Science.gov

Sample records for radiation-a unique window

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time.

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2008-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approximately 1100. Data from the first five years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown university; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  4. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  5. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation-A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models, observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales reveals the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of 11 00. Data from the first seven years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30, 2001. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; Oxford University; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy: creating a unique "window" of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michelle I; Sessa, William C

    2004-12-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy for solid tumors clearly destroys tumor vasculature and reduces tumor growth. As an unexpected bonus, drugs that neutralize VEGF signaling generate a "normalization window" for tumor vasculature. This occurs via the recruitment of pericytes to the tumor vasculature, an effect associated with the transient stabilization of vessels and improved oxygen delivery to hypoxic zones. The normalization process is mediated by angiopoietin-1 and matrix metalloproteinases and creates a window of opportunity for improved sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  7. The Hunsrück biota: A unique window into the ecology of Lower Devonian arthropods.

    PubMed

    Rust, Jes; Bergmann, Alexandra; Bartels, Christoph; Schoenemann, Brigitte; Sedlmeier, Stephanie; Kühl, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    The approximately 400-million-year old Hunsrück biota provides a unique window into Devonian marine life. Fossil evidence suggests that this biota was dominated by echinoderms and various classes of arthropods, including Trilobita, stem lineage representatives of Euarthropoda, Chelicerata and Eucrustacea, as well as several crown group Chelicerata and Eucrustacea. The Hunsrück biota's exceptional preservation allows detailed reconstructions and description of key-aspects of its fauna's functional morphologies thereby revealing modes of locomotion, sensory perception, and feeding strategies. Morphological and stratigraphic data are used for a critical interpretation of the likely habitats, mode of life and nutritional characteristics of this diverse fauna. Potential predators include pycnogonids and other chelicerates, as well as the now extinct stem arthropods Schinderhannes bartelsi, Cambronatus brasseli and Wingertshellicus backesi. Mainly the deposit feeding Trilobita, Marrellomorpha and Megacheira, such as Bundenbachiellus giganteus, represents scavengers. Possibly, opportunistic scavenging was also performed by the afore-mentioned predators. Most of the studied arthropods appear to have been adapted to living in relatively well-illuminated conditions within the photic zone. Fossil evidence for associations amongst arthropods and other classes of metazoans is reported. These associations provide evidence of likely community structures.

  8. Non-thermal infrared emission - a unique window on radio galaxy lobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert; Leipski, Christian; Rudnick, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Powerful radio galaxies play an essential role in the dynamics and thermodynamics of the intracluster medium. Fundamental questions exist, however, about their energy budget - how much energy is transferred and how they apparently distribute it uniformly. High sensitivity Spitzer observations offer a unique and critical tool for probing the energetics of lobes of radio galaxies and the physics of the relativistic particle acceleration process. The work on e.g. M87 has already shown that the energy going into particle acceleration may seriously affect the amount available for heating the external medium. In this last cold cycle, it is critical to establish whether this is a common phenomenon in radio galaxy lobes, spanning a range of morphologies as in our targets, or whether this is simply another special feature of M87. In order to achieve this goal we here propose to obtain deep IRAC observations of six radio galaxies with exceptionally bright and highly structured radio lobes.

  9. The Kepler Light Curves of KSwAGS AGN: A Unique Window into Accretion Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Krista Lynne; Mushotzky, Richard; Boyd, Padi; Edelson, Rick; Howell, Steve; Gelino, Dawn; Brown, Alex

    2016-08-01

    The Kepler-Swift Active Galaxies Survey (KSwAGS) discovered ~160 AGN in the Kepler and K2 fields. The optical Kepler and K2 light curves of these AGN are by far the most precise and evenly-sampled ever obtained. There are unique challenges involved in adapting Kepler/K2 data for use with AGN since the Kepler pipeline removes stochasticity; however, once mitigated, these data provide an unprecedented glimpse of the accretion disk's variability. We have also conducted follow-up spectral observations to determine black hole masses and accretion rates for the sample, which fill a wide parameter space (6.9 < Log MBH < 9.4, 0.003 < L/Ledd < 0.6). These, in tandem with the light curves, may be able to distinguish between different accretion models.

  10. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  11. CAVE WINDOW

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  12. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  13. Three-dimensional laser window formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report discusses in detail the aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formation of these windows. Included in this discussion are the design criteria, bonding mediums, and evaluation testing for three-dimensional laser windows.

  14. [Aortopulmonary window].

    PubMed

    González-Marín, María Arántzazu; Jiménez-Díaz, Javier; Centeno-Jiménez, Miriam; García-Cabezas, M Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The aortopulmonary window is a rare cause of heart failure in the neonate. It must be ruled out if there are signs of pulmonary edema without the most frequent left-right shunts. We report the echocardiographic images of a newborn who was admitted with symptoms of heart failure at our institution.

  15. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting. PMID:27023660

  17. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  18. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  19. Air transparent soundproof window

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Hyun

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  20. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  1. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. TRNSYS for windows packages

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    TRNSYS 14.1 was released in 1994. This package represents a significant step forward in usability due to several graphical utility programs for DOS. These programs include TRNSHELL, which encapsulates TRNSYS functions, PRESIM, which allows the graphical creation of a simulation system, and TRNSED, which allows the easy sharing of simulations. The increase in usability leads to a decrease in the time necessary to prepare the simulation. Most TRNSYS users operate on PC computers with the Windows operating system. Therefore, the next logical step in increased usability was to port the current TRNSYS package to the Windows operating system. Several organizations worked on this conversion that has resulted in two distinct Windows packages. One package closely resembles the DOS version and includes TRNSHELL for Windows and PRESIM for Windows. The other package incorporates a general front-end, called IISIBat, that is a general simulation tool front-end. 8 figs.

  3. Multi-functional windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Nagendra; Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for modern aircraft are driving the need for conformal windows for future sensor systems. However, limitations on optical systems and the physical properties of optically transparent materials currently limit the geometry of existing windows and window assemblies to faceted assemblies of flat windows held in weight bearing frames. Novel material systems will have to be developed which combine different materials (e.g. ductile metals with transparent ceramics) into structures that combine transparency with structural integrity. Surmet's demonstrated ability to produce novel transparent ceramic/metal structures will allow us to produce such structures in the types of conformal shapes required for future aircraft applications. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate transparencies into such structures also holds out the promise of creating multi-functional windows which provide a broad range of capabilities that might include RF antennas and de-icing in addition to transparency. Recent results in this area will be presented.

  4. Inside storm window

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.I.

    1980-11-01

    The work effort to design, build, install, and evaluate an inside storm window is presented. The ISW, made of two separated layers of mylar (like a thermopane window) which when not in use can be rolled up in a shade, is described. The work effort included: development of a prototype model; the development of production facilities to turn out a small number (50) of ISW's; the production of the windows; the installation of the windows into buildings; the building of a test chamber to determine the R value of the ISW and the subsequent determination of the R value; and a survey to determine how the residents of the homes in which ISW's were installed felt about the windows. Comments on each of these tasks are presented and some comments on initial steps towards commercialization are offered. (MCW)

  5. Adaptive spectral window sizes for extraction of diagnostic features from optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Chih-Wen; Lee, Andy Y.; Nieman, Linda T.; Sokolov, Konstantin; Markey, Mia K.

    2010-07-01

    We present an approach to adaptively adjust the spectral window sizes for optical spectra feature extraction. Previous studies extracted features from spectral windows of a fixed width. In our algorithm, piecewise linear regression is used to adaptively adjust the window sizes to find the maximum window size with reasonable linear fit with the spectrum. This adaptive windowing technique ensures the signal linearity in defined windows; hence, the adaptive windowing technique retains more diagnostic information while using fewer windows. This method was tested on a data set of diffuse reflectance spectra of oral mucosa lesions. Eight features were extracted from each window. We performed classifications using linear discriminant analysis with cross-validation. Using windowing techniques results in better classification performance than not using windowing. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristics curve for windowing techniques was greater than a nonwindowing technique for both normal versus mild dysplasia (MD) plus severe high-grade dysplasia or carcinama (SD) (MD+SD) and benign versus MD+SD. Although adaptive and fixed-size windowing perform similarly, adaptive windowing utilizes significantly fewer windows than fixed-size windows (number of windows per spectrum: 8 versus 16). Because adaptive windows retain most diagnostic information while reducing the number of windows needed for feature extraction, our results suggest that it isolates unique diagnostic features in optical spectra.

  6. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  7. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  8. Highly transparent light-harvesting window film.

    PubMed

    Cocilovo, Byron; Hashimura, Aki; Tweet, Douglas J; Voutsas, Tolis; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-10-20

    We have simulated unique textured window films that capture solar radiation without compromising the window's transparency by scattering infrared light toward photovoltaic strips located at the edges of the window. These films are ideal for powering electrochromic glass, which is difficult to install as each window requires its own power source. Our most promising design consists of an embedded array of 35° cones coated with a five-layer SiO2-Ag stack that was simulated to direct 1.4% of the incident light toward the edges and generate 1 W of power under a collimated 1000  W/m2 AM1.5G source at 60° and an average of 0.5 W over a full year when applied to a 1  m×1  m window. The internal visible transmittance of the window with the applied film is 95% at normal incidence, and remains above 85% for viewing angles up to 60°. The haze is 0.6% at normal incidence and 3.9% at 60°. PMID:26560389

  9. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  10. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  11. Energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This fact sheet describes energy efficient windows for the reduction of home heating and cooling energy consumption. It discusses controlling air leaks by caulking and weatherstripping and by replacing window frames. Reducing heat loss and condensation is discussed by describing the types of glazing materials, the number of glass and air spaces, frame and spacer materials, and the use of movable insulation (shutters, drapes, etc.). A resource list is provided for further information.

  12. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Som S; Hun, Diana E; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  13. High performance sapphire windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.; Liou, Larry

    1993-01-01

    High-quality, wide-aperture optical access is usually required for the advanced laser diagnostics that can now make a wide variety of non-intrusive measurements of combustion processes. Specially processed and mounted sapphire windows are proposed to provide this optical access to extreme environment. Through surface treatments and proper thermal stress design, single crystal sapphire can be a mechanically equivalent replacement for high strength steel. A prototype sapphire window and mounting system have been developed in a successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 project. A large and reliable increase in sapphire design strength (as much as 10x) has been achieved, and the initial specifications necessary for these gains have been defined. Failure testing of small windows has conclusively demonstrated the increased sapphire strength, indicating that a nearly flawless surface polish is the primary cause of strengthening, while an unusual mounting arrangement also significantly contributes to a larger effective strength. Phase 2 work will complete specification and demonstration of these windows, and will fabricate a set for use at NASA. The enhanced capabilities of these high performance sapphire windows will lead to many diagnostic capabilities not previously possible, as well as new applications for sapphire.

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  15. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records frommore » IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of

  16. BERKELEY LAB WINDOW

    SciTech Connect

    Curcija, Dragan Charlie; Zhu, Ling; Czarnecki, Stephen; Mitchell, Robin D.; Kohler, Christian; Vidanovic, Simon V.; Huizenga, Charlie

    2015-03-06

    WINDOW features include: - Microsoft Windows TM interface - algorithms for the calculation of total fenestration product U-values and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient consistent with ASHRAE SPC 142, ISO 15099, and the National Fenestration Rating Council - a Condensation Resistance Index in accordance with the NFRC 500 Standard - and integrated database of properties - imports data from other LBNL window analysis software: - Import THERM file into the Frame Library - Import records from IGDB and OPtics5 into the Glass Library for the optical properties of coated and uncoated glazings, laminates, and applied films. Program Capabilities WINDOW 7.2 offers the following features: The ability to analyze products made from any combination of glazing layers, gas layers, frames, spacers, and dividers under any environmental conditions and at any tilt; The ability to model complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds and roller shades. Directly accessible libraries of window system components, (glazing systems, glazing layers, gas fills, frame and divider elements), and environmental conditions; The choice of working in English (IP), or Systeme International (SI) units; The ability to specify the dimensions and thermal properties of each frame element (header, sills, jamb, mullion) in a window; A multi-band (wavelength-by-wavelength) spectral model; A Glass Library which can access spectral data files for many common glazing materials from the Optics5database; A night-sky radiative model; A link with the DOE-2.1E and Energy Plus building energy analysis program. Performance Indices and Other Results For a user-defined fenestration system and user-defined environmental conditions, WINDOW calculates: The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the complete window system; The U-value, solar heat gain coefficient, shading coefficient, and visible transmittance for the glazing system (center-of-glass values); The U-values of the

  17. Window contamination on Expose-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demets, R.; Bertrand, M.; Bolkhovitinov, A.; Bryson, K.; Colas, C.; Cottin, H.; Dettmann, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Elsaesser, A.; Jaramillo, E.; Lebert, M.; van Papendrecht, G.; Pereira, C.; Rohr, T.; Saiagh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions - in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.

  18. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-19

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  19. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    PubMed Central

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  20. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-09-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being ``opaque'' to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a ``smart'' window behave? Is a ``smart'' window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided.

  1. How to be smart and energy efficient: a general discussion on thermochromic windows.

    PubMed

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being "opaque" to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a "smart" window behave? Is a "smart" window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  2. Sliding window construction

    SciTech Connect

    Klompenburg, M.V.

    1987-07-28

    A window assembly is described in a window frame. The frame includes a head, a sill, and opposite jambs, the assembly comprising: first and second sashes each having interior and exterior surfaces, a top, a bottom, and opposite first and second sides extending between the top and the bottom: the first sash being laterally movably within the window frame between a closed position and an open position wherein the first sash is substantially in a non-planar position relative to the second sash; track means extending along one of the sill or head of the window frame; first track follower means connected to one of the top or the bottom of the first sash adjacent the first side and cooperating with the track means for supporting and guiding the first sash during lateral movement between the open and closed positions; and the track means having an opening for releasing the track follower means for cooperation only when the first sash is in the open position such that the first sash is pivotal about a vertical axis adjacent the second side between the open position and a maintenance position.

  3. Migration to Windows NT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  4. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  5. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  6. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

  7. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  8. Opening the Literature Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  9. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  10. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  11. Labyrinthine window rupture.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J G; Harborow, P C

    1975-01-01

    Some cases of sensorineural deafness are due to labyrinthine window rupture. Three cases have been presented to illustrate different aspects of diagnosis and managment of this condition. The indications for surgical intervention have been discussed. The importance of making the diagnosis is that operation can relieve vertigo and restore the hearing.

  12. Windows to Art Excitement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley; Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that aimed to bring more attention to an art program. Explains that the students created themed murals on the windows of the art classroom, such as a "Jungle,""Ocean,""Masterpiece Paintings," and "Rainforest Tree Frogs." Discusses how the murals were created. (CMK)

  13. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED JUST BELOW THE CHOIR LOFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE NORTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTAR. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THREE SOUTH FACING STAINED GLASS WINDOWS. THESE WINDOWS ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE ALTER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Chapel, Corner of Oakley & Nimitz Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Process window metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  17. Latchup window tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarewicz, J.; Hardwick, W.

    1983-02-01

    This report addresses the very important issue of latchup windows in integrated circuits. This is a serious problem and requires careful consideration in each individual case of system design. Latchup may cause system failure through burnout of the device or through an upset of the circuit in which latchup occurs. The existence of a latchup window was first reported by researchers performing latchup testing of MOS integrated circuits (Refs. 1,2). It was found that latchup would occur in some devices for only a small range of dose rates. At dose rates below a critical value, the device would not experience latchup. A second higher dose rate range was found where latchup would again not occur. These tests were performed using high-energy electrons (Linac) and were performed on CMOS, CD4000 series devices.

  18. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    for processing, is used to further reduce the computational requirements. The grouping of the designated pixel frame as the photon count information is sent one word at a time to the GA, the aggregation of the pixels in a window can be achieved by selecting only the designated pixel counts from the serial stream of photon counts, thereby obviating the need to store the entire frame of pixel count in the gate array. The pixel count se quence from each window can then be processed, forming lower-rate pixel statistics for each window. By having this processing occur in the GA rather than in the ASIC, future changes to the processing algorithm can be readily implemented. The high-bandwidth requirements of a photon counting array combined with the properties of the optical modulation being detected by the array present a unique problem that has not been addressed by current CCD or CMOS sensor array solutions.

  19. A Window-Washing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  20. Windows: The Benefits Are Clear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of specifying windows in a school renovation or building project in order to energize a campus. Explains how windows are psychologically uplifting, how glass accentuates excitement and its shapes signal stability, and how windows convey the institution's confidence in the present. (GR)

  1. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  2. Windows on animal minds.

    PubMed

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  3. Windows on the axion

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Window defect planar mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, F. R.; Minton, U. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A method of planar mapping defects in a window having an edge surface and a planar surface. The method is comprised of steps for mounting the window on a support surface. Then a light sensitive paper is placed adjacent to the window surface. A light source is positioned adjacent to the window edge. The window is then illuminated with the source of light for a predetermined interval of time. Defects on the surface of the glass, as well as in the interior of the glass are detected by analyzing the developed light sensitive paper. The light source must be in the form of optical fibers or a light tube whose light transmitting ends are placed near the edge surface of the window.

  5. Three-dimensional laser window formation for industrial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.; Kowalski, David

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless three-dimensional, compound-curvature laser windows to extreme accuracies. These windows represent an integral component of specialized nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems that are used in a variety of compressor and turbine research testing facilities. These windows are molded to the flow surface profile of turbine and compressor casings and are required to withstand extremely high pressures and temperatures. This method of glass formation could also be used to form compound-curvature mirrors that would require little polishing and for a variety of industrial applications, including research view ports for testing devices and view ports for factory machines with compound-curvature casings. Currently, sodium-alumino-silicate glass is recommended for three-dimensional laser windows because of its high strength due to chemical strengthening and its optical clarity. This paper discusses the main aspects of three-dimensional laser window formation. It focuses on the unique methodology and the peculiarities that are associated with the formation of these windows.

  6. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  7. INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, RETRACTABLE WINDOW SHUTTERS, VENETIAN WINDOW IN THE SOUTHEAST CABINET. (NOTE THE MIRRORED PANEL IN THE FORWARD SHUTTER’S LOWER SECTION. DURING THE HAMILTONIAN OCCUPANCY, MIRRORS LIKE THESE WERE USED LIBERALLY THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE’S PUBLIC ROOMS - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. What Becomes a Window Most: Perceptual Tuning of Virtual Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Stone, Lee (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Viewing a scene through an optical window provides observers with numerous visual properties. In order to create a 'virtual window' that is perceptually compelling, it must be determined which properties are most critical to preserve. We have examined several properties, both static and dynamic, and will discuss which have the greatest impact on apparent realism (and user performance).

  9. Prism Window for Optical Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.

  10. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. The Stevens-Levolor Environmental Simulator and the study of interior shading for energy efficient windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandyck, R. L.; Konen, T. P.

    A window systems and experiments in a unique environmental simulator with an artificial sun were tested. It is shown that interior venetian blind shading is an effective window energy management technique. Predictive methods of generating shading coefficients applicable to modern venetian blinds is confirmed. The findings indicating light colored, as well as highly reflective blinds yielded as significant energy savings.

  12. Tokamak physics experiment: Diagnostic windows study

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, M.; Wurden, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    We detail the study of diagnostic windows and window thermal stress remediation in the long-pulse, high-power Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) operation. The operating environment of the TPX diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window-cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its application to the TPX windows considered. Methods for TPX window thermal conditioning are recommended, with some discussion of potential implementation problems provided. Recommendations for further research and development work to ensure performance of windows in the TPX system are presented.

  13. GR uniqueness and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-10-01

    In the metric formulation gravitons are described with the parity symmetric S + 2 ⊗ S - 2 representation of Lorentz group. General Relativity is then the unique theory of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We show that if a chiral S + 3 ⊗ S - representation is used instead, the uniqueness is lost, and there is an infinite-parametric family of theories of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We use the language of graviton scattering amplitudes, and show how the uniqueness of GR is avoided using simple dimensional analysis. The resulting distinct from GR gravity theories are all parity asymmetric, but share the GR MHV amplitudes. They have new all same helicity graviton scattering amplitudes at every graviton order. The amplitudes with at least one graviton of opposite helicity continue to be determinable by the BCFW recursion.

  14. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  15. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  16. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  17. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-09-15

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  18. Gravitational Radiation - a New Window Onto the Universe. (Karl Schwarzschild Lecture 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, K. S.

    A summary is given of the current status and plans for gravitational-wave searches at all plausible wavelengths, from the size of the observable universe to a few kilometers. The anticipated scientific payoff from these searches is described, including expectations for detailed studies of black holes and neutron stars, high-accuracy tests of general relativity, and hopes for the discovery of exotic new kinds of objects.

  19. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  20. Transparent ceramics for spacecraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of several transparent ceramics were investigated to determine if their use might lighten next generation spacecraft windows. The measured fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters were used as inputs to functions describing the required mass for a desired window life. Transparent magnesium aluminate (spinel, MgAlO4) and AlON exhibit superior slow crack resistance relative to fused silica, which is the historical material of choice. For spinel, slow crack growth, strength and fracture toughness are significantly influenced by the grain size, and alumina rich phases and porosity at the grain boundaries lead to intergranular fracture in coarse grain spinel. The results imply that transparent ceramics can lighten window panes from a slow crack growth perspective.

  1. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  2. The Benefits of Aluminum Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses benefits of aluminum windows for college construction and renovation projects, including that aluminum is the most successfully recycled material, that it meets architectural glass deflection standards, that it has positive thermal energy performance, and that it is a preferred exterior surface. (EV)

  3. Total Library Computerization for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Joseph, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a general review of features of version 2.1 of Total Library Computerization (TLC) for Windows from On Point, Inc. Includes information about pricing, hardware and operating systems, modules/functions available, user interface, security, on-line catalog functions, circulation, cataloging, and documentation and online help. A table…

  4. Notes on UHV beryllium windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    Techniques are described for making large ultrahigh vacuum beryllium windows for use in synchrotron radiation installations. Procedures are given for affecting both hard brazed seals and demountable seals involving either lead or copper gaskets. Brazed seals can be made to either stainless steel or copper. Possible alternative methods are suggested.

  5. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  6. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  7. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  8. Measured winter performance of storm windows

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, Joseph H.

    2002-08-23

    Direct comparison measurements were made between various prime/storm window combinations and a well-weatherstripped, single-hung replacement window with a low-E selective glazing. Measurements were made using an accurate outdoor calorimetric facility with the windows facing north. The doublehung prime window was made intentionally leaky. Nevertheless, heat flows due to air infiltration were found to be small, and performance of the prime/storm combinations was approximately what would be expected from calculations that neglect air infiltration. Prime/low-E storm window combinations performed very similarly to the replacement window. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation.

  9. Windows Program Information Files. How Windows and Non-Windows Programs Cooperate through PIFs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes Program Information Files (PIFs), which run on DOS operating systems with Microsoft Windows to help run other programs. Options available in the standard mode and in the enhanced mode are explained, multitasking options are discussed, and memory options and application shortcut keys are described. (LRW)

  10. Windows in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan; Boulanger, Francois; Okumura, Koryo

    1991-01-01

    The objectives were twofold: (1) to study the IRAS emission levels in the vicinity of Baade's Window and in other optically transparent regions near the Galactic Center; and (2) to study the IRAS emission levels along sightlines in the Milky Way that exhibit very little CO emission. Tests were attempted to see whether the optically transparent 'windows' near the Galactic center can be identified (as FIR-weak regions) in the IRAS data base; and if so, whether the CO weak regions found elsewhere in the Milky Way represent similarly FIR weak and thus optically transparent sightlines through the Galaxy. The CO weak regions were also targeted in an effort to study the diffuse intercloud dust and its warming by the interstellar radiation field.

  11. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  12. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  13. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  14. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-05-04

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  15. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-09-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented.

  16. Some characterizations of unique extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Guowu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, it is shown that some necessary characteristic conditions for unique extremality obtained by Zhu and Chen are also sufficient and some sufficient ones by them actually imply that the uniquely extremal Beltrami differentials have a constant modulus. In addition, some local properties of uniquely extremal Beltrami differentials are given.

  17. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  18. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  19. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  20. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  1. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES USED MOTOR VEHICLE TRADE REGULATION RULE § 455.3 Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window...

  2. PDW - RAYTHEON TDU-850 PRINTER DRIVER FOR WINDOWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, B. T.

    1994-01-01

    PDW is a Microsoft Windows printer driver for the Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier. It provides a previously unavailable linkage between this printer and IBM PC compatibles running Microsoft Windows. This driver supports all the text and graphics features normally found in other laser printer drivers. The user can ensure true WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) compatibility between the on-screen display of high-end application programs and the final hardcopy image because PDW supports the unique Microsoft Windows operating system requirement that printer drivers assist in the drawing of graphical objects on the video display as well as on the hardcopier. PDW can be called upon by the Windows Graphical Device Interface (GDI) to draw graphical objects (circles, lines, etc.) directly to the hardcopier or to render graphical objects to shared memory so that the objects can then be copied to the video screen by the screen driver. This allows Microsoft Windows, in conjunction with the screen driver, to provide maximum WYSIWYG fidelity while a document is being composed whenever PDW is selected. PDW can reside simultaneously on up to three separate PCs, each attached to a single Raytheon printer utilizing the printer's standard IEEE-488 (GPIB) interface. PDW contains special software to check for bus contention before attempting to access the printer. PDW is written in C-language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS v4.0 or later and Microsoft Windows v3.0 or later. It requires 8Mb of RAM for execution. PDW also requires a National Instruments PC-compatible GPIB board and cable and a Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier. If the source code needs to be modified, a Microsoft Quick C for Windows compiler is required. The Microsoft UniTool may also be required if the source code is being completely rewritten for another printer. An electronic copy of the documentation is available on the media in Microsoft Word for Windows format. The standard distribution medium

  3. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  4. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  5. Babes in the wood – a unique window into sea scorpion ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies on eurypterids have taken into account morphological changes that occur throughout postembryonic development. Here two species of eurypterid are described from the Pragian Beartooth Butte Formation of Cottonwood Canyon in Wyoming and included in a phylogenetic analysis. Both species comprise individuals from a number of instars, and this allows for changes that occur throughout their ontogeny to be documented, and how ontogenetically variable characters can influence phylogenetic analysis to be tested. Results The two species of eurypterid are described as Jaekelopterus howelli (Kjellesvig-Waering and Størmer, 1952) and Strobilopterus proteus sp. nov. Phylogenetic analysis places them within the Pterygotidae and Strobilopteridae respectively, both families within the Eurypterina. Jaekelopterus howelli shows positive allometry of the cheliceral denticles throughout ontogeny, while a number of characteristics including prosomal appendage length, carapace shape, lateral eye position, and relative breadth all vary during the growth of Strobilopterus proteus. Conclusions The ontogeny of Strobilopterus proteus shares much in common with that of modern xiphosurans, however certain characteristics including apparent true direct development suggest a closer affinity to arachnids. The ontogenetic development of the genital appendage also supports the hypothesis that the structure is homologous to the endopods of the trunk limbs of other arthropods. Including earlier instars in the phylogenetic analysis is shown to destabilise the retrieved topology. Therefore, coding juveniles as individual taxa in an analysis is shown to be actively detrimental and alternative ways of coding ontogenetic data into phylogenetic analyses should be explored. PMID:23663507

  6. Human-Specific Genes May Offer a Unique Window into Human Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Philip D.; Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The identification and characterization of human-specific genes and the cellular processes that the encoded proteins control have the potential to help us understand at the molecular level what makes humans different from other species. The sequencing of the human genome and the genomes of closely related primates has revealed the presence of a small number of human- or human-lineage–specific genes that have no orthologs in lower species. Human-specific and human-lineage–specific genes are likely to function as regulators of cell signaling events, and by fine-tuning pathways, the encoded proteins may contribute to human-specific characteristics and behaviors. In addition, human-specific genes may represent biomarkers for examining human-specific characteristics of various diseases. Investigation of the gene encoding TBC1D3 is one example of a search that may lead to understanding the evolution and the function of human-specific genes, because it is absent in lower species and present in high copy number in the human genome. PMID:19797272

  7. Why Minimal Multiple Rules Provide a Unique Window into UG and L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaral, Luiz; Roeper, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article clarifies some ideas presented in this issue's keynote article (Amaral and Roeper, this issue) and discusses several issues raised by the contributors' comments on the nature of the Multiple Grammars (MG) theory. One of the key goals of the article is to unequivocally state that MG is not a parametric theory and that its…

  8. Interferometer for Space Station Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Inspection of space station windows for micrometeorite damage would be a difficult task insitu using current inspection techniques. Commercially available optical profilometers and inspection systems are relatively large, about the size of a desktop computer tower, and require a stable platform to inspect the test object. Also, many devices currently available are designed for a laboratory or controlled environments requiring external computer control. This paper presents an approach using a highly developed optical interferometer to inspect the windows from inside the space station itself using a self- contained hand held device. The interferometer would be capable as a minimum of detecting damage as small as one ten thousands of an inch in diameter and depth while interrogating a relatively large area. The current developmental state of this device is still in the proof of concept stage. The background section of this paper will discuss the current state of the art of profilometers as well as the desired configuration of the self-contained, hand held device. Then, a discussion of the developments and findings that will allow the configuration change with suggested approaches appearing in the proof of concept section.

  9. Uniqueness Theorem for Black Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Rogatko, Marek

    2010-06-23

    We shall review the current status of uniqueness theorem for black objects in higher dimensional spacetime. At the beginning we consider static charged asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface with compact interior with both degenerate and non-degenerate components of the event horizon in n-dimensional spacetime. We gave some remarks concerning partial results in proving uniqueness of stationary axisymmetric multidimensional solutions and winding numbers which can uniquely characterize the topology and symmetry structure of black objects.

  10. High-impact resistance optical sensor windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askinazi, Joel; Ceccorulli, Mark L.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-06-01

    Recent field experience with optical sensor windows on both ground and airborne platforms has shown a significant increase in window fracturing from foreign object debris (FOD) impacts and as a by-product of asymmetrical warfare. Common optical sensor window materials such as borosilicate glass do not typically have high impact resistance. Emerging advanced optical window materials such as aluminum oxynitride offer the potential for a significant improvement in FOD impact resistance due to their superior surface hardness, fracture toughness and strength properties. To confirm the potential impact resistance improvement achievable with these emerging materials, Goodrich ISR Systems in collaboration with Surmet Corporation undertook a set of comparative FOD impact tests of optical sensor windows made from borosilicate glass and from aluminum oxynitride. It was demonstrated that the aluminum oxynitride windows could withstand up to three times the FOD impact velocity (as compared with borosilicate glass) before fracture would occur. These highly encouraging test results confirm the utility of this new highly viable window solution for use on new ground and airborne window multispectral applications as well as a retrofit to current production windows. We believe that this solution can go a long way to significantly reducing the frequency and life cycle cost of window replacement.

  11. Exploring Unique Roles for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…

  12. On the Meaning of Uniqueness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes four questions on the meaning of uniqueness that have contrasting answers in common language versus mathematical language. The investigations stem from a scenario in which students interpreted uniqueness according to a definition from standard English, that is, different from the mathematical meaning, in defining an injective…

  13. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  14. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  15. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  16. Lithography process window analysis with calibrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenzhan; Yu, Jin; Lo, James; Liu, Johnson

    2004-05-01

    As critical-dimension shrink below 0.13 μm, the SPC (Statistical Process Control) based on CD (Critical Dimension) control in lithography process becomes more difficult. Increasing requirements of a shrinking process window have called on the need for more accurate decision of process window center. However in practical fabrication, we found that systematic error introduced by metrology and/or resist process can significantly impact the process window analysis result. Especially, when the simple polynomial functions are used to fit the lithographic data from focus exposure matrix (FEM), the model will fit these systematic errors rather than filter them out. This will definitely impact the process window analysis and determination of the best process condition. In this paper, we proposed to use a calibrated first principle model to do process window analysis. With this method, the systematic metrology error can be filtered out efficiently and give a more reasonable window analysis result.

  17. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  18. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  19. Laser with a transmitting window.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, M. B.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of transmission of radiation through one mirror of a laser is investigated. For a laser oscillator the result is to change the effective resonance frequency and Q of the cavity. Using the same model for the cavity, a signal is injected into the active medium through the transmitting window, and its effect on the system studied. When the external signal is strong enough and sufficiently close to the natural frequency of the laser oscillator, the laser locks its frequency to the input signal. The equations describing the system are solved over the range of input frequencies where the laser is locked, and the resulting gain found. In the high-intensity limit the medium saturates, and the gain tends to that of a lossy cavity. As the input intensity vanishes, the gain approaches infinity and the system tends to a laser oscillator.

  20. UW: A Macintosh UNIX window interface. [Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Bruner, J.D.

    1985-09-25

    A window interface to a 4.2 BSD UNIX system has been implemented on an Apple Macintosh personal computer. This interface supports a maximum of seven independent terminal sessions, each in its own window. Each window simulates a ''smart'' cursor-addressible 24 x 80 terminal. The implementation requires no changes to the UNIX kernel and imposes so little overhead as to be useful even at the low baud rates of dial-up lines.

  1. Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by Boeing, at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Space Station Manufacturing building, the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) will help Space Station crews take some of the best photographs ever snapped from an orbiting spacecraft by eliminating glare and allowing researchers to control their cameras and other equipment from the ground. The WORF is designed to make the best possible use of the high-quality research window in the Space Station's U.S. Destiny laboratory module. Engineers at the MSFC proposed a derivative of the EXPRESS (Expedite the Processing of Experiments to the Space Station) Rack already used on the Space Station and were given the go-ahead. The EXPRESS rack can hold a wide variety of experiments and provide them with power, communications, data, cooling, fluids, and other utilities - all the things that Earth-observing experiment instruments would need. WORF will supply payloads with power, data, cooling, video downlink, and stable, standardized interfaces for mounting imaging instruments. Similar to specialized orbital observatories, the interior of the rack is sealed against light and coated with a special low-reflectant black paint, so payloads will be able to observe low-light-level subjects such as the faint glow of auroras. Cameras and remote sensing instruments in the WORF can be preprogrammed, controlled from the ground, or operated by a Station crewmember by using a flexible shroud designed to cinch tightly around the crewmember's waist. The WORF is scheduled to be launched aboard the STS-114 Space Shuttle mission in the year 2003.

  2. Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hall Crannell

    2011-02-01

    Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

  3. Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 2x3 fixed multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements. Concrete sill and spandrel also illustrated. Building 43, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Thermally insulated window sash construction for a casement window

    SciTech Connect

    Biro, A.J.

    1987-09-01

    A window sash member is described comprising: first and second generally parallel sidewalls; first and second spaced, generally parallel transverse walls connecting the first and second sidewalls, extending between and oriented generally perpendicular to the first and second sidewalls to define a first hollow chamber; a third transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally parallel to the first transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; a first interior wall extending from the third transverse wall to the first transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the first sidewall to define a second hollow chamber; a fourth transverse wall, located without the first hollow chamber adjacent to and generally to the second transverse wall, extending from the first sidewall and terminating short of the second sidewall; and a second interior wall extending from the fourth transverse wall to the second transverse wall and oriented generally parallel to the second sidewall to define a third hollow chamber.

  5. Graphene oxide windows for in situ environmental cell photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolmakov, Andrei; Dikin, Dmitriy A; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing; Abyaneh, Majid Kazemian; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Günther, Sebastian; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-08-28

    The performance of new materials and devices often depends on processes taking place at the interface between an active solid element and the environment (such as air, water or other fluids). Understanding and controlling such interfacial processes require surface-specific spectroscopic information acquired under real-world operating conditions, which can be challenging because standard approaches such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy generally require high-vacuum conditions. The state-of-the-art approach to this problem relies on unique and expensive apparatus including electron analysers coupled with sophisticated differentially pumped lenses. Here, we develop a simple environmental cell with graphene oxide windows that are transparent to low-energy electrons (down to 400 eV), and demonstrate the feasibility of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements on model samples such as gold nanoparticles and aqueous salt solution placed on the back side of a window. These proof-of-principle results show the potential of using graphene oxide, graphene and other emerging ultrathin membrane windows for the fabrication of low-cost, single-use environmental cells compatible with commercial X-ray and Auger microprobes as well as scanning or transmission electron microscopes.

  6. Uniqueness of the momentum map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Chiara; Nest, Ryszard

    2016-08-01

    We give a detailed discussion of existence and uniqueness of the momentum map associated to Poisson Lie actions, which was defined by Lu. We introduce a weaker notion of momentum map, called infinitesimal momentum map, which is defined on one-forms and we analyze its integrability to the Lu's momentum map. Finally, the uniqueness of the Lu's momentum map is studied by describing, explicitly, the tangent space to the space of momentum maps.

  7. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  8. Glass-windowed ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Yddal, Tostein; Gilja, Odd Helge; Cochran, Sandy; Postema, Michiel; Kotopoulis, Spiros

    2016-05-01

    In research and industrial processes, it is increasingly common practice to combine multiple measurement modalities. Nevertheless, experimental tools that allow the co-linear combination of optical and ultrasonic transmission have rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to develop and characterise a water-matched ultrasound transducer architecture using standard components, with a central optical window larger than 10 mm in diameter allowing for optical transmission. The window can be used to place illumination or imaging apparatus such as light guides, miniature cameras, or microscope objectives, simplifying experimental setups. Four design variations of a basic architecture were fabricated and characterised with the objective to assess whether the variations influence the acoustic output. The basic architecture consisted of a piezoelectric ring and a glass disc, with an aluminium casing. The designs differed in piezoelectric element dimensions: inner diameter, ID=10 mm, outer diameter, OD=25 mm, thickness, TH=4 mm or ID=20 mm, OD=40 mm, TH=5 mm; glass disc dimensions OD=20-50 mm, TH=2-4 mm; and details of assembly. The transducers' frequency responses were characterised using electrical impedance spectroscopy and pulse-echo measurements, the acoustic propagation pattern using acoustic pressure field scans, the acoustic power output using radiation force balance measurements, and the acoustic pressure using a needle hydrophone. Depending on the design and piezoelectric element dimensions, the resonance frequency was in the range 350-630 kHz, the -6 dB bandwidth was in the range 87-97%, acoustic output power exceeded 1 W, and acoustic pressure exceeded 1 MPa peak-to-peak. 3D stress simulations were performed to predict the isostatic pressure required to induce material failure and 4D acoustic simulations. The pressure simulations indicated that specific design variations could sustain isostatic pressures up to 4.8 MPa.The acoustic simulations were able to

  9. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  10. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  11. Windows for X-ray Cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavoni, Michael L.; Mulders, Norbert; Lurio, Laurence; Paetkau, Mark; Jemian, Pete R.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec

    2006-09-01

    We have measured the small angle x-ray scattering from Kapton and Mylar films used as cryostat windows. Both Mylar and Kapton can be used to make very simple, demountable, superfluid tight windows using indium o-ring seals. Aluminized Mylar offers the advantage of effectively blocking infrared radiation while simultaneously reducing helium diffusion rates at room temperature by a factor of 25.

  12. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery. PMID:27583011

  13. Mouse Driven Window Graphics for Network Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makinson, G. J.; And Others

    Computer enhanced teaching of computational mathematics on a network system driving graphics terminals is being redeveloped for a mouse-driven, high resolution, windowed environment of a UNIX work station. Preservation of the features of networked access by heterogeneous terminals is provided by the use of the X Window environment. A dmonstrator…

  14. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  15. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  16. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  17. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  18. Reliability study of TWT output RF window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocci, Peter J.

    1990-05-01

    Rome Air Development Center Computer-Aided Systems Engineering Branch (RBES) has documented an in-house effort to evaluate the structural reliability of the output waveguides window on a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT). This window acts as a seal between the TWT's vacuum envelope and output waveguide. Its purpose is to prevent any loss due to leakage of the vacuum while allowing passage of the microwave signal. This particular disk-shaped window is constructed of a ceramic material, beryllia, and contains an inner ring of copper and an outer ring of Monel K-500 (70 to 30 nickle-copper). It was suspected that excessive thermal stresses associated with the very high operating temperatures by this window has caused it to fail. Finite element analyses, along with material failure theories were used to determine the window's response to a time-dependent heat source and operating heat sink temperature.

  19. A redox-flow electrochromic window.

    PubMed

    Jennings, James R; Lim, Wei Yang; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Wang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost electrochromic (EC) window based on a redox-flow system that does not require expensive transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates is introduced and demonstrated for the first time. An aqueous I3–/I– redox electrolyte is used in place of a TCO to oxidize/reduce a molecular layer of an EC triphenylamine derivative that is anchored to a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold on the inner faces of a double-paned window. The redox electrolyte is electrochemically oxidized/reduced in an external two-compartment cell and circulated through the window cavity using an inexpensive peristaltic pump, resulting in coloration or decoloration of the window due to reaction of the redox solution with the triphenylamine derivative. The absorption characteristics, coloration/decoloration times, and cycling stability of the prototype EC window are evaluated, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:25584903

  20. Double window configuration as a low cost microwave waveguide window for plasma applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.

    1997-12-01

    Waveguide windows are major components of a transmission line used in microwave plasma devices. The function of the waveguide window is to provide vacuum isolation of the source side from the plasma chamber while transmitting microwaves with minimum attenuation. Commonly a single thin dielectric plate is sandwiched between a choke type flange and a flat flange and is used as a waveguide window. To arrive at a better window configuration in terms of the low power reflection coefficient, the voltage standing wave ratio calculation is carried out for different window configurations (single window and double window) and for various window thicknesses. It is found that the power reflection is the minimum in the case of double window configuration. The minimum power reflection is as low as 0.8{percent} for a combination of alumina and a quartz plate each of 1 cm thickness in the double window configuration. Also, it is more advantageous to use radial microwave coupling than axial coupling in order to increase the life time of the microwave waveguide window. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Window Insulation: How to Sort Through the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara

    This two-part report explores the efforts of businesses and individuals to improve the thermal performance of windows. Part I discusses the basics of what makes a window product insulate or save energy. Topic areas addressed include saving energy lost through windows, key components of window insulation, three basic types of window insulation,…

  2. Solid state electrochromic smart windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    The structure under development at EIC Laboratories consists of a multilayer stack of thin films, incorporating the two principal electrochemically active elements, the electrochromic (EC) and counter electrode (CE) layers, respectively. The EC layer changes from colorless to a state of reduced transmission on reduction while the CE layer has the opposite (complementary) behavior (or is colorless in both oxidized and reduced states). These are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. The stack is completed with top and bottom transparent electrodes. The major achievements are as follows: (1) Tunable thermal emittance for the EC layer over a range of 0.2 to 0.8 was demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of surfaces with adjustable heat transfer properties. (2) Thin film ion conductors based on the Li2O/B2O3 and LiNbO3 were developed using thermal and electron beam evaporation with ionic conductivities greater than 10(exp -8) S/cm, fulfilling a major requirement for this component. (3) A variety of improved vanadium oxide-based counter electrode materials were demonstrated and patented which undergo reversible electrochemical Li insertion reactions and which increase their solar transmission on reduction. (4) Devices incorporating a laminated Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte were demonstrated with bleached state visible transmittance of greater than 65 percent and colored state transmittance of less than 15 percent. These devices were tested for greater than 10(exp 4) complete cycles. (5) An all thin film solid state device was demonstrated with a visible transmission range of 65/13 percent, using the component materials developed on this program. The device was tested for greater than 3000 complete cycles without degradation. A fabrication sequence was specified which forms the basis of initial production cost estimates. (6) Window modeling studies have been used to compare the relative performance of amorphous and crystalline WO3-based electrochromic

  3. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  4. Vance Tartar: a unique biologist.

    PubMed

    Frankel, J; Whiteley, A H

    1993-01-01

    Vance Tartar (1911-1991) has made major discoveries concerning morphogenesis, patterning, and nucleocytoplasmic relations in the giant ciliate Stentor coeruleus, mostly by means of hand-grafting using glass microneedles. This article provides a chronological account of the major events of Vance Tartar's life, a brief description of some of his major scientific achievements, and a discussion of his distinctive personality and multifaceted interests. It concludes with a consideration of how his unique style of life and work contributed to his equally unique scientific contributions. PMID:8457795

  5. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed. PMID:24247730

  6. Air leakage of newly instaled residential windows

    SciTech Connect

    Weidt, J.; Weidt, J.

    1980-06-01

    The air-leakage characteristics of five major window designs were measured in a field survey conducted in Twin Cities, Minnesota. A total of 192 windows (16 manufacturers) were tested at 58 sites representing a cross-section of single-family homes, townhouses, low- and high-rise apartments, and condominiums. Air-leakage measurements of the installed windows were compared with the current standard used by industry and government of 0.50 ft/sup 3//min/linear ft of crack. Other parameters studied were: effect of sash and frame material, effect of leakage between window frame and wall, differences among the product lines of a single manufacturer and between manufacturers, effect of installation practices, effect of cold weather on performance, change in performance over time for older windows, and performance of fixed glazing. Based on industry and government standards, 40% of all windows tested showed air-leakage characteristics higher than the 0.50 cfm/lfc standard, and 60% exceeded manufacturers' specifications for performance which in some cases were lower than the general industry standard. Analysis of the impact of various parameters on air-leakage performance showed that the operational design of the window was the most critical determinant although the ranking changes if performance is expressed in cfm/unit area or cfm/opening area. Air leakage was measured using a portable pressurization chamber. Smoke pencils, thermographic techniques and extensive photographic documentation provided additional data as to the location and cause of air leakage problems.

  7. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF MCNP WEIGHT WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. HENDRICKS; C. N. CULBERTSON

    2000-01-01

    The weight window variance reduction method in the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code MCNPTM has recently been rewritten. In particular, it is now possible to generate weight window importance functions on a superimposed mesh, eliminating the need to subdivide geometries for variance reduction purposes. Our assessment addresses the following questions: (1) Does the new MCNP4C treatment utilize weight windows as well as the former MCNP4B treatment? (2) Does the new MCNP4C weight window generator generate importance functions as well as MCNP4B? (3) How do superimposed mesh weight windows compare to cell-based weight windows? (4) What are the shortcomings of the new MCNP4C weight window generator? Our assessment was carried out with five neutron and photon shielding problems chosen for their demanding variance reduction requirements. The problems were an oil well logging problem, the Oak Ridge fusion shielding benchmark problem, a photon skyshine problem, an air-over-ground problem, and a sample problem for variance reduction.

  9. The conformal window from the worldline formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armoni, Adi

    2010-02-01

    We use the worldline formalism to derive a universal relation for the lower boundary of the conformal window in non-supersymmetric QCD-like theories. The derivation relies on the convergence of the expansion of the fermionic determinant in terms of Wilson loops. The expansion shares a similarity with the lattice strong coupling expansion and the genus expansion in string theory. Our result relates the lower boundary of the conformal window in theories with different representations and different gauge groups. Finally, we use SQCD to estimate the boundary of the conformal window in QCD-like theories and compare it with other approaches.

  10. COPD: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multiple Health Problems Prevention Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z COPD Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... not a weakness or a normal part of aging. Most people feel better with ... help you can, so that your COPD does not prevent you from living your life ...

  11. Milton: A New, Unique Pallasite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.; Wasson, J. T.; Larson, T.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Milton pallasite was found in Missouri, U.S.A. in October, 2000. It consists of a single stone that originally weighed approximately 2040 g. The chemistry of the olivine and metal phases, plus the oxygen isotope ratios of the olivines, differ significantly from other pallasites, making Milton unique. Unfortunately, the meteorite is heavily fractured and weathered.

  12. Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Reed

    Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

  13. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  14. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  15. DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GROUND, MEZZANINE, AND FIRST FLOOW WINDOW OPENINGS AT CORNER OF CLAY AND 15TH STREETS. WINDOWS AND WINDOW FRAMES REMOVED - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. Field Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, S. Craig; Kohler, Christian; Minen, Stefanie

    2007-07-11

    A field evaluation comparing the performance of low emittance (low-e) storm windows with both standard clear storm windows and no storm windows was performed in a cold climate. Six homes with single-pane windows were monitored over the period of one heating season. The homes were monitored with no storm windows and with new storm windows. The storm windows installed on four of the six homes included a hard coat, pyrolitic, low-e coating while the storm windows for the other two homeshad traditional clear glass. Overall heating load reduction due to the storm windows was 13percent with the clear glass and 21percent with the low-e windows. Simple paybacks for the addition of the storm windows were 10 years for the clear glass and 4.5 years forthe low-e storm windows.

  17. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  18. The window of opportunity for treatment withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2011-03-01

    Physicians sometimes refer to a "window of opportunity" for withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in patients with acute severe brain injury. There is a period of critical illness and physiological instability when treatment withdrawal is likely to be followed by death but prognosis is uncertain. If decisions are delayed, greater prognostic certainty can be achieved, but with the risk that the patient is no longer dependent on life support and survives with very severe disability. In this article I draw on the example of birth asphyxia and highlight the role that the window of opportunity sometimes plays in decisions about life-sustaining treatment in intensive care. I outline the potential arguments in favor of and against taking the window into account. I argue that it is, at least sometimes, ethical and appropriate for physicians and parents to be influenced by the window of opportunity in their decisions about life-sustaining treatment.

  19. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  20. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  1. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  3. Window size impact in human activity recognition.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Galvez, Juan-Manuel; Damas, Miguel; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1-2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities. PMID:24721766

  4. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  5. Noise Transmission Characteristics of Damped Plexiglas Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    2002-01-01

    Most general aviation aircraft utilize single layer plexiglas material for the windshield and side windows. Adding noise control treatments to transparent panels is a challenging problem. In this paper, damped plexiglas windows are evaluated for replacement of conventional windows in general aviation aircraft to reduce the structure-borne and airborne noise transmitted into the interior. In contrast to conventional solid windows, the damped plexiglas window panels are fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Results from acoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility are used to compare different designs of the damped plexiglas panels with solid windows of the same nominal thickness. Comparisons of the solid and damped plexiglas panels show reductions in the radiated sound power of up to 8 dB at low frequency resonances and as large as 4.5 dB over a 4000 Hz bandwidth. The weight of the viscoelastic treatment was approximately 1% of the panel mass. Preliminary FEM/BEM modeling shows good agreement with experimental results for radiated sound power.

  6. Scale up of large ALON windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Kashalikar, Uday; Foti, Robyn; Sastri, Suri

    2013-06-01

    Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON® Optical Ceramic) combines broadband transparency with excellent mechanical properties. ALON's cubic structure means that it is transparent in its polycrystalline form, allowing it to be manufactured by conventional powder processing techniques. Surmet has established a robust manufacturing process, beginning with synthesis of ALON® powder, continuing through forming/heat treatment of blanks, and ending with optical fabrication of ALON® windows. Surmet has made significant progress in our production capability in recent years. Additional scale up of Surmet's manufacturing capability, for larger sizes and higher quantities, is currently underway. ALON® transparent armor represents the state of the art in protection against armor piercing threats, offering a factor of two in weight and thickness savings over conventional glass laminates. Tiled and monolithic windows have been successfully produced and tested against a range of threats. Large ALON® window are also of interest to a range of visible to Mid-Wave Infra-Red (MWIR) sensor applications. These applications often have stressing imaging requirements which in turn require that these large windows have optical characteristics including excellent homogeneity of index of refraction and very low stress birefringence. Surmet is currently scaling up its production facility to be able to make and deliver ALON® monolithic windows as large as ~19x36-in. Additionally, Surmet has plans to scale up to windows ~3ftx3ft in size in the coming years. Recent results with scale up and characterization of the resulting blanks will be presented.

  7. Unique MSV for every job

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Consafe is now using a computer-aided design and drafting system adapting its multipurpose support vessels (MSVS) to specific user requirements. The vessels are based on the concept of standard container modules adapted into living quarters, workshops, service units, offices with each application for a specific project demanding a unique mix. There is also the need for constant refurbishment program as service conditions take their toll on the modules. The computer-aided design system is described.

  8. Utilizing the US Lab Nadir Research Window for Remote Sensing Operations with The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Richard; Barley, Bryan; Gilbert, Paul A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) is an ISPR-based rack facility designed to take advantage of the high optical quality US Lab Nadir research window. The WORF is based on the ISS Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) rack mechanical structure and electronic systems. The WORF has a unique payload volume located at the center of the rack that provides access to the window. The interior dimensions of the payload volume are 34-in. (86.36 cm) wide by 33-in. (83.82 cm) high by 23-in. (58.42 cm) deep. This facility supports the deployment of payloads such as 9 in. aerial photography cameras and 12 in. diameter optical equipment. The WORF coupled with the optical quality of the United States Lab window support the deployment of various payload disciplines. The WORF provides payloads with power, data command and control, air cooling, water cooling, and video processing. The WORF's payload mounting surfaces and interfaces include the interior payload mounting shelf and the interior and exterior aircraft-like seat tracks. The payload mounting shelf is limited to a maximum mass of 136 kg (299 pounds). The WORF can accommodate large payloads such as the commonly used Leica-Heerbrug RC-30 aerial photography camera (whose dimensions are 53.3 cm (21-in.) wide by 50.8 cm (20-in.) deep by 76.2 cm (30-in.) long). The performance characteristics of the WORF allow it to support an array of payload disciplines. The WORF provides a maximum of 3 Kw at 28 Vdc and has a maximum data rate of 10 Mbps. The WORF's unique payload volume is designed to be light-tight, down to 2.8 x 10(exp -11) Watts/cm2/steradian, and have low-reflective surfaces. This specially designed WORF interior supports payload investigations that observe low-light-level phenomenon such as aurora. Although the WORF rack does not employ any active rack isolation (i.e., vibration dampening) technology, the rack provides a very stable environment for payload operations (on the order

  9. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  10. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  11. Damped Windows for Aircraft Interior Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2004-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission into aircraft. To improve the acoustical performance, damped windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate the acoustic benefits of damped windows. Tests were performed in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to measure the transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation and radiated sound power for point force excitation. Comparisons between uniform and damped plexiglas windows showed increased transmission loss of 6 dB at the first natural frequency, 6 dB at coincidence, and 4.5 dB over a 50 to 4k Hz range. Radiated sound power was reduced up to 7 dB at the lower natural frequencies and 3.7 dB over a 1000 Hz bandwidth. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study is presented that evaluates the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power.

  12. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  13. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  14. MiniBooNE "Windows on the Universe"

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2010-12-09

    Progress in the last few decades has left neutrino physics with several vexing issues. Among them are the following questions: (1) Why are lepton mixing angles so different from those in the quark sector? (2) What is the most probable range of the reactor mixing angle? (3) Is the atmospheric mixing angle maximal? (4) What is the number of fermion generations? These are some of the issues that neutrino science hopes to study; this article will explore these questions as part of a more general scientific landscape, and will discuss the part MiniBooNE might play in this exploration. We discuss the current state of measurements taken by MiniBooNE, and emphasize the uniqueness of neutrino oscillations as an important probe into the 'Windows on the Universe.'

  15. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  16. Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: 4x4 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel, casements. Concrete stoop, entry overhang and pipe rail detail also illustrated. Building 36, facing northwest - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 2x4 multipaned steel windows flanked by 1x4 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Raised panel door front entry also illustrated. Ground floor detail Building 19, facing north - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window type: paired 3x2 multipaned steel window flanked by 1x3 multipaned steel casements, breaking building corner. Broad overhanging eave also illustrated. Second story detail. Building 13, facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  20. 49 CFR 238.113 - Emergency window exits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency window exits. 238.113 Section 238.113... § 238.113 Emergency window exits. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3) of... window exits. At least one emergency window exit shall be located in each side of each end (half) of...

  1. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  2. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed...

  3. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  4. 49 CFR 238.114 - Rescue access windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rescue access windows. 238.114 Section 238.114... § 238.114 Rescue access windows. (a) Number and location. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of... rescue access windows. At least one rescue access window shall be located in each side of the...

  5. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  6. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  7. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  8. Combined Pressure and Thermal Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svartstrom, Kirk Nils (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a vehicle comprising a pressure and thermal window pane, a seal system, and a retainer system. The pressure and thermal window pane may be configured to provide desired pressure protection and desired thermal protection when exposed to an environment around the vehicle during operation of the vehicle. The pressure and thermal window pane may have a desired ductility. The seal system may be configured to contact the pressure and thermal window pane to seal the pressure and thermal window pane. The retainer system may be configured to hold the seal system and the pressure and thermal window pane.

  9. High-Temperature Optical Window Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roeloffs, Norman; Taranto, Nick

    1995-01-01

    A high-temperature optical window is essential to the optical diagnostics of high-temperature combustion rigs. Laser Doppler velocimetry, schlieren photography, light sheet visualization, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy are a few of the tests that require optically clear access to the combustor flow stream. A design was developed for a high-temperature window that could withstand the severe environment of the NASA Lewis 3200 F Lean Premixed Prevaporized (LPP) Flame Tube Test Rig. The development of this design was both time consuming and costly. This report documents the design process and the lessons learned, in an effort to reduce the cost of developing future designs for high-temperature optical windows.

  10. Fused silica windows for solar receiver applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Johannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Söhn, Matthias; Schenk, Christian; Helsch, Gundula; Bornhöft, Hansjörg

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study of optical and mechanical properties of quartz glass (fused silica) with regard to application in high temperature solar receivers is presented. The dependence of rupture strength on different surface conditions as well as high temperature is analyzed, focussing particularly on damage by devitrification and sandblasting. The influence of typical types of contamination in combination with thermal cycling on the optical properties of fused silica is determined. Cleaning methods are compared regarding effectiveness on contamination-induced degradation for samples with and without antireflective coating. The FEM-aided design of different types of receiver windows and their support structure is presented. A large-scale production process has been developed for producing fused silica dome shaped windows (pressurized window) up to a diameter of 816 mm. Prototypes were successfully pressure-tested in a test bench and certified according to the European Pressure Vessel Directive.

  11. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  12. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  13. Integration Window Position Estimation in TR Receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A

    2005-03-15

    Transmitted-reference (TR) receivers avoid the stringent synchronization requirements that exist in conventional pulse detection schemes. However, the performance of such receivers is highly sensitive to precise timing acquisition and tracking as well as the length of their integration window. This window in TR receivers defines the limits of the finite integrator prior to the final decision making block. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that allows us to extract the timing information of the integration window very accurately in UWB-TR receivers in the presence of channel noise. The principles of the method are presented and the BER performance of a modified UWB-TR receiver is investigated by computer simulation. Our studies show that the proposed estimation technique adds value to the conventional TR receiver structure with modest increase in complexity.

  14. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  15. The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    Methanogenic archaea have an unusual type of metabolism because they use H2 + CO2, formate, methylated C1 compounds, or acetate as energy and carbon sources for growth. The methanogens produce methane as the major end product of their metabolism in a unique energy-generating process. The organisms received much attention because they catalyze the terminal step in the anaerobic breakdown of organic matter under sulfate-limiting conditions and are essential for both the recycling of carbon compounds and the maintenance of the global carbon flux on Earth. Furthermore, methane is an important greenhouse gas that directly contributes to climate changes and global warming. Hence, the understanding of the biochemical processes leading to methane formation are of major interest. This review focuses on the metabolic pathways of methanogenesis that are rather unique and involve a number of unusual enzymes and coenzymes. It will be shown how the previously mentioned substrates are converted to CH4 via the CO2-reducing, methylotrophic, or aceticlastic pathway. All catabolic processes finally lead to the formation of a mixed disulfide from coenzyme M and coenzyme B that functions as an electron acceptor of certain anaerobic respiratory chains. Molecular hydrogen, reduced coenzyme F420, or reduced ferredoxin are used as electron donors. The redox reactions as catalyzed by the membrane-bound electron transport chains are coupled to proton translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is the driving force for ATP synthesis as catalyzed by an A1A0-type ATP synthase. Other energy-transducing enzymes involved in methanogenesis are the membrane-integral methyltransferase and the formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase complex. The former enzyme is a unique, reversible sodium ion pump that couples methyl-group transfer with the transport of Na+ across the membrane. The formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase is a reversible ion pump that catalyzes

  16. Unique features of space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Probabilities of Unique Events

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

  18. Split liver transplantation: What's unique?

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-09-24

    The intraoperative management of split liver transplantation (SLT) has some unique features as compared to routine whole liver transplantations. Only the liver has this special ability to regenerate that confers benefits in survival and quality of life for two instead of one by splitting livers. Primary graft dysfunction may result from small for size syndrome. Graft weight to recipient body weight ratio is significant for both trisegmental and hemiliver grafts. Intraoperative surgical techniques aim to reduce portal hyperperfusion and decrease venous portal pressure. Ischemic preconditioning can be instituted to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury which impacts graft regeneration. Advancement of the technique of SLT is essential as use of split cadaveric grafts expands the donor pool and potentially has an excellent future. PMID:26421261

  19. Interior and Exterior Low-E Storm Window Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Witters, Sarah

    2014-09-03

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings. A new and improved low-e storm window boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement. A recent whole-home experiment performed by PNNL suggests that attaching low-e storm windows can result in as much energy savings replacing the windows.

  20. Experimental study of the plasma window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ben-Liang; Huang, Sheng; Zhu, Kun; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The plasma window is an advanced apparatus that can work as the interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region. It can be used in many applications that need atmosphere-vacuum interface, such as a gas target, electron beam welding, synchrotron radiation and a spallation neutron source. A test bench of the plasma window is constructed in Peking University. A series of experiments and the corresponding parameter measurements have been presented in this article. The experiment result indicates the feasibility of such a facility acting as an interface between a vacuum and a high pressure region.

  1. Window for radiation detectors and the like

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ogle, J.C.

    1975-10-28

    An improved x- and gamma-radiation and particle transparent window for the environment-controlling enclosure of various types of radiation and particle detectors is provided by a special graphite foil of a thickness of from about 0.1 to 1 mil. The graphite must have very parallel hexagonal planes with a mosaic spread no greater than 5$sup 0$ to have the necessary strength in thin sections to support one atmosphere or more of pressure. Such graphite is formed by hot- pressing and annealing pyrolytically deposited graphite and thereafter stripping off layers of sufficient thickness to form the window.

  2. Aberration and boresight error correction for conformal aircraft windows using the inner window surface and tilted fixed correctors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhu; Cui, Qingfeng; Mao, Shan

    2016-04-01

    A static solution to aberrations and boresight error for tilted conformal aircraft windows at different look angles is reported. The solution uses the inner window surface to correct the window aberrations at a 0° look angle and uses fixed correctors behind the window to correct the residual window aberrations at other look angles. Then, the boresight error for the window at different look angles is corrected by tilting the fixed correctors. The principle of the solution is discussed, and a design example shows that the solution is effective in correcting the aberrations and boresight error for a tilted conformal aircraft window at different look angles.

  3. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management. PMID:25658124

  4. Considerations When Upgrading and Renovating Window Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Today's educational facilities managers face many challenges. As stewards of their campus' physical assets, these professionals are charged with improving students' learning environments, saving money, and maintaining the historical and aesthetic integrity of their buildings. For schools and universities that have not replaced their windows in…

  5. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  6. Windows 8: What Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2012, Microsoft will release the commercial version of its next operating system, presently called "Windows 8." This version represents a significant departure from the past. Microsoft wants this operating system to meet user needs regardless of physical platform (e.g., desktop, notebook, tablet, mobile phone). As part of this mission,…

  7. Inexpensive anti-fog coating for windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmin, D. L., Jr.; Morrison, H. D.

    1971-01-01

    Coating applications include anti-fog protection for deep-sea diving equipment, fire protection helmets, and windows of vehicles used in hazardous environments. Basic coating composition includes liquid detergent, deionized water, and oxygen compatible fire-resistant oil. Composition prevents visor fogging under maximum metabolic load for 5 hours and longer.

  8. Window of Opportunity? Adolescence, Music, and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmrich, Barbara H.

    2010-01-01

    Research has suggested that musicians process music in the same cortical regions that adolescents process algebra. An early adolescence synaptogenesis might present a window of opportunity during middle school for music to create and strengthen enduring neural connections in those regions. Six school districts across Maryland provided scores from…

  9. [Medical image automatic adjusting window and segmentation].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhuan; Chen, Siping; Tao, Duchun; Chen, Xinhai

    2005-04-01

    Image guided surgical navigation system is the most advanced surgical apparatus, which develops most rapidly and has great application prospects in neurosurgery, orthopaedics, E.N.T. department etc. In current surgical navigation systems, windowing, segmenting and registration of medical images all depend on manual operation, and automation of image processing is urgently needed. This paper proposes the algorithm which realizes very well automatic windowing and segmentation of medical images: first, we analyze a lot of MRI and CT images and propose corresponding windowing algorithm according to their common features of intensity distribution. Experiments show that the effects of windowing of most MRI and CT images are optimized. Second, we propose the seed growing algorithm based on intensity connectivity,which can segment tumor and its boundary exactly by simply clicking the mouse, and control dynamically the results in real time. If computer memory permits, the algorithm can segment 3D images directly. Tests show that this function is able to shorten the time of surgical planning, lower the complexity, and improve the efficiency in navigation surgery. PMID:15884547

  10. Implications of Windowing Techniques for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heines, Jesse M.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    This paper discusses the use of a technique called windowing in computer assisted instruction to allow independent control of functional areas in complex CAI displays and simultaneous display of output from a running computer program and coordinated instructional material. Two obstacles to widespread use of CAI in computer science courses are…

  11. The battle between Unix and Windows NT.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J

    1997-02-01

    For more than a decade, Unix has been the dominant back-end operating system in health care. But that prominent position is being challenged by Windows NT, touted by its developer, Microsoft Corp., as the operating system of the future. CIOs and others are attempting to figure out which system is the best choice in the long run.

  12. SOT: A rapid prototype using TAE windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Mark; Eike, David; Harris, Elfrieda; Miller, Dana

    1986-01-01

    The development of the window interface extension feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is discussed. This feature is being used to prototype a space station payload interface in order to demonstrate and assess the benefits of using windows on a bit mapped display and also to convey the concept of telescience, the control and operation of space station payloads from remote sites. The prototype version of the TAE with windows operates on a DEC VAXstation 100. This workstation has a high resolution 19 inch bit mapped display, a keyboard and a three-button mouse. The VAXstation 100 is not a stand-alone workstation, but is controlled by software executing on a VAX/8600. A short scenario was developed utilizing the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) as an example payload. In the scenario the end-user station includes the VAXstation 100 plus an image analysis terminal used to display the CCD images. The layout and use of the prototype elements, i.e., the root menu, payload status window, and target acquisition menu is described.

  13. An acoustic window for sustainable buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Brocklesby, Martin; Li, Zhemin; Oldham, David J.

    2005-04-01

    Encouraging the use of natural ventilation is an important tendency in the green building movement, but opening windows can often cause noise problems. This research develops a window system which allows natural ventilation while reducing noise transmission. The core idea is to create a ventilation path by staggering two layers of glass and using micro-perforated absorbers (MPA) along the path created to reduce noise. The MPA are made from transparent materials so that daylighting is relatively unaffected. Starting with a brief introduction of the MPA theory and its application in ducts, the paper presents a series of numerical simulations using finite element method based software FEMLAB, and experiment results measured between a semi-anechoic chamber and a reverberation chamber. Performance in acoustics, ventilation and daylighting are all taken into account. A basic window configuration is first considered, studying the effectiveness of various window parameters. A number of strategic designs are then examined, including external hoods and louvers in the sound path. There is generally a good agreement between simulation and measurement, and the noise reduction can be as good as a single glazing, with air movement to achieve occupant comfort, rather than just for minimum air exchange. [Work supported by EPSRC.

  14. New Window into the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  15. Respiratory infections unique to Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth W; File, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    Asia is a highly heterogeneous region with vastly different cultures, social constitutions and populations affected by a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases caused by tropical pathogens. Asian patients with community-acquired pneumonia differ from their Western counterparts in microbiological aetiology, in particular the prominence of Gram-negative organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the differences in socioeconomic and health-care infrastructures limit the usefulness of Western management guidelines for pneumonia in Asia. The importance of emerging infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza infection remain as close concerns for practising respirologists in Asia. Specific infections such as melioidosis, dengue haemorrhagic fever, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, penicilliosis marneffei, malaria, amoebiasis, paragonimiasis, strongyloidiasis, gnathostomiasis, trinchinellosis, schistosomiasis and echinococcosis occur commonly in Asia and manifest with a prominent respiratory component. Pulmonary eosinophilia, endemic in parts of Asia, could occur with a wide range of tropical infections. Tropical eosinophilia is believed to be a hyper-sensitivity reaction to degenerating microfilariae trapped in the lungs. This article attempts to address the key respiratory issues in these respiratory infections unique to Asia and highlight the important diagnostic and management issues faced by practising respirologists.

  16. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xin; Qu, He-Meng; Wang, Ling-Jie; Wang, Yu

    2013-07-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors.

  17. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.

  18. WxWindows Interface for CALE

    SciTech Connect

    Amala, P; Egner, C; Hagelberg, J

    2004-11-24

    wxWindows is an Open Source, platform independent, User Interface (UI) which has been in development for over eleven years (http://www.wxwindows.org). Currently wxWindows is actively supported for the Linux/Unix (X11, Motif and GTK+), Mac OS 9 and X, all Win32 OSes, MGL, and OS/2 operating systems. wxWindows is written in C++ using an object oriented programming framework; it is a reasonably lightweight API (called wxWidgets) sitting over the native graphics packages of the various platforms it supports. The original version of CALE was written for the basic target platform of Unix using X11 as the graphics package. There have been separate efforts to port the code to Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, Win32, Windows Services for Unix (SFU) and CygWin. Each of these used a variety of different graphical interface approaches and build/make systems. For instance Windows SFU and CygWin could still only use X11 graphics. So could the Win32 version, if a X11 server library and client software were installed. A native Win32 version of CALE was contemplated, but never started. The Macintosh versions were completed but never widely distributed to the users. Given the growing code version support issues, and the slow deviation from the portable code model CALE originally started with, it was desired to come up with a simple graphical UI that would be cross platform portable with only a single code base and build system. During the past two summers, two Laboratory summer students and a CALE team code physicist have worked on porting CALE to the wxWidgets UI. In the summer of 2003 Jeffery Hagelberg (formerly Purdue University, now at the University of California-Davis) started the project. During the spring & summer of 2004 Christopher Egner (Rochester Institute of Technology) completed the work. Paul Amala (A/X-Program at LLNL) supervised the students for their combined 30 weeks of effort. This poster session describes the wxWindows interface as it is implemented in CALE, the level of

  19. WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.

    1993-07-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.

  20. Advances in glazing materials for windows

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    No one type of glazing is suitable for every application. Many materials are available that serve different purposes. Moreover, consumers may discover that they need two types of glazing for a home because of the directions that the windows face and the local climate. To make wise purchases, consumers should first examine their heating and cooling needs and prioritize desired features such as daylighting, solar heating, shading, ventilation, and aesthetic value. Research and development into types of glazing have created a new generation of materials that offer improved window efficiency and performance for consumers. While this new generation of glazing materials quickly gains acceptance in the marketplace, the research and development of even more efficient technology continues.

  1. OBSERVATIONAL WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN PLANET TRANSIT SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R. E-mail: skane@ipac.caltech.edu

    2009-09-01

    The probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data is sensitively dependent upon the window function of the observations. We quantitatively characterize and provide visualizations of the dependence of this probability as a function of orbital period upon several observing strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, transit duration and depth, and the minimum number of sampled transits. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of observational window functions, we explicitly address noncorrelated (Gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two noise components affect transit detectability in fundamentally different manners, especially for long periods and/or small transit depths. We furthermore discuss the consequence of competing effects on transit detectability, elaborate on measures of observing strategies, and examine the projected efficiency of different transit survey scenarios with respect to certain regions of parameter space.

  2. Rupture of the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P H; Bicknell, P G

    1976-01-01

    A case of sudden deafness due to rupture of the round window membrane is presented. Nineteen similar cases have previously been reported in the literature. In a review of these twenty patients, it is noted that a history of concurrent physical effort or barotrauma was present in eighteen. This supports the view that the injury is produced by pressure changes acting either along the cochlear aqueduct (the explosive route) or, directly on the middle ear structures (the implosive route). At operation, the rupture may be difficult to see, and a separate leak from the oval window may be present. The timing of any surgical intervention is important. The authors recommend that this should be deferred for one week after the onset of symptoms, as the fistula may heal spontaneously. If no definite improvement has occurred at the end of this time, then tympanotomy should be undertaken during the next week.

  3. Diamondlike carbon protective coatings for optical windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited on infrared transmitting optical windows and were evaluated as protective coatings for these windows exposed to particle and rain erosion. The DLC films were deposited on zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by three different ion beam methods: (1) sputter deposition from a carbon target using an 8-cm argon ion source; (2) direct deposition by a 30-cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon gas in argon; and (3) dual beam direct deposition by the 30-cm hollow cathode ion source and an 8-cm argon ion source. In an attempt to improve the adherence of the DLC films on ZnSc and ZnS, ion beam cleaning, ion implantation with helium and neon ions, or sputter deposition of a thin, ion beam intermediate coating was employed prior to deposition of the DLC film. The protection that the DLC films afforded the windows from particle and rain erosion was evaluated, along with the hydrogen content, adherence, intrinsic stress, and infrared transmittance of the films. Because of the elevated stress levels in the ion beam sputtered DLC films and in those ion beam deposited with butane, films thicker than 0.1 micron and with good adherence on ZnS and ZnSe could not be generated. An intermediate coating of germanium successfully allowed the DLC films to remain adherent to the optical windows and caused only negligible reduction in the specular transmittance of the ZnS and ZnSe at 10 microns.

  4. 13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX BELOW WINDOW - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Evaluation criteria and test methods for electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W. ); Lampert, C.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Report summarizes the test methods used for evaluating electrochromic (EC) windows, and summarizes what is known about degradation of their performance, and recommends methods and procedures for advancing EC windows for buildings applications. 77 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. 12. TRIPLE WINDOW, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. Typical for all ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRIPLE WINDOW, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. Typical for all triple windows on first and second floors. Note single swing jib door - John Joyner Smith House, 400 Wilmington Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  7. 23. CORNICES AND WINDOW ARCHITRAVES OF SOUTHEAST AND SOUTHWEST ROOMS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CORNICES AND WINDOW ARCHITRAVES OF SOUTHEAST AND SOUTHWEST ROOMS, FIRST FLOOR. Door architraves similar to window architraves. - John Joyner Smith House, 400 Wilmington Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  8. DETAIL VIEW, OXEYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, OX-EYE WINDOW, SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH GARRET. THE MUNTIN PATTERN USED IN THIS WINDOW WAS REFERRED TO AS “GOTHIC” IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 10. TYPICAL SIDE WALL WINDOW AND WATER TABLE. The water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL SIDE WALL WINDOW AND WATER TABLE. The water table is an extension of the order base, and the lower torus breaks for ventilation, which applies to all windows. - Westminster Presbyterian Church, 273 Meeting Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  10. WINDOW WITH ORIGINAL PANELED FOLDING SHUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WINDOW WITH ORIGINAL PANELED FOLDING SHUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, LOOKING OUT WALNUT STREET (SOUTH). NOTE ALTERED LOWER SECTION MADE CA. 1840. Compare window in PA-1436 A-37 - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 27. June 1962 WINDOW JAMB MOLDING DETAILMOLDING CAN BE REMOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. June 1962 WINDOW JAMB MOLDING DETAIL--MOLDING CAN BE REMOVED BY TURNING WOODEN THUMBSCREWS; WINDOW FRAMES CAN THEN BE REMOVED FOR CLEANING, ETC. - Shaker Church Family Main Dwelling House, U.S. Route 20, Hancock, Berkshire County, MA

  12. 17. LARGE WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. THE PROTECTIVE WIRE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LARGE WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. THE PROTECTIVE WIRE ON THE INTERIOR CAN BE SEEN. THE WINDOWS HAVE BEEN BOARDED OVER THE EXTERIOR - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  13. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  14. DETAIL, EAST ELEVATION. THIS LUNETTE WINDOW POSITIONED IN A BLIND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, EAST ELEVATION. THIS LUNETTE WINDOW POSITIONED IN A BLIND ARCH ECHOES A SIMILAR TREATMENT OF THE VENETIAN WINDOWS IN THE HOUSE - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is the only stone window sill in the house. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Energy and Power Evaluation Program for Windows

    2000-06-27

    ENPEP for windows has its origins in the DOS version of the software, however, the Windows release is significantly modified and rather different in structure and capabilities from the older DOS version of ENPEP. ENPEP for Windows provides the user with a graphical interface for designing a comprehensive model of the energy system of a country or region. The BALANCE submodel processes a representative network of all energy production, conversion, transport, distribution, and utilization activitiesmore » in a country (or region) as well as the flows of energy and fuels among these activities. The objective of the model is to simulate energy market and determine energy supply and demand balance over a long-term period of up to 75 years. The environmental aspect is also taken into account by calculating the emissions of various pollutants. In addition to the energy costs, the environmental costs are also calculated by the model. These costs can be used to affect the solution found by the market equilibrium algorithm. The main purpose of the software is to provide analytical capability and tools for the various analyses of energy and environmental systems, as well as for development of long-term energy strategy of a country or region.« less

  17. Unsupervised brain segmentation using T2 window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyassin, Abdal M.; Cline, Harvey E.

    2002-05-01

    Measurement of brain structures could lead to important diagnostic information and could indicate the success or failure of a certain pharmaceutical drug. We have developed a totally unsupervised technique that segments and quantifies brain structures from T2 dual echo MR images. The technique classified four different tissue clusters in a scatter plot (air, CSF, brain, and face). Several novel image-processing techniques were implemented to reduce the spread of these clusters and subsequently generate tissue based T2 windows. These T2 windows encompassed all the information needed to segment and subsequently quantify the corresponding tissues in an automatic fashion. We have applied the technique on nineteen MR data sets (16 normal and 3 Alzheimer diseased [AD] patients). The measurements from the T2 window technique differentiated AD patients from normal subjects. The mean value of the %CSF from total the brain was %29.2 higher for AD patients from the %CSF for normal subjects. Furthermore, the technique ran under 30 seconds per data set on a PC with 550 MHz dual processors.

  18. Tuning vibrational mode localization with frequency windowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Talbot, Justin J.; Steele, Ryan P.

    2016-09-01

    Local-mode coordinates have previously been shown to be an effective starting point for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy calculations. This general approach borrows techniques from localized-orbital machinery in electronic structure theory and generates a new set of spatially localized vibrational modes. These modes exhibit a well-behaved spatial decay of anharmonic mode couplings, which, in turn, allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of couplings and increased computational efficiency. Fully localized modes, however, have been found to lead to unintuitive mixtures of characteristic motions, such as stretches and bends, and accordingly large bilinear couplings. In this work, a very simple, tunable localization frequency window is introduced, in order to realize the transition from normal modes to fully localized modes. Partial localization can be achieved by localizing only pairs of modes within this traveling frequency window, which allows for intuitive interpretation of modes. The optimal window size is suggested to be a few hundreds of wave numbers, based on small- to medium-sized test systems, including water clusters and polypeptides. The new sets of partially localized coordinates retain their spatial coupling decay behavior while providing a reduced number of potential energy evaluations for convergence of anharmonic spectra.

  19. Microwave Plasma Window Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvey, Andrew; Zheng, Peng; Franzi, Matthew; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Plasma, Pulsed Power,; Microwave Laboratory Team

    2011-10-01

    The microwave plasma window is an experiment designed to promote RF breakdown in a controlled vacuum-gas environment using a DC bias. Experimental data has shown that this DC bias will significantly reduce the RF power required to yield breakdown, a feature also shown in recent simulation. The cross-polarized conducting array is biased at (100's V) DC on the surface of a Lucite vacuum window. Microwave power is supplied to the window's surface by a single 1-kW magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz CW. The goal of this project is to establish controllable characteristics relating vacuum pressure, DC bias, RF power required for surface breakdown, as well as RF transmission after the formation of plasma. Experimental data will be compared with multipactor susceptibility curves generated using a Monte Carlo simulation which incorporates an applied DC bias and finite pressures of air and argon. Research supported by an AFOSR grant on the Basic Physics of Distributed Plasma Discharge, AFRL, L-3 Communications, and Northrop Grumman.

  20. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  1. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  2. Window Area and Development Drive Spatial Variation in Bird-Window Collisions in an Urban Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.; McKay, Kelly J.; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0–52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used

  3. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will...

  4. 14 CFR 25.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 25.775 Section 25... § 25.775 Windshields and windows. (a) Internal panes must be made of nonsplintering material. (b.... (d) The design of windshields and windows in pressurized airplanes must be based on factors...

  5. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will...

  6. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch-diameter hemispherical striking surface shall be dropped (free fall) to strike the window or lens in...

  7. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  8. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  9. Nonuniform Effects of Reinstatement within the Time Window

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluccio, Llissa; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    A time window is a limited period after an event initially occurs in which additional information can be integrated with the memory of that event. It shuts when the memory is forgotten. The time window hypothesis holds that the impact of a manipulation at different points within the time window is nonuniform. In two operant conditioning…

  10. 15. INTERIOR VIEW OF GEAROPERATED WINDOW NEAR SECOND FLOOR STAIRWELL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR VIEW OF GEAR-OPERATED WINDOW NEAR SECOND FLOOR STAIRWELL. THE UPPER HALF OF THE WINDOW OPENS OUTWARD WHEN THE CRANK LOCATED AT THE CENTER OF THE WINDOW IS OPERATED. THE CRANK IS ATTACHED TO A GEAR BOX WITH SCREW GEAR - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  11. The Video Window: My Life with a Ludic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaver, William W.

    The Video Window is a video screen hanging next to a window on my bedroom wall, showing the image from a camera mounted to show the skyline from outside the same window. This chapter describes the appeal of living with such a system, and the intermingled aesthetic, utilitarian and practical issues involved in its creation and the experience it offers.

  12. Unique High-Resolution Stratospheric Observations of Polar Mesospheric Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Araujo, D.; Chapman, D.; Didier, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Jones, G.; Kjellstrand, B.; Limon, M.; Lizancos, A.; Luu, T. V.; Macioce, T.; Tucker, G.; Vinokurov, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a unique data set consisting of high-resolution optical images of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs), observed serendipitously from a stratospheric balloon platform in January of 2013. Complex morphological structures in the PMC brightness distribution provide observable consequences of the deposition of energy and momentum by atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. This data set represents the highest resolution set of optical images of this phenomenon to date, and therefore provides a unique window into the poorly understood instability and turbulent dynamics on the smallest scales (between roughly a meter and a few km). Through this analysis, morphological features identified in individual images will be compared with those predicted in numerical models in order to identify key dynamical features present in the data on these small scales. Multiple spatially-overlapping sequential images will be analyzed together in order to extract cloud velocities and to measure timescales for feature permanence. These image compilations will also be used to place the observed small-scale features in a broader context by using multiple images to re-construct larger features, as well as to compare to features simultaneously observed on much larger scales by the CIPS instrument flying on the AIM satellite.

  13. Life in a temperate Polar sea: a unique taphonomic window on the structure of a Late Cretaceous Arctic marine ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Karen; Bloch, John; Sweet, Arthur; Tweet, Justin; Eberle, Jaelyn; Cumbaa, Stephen; Witkowski, Jakub; Harwood, David

    2008-01-01

    As the earth faces a warming climate, the rock record reminds us that comparable climatic scenarios have occurred before. In the Late Cretaceous, Arctic marine organisms were not subject to frigid temperatures but still contended with seasonal extremes in photoperiod. Here, we describe an unusual fossil assemblage from Devon Island, Arctic Canada, that offers a snapshot of a ca 75 Myr ago marine palaeoecosystem adapted to such conditions. Thick siliceous biogenic sediments and glaucony sands reveal remarkably persistent high primary productivity along a high-latitude Late Cretaceous coastline. Abundant fossil faeces demonstrate that this planktonic bounty supported benthic invertebrates and large, possibly seasonal, vertebrates in short food chains. These ancient organisms filled trophic roles comparable to those of extant Arctic species, but there were fundamental differences in resource dynamics. Whereas most of the modern Arctic is oligotrophic and structured by resources from melting sea ice, we suggest that forested terrestrial landscapes helped support the ancient marine community through high levels of terrigenous organic input. PMID:18713718

  14. Rapid instructed task learning: A new window into the human brain’s unique capacity for flexible cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael W.; Laurent, Patryk; Stocco, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The human ability to flexibly adapt to novel circumstances is extraordinary. Perhaps the most illustrative yet underappreciated form of this cognitive flexibility is rapid instructed task learning (RITL) – the ability to rapidly reconfigure our minds to perform new tasks from instruction. This ability is important for everyday life (e.g., learning to use new technologies), and is used to instruct participants in nearly every study of human cognition. We review the development of RITL as a circumscribed domain of cognitive neuroscience investigation, culminating in recent demonstrations that RITL is implemented via brain circuits centered on lateral prefrontal cortex. We then build on this and other insights to develop an integrative theory of cognitive flexibility and cognitive control, identifying theoretical principles and mechanisms that may make RITL possible in the human brain. Insights gained from this new theoretical account have important implications for further developments and applications of RITL research. PMID:23065743

  15. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  16. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Haglund, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  17. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  18. High-R window technology development. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, D.

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 ``super`` windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  19. High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush

    1991-01-01

    Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.

  20. Two Cases of Malleostapedotomy in Congenital Oval Window Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Kim, Da Hee; Choi, Jae Young

    2013-01-01

    Congenital anomaly of the oval window with an abnormal facial nerve course is an uncommon embryological defect, which is related to the underdevelopment of second branchial arch derivatives. Some treatments for improving hearing levels are available; these include hearing aids, vestibulotomy, neo-oval window formation, and stapes surgeries, including incudostapedotomy and malleostapedotomy. However, surgery for congenital anomalies of the oval window has rarely been described, usually in very small series of patients. We describe two cases of congenital anomalies of the oval window with aberrant facial nerve courses. One was a 40-year-old male diagnosed with unilateral congenital oval window atresia; the other was a 10-year-old male diagnosed with bilateral congenital oval window atresia. We also describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of malleostapedotomy for congenital anomalies of the oval window with aberrant facial nerve courses. PMID:24653925

  1. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Tim W; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2015-01-01

    Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows-periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other periods or stages). Despite great interest in sensitive windows from both fundamental and applied perspectives, the functional (adaptive) reasons why they have evolved are unclear. Here we outline a conceptual framework for understanding when natural selection should favour changes in plasticity across development. Our approach builds on previous theory on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, which relates individual and population differences in plasticity to two factors: the degree of uncertainty about the environmental conditions and the extent to which experiences during development ('cues') provide information about those conditions. We argue that systematic variation in these two factors often occurs within the lifetime of a single individual, which will select for developmental changes in plasticity. Of central importance is how informational properties of the environment interact with the life history of the organism. Phenotypes may be more or less sensitive to environmental cues at different points in development because of systematic changes in (i) the frequency of cues, (ii) the informativeness of cues, (iii) the fitness benefits of information and/or (iv) the constraints on plasticity. In relatively stable environments, a sensible null expectation is that plasticity will gradually decline with age as the developing individual gathers information. We review recent models on the evolution of developmental changes in plasticity and explain how they fit into our conceptual framework. Our aim is to encourage an adaptive perspective on sensitive windows in development. PMID:26816521

  2. Ballistic Beloniformes attacking through Snell's Window.

    PubMed

    Day, R D; Mueller, F; Carseldine, L; Meyers-Cherry, N; Tibbetts, I R

    2016-02-01

    Needlefishes (Beloniformes) were observed employing a range of stalking and attacking behaviours to attack schools of bait fishes ranging from the use of tactics common to predatory fishes to a novel behaviour: the use of leaping, aerial attacks. These aerial attacks are suggested to serve two purposes: to extend the attack range of the needlefishes and to reduce their prey's potential for evasion. Furthermore, a third purpose is hypothesized that the needlefishes are taking advantage of Snell's Window, an optical effect which may mask their approach to their prey.

  3. X-Windows PVT Widget Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Process Validation Table (PVT) Widget Class ( Class is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network registration services for Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. Heretofore, ISP PVT programming tasks have required many method calls to identify, query, and interpret the connections and messages exchanged between a client and a PVT server. Normally, programmers have utilized direct access to UNIX socket libraries to implement the PVT protocol queries, necessitating the use of many lines of source code to perform frequent tasks. Now, the X-Windows PVT Widget Class encapsulates ISP client server network registration management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Use of the widget framework enables an X Windows GUI program to interact with PVT services in an abstract way and in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program PVT clients. Wrapping the PVT services inside the widget framework enables a programmer to treat a PVT server interface as though it were a GUI. Moreover, an alternate subclass could implement another service in a widget of the same type. This program was written by Matthew R. Barry of United Space Alliance for Johnson Space Center. For further information, contact the Johnson Technology Transfer Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-23582 Shuttle Data Center File- Processing Tool in Java A Java-language computer program has been written to facilitate mining of data in files in the Shuttle Data Center (SDC) archives. This program can be executed on a variety of workstations or via Web-browser programs. This program is partly similar to prior C-language programs used for the same purpose, while differing from those programs in that it exploits the platform-neutrality of Java in implementing several features that are important for analysis of large sets of time-series data

  4. "Virtual Cockpit Window" for a Windowless Aerospacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    A software system processes navigational and sensory information in real time to generate a three-dimensional-appearing image of the external environment for viewing by crewmembers of a windowless aerospacecraft. The design of the particular aerospacecraft (the X-38) is such that the addition of a real transparent cockpit window to the airframe would have resulted in unacceptably large increases in weight and cost. When exerting manual control, an aircrew needs to see terrain, obstructions, and other features around the aircraft in order to land safely. The X-38 is capable of automated landing, but even when this capability is utilized, the crew still needs to view the external environment: From the very beginning of the United States space program, crews have expressed profound dislike for windowless vehicles. The wellbeing of an aircrew is considerably promoted by a three-dimensional view of terrain and obstructions. The present software system was developed to satisfy the need for such a view. In conjunction with a computer and display equipment that weigh less than would a real transparent window, this software system thus provides a virtual cockpit window. The key problem in the development of this software system was to create a realistic three-dimensional perspective view that is updated in real time. The problem was solved by building upon a pre-existing commercial program LandForm C3 that combines the speed of flight-simulator software with the power of geographic-information-system software to generate real-time, three-dimensional-appearing displays of terrain and other features of flight environments. In the development of the present software, the pre-existing program was modified to enable it to utilize real-time information on the position and attitude of the aerospacecraft to generate a view of the external world as it would appear to a person looking out through a window in the aerospacecraft. The development included innovations in realistic

  5. Infrared window materials and their fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, D.L.; White, W.B.

    1984-07-24

    Process for making densified ternary sulfide ceramics as infrared window materials using sulfide compounds MLn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ belonging to the Th/sub 3/P/sub 4/, CaFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and spinel structure types. These refractory sulfides show good sinterability especially when fired in flowing hydrogen sulfide, and they can be densified by a combination of hot-pressing and hot-isostatic pressing into ceramic pieces approaching their theoretical density with closed pores and which have good transmission characteristics in the infrared region.

  6. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  7. Window taper functions for subaperture processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the spectrum of a signal can be calculated with a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), where best resolution is achieved by processing the entire data set. However, in some situations it is advantageous to use a staged approach, where data is first processed within subapertures, and the results are then combined and further processed to a final result. An artifact of this approach is the creation of grating lobes in the final response. The nature of the grating lobes, including their amplitude and spacing, is an artifact of window taper functions, subaperture offsets, and subaperture processing parameters. We assess these factors and exemplify their effects.

  8. Mechanical charactization of sonar window materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S.J.; Groves, S.E.; Harwood, P.J.; Sanchez, R.J.

    1996-03-25

    The three-dimensional mechanical behavior of thick Spectra/epoxy sonar window materials containing various special materials is summarized in this report. Three different materials, which were fabricated by two companies known as `A` and `B` were received from the Naval Warfare Center. The three materials designated `A with microspheres (A micron),` `A without microspheres (A),` and `B` were measured for all properties. The total number of tests was reduced through the assumption that the two orthogonal, in-place directions were identical. Consequently, these materials should have only six independent elastic variables. The measured constants and strengths are given.

  9. Design and fabrication of a window for the gas Cherenkov detector 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatherley, V. E.; Bingham, D. A.; Cartelli, M. D.; DiDomizio, R. A.; Griego, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Lopez, F. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Pollack, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    The gas Cherenkov detector 3 was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in inertial confinement fusion experiments at both the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility. This instrument uses a low-Z gamma-to-electron convertor plate and high pressure gas to convert MeV gammas into UV/visible Cherenkov photons for fast optical detection. This is a follow-on diagnostic from previous versions, with two notable differences: the pressure of the gas is four times higher, and it allows the use of fluorinated gas, requiring metal seals. These changes force significant changes in the window component, having a unique set of requirements and footprint limitations. The selected solution for this component, a sapphire window brazed into a stainless steel flange housing, is described.

  10. Investigation and Prediction of RF Window Performance in APT Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    The work described in this report was performed between November 1996 and May 1997 in support of the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The goal was to write and to test computer programs for charged particle orbits in RF fields. The well-documented programs were written in portable form and compiled for standard personal computers for easy distribution to LANL researchers. They will be used in several APT applications including the following. Minimization of multipactor effects in the moderate {beta} superconducting linac cavities under design for the APT accelerator. Investigation of suppression techniques for electron multipactoring in high-power RF feedthroughs. Modeling of the response of electron detectors for the protection of high power RF vacuum windows. In the contract period two new codes, Trak{_}RF and WaveSim, were completed and several critical benchmark etests were carried out. Trak{_}RF numerically tracks charged particle orbits in combined electrostatic, magnetostatic and electromagnetic fields. WaveSim determines frequency-domain RF field solutions and provides a key input to Trak{_}RF. The two-dimensional programs handle planar or cylindrical geometries. They have several unique characteristics.

  11. A windows based mechanistic subsidence prediction model for longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.; Beheler, P.; Khair, A.W.

    1996-12-31

    The previously developed Mechanistic Subsidence Prediction Model (MSPM) has been incorporated into the graphical interface environment of MS Windows. MSPM has the unique capability of predicting maximum subsidence, angle of draw and the subsidence profile of a longwall panel at various locations for both the transverse and longitudinal orientations. The resultant enhanced model can be operated by individuals with little knowledge of subsidence prediction theories or little computer programming experience. In addition, predictions of subsidence can be made in a matter of seconds without the need to develop input data files or use the keyboard in some cases. The predictions are based upon the following input parameters: panel width, mining height, overburden depth, rock quality designation, and percent hard rock in the immediate roof, main roof and the entire overburden. The recently developed enhanced model has the capability to compare predictions in a graphical format for one half of the predicted subsidence profile based upon changes in input parameters easily and instantly on the same screen. In addition another screen can be obtained from a pull down menu where the operator can compare predictions for the entire subsidence profiles. This paper presents the background of the subsidence prediction model and the methodology of the enhanced model development. The paper also presents comparisons of subsidence predictions for several different sets of input parameters in addition to comparisons of the subsidence predictions with actual field data.

  12. The GODDESS ionization chamber: developing robust windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Rose; Baugher, Travis; Cizewski, Jolie; Pain, Steven; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Goddess Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Reaction studies of nuclei far from stability require high-efficiency arrays of detectors and the ability to identify beam-like particles, especially when the beam is a cocktail beam. The Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detectors for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS) is made up of the Oak Ridge-Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors for charged particles inside of the gamma-ray detector array Gammasphere. A high-rate ionization chamber is being developed to identify beam-like particles. Consisting of twenty-one alternating anode and cathode grids, the ionization chamber sits downstream of the target chamber and is used to measure the energy loss of recoiling ions. A critical component of the system is a thin and robust mylar window which serves to separate the gas-filled ionization chamber from the vacuum of the target chamber with minimal energy loss. After construction, windows were tested to assure that they would not break below the required pressure, causing harm to the wire grids. This presentation will summarize the status of the ionization chamber and the results of the first tests with beams. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation.

  13. Evacuated Window Glazings for Energy Efficient Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.

    1985-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a highly insulating window glazing is being studied at SERI. Computer aided design analyses indicate that an all glass, edge sealed vacuum window with spherical glass interpane spacers and a low emittance, coating,on one internal surface could exhibit a thermal conductance of less than 0.6 W/m2K (thermal resistance, R > 10°F ft h/Btu). Cost effective means of mass-producing such a glazing have been explored. A CO2 laser has been used to produce a continuous, leak tight welded glass perimeter at 580°C, and this process appears to be a promising approach. However, at this temperature in vacuum, few low-emissivity coatings retain their desirable properties. Systemmatic measurements were made on tin oxide (fluorine doped) and indium-tin oxide low-e coatings. The indium-tin oxide was shown to be improved by vacuum heating. The ratio of solar weighted transmittance to emittance (313 K black-body weighted), a measure of performance in this application, is shown to have a sharply defined maximum at a coating sheet resistance of approximately 5 ohms per square in both of these oxide semiconductor coatings.

  14. Wide field camera observations of Baade's Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Light, R. M.; Baum, William A.; Worthey, Guy; Faber, S. M.; Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Neil, Earl J., Jr.; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Groth, E. J.; Westphal, James A.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed a field in Baade's Window using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and obtain V- and I-band photometry down to V approximately 22.5. These data go several magnitudes fainter than previously obtained from the ground. The location of the break in the luminosity function suggests that there are a significant number of intermediate age (less than 10 Gyr) stars in the Galactic bulge. This conclusion rests on the assumptions that the extinction towards our field is similar to that seen in other parts of Baade's Window, that the distance to the bulge is approximately 8 kpc, and that we can determine fairly accurate zero points for the HST photometry. Changes in any one of these assumptions could increase the inferred age, but a conspiracy of lower reddening, a shorter distance to the bulge, and/or photometric zero-point errors would be needed to imply a population entirely older than 10 Gyr. We infer an initial mass function slope for the main-sequence stars, and find that it is consistent with that measured in the solar neighborhood; unfortunately, the slope is poorly constrained because we sample only a narrow range of stellar mass and because of uncertainties in the observed luminosity function at the faint end.

  15. Prediction of particulate contamination on aperture window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Aleck L.; Fong, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis to predict the effects of light scattering by surface particles on the sensor window of a missile during ascent flight. The particulate contaminant distribution on the window is calculated by tallying the number of particles in a set of size ranges. The particulate contamination at the end of the mission is predicted by adding the contributions from the events of ground and flight operations. The surface particle redistributions caused by vibroacoustically induced surface acceleration was found to contribute the most of the particulate surface contamination. The analytical surface obscuration calculation with a set of particle counts was compared to the results of image analyzer measurement. The analytical results, which were calculated with a given function of particle shape depending on the size, were more conservative than the measurement. A scattering calculation using a verified BSDF model showed that the scattering was less than 0.001 at 20 off the direction of the incident light in the mid IR wavelength when the surfaces were at Level 300 initially.

  16. Rupture of the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Freeman, P

    1975-01-01

    Considerable interest has been displayed in sudden sensori-neural deafness in recent years, and especially since Blair Simmons postulated that this could be caused by mechanical disruption of the membranes in the inner ear. The literature concerning such reports is reviewed briefly and two cases of rupture of the round window membrane resulting from inner ear barotrauma are reported in detail. Both these cases were experienced divers who had had little difficulty in auto-inflation whilst diving. The first case had progressive sensori-neural deafness with mild vertigo, and tympanotomy revealed rupture of the round window membrane in both ears. These ruptures were repaired with plugs of fat, following which his hearing was restored. The second case developed marked vertigo following a dive and was thought to be suffering from decompression sickness. When the appropriate treatment did not help him, tympanotomy was performed and a rupture of the round membrane was found. This was plugged with fat with a most satisfactory result. Both of these cases had difficulty with autoinflation, and had been aware of such difficulties for some time. Nasal problems were responsible for this, and it is strongly recommended that all divers should have normal nasal function and that they should be educated in the technique of autoinflation, and, in particular, in the importance of avoiding forceful autoinflation at all times. A third case of rupture of the round membrane following an injury to the head is also reported.

  17. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  18. Real time programming environment for Windows

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  19. Environment resistant windows for space greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B. K.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.; Latella, B. A.

    One of the ways of providing a self-sustainable environment in space is to provide food and life support systems through bio-regenerative power i e a greenhouse It is an essential structure because it provides oxygen and food in a controlled environment The windows and frames of a greenhouse are generally made from glass or polymer panels which allow sunlight to enter Polymers are useful because they are lightweight transparent corrosion resistant and inexpensive However windows which are made from polymeric materials or polymer-based composites suffer from accelerated erosion due to the presence of atomic oxygen in space environment A metal oxide deposited on the surface of the polymer will aid in the resistance of these polymers to chemical attack as well as improving surface hardness and wear resistance characteristics In this study we modified the surfaces of polycarbonate PC by deposition and implantation of thin and transparent aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 coatings The Al 2 O 3 plasma was produced using a cathodic arc deposition system with a combination of plasma immersion ion implantation PIII The coatings were then tested for resistance to atomic oxygen environment These were carried out by monitoring the mass loss of the deposited samples exposed to an rf oxygen plasma The morphology and optical properties of the coatings before and after exposure to oxygen plasma were then examined using electron microscopy profilometry and ellipsometry Mechanical properties and adhesion characteristics of the coatings

  20. Materials And Devices In Electrochromic Window Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Plante, Timothy D.; Rauh, R. David

    1985-12-01

    Windows with switchable electrochromic glazings are potentially useful for regulating solar input to building interiors. In this article, we describe the structure and operation of a proposed solid-state electrochromic glazing based on crystalline LixWO3 (c-LiXWO3) and a low coloration efficiency counter electrode material such as amorphous Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5). The importance of reversibility in electrochromic glazing operation is emphasized, and optical switching experiments that demonstrate reversible lithium insertion/extraction in c-LixW03, a-LixWO3, and a-LixNb2O5 are described. Additional optical switching experiments in tandem electrochromic cells comprised of c-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 and a-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 demonstrated the proposed design, indicating reversible optical switching over 500 and 200 complete cycles, respectively, without degradation. Optical data on the evolution of reflective and absorp-tive modulation in c-LixWO3 are presented and solar attenuation results are used to demon-strate the advantage of using crystalline electrochromics to conserve daylighting during electrochromic window operation.

  1. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  2. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    PubMed

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients.

  3. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  4. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  5. Irradiation conditions of ADS beam window and implications for window material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, P.; Möslang, A.

    2006-09-01

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are aimed at incineration of long living radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear reactor fuel, thus providing a solution for nuclear waste utilization. The idea is to couple a subcritical nuclear reactor with a high-energy proton accelerator. Protons interacting with the liquid metal target inside the reactor will produce neutrons with energy sufficient to transform long living fuel isotopes to those with shorter decay time. In some design variants a proton beam guide and window separate the vacuum of the accelerator from the liquid metal target. The window appears to be the most critical component of the whole facility as besides liquid metal corrosion it undergoes irradiation damage from incident protons, from protons and neutrons produced by spallation inside the target as well as from fission neutrons generated in the reactor fuel assemblies. In the present work we have evaluated irradiation conditions of the ADS beam window using Monte Carlo neutron, photon and charged particle transport code MCNPX. The code and the detailed geometric model of the experimental ADS (XADS) facility allow a realistic simulation of the spallation process and transport of generated nucleons as well as evaluation of various damage and operational characteristics like displacement damage, heat deposition, gas and spallation element production rates. Present results based on the reduced beam parameters provide a hope that apart from the liquid metal corrosion (not considered in the present paper) the window material could sustain full operation during the period of 3-4 month between replacements. These results may allow reconsideration of pro and contra of the window and the windowless XADS concepts.

  6. Large Acrylic Spherical Windows In Hyperbaric Underwater Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lones, Joe J.; Stachiw, Jerry D.

    1983-10-01

    Both acrylic plastic and glass are common materials for hyperbaric optical windows. Although glass continues to be used occasionally for small windows, virtually all large viewports are made of acrylic. It is easy to uderstand the wide use of acrylic when comparing design properties of this plastic with those of glass, and glass windows are relatively more difficult to fabricate and use. in addition there are published guides for the design and fabrication of acrylic windows to be used in the hyperbaric environment of hydrospace. Although these procedures for fabricating the acrylic windows are somewhat involved, the results are extremely reliable. Acrylic viewports are now fabricated to very large sizes for manned observation or optical quality instrumen tation as illustrated by the numerous acrylic submersible vehicle hulls for hu, an occupancy currently in operation and a 3600 large optical window recently developed for the Walt Disney Circle Vision under-water camera housing.

  7. Window classification of brain CT images in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L Rodney; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R

    2012-01-01

    Effective capability to search biomedical articles based on visual properties of article images may significantly augment information retrieval in the future. In this paper, we present a new method to classify the window setting types of brain CT images. Windowing is a technique frequently used in the evaluation of CT scans, and is used to enhance contrast for the particular tissue or abnormality type being evaluated. In particular, it provides radiologists with an enhanced view of certain types of cranial abnormalities, such as the skull lesions and bone dysplasia which are usually examined using the " bone window" setting and illustrated in biomedical articles using "bone window images". Due to the inherent large variations of images among articles, it is important that the proposed method is robust. Our algorithm attained 90% accuracy in classifying images as bone window or non-bone window in a 210 image data set.

  8. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  9. Single level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-12-09

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a multilayered LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during cofiring. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip interconnected so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A glob-top encapsulant or protective cover can be used to protect the microelectronic device and electrical interconnections. The result is a compact, low profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device.

  10. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  11. MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hardwick, M.F.

    1997-12-01

    MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

  12. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  13. Launch window definition for sky target experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, N. H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a brief report on the computer program developed for the Extraterrestrial Physics Barium Ion Cloud (BIC) Project. The mathematical analysis developed for the program along with its programing characteristics are pointed out to show that this program is adaptable to similar sky target projects. Definite viewing constraints are specified so that the chosen ground tracking stations can photograph the behavior of the sky target after its release. Viewing factors include the illumination of the target by the sun, the relative elevation look angle to the target from each tracking station, the solar and lunar depression angles at each tracking station, and the total sky background brightness of the target relative to each tracking station. Numeric values are assigned to each factor through program input. The program output is flexible so that the results of the window calculations can be studied to the depth required.

  14. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  15. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  16. Isocurvature forecast in the anthropic axion window

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Raffelt, G.G.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: yvonne.wong@cern.ch

    2009-06-01

    We explore the cosmological sensitivity to the amplitude of isocurvature fluctuations that would be caused by axions in the ''anthropic window'' where the axion decay constant f{sub a} >> 10{sup 12} GeV and the initial misalignment angle Θ{sub i} << 1. In a minimal ΛCDM cosmology extended with subdominant scale-invariant isocurvature fluctuations, existing data constrain the isocurvature fraction to α < 0.09 at 95% C.L. If no signal shows up, Planck can improve this constraint to 0.042 while an ultimate CMB probe limited only by cosmic variance in both temperature and E-polarisation can reach 0.017, about a factor of five better than the current limit. In the parameter space of f{sub a} and H{sub I} (Hubble parameter during inflation) we identify a small region where axion detection remains within the reach of realistic cosmological probes.

  17. Low heat transfer, high strength window materials

    DOEpatents

    Berlad, Abraham L.; Salzano, Francis J.; Batey, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-pane window with improved insulating qualities; comprising a plurality of transparent or translucent panes held in an essentially parallel, spaced-apart relationship by a frame. Between at least one pair of panes is a convection defeating means comprising an array of parallel slats or cells so designed as to prevent convection currents from developing in the space between the two panes. The convection defeating structures may have reflective surfaces so as to improve the collection and transmittance of the incident radiant energy. These same means may be used to control (increase or decrease) the transmittance of solar energy as well as to decouple the radiative transfer between the interior surfaces of the transparent panes.

  18. Supercomputers open window of opportunity for nursing.

    PubMed

    Meintz, S L

    1993-01-01

    A window of opportunity was opened for nurse researchers with the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) initiative in President Bush's 1992 fiscal-year budget. Nursing research moved into the high-performance computing environment through the University of Nevada Las Vegas/Cray Project for Nursing and Health Data Research (PNHDR). USing the CRAY YMP 2/216 supercomputer, the PNHDR established the validity of a supercomputer platform for nursing research. In addition, the research has identified a paradigm shift in statistical analysis, delineated actual and potential barriers to nursing research in a supercomputing environment, conceptualized a new branch of nursing science called Nurmetrics, and discovered new avenue for nursing research utilizing supercomputing tools.

  19. Porting salinas to the windows platform.

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, Garth M.; Wilson, Christopher Riley

    2006-06-01

    The ASC program has enabled significant development of high end engineering applications on massively parallel machines. There is a great benefit in providing these applications on the desktop of the analysts and designers, at least insofar as the small models may be run on these platforms, thus providing a tool set that spans the application needs. This effort documents the work of porting Salinas to the WINDOWS{trademark} platform. Selection of the tools required to compile, link, test and run Salinas in this environment is discussed. Significant problems encountered along the way are listed along with an estimation of the overall cost of the port. This report may serve as a baseline for streamlining further porting activities with other ASC codes.

  20. Some numbers on the SLAC klystron windows

    SciTech Connect

    Krienen, F.

    1984-03-01

    The attenuation in our standard copper rectangular wave guides at 10 cm wave length is known to be 0.7 db/100 ft. If the wave guide were made of 70/30 Cupro-nickel, the same alloy the window sleeve is made of, the attenuation constant would go up by the inverse square root of the ratio of the conductivities (skin effect formula). Thus the attenuation constant would be ..beta.. = 12.8 10/sup -3/ m/sup -1/. The length of the sleeve L = 23 mm. Hence a piece of rectangular wave guide of equal length would, at 50 kW incident average power, sustain resistive losses = 2 P ..beta.. L = 29.54 Watt.

  1. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin

    2011-01-11

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  2. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Ohmacht, Martin

    2012-02-21

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  3. Maximum hydrocarbon window determination in South Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, W.G. )

    1993-03-29

    This is the third and final part of a three part article about the distribution of hydrocarbons in the Tertiary sands of South Louisiana. Based on many individual plots, it was found that hydrocarbon distribution will vary according to the depth of abnormal pressure and lithology. The relation of maximum hydrocarbon distribution to formation fracture strength or depth opens the door to the use of a maximum hydrocarbon window (MHW) technique. This MHW technique can be used as a decision making tool on how deep to drill a well, particularly how deep to drill a well below the top of abnormal pressure. The paper describes the benefits of the MHW technique and its future potential for exploration and development operations.

  4. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  5. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Imam, M. A.

    2008-05-15

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  6. Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rose windows and other details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Auditorium Building. Rose window; front windows; drinking fountain alcove; proscenium arch; stage door. G. Stanley Wilson, Architect, A.I.A., Riverside, California. Sheet 12, job no. 692. Various scales. March 27, 1936. Application no. 1446, approved by the State of California, Department of Public Works, Division of Architecture, April 22, 1936. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Crandall, Richard S.; Deb, Satyendra K.; Stone, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  8. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  9. Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows.

    PubMed

    Pereira, N R; Imam, M A

    2008-05-01

    Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

  10. Critical windows for nutritional interventions against stunting.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M; Ward, Kate A; Goldberg, Gail R; Jarjou, Landing M; Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J; Prentice, Ann

    2013-05-01

    An analysis of early growth patterns in children from 54 resource-poor countries in Africa and Southeast Asia shows a rapid falloff in the height-for-age z score during the first 2 y of life and no recovery until ≥5 y of age. This finding has focused attention on the period -9 to 24 mo as a window of opportunity for interventions against stunting and has garnered considerable political backing for investment targeted at the first 1000 d. These important initiatives should not be undermined, but the objective of this study was to counteract the growing impression that interventions outside of this period cannot be effective. We illustrate our arguments using longitudinal data from the Consortium of Health Oriented Research in Transitioning collaboration (Brazil, Guatemala, India, Philippines, and South Africa) and our own cross-sectional and longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia. We show that substantial height catch-up occurs between 24 mo and midchildhood and again between midchildhood and adulthood, even in the absence of any interventions. Longitudinal growth data from rural Gambia also illustrate that an extended pubertal growth phase allows very considerable height recovery, especially in girls during adolescence. In light of the critical importance of maternal stature to her children's health, our arguments are a reminder of the importance of the more comprehensive UNICEF/Sub-Committee on Nutrition Through the Life-Cycle approach. In particular, we argue that adolescence represents an additional window of opportunity during which substantial life cycle and intergenerational effects can be accrued. The regulation of such growth is complex and may be affected by nutritional interventions imposed many years previously.

  11. Windows on the axion. [quantum chromodynamics (QCD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the theta vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10(-12)eV is approx. less than m(a) which is approx. less than 10(6)eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Laboratory experiments have excluded masses greater than 10(4)eV, leaving unprobed some 16 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producting detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10(-6)eV is approx. less than m(a) is approx. less than 10(-3)eV and 1eV is approx. less than m(a) is approx. less than 5eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve heavenly axions, are being planned or are underway.

  12. THE METABOLOMIC WINDOW INTO HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver. PMID:23714158

  13. WORM - WINDOWED OBSERVATION OF RELATIVE MOTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Windowed Observation of Relative Motion, WORM, program is primarily intended for the generation of simple X-Y plots from data created by other programs. It allows the user to label, zoom, and change the scale of various plots. Three dimensional contour and line plots are provided, although with more limited capabilities. The input data can be in binary or ASCII format, although all data must be in the same format. A great deal of control over the details of the plot is provided, such as gridding, size of tick marks, colors, log/semilog capability, time tagging, and multiple and phase plane plots. Many color and monochrome graphics terminals and hard copy printer/plotters are supported. The WORM executive commands, menu selections and macro files can be used to develop plots and tabular data, query the WORM Help library, retrieve data from input files, and invoke VAX DCL commands. WORM generated plots are displayed on local graphics terminals and can be copied using standard hard copy capabilities. Some of the graphics features of WORM include: zooming and dezooming various portions of the plot; plot documentation including curve labeling and function listing; multiple curves on the same plot; windowing of multiple plots and insets of the same plot; displaying a specific on a curve; and spinning the curve left, right, up, and down. WORM is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX computer operating under VMS 4.7 with a virtual memory requirement of approximately 392K of 8 bit bytes. It uses the QPLOT device independent graphics library included with WORM. It was developed in 1988.

  14. Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael; Franco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A window for a high-sensitivity microwave receiving system allows microwave radiation to pass through to a cryogenically cooled microwave feed system in a vacuum chamber, while keeping ambient air out of the chamber and helping to keep the interior of the chamber cold. The microwave feed system comprises a feed horn and a low-noise amplifier, both of which are required to be cooled to a temperature of 15 K during operation. The window is designed to exhibit very little microwave attenuation in two frequency bands: 8 to 9 GHz and 30 to 40 GHz. The window is 15 cm in diameter. It includes three layers (see figure): 1) The outer layer is made of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film 0.025 mm thick. This layer serves primarily to reflect and absorb solar ultraviolet radiation to prolong the life of the underlying main window layer, which is made of a polyimide that becomes weakened when exposed to ultraviolet. The poly(tetrafluoroethylene) layer also protects the main window layer against abrasion. Moreover, the inherent hydrophobicity of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) helps to prevent the highly undesirable accumulation of water on the outer surface. 2) The polyimide main window layer is 0.08 mm thick. This layer provides the vacuum seal for the window. 3) A 20-mm-thick layer of ethylene/ propylene copolymer foam underlies the main polyimide window layer. This foam layer acts partly as a thermal insulator: it limits radiational heating of the microwave feed horn and, concomitantly, limits radiational cooling of the window. This layer has high compressive strength and provides some mechanical support for the main window layer, reducing the strength required of the main window layer. The ethylene/propylene copolymer foam layer is attached to an aluminum window ring by means of epoxy. The outer poly(tetrafluoroethylene) film and the main polyimide window layer are sandwiched together and pressed against the window ring by use of a bolted clamp ring. The window has been found to

  15. 7. DETAIL, WINDOWS AND SAFETY LADDER AT RECEIVING DEPARTMENT, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, WINDOWS AND SAFETY LADDER AT RECEIVING DEPARTMENT, NORTH SIDE, NEAR WEST END. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Inspection & Repair Shops, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  16. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. ); Soule, D.E. )

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  17. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  18. Solar window collection and distribution module system. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The construction and monitoring of a solar window collection and distribution system are presented. One complete window module was purchased and assembled, including: the glass, the window frames, sealants, grills, vents and a mechanical damper device. Monitoring of the system operation was limited to measuring inside air temperature, outside air temperature, and circulation temperatures through the window module systems, as well as the actual tinted glass surface temperature. The system has produced a reduction in glare, fading of furniture, and control of solar gains to a building structure.

  19. 6. DETAIL OF CORNICE, ROOF AND WINDOWS, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF CORNICE, ROOF AND WINDOWS, VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  20. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect) or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect). The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time. PMID:25918745

  1. TENANT HOUSE, WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, LOOKING SOUTH Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TENANT HOUSE, WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH FRONT, LOOKING SOUTH - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  2. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  3. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  4. Windows Program For Driving The TDU-850 Printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Brett T.

    1995-01-01

    Program provides WYSIWYG compatibility between video display and printout. PDW is Microsoft Windows printer-driver computer program for use with Raytheon TDU-850 printer. Provides previously unavailable linkage between printer and IBM PC-compatible computers running Microsoft Windows. Enhances capabilities of Raytheon TDU-850 hardcopier by emulating all textual and graphical features normally supported by laser/ink-jet printers and makes printer compatible with any Microsoft Windows application. Also provides capabilities not found in laser/ink-jet printer drivers by providing certain Windows applications with ability to render high quality, true gray-scale photographic hardcopy on TDU-850. Written in C language.

  5. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Sleep Problems Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ...

  6. Unique Biosignatures in Caves of All Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Schubert, K. E.; Gomez, E.; Conrad, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    Unique maze-like microbial communities on cave surfaces on all lithologies all over the world are an excellent candidate biosignatures for life detection missions into caves and other extraterrestrial environments.

  7. Unique Ideas in a New Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamby, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Unique features of a new vocational agriculture department facility in Diamond, Missouri, are described, which include an overhead hoist system, arc welders, storage areas, paint room, and greenhouse. (TA)

  8. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    PubMed Central

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  9. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-01

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  10. Right temporopolar activation associated with unique perception.

    PubMed

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2008-05-15

    Unique mode of perception, or the ability to see things differently from others, is one of the psychological resources required for creative mental activities. Behavioral studies using ambiguous visual stimuli have successfully induced diverse responses from subjects, and the unique responses defined in this paradigm were observed in higher frequency in the artistic population as compared to the nonartistic population. However, the neural substrates that underlie such unique perception have yet to be investigated. In the present study, ten ambiguous figures were used as stimuli. The subjects were instructed to say what the figures looked like during functional MRI scanning. The responses were classified as "frequent", "infrequent" or "unique" responses based on the appearance frequency of the same response in an independent age- and gender-matched control group. An event-related analysis contrasting unique vs. frequent responses revealed the greatest activation in the right temporal pole, which survived a whole brain multiple comparison. An alternative parametric modulation analysis was also performed to show that potentially confounding perceptual effects deriving from differences in visual stimuli make no significant contribution to this temporopolar activation. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have shown the involvement of the temporal pole in perception-emotion linkage. Thus, our results suggest that unique perception is produced by the integration of perceptual and emotional processes, and this integration might underlie essential parts of creative mental activities.

  11. Developmental windows of breast cancer risk provide opportunities for targeted chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly A.; Lyons, Traci R.; Giles, Erin D.; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of the breast cancer problem implores researchers to aggressively investigate prevention strategies. However, several barriers currently reduce the feasibility of breast cancer prevention. These barriers include the inability to accurately predict future breast cancer diagnosis at the individual level, the need for improved understanding of when to implement interventions, uncertainty with respect to optimal duration of treatment, and negative side effects associated with currently approved chemoprevention therapies. None-the-less, the unique biology of the mammary gland, with its postnatal development and conditional terminal differentiation, may permit the resolution of many of these barriers. Specifically, lifecycle-specific windows of breast cancer risk have been identified that may be amenable to risk-reducing strategies. Here, we argue for prevention research focused on two of these lifecycle windows of risk: postpartum mammary gland involution and peri-menopause. We provide evidence that these windows are highly amenable to targeted, limited duration treatments. Such approaches could result in the prevention of postpartum and postmenopausal breast cancers, correspondingly. PMID:23664839

  12. Land surface temperature retrieval from Landsat 8 TIRS: comparison between split window algorithm and SEBAL method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valizadeh Kamran, Khalil; Pirnazar, Mojtaba; Farhadi Bansouleh, Vida

    2015-06-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter in the physics of the earth surface through the process of energy and water exchange with the atmosphere, which plays an important role in a wide variety of scientific studies, such as ecology, hydrology, and global change studies. Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing provides a unique method for obtaining LST information at the regional and global scales since most of the energy detected by the sensor in this spectral region is directly emitted by the land surface. Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), because of two adjacent thermal bands, band 10 between 10.30-11.30 μm and band 11 between 11.30-12.30 μm, and availability of its images is a good source for retrieving LST. In this study, we compared two different methods for LST inversions from TIRS including the Split Window method and the SEBAL method for Tehran , Iran.. Results show that the LST inverted from the Split Window method has the accuracy with RMSE lower than 1.17 ˚ C, while the SEBAL method has the accuracy with 3.27 ˚ C, so the Split Window algorithm is appropriate method for this study area.

  13. VIEW OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS (TYPICAL) OF BUILDING 445, FROM EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS (TYPICAL) OF BUILDING 445, FROM EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING. THESE ORIGINAL STEEL SASHED WINDOWS ARE SHOWN WITH THE STEEL SHUTTERS OPEN. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Magazine Building, Kuakua Avenue near Wharf S-20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS (TYPICAL) OF BUILDING 416, FROM EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS (TYPICAL) OF BUILDING 416, FROM EXTERIOR OF THE BUILDING. THESE ORIGINAL STEEL SASHED WINDOWS ARE SHOWN WITH THE STEEL SHUTTERS OPEN. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Magazine Building, Kuakua Avenue near Wharf S-19, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... loadings and flight loads, or compliance with the fail-safe requirements of paragraph (d) of this section...-carrying element of the windshield, window panel, or canopy. (e) The windshield and side windows forward of the pilot's back when the pilot is seated in the normal flight position must have a...

  16. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... loadings and flight loads, or compliance with the fail-safe requirements of paragraph (d) of this section...-carrying element of the windshield, window panel, or canopy. (e) The windshield and side windows forward of the pilot's back when the pilot is seated in the normal flight position must have a...

  17. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... loadings and flight loads, or compliance with the fail-safe requirements of paragraph (d) of this section...-carrying element of the windshield, window panel, or canopy. (e) The windshield and side windows forward of the pilot's back when the pilot is seated in the normal flight position must have a...

  18. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... loadings and flight loads, or compliance with the fail-safe requirements of paragraph (d) of this section...-carrying element of the windshield, window panel, or canopy. (e) The windshield and side windows forward of the pilot's back when the pilot is seated in the normal flight position must have a...

  19. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW FRONT DOOR, AND ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS IN SINGLE AND DOUBLE ARRANGEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. 22. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. Typical for all triple windows on first and second floors. Single swing jib door under center sash opening out. Door thickness measures from flush with exterior siding to 3/4' inside bottom sash. See also Photo 12. SC-291-12. - John Joyner Smith House, 400 Wilmington Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  1. Interior of processing room showing the passthrough window from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of processing room showing the pass-through window from the shucking room. Tally board on the wall was used to keep track of the output of each shucker. Skimming table for rinsing the oyster meat is located under the pass-through window. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  2. 25. VIEW FROM MAIN HALL THROUGH INTERIOR WINDOW TO SOLARIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW FROM MAIN HALL THROUGH INTERIOR WINDOW TO SOLARIUM Note how much light enters this interior space from the solarium. The hall also receives light from the lightwell window of the main stairs to the third floor, out of sight to the left. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. FACILITY 713, LIVING ROOM SHOWING DIAMONDPANED WINDOWS FLANKING THE FIREPLACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 713, LIVING ROOM SHOWING DIAMOND-PANED WINDOWS FLANKING THE FIREPLACE, AND LEADED-GLASS WINDOWS IN DINING ROOM IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Field repair of AH-16 helicopter window cutting assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army uses explosively actuated window cutting assemblies to provide emergency crew ground egress. Gaps between the system's explosive cords and acrylic windows caused a concern about functional reliability for a fleet of several hundred aircraft. A field repair method, using room temperature vulcanizing silicone compound (RTV), was developed and demonstrated to fill gaps as large as 0.250 inch.

  5. 29. May 1985. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION IN WINDOW PANE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. May 1985. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION IN WINDOW PANE IN SITTING ROOM (window is immediately south of front, or east, doors; inscription reads: 'Another May new buds new flowers Ah why has happiness no second spring' (author and date undetermined) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  6. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... breakage the impact according to the following table: Lens diameter, (D), inches Height of fall, inches...

  7. Modeling and Validation of Damped Plexiglas Windows for Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gibbs, Gary P.; Klos, Jacob; Mazur, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission in general aviation aircraft. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate damped plexiglas windows for the reduction of structure-borne and air-borne noise transmitted into the interior of an aircraft. In contrast to conventional homogeneous windows, the damped plexiglas windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. Transmission loss and radiated sound power measurements were used to compare different layups of the damped plexiglas windows with uniform windows of the same nominal thickness. This vibro-acoustic test data was also used for the verification and validation of finite element and boundary element models of the damped plexiglas windows. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for a point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. Once validated, the numerical models were used to perform a parametric study to determine the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power for a point force excitation.

  8. Sound transmission loss of windows on high speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Thompson, David; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Wen, Zefeng; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The window is one of the main components of the high speed train car body structure through which noise can be transmitted. To study the windows’ acoustic properties, the vibration of one window of a high speed train has been measured for a running speed of 250 km/h. The corresponding interior noise and the noise in the wheel-rail area have been measured simultaneously. The experimental results show that the window vibration velocity has a similar spectral shape to the interior noise. Interior noise source identification further indicates that the window makes a contribution to the interior noise. Improvement of the window's Sound Transmission Loss (STL) can reduce the interior noise from this transmission path. An STL model of the window is built based on wave propagation and modal superposition methods. From the theoretical results, the window's STL property is studied and several factors affecting it are investigated, which provide indications for future low noise design of high speed train windows.

  9. Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian; Griffith, Brent

    2009-10-12

    The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.

  10. 33. DETAIL VIEW OF THE WEST WINDOW AT THE FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. DETAIL VIEW OF THE WEST WINDOW AT THE FIRST FLOOR LEVEL OF THE TOWER (NOTE LEVEL OF ARCHITECTURAL FINISH SEEN IN THE ROUNDHEADED WINDOW WITH ITS ROUND-ARCHED, BROWNSTONE HOOD THAT TERMINATES IN BRACKETS AS WELL AS IN THE STRINGCOURSE AND IN BRICK INSET-PANELING BELOW THE BROWNSTONE SILL) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  11. Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the window wall of the enclosed office area taken from the main warehouse area showing the metal sash windows, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Warehouse 250, Aviation Storehouse, C Street between Fifth & Sixth Streets, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  12. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS ON SECOND FLOOR AT THE EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL WINDOWS ON SECOND FLOOR AT THE EAST END, SHOWING CLEARANCE BETWEEN WINDOW SASH AND PILASTER. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  14. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Wang, Jin

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  15. 43. Interior view, east study window from the parlor. Exposed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Interior view, east study window from the parlor. Exposed areas above and to the left of the window show remnants of decorative painting believed to date from early in the nineteenth century. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note condition of slates on tower skirt roof, missing section of gutter at left side of skirt roof, missing window panes; note also knee braces carried on masonry ancons; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  17. Gravitational Wave Astronomy:The High Frequency Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Nils; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    As several large scale interferometers are beginning to take data at sensitivities where astrophysical sources are predicted, the direct detection of gravitational waves may well be imminent. This would (finally) open the long anticipated gravitational-wave window to our Universe, and should lead to a much improved understanding of the most violent processes imaginable; the formation of black holes and neutron stars following core collapse supernovae and the merger of compact objects at the end of binary inspiral. Over the next decade we can hope to learn much about the extreme physics associated with, in particular, neutron stars. This contribution is divided in two parts. The first part provides a text-book level introduction to gravitational radiation. The key concepts required for a discussion of gravitational-wave physics are introduced. In particular, the quadrupole formula is applied to the anticipated bread-and-butter source for detectors like LIGO, GEO600, EGO and TAMA300: inspiralling compact binaries. The second part provides a brief review of high frequency gravitational waves. In the frequency range above (say) 100 Hz, gravitational collapse, rotational instabilities and oscillations of the remnant compact objects are potentially important sources of gravitational waves. Significant and unique information concerning the various stages of collapse, the evolution of protoneutron stars and the details of the supranuclear equation of state of such objects can be drawn from careful study of the gravitational-wave signal. As the amount of exciting physics one may be able to study via the detections of gravitational waves from these sources is truly inspiring, there is strong motivation for the development of future generations of ground based detectors sensitive in the range from hundreds of Hz to several kHz.

  18. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  19. Design options for low-conductivity window frames

    SciTech Connect

    Byars, N.; Arasteh, D.

    1990-10-01

    The window industry's commercialization of low-emissivity coatings and low-conductivity gas-filling over the past few years has helped to drastically reduce heat transfer rates through the glazed areas of windows. However, few changes have taken place in the design and construction of window frames and edges, leaving these elements to account for most of the heat transfer through today's state-of-the-art windows. This paper presents design and material requirements for the manufacture of low-conductivity window frames obtained through the use of finite element computer modeling. Such frames will compliment and not degrade today's most energy-efficient insulated glass units. 7 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Context Switching with Multiple Register Windows: A RISC Performance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsek, Marion B.; Reed, Daniel A.; Watcharawittayakul, Wittaya

    1987-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that a large file of overlapping register windows can greatly reduce procedure call/return overhead, the effects of register windows in a multiprogramming environment are poorly understood. This paper investigates the performance of multiprogrammed, reduced instruction set computers (RISCs) as a function of window management strategy. Using an analytic model that reflects context switch and procedure call overheads, we analyze the performance of simple, linearly self-recursive programs. For more complex programs, we present the results of a simulation study. These studies show that a simple strategy that saves all windows prior to a context switch, but restores only a single window following a context switch, performs near optimally.

  1. Multi-Window Controllers for Autonomous Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, B, J.; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-window controllers select between elementary linear controllers using nonlinear windows based on the amplitude and frequency content of the feedback error. The controllers are relatively simple to implement and perform much better than linear controllers. The commanders for such controllers only order the destination point and are freed from generating the command time-profiles. The robotic missions rely heavily on the tasks of acquisition and tracking. For autonomous and optimal control of the spacecraft, the control bandwidth must be larger while the feedback can (and, therefore, must) be reduced.. Combining linear compensators via multi-window nonlinear summer guarantees minimum phase character of the combined transfer function. It is shown that the solution may require using several parallel branches and windows. Several examples of multi-window nonlinear controller applications are presented.

  2. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  3. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-07-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions.

  4. Design and Characterization of the ALMA Band 5 Vacuum Window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, Arne; Murk, Axel; Yagoubov, Pavel; Patt, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electromagnetic design process of the vacuum window for the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 5 (163-211 GHz). We have carried out investigations by means of numerical simulations as well as reflection and transmission measurements. Simulations were performed using the finite element method, an efficient quasi-analytical technique, and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. We used an injection-molded vacuum window prototype as a starting point of the design process and investigated deterioration in the electromagnetic performance caused by different types of manufacturing artifacts. Following these analyses, an optimization of the window has been performed based on simulations. We measured the reflectivity and transmittance of the newly designed window and this paper demonstrates that the optimized window exhibits a return loss better than -20 dB, as required by the ALMA specifications.

  5. Space station proximity operations windows: Human factors design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Proximity operations refers to all activities outside the Space Station which take place within a 1-km radius. Since there will be a large number of different operations involving manned and unmanned vehicles, single- and multiperson crews, automated and manually controlled flight, a wide variety of cargo, and construction/repair activities, accurate and continuous human monitoring of these operations from a specially designed control station on Space Station will be required. Total situational awareness will be required. This paper presents numerous human factors design guidelines and related background information for control windows which will support proximity operations. Separate sections deal with natural and artificial illumination geometry; all basic rendezvous vector approaches; window field-of-view requirements; window size; shape and placement criteria; window optical characteristics as they relate to human perception; maintenance and protection issues; and a comprehensive review of windows installed on U.S. and U.S.S.R. manned vehicles.

  6. Effect of aftermarket automobile window tinting films on driver vision.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, J; Ridder, W; Yeung, K; De Land, P

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of automobile window tint that causes a significant reduction of vision for automobile drivers. Contrast sensitivity was measured on 20 participants, of whom 10 were age 20 to 29 years and 10 were age 60 to 69 years, through a stock automobile window (control) and two windows darkened with plastic film. For the younger drivers, a car window with 37% transmittance did not significantly reduce contrast sensitivity, but a darker tint of 18% transmittance reduced contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies. For the older drivers, a tint of 37% transmittance significantly reduced mid-to- high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. The typical state standard (no tint with less than 35% transmittance) would thus seem to be appropriate for younger drivers; however, further examination of the standard may be necessary in regard to older drivers. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidelines and regulations regarding tinting of automobile windows. PMID:11022888

  7. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  8. Window technique for climate trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szentimrey, Tamás; Faragó, Tibor; Szalai, Sándor

    1992-01-01

    Climatic characteristics are affected by various systematic and occasional impacts: besides the changes in the observing system (locations of the stations of the meteorological network, instruments, observing procedures), the possible local-scale and global natural and antropogenic impacts on climatic conditions should be taken into account. Apart from the predictability problems, the phenomenological analysis of the climatic variability and the determination of past persistent climatic anomalies are significant problems, among other aspects, as evidence of the possible anomalous behavior of climate or for climate impact studies. In this paper, a special technique for the identification of such “shifts” in the observational series is presented. The existence of these significant shorter or longer term changes in the mean characteristics for the properly selected adjoining periods of time is the necessary condition for the formation of any more or less unidirectional climatic trends. Actually, the window technique is based on a complete set of orthogonal functions. The sensitivity of the proposed model on its main parameters is also investigated. This method is applied for hemispheric and Hungarian data series of the mean annual surface temperature.

  9. Orbiter Window Hypervelocity Impact Strength Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Lynda R.

    2011-01-01

    When the Space Shuttle Orbiter incurs damage on its windowpane during flight from particles traveling at hypervelocity speeds, it produces a distinctive damage that reduces the overall strength of the pane. This damage has the potential to increase the risk associated with a safe return to Earth. Engineers at Boeing and NASA/JSC are called to Mission Control to evaluate the damage and provide an assessment on the risk to the crew. Historically, damages like these were categorized as "accepted risk" associated with manned spaceflight, and as long as the glass was intact, engineers gave a "go ahead" for entry for the Orbiter. Since the Columbia accident, managers have given more scrutiny to these assessments, and this has caused the Orbiter window engineers to capitalize on new methods of assessments for these damages. This presentation will describe the original methodology that was used to asses the damages, and introduce a philosophy new to the Shuttle program for assessing structural damage, reliability/risk-based engineering. The presentation will also present a new, recently adopted method for assessing the damage and providing management with a reasonable assessment on the realities of the risk to the crew and vehicle for return.

  10. Amygdalar enlargement associated with unique perception.

    PubMed

    Asari, Tomoki; Konishi, Seiki; Jimura, Koji; Chikazoe, Junichi; Nakamura, Noriko; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Interference by amygdalar activity in perceptual processes has been reported in many previous studies. Consistent with these reports, previous clinical studies have shown amygdalar volume change in multiple types of psychotic disease presenting with unusual perception. However, the relationship between variation in amygdalar volume in the normal population and the tendency toward unusual or unique perception has never been investigated. To address this issue, we defined an index to represent the tendency toward unique perception using ambiguous stimuli: subjects were instructed to state what the figures looked like to them, and "unique responses" were defined depending on the appearance frequency of the same responses in an age- and gender-matched control group. The index was defined as the ratio of unique responses to total responses per subject. We obtained structural brain images and values of the index from sixty-eight normal subjects. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a positive correlation between amygdalar volume and the index. Since previous reports have indicated that unique responses were observed at higher frequency in the artistic population than in the nonartistic normal population, this positive correlation suggests that amygdalar enlargement in the normal population might be related to creative mental activity.

  11. Unique sugar metabolic pathways of bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fushinobu, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Bifidobacteria have many beneficial effects for human health. The gastrointestinal tract, where natural colonization of bifidobacteria occurs, is an environment poor in nutrition and oxygen. Therefore, bifidobacteria have many unique glycosidases, transporters, and metabolic enzymes for sugar fermentation to utilize diverse carbohydrates that are not absorbed by host humans and animals. They have a unique, effective central fermentative pathway called bifid shunt. Recently, a novel metabolic pathway that utilizes both human milk oligosaccharides and host glycoconjugates was found. The galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I metabolic pathway plays a key role in colonization in the infant gastrointestinal tract. These pathways involve many unique enzymes and proteins. This review focuses on their molecular mechanisms, as revealed by biochemical and crystallographic studies.

  12. Uniquely designed nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear structures of lower eukaryotes, specifically protists, often vary from those of yeasts and metazoans. Several studies have demonstrated the unique and fascinating features of these nuclear structures, such as a histone-independent condensed chromatin in dinoflagellates and two structurally distinct nuclear pore complexes in ciliates. Despite their unique molecular/structural features, functions required for formation of their cognate molecules/structures are highly conserved. This provides important information about the structure-function relationship of the nuclear structures. In this review, we highlight characteristic nuclear structures found in lower eukaryotes, and discuss their attractiveness as potential biological systems for studying nuclear structures.

  13. Uniqueness of Nash equilibrium in vaccination games.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fan

    2016-12-01

    One crucial condition for the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium set in vaccination games is that the attack ratio monotonically decreases as the vaccine coverage level increasing. We consider several deterministic vaccination models in homogeneous mixing population and in heterogeneous mixing population. Based on the final size relations obtained from the deterministic epidemic models, we prove that the attack ratios can be expressed in terms of the vaccine coverage levels, and also prove that the attack ratios are decreasing functions of vaccine coverage levels. Some thresholds are presented, which depend on the vaccine efficacy. It is proved that for vaccination games in homogeneous mixing population, there is a unique Nash equilibrium for each game.

  14. Transcriptomics exposes the uniqueness of parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Yasunori; Mutuku, J Musembi; Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Parasitic plants have the ability to obtain nutrients directly from other plants, and several species are serious biological threats to agriculture by parasitizing crops of high economic importance. The uniqueness of parasitic plants is characterized by the presence of a multicellular organ called a haustorium, which facilitates plant-plant interactions, and shutting down or reducing their own photosynthesis. Current technical advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have allowed us to dissect the molecular mechanisms behind the uniqueness of parasitic plants at the genome-wide level. In this review, we summarize recent key findings mainly in transcriptomics that will give us insights into the future direction of parasitic plant research.

  15. Unique Phase Recovery for Nonperiodic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, K. A.; Peele, A. G.; Chapman, H. N.; Mancuso, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    It is well known that the loss of phase information at detection means that a diffraction pattern may be consistent with a multitude of physically different structures. This Letter shows that it is possible to perform unique structural determination in the absence of a priori information using x-ray fields with phase curvature. We argue that significant phase curvature is already available using modern x-ray optics and we demonstrate an algorithm that allows the phase to be recovered uniquely and reliably.

  16. Unique forbidden beta decays and neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dvornický, Rastislav; Šimkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-28

    The measurement of the electron energy spectrum in single β decays close to the endpoint provides a direct determination of the neutrino masses. The most sensitive experiments use β decays with low Q value, e.g. KATRIN (tritium) and MARE (rhenium). We present the theoretical spectral shape of electrons emitted in the first, second, and fourth unique forbidden β decays. Our findings show that the Kurie functions for these unique forbidden β transitions are linear in the limit of massless neutrinos like the Kurie function of the allowed β decay of tritium.

  17. Exclusive window onto Higgs Yukawa couplings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Alexander L; Perez, Gilad; Petriello, Frank; Soreq, Yotam; Stoynev, Stoyan; Zupan, Jure

    2015-03-13

    We show that both flavor-conserving and flavor-violating Yukawa couplings of the Higgs boson to first- and second-generation quarks can be probed by measuring rare decays of the form h→MV, where M denotes a vector meson and V indicates either γ, W or Z. We calculate the branching ratios for these processes in both the standard model and its possible extensions. We discuss the experimental prospects for their observation. The possibility of accessing these Higgs couplings appears to be unique to the high-luminosity LHC and future hadron colliders, providing further motivation for those machines. PMID:25815924

  18. Exclusive window onto Higgs Yukawa couplings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Alexander L; Perez, Gilad; Petriello, Frank; Soreq, Yotam; Stoynev, Stoyan; Zupan, Jure

    2015-03-13

    We show that both flavor-conserving and flavor-violating Yukawa couplings of the Higgs boson to first- and second-generation quarks can be probed by measuring rare decays of the form h→MV, where M denotes a vector meson and V indicates either γ, W or Z. We calculate the branching ratios for these processes in both the standard model and its possible extensions. We discuss the experimental prospects for their observation. The possibility of accessing these Higgs couplings appears to be unique to the high-luminosity LHC and future hadron colliders, providing further motivation for those machines.

  19. Windows of Opportunity for Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been little attention focused on how the value and effectiveness of groundwater management is influenced by the timing of regulatory intervention relative to aquifer depletion. To address this question, we develop an integrated framework that couples an agro-economic model of farmers' field-level irrigation decision-making with a model of a groundwater abstraction borehole. Unlike existing models that only consider the impact of aquifer depletion on groundwater extraction costs, our model also captures the dynamic changes in well productivity and how these in turn affect crop yields and farmer incomes. We use our model to analyze how the value of imposing groundwater quotas is affected by the prior level of depletion before regulations are introduced. Our results demonstrate that there is a range of aquifer conditions within which regulating groundwater use will deliver long-term economic benefits for farmers. In this range, restricting abstraction rates slows the rate of change in well yields and, as a result, increases agricultural production over the simulated planning horizon. Contrastingly, when current saturated thickness is outside this range, regulating groundwater use will provide negligible social benefits and will impose large negative impacts on farm-level profits. We suggest that there are 'windows of opportunity' for managing aquifer depletion that are a function of local hydrology as well as economic characteristics. Regulation that is too early will harm the rural economy needlessly, while regulation that is too late will be unable to prevent aquifer exhaustion. The insights from our model can be a valuable tool to help inform policy decisions about when, and at what level, regulations should be implemented in order to maximize the benefits obtained from limited groundwater resources.

  20. Unique hues as revealed by unique-hue selecting versus partial hue-matching.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Geithner, Coryn

    2015-04-01

    Unique hues are usually defined as those that cannot be introspectively reduced to any other hue. According to a major dogma of color science, there are four unique hues: yellow, blue, red, and green. Yet only 55 of the 173 inexperienced observers who participated in our experiment selected exactly four Munsell papers that, according to their judgment, had a unique hue. The number of papers selected by the rest of the observers varied from zero to nine. We believe that such variability of unique hue selection is due to the ambiguity of the introspective criteria for hue uniqueness. Along with the traditional technique of unique hue selection, an alternative method based on partial hue-matching has also been used to establish the nomenclature of unique hues. The partial hue-matching method is based on observer judgments concerning the presence of a common hue in a pair of colors. Observers are not supposed to name (or make any other judgments of) this common hue. Without presupposing their number, the unique hues are derived from the observer's responses to a sample of color pairs. The results obtained by this new method generally support the classical notion of four unique hues.

  1. Switchable Solar Window Devices Based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Ma, Dakang; Munday, Jeremy

    Windows are an interesting target for photovoltaics due to the potential for large area of deployment and because glass is already a ubiquitous component of solar cell devices. Many demonstrations of solar windows in recent years have used photovoltaic devices which are semitransparent in the visible region. Much research has focused on enhancing device absorption in the UV and IR ranges as a means to circumvent the basic tradeoff between efficiency and transparency to visible light. Use of switchable solar window is a less investigated alternative approach; these windows utilize the visible spectrum but can toggle between high transparency and high efficiency as needed. We present a novel switchable solar window device based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC). By applying an electric field to the PDLC layer, the device can be switched from an opaque, light diffusing, efficient photovoltaic cell to a clear, transparent window. In the off state (i.e. scattering state), these devices have the added benefits of increased reflectivity for reduced lighting and cooling costs and haze for privacy. Further, we demonstrate that these windows have the potential for self-powering due to the very low power required to maintain the on, or high transparency, state. Support From: University of Maryland and Maryland Nano-center and its Fablab.

  2. Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.

    2016-07-01

    Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.

  3. (-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

  4. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  5. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  6. A Unique Approach to Phlebotomy Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Ann; Kelly, Mary Lou

    Unique characteristics of a continuing education course in phlebotomy offered through Tarrant County Junior College in Forth Worth, Texas, are described. The course was created to address the lack of theoretical knowledge in the hospital-trained phlebotomist. The first course was offered in July 1979 on a noncredit basis for 2 nights a week for 4…

  7. 77 FR 40735 - Unique Device Identification System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... intended to be sterilized before each use; and stand-alone software. These types of devices have physical... Systems by Hospitals and Other Healthcare Facilities and on Statistical Methodologies to Interpret the... each use; and Stand-alone software. These devices involve unique risks to patients, and consequently...

  8. Is There a Unique Black Personality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosby, Doris P.

    This article reviews research from the 1940's, 1950's and 1960's on the effects of discrimination on blacks. Data from these studies indicate that adverse cultural restrictions have fostered a unique and distinctive black personality. Among traits identified are: a negative or inferior self-image, pessimism about the future, attachment to the…

  9. Unique rig fulfills unusual mobility requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This article describes a unique rig designed by SEDCO FOREX operating in the Paris basin of France. Built to drill clusters of wells from a single pad, Rig 47 significantly reduces the time needed to move from well to well on a pad and from location to location.

  10. Unraveling the evolution of uniquely human cognition

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    A satisfactory account of human cognitive evolution will explain not only the psychological mechanisms that make our species unique, but also how, when, and why these traits evolved. To date, researchers have made substantial progress toward defining uniquely human aspects of cognition, but considerably less effort has been devoted to questions about the evolutionary processes through which these traits have arisen. In this article, I aim to link these complementary aims by synthesizing recent advances in our understanding of what makes human cognition unique, with theory and data regarding the processes of cognitive evolution. I review evidence that uniquely human cognition depends on synergism between both representational and motivational factors and is unlikely to be accounted for by changes to any singular cognitive system. I argue that, whereas no nonhuman animal possesses the full constellation of traits that define the human mind, homologies and analogies of critical aspects of human psychology can be found in diverse nonhuman taxa. I suggest that phylogenetic approaches to the study of animal cognition—which can address questions about the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms driving cognitive change—have the potential to yield important insights regarding the processes through which the human cognitive phenotype evolved. PMID:27274041

  11. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  12. A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

  13. Martian Alteration in Unique Meteorite NWA 8159?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L. J.; Simpson, S.; Mark, D.; Lee, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to determine if the olivine alteration in martian meteorite NWA 8159 has a martian origin. If so, the unique nature of this meteorite presents evidence for aqueous processes at a new time and location on the martian surface.

  14. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  15. Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju

    2010-02-15

    Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.

  16. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  17. Author Identification, Idiolect, and Linguistic Uniqueness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulthard, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    For forty years linguists have talked about idiolect and the uniqueness of individual utterances. This article explores how far these two concepts can be used to answer certain questions about the authorship of written documents--for instance how similar can two student essays be before one begins to suspect plagiarism? The article examines two…

  18. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

  19. Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

  20. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  1. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  2. Implementation of a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Jung, Eui Sung; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Lee, Seung-Ha; Cho, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980's, various types of implantable hearing aids using unique means for delivering acoustic power to the inner ear have been developed. Recently, implantable hearing aids that stimulate the round window by the middle ear transducer have received great attention because it reduces loading effect at the ossicular chain. In this study, we have implemented a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aid. The 3-pole type EM transducer consists of two permanent magnets and three coils and exhibit structural features that minimize leakage flux, thereby permitting high efficiency and low magnetic field interference. The stapes velocity was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer in response to the round window stimulation from the transducer. To verify the usefulness of the 3-pole type EM transducer, we compared the stapes vibration characteristics produced by the transducer and those from a sound source. The magnitude of stapes velocity due to the round window stimulation at 1 mArms was equivalent to that of stapes velocity at 94 dB SPL sound stimulation. Thus, the evaluation study shows that the 3-pole type EM transducer is suitable for implantable hearing devices.

  3. Implementation of a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Lim, Hyung-Gyu; Jung, Eui Sung; Wei, Qun; Seong, Ki Woong; Lee, Jyung Hyun; Lee, Seung-Ha; Cho, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980's, various types of implantable hearing aids using unique means for delivering acoustic power to the inner ear have been developed. Recently, implantable hearing aids that stimulate the round window by the middle ear transducer have received great attention because it reduces loading effect at the ossicular chain. In this study, we have implemented a direct install 3-pole type EM transducer in round window niche for implantable middle ear hearing aid. The 3-pole type EM transducer consists of two permanent magnets and three coils and exhibit structural features that minimize leakage flux, thereby permitting high efficiency and low magnetic field interference. The stapes velocity was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer in response to the round window stimulation from the transducer. To verify the usefulness of the 3-pole type EM transducer, we compared the stapes vibration characteristics produced by the transducer and those from a sound source. The magnitude of stapes velocity due to the round window stimulation at 1 mArms was equivalent to that of stapes velocity at 94 dB SPL sound stimulation. Thus, the evaluation study shows that the 3-pole type EM transducer is suitable for implantable hearing devices. PMID:25226951

  4. 10. VIEW OF THE ARCHED TRIPARTITE STEEL SASH WINDOW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF THE ARCHED TRIPARTITE STEEL SASH WINDOW OF THE 2ND FLOOR WITH CAST IRON MOLDED PANEL BELOW AT FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF OFFICE, SHOWING ORIGINAL SASH WINDOWS AND DUCT WORK (OTHER OFFICE INTERIORS ARE GREATLY ALTERED FROM THE ORIGINAL) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Finishing and proof testing of windows for manned space craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miska, Herbert A.

    1993-12-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter in the early 1970s marked the first time that a fracture mechanics approach was taken to the design of the window systems of a manned space craft. Earlier vehicles were never subjected to repeated launch and re-entry and therefore fatigue or slow crack growth were not major concerns. The design and proof test methodology evolved at that time continues to be applied in the development of the window systems for the Space Station Freedom. A combination of fixed abrasive grinding, lapping, and chemical machining is employed on the fused silica window panes to insure that sub- surface damage is carefully controlled and minimized. All panes are proof tested under controlled atmospheric conditions which preclude crack growth during the test. This paper also covers some of the history of space craft window design, the rationale for the material choices as well as a review of the finishing and test methods employed.

  7. 12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  8. 13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. 7. VIEW WESTCHARACTERISTIC DOOR AND WINDOW OPENINGS IN EAST ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW WEST-CHARACTERISTIC DOOR AND WINDOW OPENINGS IN EAST ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD MACHINE SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Machine Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. Detail of section of windows on east elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of section of windows on east elevation; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  11. Detail of window on second floor of south elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of window on second floor of south elevation; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. Detail of windows on first floor, east elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows on first floor, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Detail of windows in four story section on west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows in four story section on west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest side view showing 3 windows and security light - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Hospital, Animal House, Near intersection of Hospital Way & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 6. Detail view north of typical window and loading door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view north of typical window and loading door at east end of south elevation. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  16. 29. CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING IN FROM OUTSIDE PORT WINDOW, TOWARDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING IN FROM OUTSIDE PORT WINDOW, TOWARDS WOODEN DOOR AND BUNK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. CRITICAL WINDOWS FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workgroup report addresses the central question: what are the critical windows during development (pre-conception through puberty) when exposure to xenobiotics may have the greatest adverse impact on subsequent reproductive health. The reproductive system develops in stages...

  18. Hydrogen Safety Project: Chemical analysis support task. Window ``E`` analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T E; Campbell, J A; Hoppe, E W; Greenwood, L R; Gillespie, B M

    1992-09-01

    Core samples taken from tank 101-SY at Hanford during ``window E`` were analyzed for organic and radiochemical constituents by staff of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford company submitted these samples to the laboratory.

  19. 34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200063300287106358. FLUOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOOR AND WINDOW DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106358. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, TYPICAL OFFICE (#212) WINDOW AND HEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, TYPICAL OFFICE (#212) WINDOW AND HEAT REGISTER, SECOND FLOOR. FACING SOUTH - Roosevelt Base, Dispensary, Corner of Colorado Street & Richardson Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. An Inexpensive Demountalbe IR Cell Fitted with Glass Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Keiichi; Matsuura, Hiroatsu; Tanaka, Haruhiko

    1997-08-01

    An inexpensive demountable IR cell fitted with glass windows is proposed for studying hydrogen bonding in solutions. The IR cell consists of commercially available stainless steel liquid cell holders, rubber o-rings, 24 x 24 mm cover glass windows, and a Teflon spacer with two inlet holes. The IR cell has no problem with deterioration of the windows, because the cover glass is commercially available, inexpensive, and insoluble in water. The Teflon spacers with any desired thickness are easily made of a Teflon rod (diameter 3 cm). The low-wavenumber limit of the IR cell with glass windows is about 1600 cm-1. This cell is also useful for measurements of IR spectra of water-containing solutions.

  2. Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Detail of balcony and windows on west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of balcony and windows on west elevation; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Detail of windows at center of west elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows at center of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. 12. DETAIL STUDY: THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WINDOW TRIM, RAKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL STUDY: THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WINDOW TRIM, RAKING BRICK CORNICE AND SECOND FLOOR STRINGCOURSE. (Located at northwest corner of house) - Mulberry, Cooper River, West Branch, Moncks Corner, Berkeley County, SC

  6. Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of information window on west wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Interior view showing split levels with buildings 87 windows in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing split levels with buildings 87 windows in distance; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Interior view showing beam and windows details at southeast corner; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view showing beam and windows details at southeast corner; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mechanics Shop, Waterfront Avenue, west side between A Street & Third Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOW SHUTTERS ON OUTSIDE OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 24. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAMED SLIDINGGLASS WINDOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 2 SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON NORTH AND EAST WALLS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. 11. VIEW LOOKING OUT UPPER LEVEL WINDOW OF WASH HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW LOOKING OUT UPPER LEVEL WINDOW OF WASH HOUSE SHOWING SLACK COAL STORAGE TANK - Kaymoor Coal Mine, South side of New River, upstream of New River Gorge Bridge, Fayetteville, Fayette County, WV

  12. 6. VAL CAMERA STATION, VIEW FROM INTERIOR OUT OF WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL CAMERA STATION, VIEW FROM INTERIOR OUT OF WINDOW OPENING TOWARD VAL FIRING RANGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST WITH CAMERA MOUNT IN FOREGROUND. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Camera Stations, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OUT WINDOW OF CONTROL ROOM IN THE TOWER OF BUILDING 1, FACING SOUTH, WITH PIER 9 VISIBLE - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 4. September 1969 DETAIL OF STAINED GLASS WINDOWS IN EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. September 1969 DETAIL OF STAINED GLASS WINDOWS IN EAST WALL, INTERIOR VIEW FROM BALCONY - Mount Zion United Methodist Church, 1334 Twenty-ninth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 6. Vick Farm, interior perspective of stained glass window, added ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Vick Farm, interior perspective of stained glass window, added as part of deck addition on west side. - Vick Farm, North side Idlewild Road, 0.2 mile northwest of Idlewild & Maplewood Drive, Burlington, Boone County, KY

  16. Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts in top southeast room taken from ther west - J. Weingartner & Son Cigar Factory, 414 East Walnut Street, North Wales, Montgomery County, PA

  17. 18. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STAINED GLASS WINDOW LOCATED AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF STAINED GLASS WINDOW LOCATED AT SOUTH SIDE OF ALTAR, NOTE INSCRIPTION DEDICATED IN THE MEMORY OF FATHER DAMIEN - St. Francis Catholic Church, Moloka'i Island, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  18. DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF EAVES AND HOODS OVER WINDOWS ON NORTHEAST END OF NORTHWEST SIDE, WITH SEABEE STATUE IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. [T-cartilage tympanoplasty for an open oval window].

    PubMed

    Helms, J; Mlynski, R; Phleps, G

    2011-08-01

    A T shaped cartilage, placed into the open oval window, functions as a stapes. The transvers part of the T prevents a too deep insertion into the vestibule. If necessary small stripes of connective tissue seal the vestibule. PMID:21850613

  20. 7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of machinery looking at window of east wall of 1953 addition, view to northeast. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Waste Water Treatment Plant, Ellsworth Street, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  1. High-Power Ka-Band Window and Resonant Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2006-11-29

    A stand-alone 200 MW rf test station is needed for carrying out development of accelerator structures and components for a future high-gradient multi-TeV collider, such as CLIC. A high-power rf window is needed to isolate the test station from a structure element under test. This project aimed to develop such a window for use at a frequency in the range 30-35 GHz, and to also develop a high-power resonant ring for testing the window. During Phase I, successful conceptual designs were completed for the window and the resonant ring, and cold tests of each were carried out that confirmed the designs.

  2. BLDG 10, INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOW AND CEILING FEED HATCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 10, INTERIOR DETAIL OF WINDOW AND CEILING FEED HATCHES - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Storage Building, Kolekole Road near Sixty-first Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 15. PLAN OF OFFICE, DETAILS, FIXED WINDOW GUARDS, SHEET NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. PLAN OF OFFICE, DETAILS, FIXED WINDOW GUARDS, SHEET NO. 1-10-39/10 OF 12. - Oakland Army Base, Warehouse Type, Tobruk Street, between Warehouse Road & Fifteenth Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, WINDOWS FACING ON WALNUT STREET (SOUTH), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM, WINDOWS FACING ON WALNUT STREET (SOUTH), ORIGINAL PANELED FOLDING SHUTTERS AND HARDWARE. For a view of closed shutters see PA-1436 A-16 - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 14. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR, EAST PARLOR, NORTHEAST (WINDOW) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR, EAST PARLOR, NORTHEAST (WINDOW) AND SOUTHEAST (FIREPLACE) WALLS, LOOKING EAST (NOTE THE STENCILING ALONG THE CORNICE AND ON THE CEILING) - Clifton Farm, Off Baker Road, Frederick, Frederick County, MD

  6. INTERIOR DETAIL, TYPICAL SIX OVER SIX SASH WINDOW IN SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL, TYPICAL SIX OVER SIX SASH WINDOW IN SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM; VIEW TO WEST - Fort Bragg, Noncommissioned Officers' Service Club, Guest House Building, South of Butner Road, Fayetteville, Cumberland County, NC

  7. Detail of southeast corner with spandrel and window pattern; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner with spandrel and window pattern; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Detail of northeast corner with spandrel and window pattern; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast corner with spandrel and window pattern; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Interior detail of trusses and high windows in north wing; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of trusses and high windows in north wing; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Defense Electronics Equipment Operating Center, I Street, terminus west of Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. LOOKOUT & DORMER WINDOW DETAILS, SHEET 6 OF 6. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKOUT & DORMER WINDOW DETAILS, SHEET 6 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. 29. November 1969 'OWL' CAPITAL BETWEEN WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. November 1969 'OWL' CAPITAL BETWEEN WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL OF RIGGS LIBRARY, SECOND LEVEL - Georgetown University, Healy Building, Thirty-seventh & O Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 7. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF CASEMENT WINDOW ARRANGEMENT AND ORIGINAL WOODSHINGLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR DETAIL OF CASEMENT WINDOW ARRANGEMENT AND ORIGINAL WOOD-SHINGLE SIDING INSIDE SCREENED-IN PORCH. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF GEAROPERATED WINDOWS ON SOUTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF GEAR-OPERATED WINDOWS ON SOUTH ELEVATION OF STAIRS TAKEN FROM ROOF ABOVE SOUTH ENTRANCE - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  15. Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of second floor window with splayed brick header, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Detail of windows in arched opening on left of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows in arched opening on left of east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF SECOND STORY WINDOWS AND ROOF VENT ON SOUTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. DETAIL OF GABLE END WITH ARCHED WINDOW, SHOWING SOFFIT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GABLE END WITH ARCHED WINDOW, SHOWING SOFFIT OF OVERHANG; CAMERA FACING NORTH - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF WINDOW AND ROOF VENT AT EAST ELEVATION GABLE END; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 4. INTERIOR, SHOWING HOIST IN POSITION NEXT TO WINDOW FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR, SHOWING HOIST IN POSITION NEXT TO WINDOW FOR VIEWING TAILINGS PILE, SLOT IN FRONT WALL FOR VIEWING HEADFRAME. - A. D. Wilcox Drift Mine, Boiler Cabin, Linda Creek near Dalton Highway, Bettles, Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area, AK

  2. 28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Brick apartment buildings with arched window openings, string courses, a brick cornice, and an interrupted brick frieze. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. Detail of north window sill and lintel, and eaves, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north window sill and lintel, and eaves, looking south on north elevation. - Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Headquarters Complex, Quarters No. 2, 752 County Road 99W, Willows, Glenn County, CA

  4. Detail of window treatment, suspended radiators, and fluorescent lights, prop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of window treatment, suspended radiators, and fluorescent lights, prop shop. View to east. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Steinway piano and stained glass clerestory window in lounge area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Steinway piano and stained glass clerestory window in lounge area, upper deck. Hot water radiators can be seen at base of wall. These run throughout the houseboat. - Houseboat LA DUCHESSE, The Antique Boat Museum, Clayton, Jefferson County, NY

  6. Interior detail of set of three art glass windows near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of set of three art glass windows near front of chapel, south wall, facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, St. Peter's Chapel, Walnut Street & Cedar Parkway, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. 10. View of basement door and circular window beneath N ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of basement door and circular window beneath N porch; looking N. (Ceronie and Harms) - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 360, Gillespie Avenue between Rodman Avenue & North Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  9. 17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail of window inside east half (1888 part) of main section of roundhouse. View to north. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  10. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT TORPEDO ASSEMBLY BUILDING, FACING SOUTHEAST - Torpedo Assembly Building, Eastern end of Yerba Buena Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Newel Post, Handrail and Baluster; Typical Window Sill; Stair Nosing; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Newel Post, Handrail and Baluster; Typical Window Sill; Stair Nosing; Northeast Porch Railing; Newel Post Drop; Second Floor Baseboard - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Engineer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  12. Windows NT Systems for Libraries: An Overview of Emerging Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibbarelli, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive list of all the major vendors offering the Windows NT operating system, the latest in integrated online library systems software. Describes features and capabilities; platforms; and libraries where it is installed. (AEF)

  13. View of back of garage, windows of bays 13, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of back of garage, windows of bays 1-3, facing southwest. - Presidio of San Francisco, Officers' Vehicles Garage, 1055 General Kennedy Avenue, Letterman Hospital Complex, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF WINDOW AT CHEMICAL STORAGE BUILDING (#1776), LOOKING EAST - Presidio Water Treatment Plant, Chemical Storage, East of Lobos Creek at Baker Beach, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. Detail view highlighting the series of pointed arch windows along ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view highlighting the series of pointed arch windows along the North Carrollton facade - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  16. Structure and function of window glass and Pyrex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, J. C.; Kerner, R.

    2008-05-01

    Window glass is a ternary mixture, while Pyrex (after window glass, the most common form of commercial glass) is a quaternary. Here, we investigate the chemical, physical, and mathematical factors that determine the compositions of these optimized glasses. Previously, we succeeded in deriving exactly the composition of window glass (sodium calcium silicate) without adjustable parameters. Borosilicates are a much more challenging problem, and Pyrex (sodium aluminum borosilicate) requires a different approach. Our analysis shows that mean-field (or global) models (networks without significant clustering) are sufficient for window glass and probably most other commercial silicate glasses. However, it appears that the most important property of pyrex, its ability to resist mechanical shocks, requires a cluster model (large medium range order). We propose such a model, and argue that it also follows from hierarchical principles. Our model is strongly supported by specific experiments, and we suggest further experiments to test the principles underlying commercial glasses.

  17. Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Window, Interior Wall Paint Sequence, Wall Section, and Foundation Sections - Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Camp NP-5-C, Barracks No. 5, CCC Camp Historic District at Chapin Mesa, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, December, 1959 DETAIL OF WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, December, 1959 DETAIL OF WINDOW AND IRON GRILLE, FIRST FLOOR, CHESTNUT STREET FACADE. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Interior view of groundfloor servants bath showing original casement windows, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor servants bath showing original casement windows, shower stall, and pipes at ceiling, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  20. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-10-26

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  1. Sealed symmetric multilayered microelectronic device package with integral windows

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    A sealed symmetric multilayered package with integral windows for housing one or more microelectronic devices. The devices can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the windows being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic devices can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that the light-sensitive sides are optically accessible through the windows. The result is a compact, low-profile, sealed symmetric package, having integral windows that can be hermetically-sealed.

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL ORIGINAL VENTING AND WINDOW, FACING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL ORIGINAL VENTING AND WINDOW, FACING NORTHWEST. - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Building 13, Harris Avenue at its intersection of Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF WINDOW MODIFICATION, FACING WEST - Southern Branch of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers , Building 61, North side of Harris Avenue at its intersection with Black Avenue and Woodfin Street, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  4. 33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF A VIEWING WINDOW IN ROOM 108, THE OPERATIONS AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. 12. DETAIL OF PAINTED SIGNS AND UPPER LEVEL WINDOWS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF PAINTED SIGNS AND UPPER LEVEL WINDOWS ON SOUTH SIDE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. 7. DETAIL OF NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WINDOWS, PARAPET COPING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF NORTHWEST CORNER, SHOWING WINDOWS, PARAPET COPING AND STONE INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER EMBLEM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  7. Detail of arched window on north portion of south wing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched window on north portion of south wing, showing stone foundation; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of arched window by main entry on west elevation; showing Stone Foundation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. Kitchen, view to northnortheast. Window looks out on enclosed east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen, view to north-northeast. Window looks out on enclosed east porch. Door at left leads to mud room, with laundry beyond that. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  10. An assessment of the MCNP4C weight window

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher N. Culbertson; John S. Hendricks

    1999-12-01

    A new, enhanced weight window generator suite has been developed for MCNP version 4C. The new generator correctly estimates importances in either a user-specified, geometry-independent, orthogonal grid or in MCNP geometric cells. The geometry-independent option alleviates the need to subdivide the MCNP cell geometry for variance reduction purposes. In addition, the new suite corrects several pathologies in the existing MCNP weight window generator. The new generator is applied in a set of five variance reduction problems. The improved generator is compared with the weight window generator applied in MCNP4B. The benefits of the new methodology are highlighted, along with a description of its limitations. The authors also provide recommendations for utilization of the weight window generator.

  11. 95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL OF COMPOSITION MOLDED DRAPES OF BELLFLOWERS ON OPEN PILASTER (DONE DURING 1897-98 RESTORATION) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  13. Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north side showing bracketed window awnings, main entry, and mission coping, facing southeast. - Albrook Air Force Station, Parachute & Armament Building, 200 feet north of Andrews Boulevard, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  14. Detail view of bracket, arched window and eagle from building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of bracket, arched window and eagle from building 18 section. Jet Lowe, Haer staff photographer, summer 1995 - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Machine Shops, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW 'HEADS', HEX SIGNS (BLACK AND WHITE COLORS) AND PAINTED SCALLOP PATTERN (ON BOTTOM OF OVERHANG) - Decorated Red Barn, Alburtis, Lehigh County, PA

  16. FACILITY 712, EXTERIOR DETAIL OF FIREPLACE AND LEADEDGLASS WINDOWS, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 712, EXTERIOR DETAIL OF FIREPLACE AND LEADED-GLASS WINDOWS, VIEW FACING WEST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Central-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Ayres Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  18. View from window of southeast room (bed room no. 1), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from window of southeast room (bed room no. 1), second floor, commandant's house, looking east across parade ground. - Fort Simcoe, Commandant's House & Blockhouse, Fort Simcoe Road, White Swan, Yakima County, WA

  19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF HALLWAY LOOKING TOWARD LOBBY, SHOWING WINDOW DETAILS, VIEW FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Control Tower & Aviation Operations Building, Near intersection of runways between Hangar 110 & Building 115, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. View southwest of "New Room" taken from doorway; windows overlook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest of "New Room" taken from doorway; windows overlook Castro Creek Canyon. Scale visible against end wall - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Antique Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA