-Anton, Elena; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Cuezva, Soledad; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Castañar cave contains the highest radon gas ((222)Rn) concentration in Spain with an annual average of 31.9 kBq m(-)(3). Seasonal variations with summer minimums and maximum values in fall were recorded. The reduction of air-filled porosity of soil and rock by condensation or rainfalls hides the radon exchange by gas diffusion, determining this seasonal stair-step pattern of the radon activity concentration in underground air. The effective total dose and the maximum hours permitted have been evaluated for the guides and public safety with a highly detailed radon measurement along 2011 and 2012. A network of 12 passive detectors (kodalphas) has been installed, as well as, two radon continuous monitoring in the most interesting geological sites of the subterranean environment. A follow up of the recommended time (max. 50 min) inside the underground environment has been analysed since the reopen to public visitors for not surpassing the legal maximum effective dose for tourists and guides. Results shown that public visitors would receive in fall a 12.1% of the total effective dose permitted per visit, whereas in summer it is reduced to 8.6%, while the cave guide received a total effective dose of 6.41 mSv in four months. The spatial radon maps allow defining the most suitable touristic paths according to the radon concentration distribution and therefore, appropriate fall and summer touristic paths are recommended.

  15. Safety and feasibility of STAT RAD: Improvement of a novel rapid tomotherapy-based radiation therapy workflow by failure mode and effects analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Handsfield, Lydia; Read, Paul W; Wilson, David D; Van Ausdal, Ray; Schlesinger, David J; Siebers, Jeffrey V; Chen, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical challenge of radiation therapy (RT) for painful bone metastases requires clinicians to consider both treatment efficacy and patient prognosis when selecting a radiation therapy regimen. The traditional RT workflow requires several weeks for common palliative RT schedules of 30 Gy in 10 fractions or 20 Gy in 5 fractions. At our institution, we have created a new RT workflow termed "STAT RAD" that allows clinicians to perform computed tomographic (CT) simulation, planning, and highly conformal single fraction treatment delivery within 2 hours. In this study, we evaluate the safety and feasibility of the STAT RAD workflow. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed on the STAT RAD workflow, including development of a process map, identification of potential failure modes, description of the cause and effect, temporal occurrence, and team member involvement in each failure mode, and examination of existing safety controls. A risk probability number (RPN) was calculated for each failure mode. As necessary, workflow adjustments were then made to safeguard failure modes of significant RPN values. After workflow alterations, RPN numbers were again recomputed. A total of 72 potential failure modes were identified in the pre-FMEA STAT RAD workflow, of which 22 met the RPN threshold for clinical significance. Workflow adjustments included the addition of a team member checklist, changing simulation from megavoltage CT to kilovoltage CT, alteration of patient-specific quality assurance testing, and allocating increased time for critical workflow steps. After these modifications, only 1 failure mode maintained RPN significance; patient motion after alignment or during treatment. Performing the FMEA for the STAT RAD workflow before clinical implementation has significantly strengthened the safety and feasibility of STAT RAD. The FMEA proved a valuable evaluation tool, identifying potential problem areas so that we could create a safer workflow

  16. 21 CFR 1000.15 - Examples of electronic products subject to the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... radiation, electrons, neutrons, and other particulate radiation include: Ionizing electromagnetic radiation... radiation and ionizing electromagnetic radiation: Electron microscopes. Neutron generators. (b) Examples of... electromagnetic radiation include: Ultraviolet: Biochemical and medical analyzers. Tanning and therapeutic lamps...

  17. SAFETY AND TOXICITY OF AN ACCELERATED COARSELY FRACTIONATED RADIATION PROTOCOL FOR TREATMENT OF APPENDICULAR OSTEOSARCOMA IN 14 DOGS: 10 GY × 2 FRACTIONS.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Candace; Boudreaux, Bonnie; Shiomitsu, Keijiro

    2016-09-01

    Coarsely fractionated radiation is commonly used as a method for pain control in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma, however there is little published information on optimal protocols. The aim of this retrospective, descriptive study was to report safety and toxicity findings in a sample of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma that had been treated with a radiation scheme of 10 Gy delivered over two consecutive days for a total of 20 Gy. Dogs were included in the study if they had osteosarcoma that was treated with the aforementioned protocol. Dogs were excluded if treated with the same protocol for any other bone tumor besides osteosarcoma or inadequate follow-up. Thirteen of the 14 patients received adjuvant therapy with pamidronate and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory. Nine dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin after radiation was complete. Within a median of 14 days, 92.8% of dogs subjectively had improved pain control. Median duration of response (DOR) was 80 days (range 20-365). The majority of patients developed VRTOG grade one toxicity, primarily alopecia. Five dogs (35.7%) developed pathologic fracture postradiation treatment. Timing of fracture was variable ranging from 24 to 250 days. This radiation protocol was well tolerated, with minimal toxicity, subjectively improved survival time, and had the benefit of being completed in two consecutive days. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. [Safety nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa-Espinoza, Teodoro Julio

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a specific medication belonging to a drug class is under the criteria of efficacy, safety, cost and suitability. NSAIDs currently constitute one of the most consumed drug in the world, so it is very important review of the safety aspects of this drug class. This review has the objective of analyze the safety of NSAIDs on 3 main criteria: gastrolesivity, cardiotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  19. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting.

  20. [Measurement and study report as a part of the control system for human safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation (0 Hz-300 GHz)].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2007-01-01

    The National Control System for safety and health protection against electromagnetic fields (EMF) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) (0 Hz-300 GHz) is constantly analyzed in view of Directive 2004/40/EC. Reports on the effects of investments (at the designing stage or at the stage of looking for their localization) on the environment and measurement and study reports on the objects already existing or being put into operation are important elements of this system. These documents should meet both national and European Union's legislation requirements. The overriding goal of the control system is safety and health protection of humans against electromagnetic fields in the environment and in occupational settings. The author pays a particular attention to provisions made in directives issued by relevant ministers and to Polish standards, which should be documented in measurement and study reports published by the accredited laboratories and relating to the problems of human safety and health protection. Similar requirements are valid for the Reports. Therefore, along with measurement outcomes, the reports should include data on the EMF exposure classification at work-posts and the assessment of occupational risk resulting from EMF exposure or at least thorough data facilitating such a classification.

  1. Safety of coronary CT angiography and functional testing for stable chest pain in the PROMISE trial: A randomized comparison of test complications, incidental findings, and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Lu, Michael T; Douglas, Pamela S; Udelson, James E; Adami, Elizabeth; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Picard, Michael H; Roberts, Rhonda; Lee, Kerry L; Einstein, Andrew J; Mark, Daniel B; Velazquez, Eric J; Carter, William; Ridner, Michael; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Hoffmann, Udo

    2017-08-15

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and functional testing strategies for stable chest pain yield similar outcomes; one aspect that may guide test choice is safety. We compared test safety (test complications, incidental findings, and effective radiation dose) between CTA and functional testing as-tested in PROMISE (PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain). In the subgroup whose physicians intended nuclear stress over other functional tests if randomized to the functional arm, we compared radiation dose of CTA versus nuclear stress and identified characteristics associated with dose. Of 9470 patients, none had major and <1% had minor complications (CTA: 0.8% [37/4633] vs. functional: 0.6% [27/4837]). CTA identified more incidental findings (11.6% [539/4633] vs. 0.7% [34/4837], p < 0.001), most commonly pulmonary nodules (9.4%, 437/4633). CTA had similar 90-day cumulative radiation dose to functional testing. However, in the subgroup whose physicians intended nuclear stress (CTA 3147; nuclear 3203), CTA had lower median index test (8.8 vs. 12.6 mSv, p < 0.001) and 90-day cumulative (11.6 vs. 13.1 mSv, p < 0.001) dose, independent of patient characteristics. The lowest nuclear doses employed 1-day Tc-99m protocols (12.2 mSv). The lowest CTA doses were at sites performing ≥500 CTAs/year (6.9 mSv) and with advanced (latest available) CT scanners (5.5 mSv). Complications were negligibly rare for both CTA and functional testing. CTA detects more incidental findings. Compared to nuclear stress testing, CTA's lower radiation dose, independent of patient characteristics, makes it an attractive test choice. Radiation dose varies with imaging protocol, indicating opportunities to further reduce dose. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01174550). Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation processing to ensure safety of minimally processed carrot (Daucus carota) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus): optimization of dose for the elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Dhokane, V S; Hajare, S; Shashidhar, R; Sharma, A; Bandekar, J R

    2006-02-01

    Minimally processed vegetables are in demand, because they offer convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe because of possible contamination with pathogens, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Shigella species. Therefore, this study was carried out to optimize the radiation dose necessary to ensure the safety of precut carrot and cucumber. Decimal reduction doses (D-values) of Salmonella Typhimurium MTCC 98 were ca. 0.164 kGy in carrot samples and 0.178 kGy in cucumber samples. D-values of Listeria monocytogenes were determined to be 0.312 and 0.345 kGy in carrot and cucumber samples, respectively. Studies of inoculated, packaged, minimally processed carrot and cucumber samples showed that treatment with a 1-kGy dose of gamma radiation eliminated up to 4 log CFU/g of Salmonella Typhimurium and 3 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes. However, treatment with a 2-kGy dose was necessary to eliminate these pathogens by 5 log CFU/g. Storage studies showed that both Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes were able to grow at 10 degrees C in inoculated control samples. Neither of these pathogens could be recovered from radiation-processed samples after storage for up to 8 days.

  3. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  4. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  5. A Monte Carlo-based radiation safety assessment for astronauts in an environment with confined magnetic field shielding.

    PubMed

    Geng, Changran; Tang, Xiaobin; Gong, Chunhui; Guan, Fada; Johns, Jesse; Shu, Diyun; Chen, Da

    2015-12-01

    The active shielding technique has great potential for radiation protection in space exploration because it has the advantage of a significant mass saving compared with the passive shielding technique. This paper demonstrates a Monte Carlo-based approach to evaluating the shielding effectiveness of the active shielding technique using confined magnetic fields (CMFs). The International Commission on Radiological Protection reference anthropomorphic phantom, as well as the toroidal CMF, was modeled using the Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4. The penetrating primary particle fluence, organ-specific dose equivalent, and male effective dose were calculated for particles in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and solar particle events (SPEs). Results show that the SPE protons can be easily shielded against, even almost completely deflected, by the toroidal magnetic field. GCR particles can also be more effectively shielded against by increasing the magnetic field strength. Our results also show that the introduction of a structural Al wall in the CMF did not provide additional shielding for GCR; in fact it can weaken the total shielding effect of the CMF. This study demonstrated the feasibility of accurately determining the radiation field inside the environment and evaluating the organ dose equivalents for astronauts under active shielding using the CMF.

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. Warren; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

  7. Design criteria for SW-205 capillary system

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    This design criteria covers the converting of the SW-250 Capillary System from fumehood manual operation to sealed glovebox automated operation. The design criteria contains general guidelines and includes drawings reflecting a similar installation at another site. Topics include purpose and physical description, architectural-engineering requirements, reference document, electrical, fire protection, occupational safety and health, quality assurance, and security.

  8. 30 CFR 104.2 - Pattern criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pattern criteria. 104.2 Section 104.2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS PATTERN OF VIOLATIONS § 104.2 Pattern criteria. (a) At least once each year, MSHA will review the compliance and...

  9. Hanford Site liquid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    LUECK, K.J.

    1999-09-11

    This document provides the waste acceptance criteria for liquid waste managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). These waste acceptance criteria address the various requirements to operate a facility in compliance with applicable environmental, safety, and operational requirements. This document also addresses the sitewide miscellaneous streams program.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  12. Waste-acceptance criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Meshkov, N.K.

    1987-02-01

    A method has been developed for establishing waste-acceptance criteria based on quantitative performance factors that characterize the confinement capabilities of a disposal facility for radioactive waste. The method starts from the objective of protecting public health and safety by assuring that disposal of the waste will not result in a radiation dose of any member of the general public, in either the short or long term, in excess of an established basic dose limit. A key aspect of the method is the introduction of a confinement factor that characterizes the overall confinement capability of a particular disposal facility and can be used for quantitative performance assessments as well as for establishing facility-specific waste-acceptance criteria. Confinement factors enable direct and simple conversion of a basic dose limit into waste-acceptance criteria, specified as concentration limits on rationuclides in the waste streams. Waste-acceptance criteria can be represented visually as activity/time plots for various waste streams. These plots show the concentrations of radionuclides in a waste stream as a function of time and permit a visual, quantitative assessment of long-term performance, relative risks from different radionuclides in the waste stream, and contributions from ingrowth. Application of the method to generic facility designs provides a radional basis for a waste classification system. 14 refs.

  13. Microbiological safety and clinical efficacy of radiation sterilized amniotic membranes for treatment of second-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Purohit, Sumita; Chacharkar, M P; Bhandari, P S; Bath, A S

    2007-06-01

    Amniotic membranes collected from the placentae of screened donors were processed and sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy. The sterility assurance level (SAL) of gamma irradiated amniotic membranes and clinical efficacy in second-degree burn wound healing were evaluated. Processed air-dried amniotic tissue from 159 batches of processing was checked for the bioburden level before sterilization. About 39% of the tissues had bioburden in the range of 10(1)-10(2)/100 cm(2) and 54.8% in the range of 10(2)-10(3)/100 cm(2). Based on the bioburden of the processed tissue prior to sterilization and the D(10) value of 2.3 kGy for the radiation resistant reference strain Bacillus pumilus, the sterility assurance level of the amniotic membranes irradiated at 25 kGy is found to be 10(-7) to 10(-11). The burn wound healing rate was compared between the radiation sterilized amniotic membranes and glycerol preserved amniotic membranes. Fifty patients with partial-thickness burns (up to 70% TBSA) were selected for the study. The scalds constituted 82% (41 patients) whereas flame burns accounted for 18% (9 patients). Various aspects like ease of application, patient comfort, development of fluid under the membrane, bacterial culture of drained fluid, rate of epithelialization, development of hypertrophic scars, keloids, unstable scars and restriction of joint movements were recorded with the application of gamma irradiated and glycerol preserved membranes. Radiation sterilized amniotic membranes had advantage over the glycerolized membranes with respect to the ease of application. Five patients with glycerol preserved membranes and four with gamma irradiated membranes developed fluid. The bacteriology of fluid showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa in four cases, Staphylococcus aureus in two cases, Escherichia coli in two cases and Acinetobacter in one case. The application of radiation sterilized amniotic membranes on the burn wound favoured epithelialization. In all the patients

  14. 16 CFR 1105.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CONTRIBUTIONS TO COSTS... may authorize a financial contribution only for participants who meet all of the following criteria... the participant consists of more than one individual or group, the economic interest of each of...

  15. SU-E-T-642: Safety Procedures for Error Elimination in Cyberknife Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, A; Alkafi, A; Al-Najjar, W; Moftah, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cyberknife system is used for providing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) hypofractionation scheme. The whole treatment delivery is based on live imaging of the patient. The minor error made at any stage may bring severe radiation injury to the patient or damage to the system itself. Several safety measures were taken to make the system safer. Methods: The radiation treatment provided thru a 6MV linac attached to Kuka robot (Cyberknife G4, Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, CA, USA). Several possible errors were identified related to patient alignment, treatment planning, dose delivery and physics quality assurance. During dose delivery, manual and visual checks were introduced to confirm pre and intra-treatment imaging to reduce possible errors. One additional step was introduced to confirm that software tracking-tools had worked correctly with highest possible confidence level. Robotic head move in different orientations over and around the patient body, the rigidity of linac-head cover and other accessories was checked periodically. The vender was alerted when a tiny or bigger piece of equipment needed additional interlocked support. Results: As of our experience treating 525 patients on Cyberknife during the last four years, we saw on and off technical issues. During image acquisition, it was made essential to follow the site-specific imaging protocols. Adequate anatomy was contoured to document the respective doses. Followed by auto-segmentation, manual tweaking was performed on every structure. The calculation box was enclosing the whole image during the final calculation. Every plan was evaluated on slice-by slice basis. To review the whole process, a check list was maintained during the physics 2nd-check. Conclusion: The implementation of manual and visual additional checks introduced along with automated checks for confirmation was found promising in terms of reduction in systematic errors and making the system

  16. SAFETY ENGINEERING FOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER AT THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    SciTech Connect

    MUSOLINO,S.V.

    1999-11-14

    THERE ARE ONLY A FEW OTHER HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATORS LIKE RHIC IN THE WORLD. THEREFORE, THE DESIGNERS OF THE MACHINE DO NOT ALWAYS HAVE CONSENSUS DESIGN STANDARDS AND REGULATORY GUIDANCE AVAILABLE TO ESTABLISH THE ENGINEERING PARAMETERS FOR SAFETY. SOME OF THE AREAS WHERE STANDARDS ARE NOT AVAILABLE RELATE TO THE CRYOGENIC SYSTEM, CONTAINMENT OF LARGE VOLUMES OF FLAMMABLE GAS IN FRAGILE VESSELS IN THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND MITIGATION OF A DESIGN BASIS ACCIDENT WITH A STORED PARTICLE BEAM. UNIQUE BUT EQUIVALENT SAFETY ENGINEERING MUST BE DETERMINED. SPECIAL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PROMPT RADIATION WERE DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE FOR THE DESIGN OF RADIATION SHIELDING.

  17. One-Year Follow-Up Results of a Multicenter, Single-Arm, Objective Performance Criteria-Controlled International Clinical Study of the Safety and Efficacy of the Minerva Endometrial Ablation System.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Philippe; Garza-Leal, Jose; Fortin, Claude; Sabbah, Robert; Fulop, Tamas; Pásztor, Norbert; Bacsko, György

    2015-01-01

    To assess the safety and effectiveness of the Minerva endometrial ablation system for treating excessive uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. Multicenter, single-arm, objective performance criteria (OPC)-controlled international study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Seven academic medical centers. 105 premenopausal women symptomatic for menorrhagia secondary to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Patients were treated using the Minerva endometrial ablation system. Study success, based on a pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) score ≤75, was observed in 96.2% of the patients at 1 year posttreatment. Some 69.5% of the patients experienced amenorrhea (PBLAC score 0). The mean duration of the procedure was 3.9 minutes. General anesthesia was used in 9% of cases, with the balance being performed under local and/or intravenous or spinal anesthesia regimens. No intraoperative adverse events and/or complications were reported. No patient required hysterectomy or any additional medical and/or surgical interventions to control bleeding during 1 year of follow-up. Efficacy (success) results were compared between the Minerva system and the OPC, which served as a statistical control. The OPC comprised the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) reported success rates of all FDA-approved endometrial ablation systems. The Minerva system had a statistically significantly superior success rate compared with the OPC control. The Minerva system was found to be safe and effective for treating patients suffering from menorrhagia. The procedure is quick and effective, does not require endometrial pretreatment, and precludes the need for additional surgical interventions to manage menorrhagia. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible.

  19. Myth or nightmare: Safety consequences of the release of radiation-induced stored energy in rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Prij, J.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of HLW in a salt formation will result in the deposit of gamma energy in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat while a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. It has been shown that energy is stored in the defected crystals. Because of uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts, the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1,000 J/g in the most heavily defected crystals close to the waste containers. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism, this paper concludes that at this moment, an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be completely excluded. Therefore, the thermomechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation-induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. An amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives to account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt, the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appears that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (> 100 m), one can conclude that the probability of a release of radiation-induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater is negligible.

  20. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-07-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.