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Sample records for radiation-induced glacier melt

  1. In Brief: Melting glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers in Patagonia and Alaska have been losing their mass, and for longer than glaciers elsewhere in the world, according to a 7 December report compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). “Climate change is causing significant mass loss of glaciers in high mountains worldwide,” notes the report, which calls for accelerated research, monitoring, and modeling of glaciers and snow and their role in water supplies. The report “also highlights the vulnerability and exposure of people dependent upon [glacier-fed] rivers to floods, droughts and eventually shortages as a result of changes in the melting and freezing cycles linked with climate change and other pollution impacts,” according to UNEP executive director Achim Steiner. For more information, visit http://www.grida.no/publications/high­mountain-glaciers/.

  2. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  3. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  4. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  5. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen Chris F,; Burgess, E; Arendt, A.A.; O'Neel, Shad; Johnson, A.J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of −75 ± 11 Gt yr−1 (1994–2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  6. Surface melt dominates Alaska glacier mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. F.; Burgess, E.; Arendt, A. A.; O'Neel, S.; Johnson, A. J.; Kienholz, C.

    2015-07-01

    Mountain glaciers comprise a small and widely distributed fraction of the world's terrestrial ice, yet their rapid losses presently drive a large percentage of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Regional mass balance assessments are challenging over large glacier populations due to remote and rugged geography, variable response of individual glaciers to climate change, and episodic calving losses from tidewater glaciers. In Alaska, we use airborne altimetry from 116 glaciers to estimate a regional mass balance of -75 ± 11 Gt yr-1 (1994-2013). Our glacier sample is spatially well distributed, yet pervasive variability in mass balances obscures geospatial and climatic relationships. However, for the first time, these data allow the partitioning of regional mass balance by glacier type. We find that tidewater glaciers are losing mass at substantially slower rates than other glaciers in Alaska and collectively contribute to only 6% of the regional mass loss.

  7. Fjord circulation promotes significant glacier-wide submarine melting at a west Greenland tidewater glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Donald A.; Straneo, Fiamma; Das, Sarah B.; Nienow, Peter W.

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, rapid change at Greenland's marine-terminating glaciers has significantly impacted the contribution of the ice sheet to sea level. While these changes have been widely linked to a warming of the ocean around Greenland, process understanding linking ocean forcing to glacier response, for example by submarine melting, remains at an early stage. The most rapid submarine melting likely occurs where buoyant plumes, initiated by subglacial discharge, rise up tidewater glacier calving fronts. Plumes have therefore received much attention, yet a plume typically occupies only a small fraction of the submerged calving front area. Thus melting within the plume itself may be a small contributor to the front-wide melting experienced by the glacier. A plume may however promote melting over a much larger area by inducing a fjord-scale circulation which, by increasing water velocities at the ice/ocean interface, can give rise to increased melting over the entire glacier face. Here we address this fjord-scale, plume-driven circulation and its impact on submarine melting by combining observations collected within 100 m of marine-terminating Saqqarliup Sermia in west Greenland with high-resolution fjord modelling using the MITgcm. Both field data and modelling show that water from the main plume flows away from the glacier as a subsurface jet, and that entrainment into this jet generates regions of fjord water recirculating back towards the glacier. The modelling further suggests that these recirculations drive elevated across-glacier water motion thereby promoting significant submarine melting over the full 4 km-width of the calving front, resulting in total melt volumes which substantially exceed those generated directly by the relatively narrow plume. Our results highlight the value of combining detailed field observations with modelling and demonstrate how the secondary fjord circulation generated by plumes may play a significant role in driving submarine

  8. Where glaciers meet water: Subaqueous melt and its relevance to glaciers in various settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truffer, Martin; Motyka, Roman J.

    2016-03-01

    Glacier change is ubiquitous, but the fastest and largest magnitude changes occur in glaciers that terminate in water. This includes the most rapidly retreating glaciers, and also several advancing ones, often in similar regional climate settings. Furthermore, water-terminating glaciers show a large range in morphology, particularly when ice flow into ocean water is compared to that into freshwater lakes. All water-terminating glaciers share the ability to lose significant volume of ice at the front, either through mechanical calving or direct melt from the water in contact. Here we present a review of the subaqueous melt process. We discuss the relevant physics and show how different physical settings can lead to different glacial responses. We find that subaqueous melt can be an important trigger for glacier change. It can explain many of the morphological differences, such as the existence or absence of floating tongues. Subaqueous melting is influenced by glacial runoff, which is largely a function of atmospheric conditions. This shows a tight connection between atmosphere, oceans and lakes, and glaciers. Subaqueous melt rates, even if shown to be large, should always be discussed in the context of ice supply to the glacier front to assess its overall relevance. We find that melt is often relevant to explain seasonal evolution, can be instrumental in shifting a glacier into a different dynamical regime, and often forms a large part of a glacier's mass loss. On the other hand, in some cases, melt is a small component of mass loss and does not significantly affect glacier response.

  9. Hydrological Impact on Glacier Melt Over Asian Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangaluru, K.; Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.

    2016-12-01

    The high mountain Asia glaciers (HMA) play a critical role in the water cycle of Asia's main river basins, but the glaciers are retreating and losing mass as a result of climate change. Satellite remote sensing offers a unique opportunity to provide a widespread, modern characterization of these changes, at a uniform sampling over long periods of time to help understand this partitioning and the hydrological impact of the melting of the HMA glaciers. The runoff from the Hindu Kush- Himalayan glaciers in High Mountain Asia constitutes a water source for irrigation and daily usage for more than 1.5 billion of people downstream. Assessing the hydrological impact of glacier melt within individual watersheds is crucial to evaluate the present day changes of the glaciers and to project future availability of water resources. Here, we use independent data products for determining the role of glacier melt in the regional hydrological budget. Our goal is to defining, the exact partitioning of the contribution to river discharge between precipitation and glacier runoff. We estimate the spatial and temporal changes of glacier mass change from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), changes in evapotranspiration from the MODIS (MOD16), and changes in precipitation combining the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) for the period from 2002 to 2015.

  10. Assessing glacier melt contribution to streamflow at Universidad Glacier, central Andes of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Claudio; Loriaux, Thomas; Rivera, Andrés; Brock, Ben W.

    2017-07-01

    Glacier melt is an important source of water for high Andean rivers in central Chile, especially in dry years, when it can be an important contributor to flows during late summer and autumn. However, few studies have quantified glacier melt contribution to streamflow in this region. To address this shortcoming, we present an analysis of meteorological conditions and ablation for Universidad Glacier, one of the largest valley glaciers in the central Andes of Chile at the head of the Tinguiririca River, for the 2009-2010 ablation season. We used meteorological measurements from two automatic weather stations installed on the glacier to drive a distributed temperature-index and runoff routing model. The temperature-index model was calibrated at the lower weather station site and showed good agreement with melt estimates from an ablation stake and sonic ranger, and with a physically based energy balance model. Total modelled glacier melt is compared with river flow measurements at three sites located between 0.5 and 50 km downstream. Universidad Glacier shows extremely high melt rates over the ablation season which may exceed 10 m water equivalent in the lower ablation area, representing between 10 and 13 % of the mean monthly streamflow at the outlet of the Tinguiririca River Basin between December 2009 and March 2010. This contribution rises to a monthly maximum of almost 20 % in March 2010, demonstrating the importance of glacier runoff to streamflow, particularly in dry years such as 2009-2010. The temperature-index approach benefits from the availability of on-glacier meteorological data, enabling the calculation of the local hourly variable lapse rate, and is suited to high melt regimes, but would not be easily applicable to glaciers further north in Chile where sublimation is more significant.

  11. Glacier Melting Effect on the Earth's Rotation - Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, S. H.; Sahagian, D. L.; Kim, T. H.; Jo, B. G.; Ahn, K. D.; Shin, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    The direction of polar wander has recently been tilted eastward by several degrees. By direct calculation of Earth's inertia tensor perturbation due to observed glacier mass changes (twenty year average), we found the yearly drift polar motion excitation as (ψ1, ψ2)=(1.00, 0.05) milliarcsec. This direction closely matches the observed pole drift, and we infer that glacier melting is the primary driver of the observed polar wander. Analysis of polar motion data indicates that a substantial portion of the observed eastward pole drift has occurred since the late 1990s, also consistent with the accelerated rate of glacier melting. The associated change in LOD due to average glacier melting for the last twenty years is estimated as +114 microsec, which implies total 0.42 s delay in UT1 for the same time span.

  12. A model for tidewater glacier undercutting by submarine melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamic change at the marine-terminating margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be initiated by the ocean, particularly where subglacial runoff drives vigorous ice-marginal plumes and rapid submarine melting. Here we model submarine melt-driven undercutting of tidewater glacier termini, simulating a process which is key to understanding ice-ocean coupling. Where runoff emerges from broad subglacial channels we find that undercutting has only a weak impact on local submarine melt rate but increases total ablation by submarine melting due to the larger submerged ice surface area. Thus, the impact of melting is determined not only by the melt rate magnitude but also by the slope of the ice-ocean interface. We suggest that the most severe undercutting occurs at the maximum height in the fjord reached by the plume, likely promoting calving of ice above. It remains unclear, however, whether undercutting proceeds sufficiently rapidly to influence calving at Greenland's fastest-flowing glaciers.

  13. Monitoring and Modelling Glacier Melt and Runoff on Juncal Norte Glacier, Aconcagua River Basin, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Helbing, J. F.; Araos, J.; Favier, V.; Rivera, A.; Corripio, J.; Sicart, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Results from a recent glacio-meteorological experiment on the Juncal Norte glacier, in central Chile, are presented. Melt water is a crucial resource in the Central Andes, as it provides drinking water, water for agriculture and for industrial uses. There is also increasing competition for water use and allocation, as water demands from mining and industry are rising. Assessing water availability in this region and its relation with climatic variations is therefore crucial. The Dry Central Andes are characterised by a climatic setting different from that of the Alps and the subtropical Andes of Bolivia and Peru. Summers are very dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero and low relative humidity. Solar radiation is very intense, and plays a key role in the energy balance of snow covers and glaciers. The main aim of this study is to investigate the glacier-climate interaction in this area, with particular attention devoted to advanced modelling techniques for the spatial redistribution of meteorological variables, in order to gain an accurate picture of the ablation processes typical of these latitudes. During the ablation season 2005/2006, an extensive field campaign was conducted on the Juncal Norte glacier, aimed at monitoring the melt and runoff generation processes on this remote glacier in the dry Andes. Melt rates, runoff at the snout, meteorological variables over and near the glacier, GPS data and glacier topography were recorded over the entire ablation season. Using this extensive and accurate data set, the spatial and temporal variability of the meteorological variables that drive the melt process on the glacier is investigated, together with the process of runoff generation. An energy balance model is used to simulate melt across the glacier, and special attention is devoted to the modelling of the solar radiation energy flux. The components of the energy balance are compared with those of Alpine basins. The validity of parameterisations of the

  14. Estimating Snow and Glacier Melt in a Himalayan Watershed Using an Energy Balance Snow and Glacier Melt Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Gupta, A.; Tarboton, D. G.; Racoviteanu, A.; Brown, M. E.; Habib, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study enhances an energy balance snowmelt model (Utah Energy Balance, UEB) to include the capability to quantify glacier melt. To account for clean and debris covered glaciers, substrate albedo and glacier outlines determined from remote sensing, are taken as inputs. The model uses the surface energy balance to compute the melting of seasonal snow and glacier substrate once the seasonal snow has melted. In this application the model was run over a 360 km2 glacierized watershed, Langtang Khola, in the Nepal Himalaya for a 10-year simulation period starting in water year 2003. The model was run on a distributed mesh of grid cells providing the capability to quantify both timing and spatial variability in snow and glacier melt. The distributed UEB melt model has a relatively high data demand, while the Hindu-Kush Himalayan region is a data-scarce region, a limitation that affects most water resources impact studies in this region. In this study, we determined model inputs from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Southern Asia Daily Rainfall Estimate (RFE2) data products. The model estimates that roughly 57% of total surface water input is generated from glacier melt, while snowmelt and rain contribute 34% and 9%, respectively over the simulation period. The melt model provided input to the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM) for the computation of streamflow and produced reasonable streamflow simulations at daily scale with some discrepancies, while monthly and annual scale comparisons resulted in better agreement. The result suggests that this approach is of interest for water resources applications where monthly or longer scale streamflow estimates are needed. Mean annual streamflow was positively correlated with the total annual surface water input. However, mean annual streamflow was not correlated with total annual precipitation, highlighting the importance of energy balance melt calculation, in comparison

  15. Modeling future sea level rise from melting glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Valentina

    Melting mountain glaciers and ice caps (MG&IC) are the second largest contributor to rising sea level after thermal expansion of the oceans and are likely to remain the dominant glaciological contributor to rising sea level in the 21st century. The aim of this work is to project 21st century volume changes of all MG&IC and to provide systematic analysis of uncertainties originating from different sources in the calculation. I provide an ensemble of 21st century volume projections for all MG&IC from the World Glacier Inventory by modeling the surface mass balance coupled with volume-area-length scaling and forced with temperature and precipitation scenarios from four Global Climate Models (GCMs). By upscaling the volume projections through a regionally differentiated approach to all MG&IC outside Greenland and Antarctica (514,380 km 2) I estimated total volume loss for the time period 2001-2100 to range from 0.039 to 0.150 m sea level equivalent. While three GCMs agree that Alaskan glaciers are the main contributors to the projected sea level rise, one GCM projected the largest total volume loss mainly due to Arctic MG&IC. The uncertainties in the projections are addressed by a series of sensitivity tests applied in the methodology for assessment of global volume changes and on individual case studies for particular glaciers. Special emphasis is put on the uncertainties in volume-area scaling. For both, individual and global assessments of volume changes, the choice of GCM forcing glacier models is shown to be the largest source of quantified uncertainties in the projections. Another major source of uncertainty is the temperature forcing in the mass balance model depending on the quality of climate reanalysis products (ERA-40) in order to simulate the local temperatures on a mountain glacier or ice cap. Other uncertainties in the methods are associated with volume-area-length scaling as a tool for deriving glacier initial volumes and glacier geometry changes in the

  16. Glacier melt buffering sustains river flow in the Pamir Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Eric; Andermann, Christoff; Gloaguen, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Central Asia's water resources and agricultural practices depend on snow and glacier melts in the high mountains. The Amu Darya, the main river draining the Pamir Mountains, exemplifies the resulting seasonality in stream flow. In winter, comparably low amounts of groundwater discharge feed the streams, while the bulk of precipitation is provided and stored as snow. Successive melting of snow cover and glaciers during summer releases these stored waters to the swelling rivers. Despite a strong variability in precipitation and temperatures over the entire Pamir Mountain region, river flow shows severely less variability. We investigate what processes lead to this apparent discrepancy by using a simple but robust hydrological model that we thoroughly validate with remote sensing snow cover observations, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data, highlighting changes in total water storage, and hydrograph comparison. We find that glaciers play a paramount role by buffering extreme meteorological conditions to sustain stream flow. In a simplified scheme, low precipitation amounts in winter result in small snow stocks, compensated for by more intensive glacier melt, and vice versa. By carrying out analyses over the extensive catchment area of the Amu Darya in the high mountain domain, we highlight regional differences in the effectiveness of this mechanism. Regional influences of wind systems and associated moisture transport as well as glaciated area emerge as main factors. Modeled negative glacier mass balances between -0.38 and -0.93 m/year agree with other studies based on geodetic methods and indicate a future reduction in stream flow sustainability. This not only exacerbates the conflict potential between riparian countries downstream, but also means that extreme weather events are more likely to cause floods and droughts.

  17. Increased Melting of Glaciers during Cotopaxi volcano awakening in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, Patricio; Vallejo, Silvia; Almeida, Marco; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Caceres, Bolivar

    2016-04-01

    Cotopaxi (5897 m), located about 50 km south of Quito (Ecuador), is one of the most active volcanoes in the Andes and its historical eruptions have caused a great impact on the population by the generation of lahars along its three main drainages (N, S, E). Starting on April 2015 the seismic monitoring networks and the SO2 gas detection network in May 2015 showed a significant increase from their background values, in June a geodetic instrument located in the NE flank started to record inflation; all this indicated the beginning of a new period of unrest. On August 14, five small phreatic explosions occurred, accompanied by large gas and ash emissions, ash falls were reported to the W of the volcano and to the S of Quito capital city. Three new episodes of ash and gas emissions occurred afterwards and towards the end of November 2015, the different monitoring parameters indicated a progressive reduction in the activity of the volcano. Since August 18 almost weekly overflights were made in order to conduct thermal (FLIR camera), visual and SO2 gas monitoring. Towards the end of August thermal measurements showed for the first time the presence of new thermal anomalies (13.5 to 16.3 °C) located in the crevices of the N glaciers, at the same time fumarolic gases were observed coming out from those fractures. On a flight made on September 3, the presence of water coming out from the basal fronts of the northern glaciers was clearly observed and the formation of narrow streams of water running downslope, while it was evident the appearance of countless new crevices in the majority of glacier ends, but also new cracks and rockslides on the upper flanks. All this led to the conclusion that an abnormal process was producing the melting of the glaciers around the volcano. Starting on September it was possible to observe the presence of small secondary lahars descending several streams and we estimated that many of them are due to increased glacier melting. Later

  18. When glaciers and ice sheets melt: consequences for planktonic organisms

    PubMed Central

    SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2016-01-01

    The current melting of glaciers and ice sheets is a consequence of climatic change and their turbid meltwaters are filling and enlarging many new proglacial and ice-contact lakes around the world, as well as affecting coastal areas. Paradoxically, very little is known on the ecology of turbid glacier-fed aquatic ecosystems even though they are at the origin of the most common type of lakes on Earth. Here, I discuss the consequences of those meltwaters for planktonic organisms. A remarkable characteristic of aquatic ecosystems receiving the discharge of meltwaters is their high content of mineral suspensoids, so-called glacial flour that poses a real challenge for filter-feeding planktonic taxa such as Daphnia and phagotrophic groups such as heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The planktonic food-web structure in highly turbid meltwater lakes seems to be truncated and microbially dominated. Low underwater light levels leads to unfavorable conditions for primary producers, but at the same time, cause less stress by UV radiation. Meltwaters are also a source of inorganic and organic nutrients that could stimulate secondary prokaryotic production and in some cases (e.g. in distal proglacial lakes) also phytoplankton primary production. How changes in turbidity and in other related environmental factors influence diversity, community composition and adaptation have only recently begun to be studied. Knowledge of the consequences of glacier retreat for glacier-fed lakes and coasts will be crucial to predict ecosystem trajectories regarding changes in biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and function. PMID:26869738

  19. When glaciers and ice sheets melt: consequences for planktonic organisms.

    PubMed

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    2015-05-01

    The current melting of glaciers and ice sheets is a consequence of climatic change and their turbid meltwaters are filling and enlarging many new proglacial and ice-contact lakes around the world, as well as affecting coastal areas. Paradoxically, very little is known on the ecology of turbid glacier-fed aquatic ecosystems even though they are at the origin of the most common type of lakes on Earth. Here, I discuss the consequences of those meltwaters for planktonic organisms. A remarkable characteristic of aquatic ecosystems receiving the discharge of meltwaters is their high content of mineral suspensoids, so-called glacial flour that poses a real challenge for filter-feeding planktonic taxa such as Daphnia and phagotrophic groups such as heterotrophic nanoflagellates. The planktonic food-web structure in highly turbid meltwater lakes seems to be truncated and microbially dominated. Low underwater light levels leads to unfavorable conditions for primary producers, but at the same time, cause less stress by UV radiation. Meltwaters are also a source of inorganic and organic nutrients that could stimulate secondary prokaryotic production and in some cases (e.g. in distal proglacial lakes) also phytoplankton primary production. How changes in turbidity and in other related environmental factors influence diversity, community composition and adaptation have only recently begun to be studied. Knowledge of the consequences of glacier retreat for glacier-fed lakes and coasts will be crucial to predict ecosystem trajectories regarding changes in biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles and function.

  20. Debris Degree Day Factor Glacier Melt Model in the Everest Region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, David; McKinney, Daene

    2016-04-01

    Debris-covered glaciers have important implications on glacier melt and the development of glacial lakes. Detailed energy balance models have been greatly improving; however, these models require detailed meteorological data making them difficult to be used to estimate future melt in response to a changing climate. This study develops a debris degree day factor (dDDF) map for glaciers in the Everest Region of Nepal based on meteorological data and melt rates between 2003 and 2011. The dDDF map accounts for variations in debris thickness and the topography over the glacier. The performance of the dDDF model is assessed via comparison with more traditional energy balance models.

  1. The response of glacier melt runoff to climate change: a glacierized catchment in Tieshan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Gonghuan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yaning; Li, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are sensitive to climate change for the arid inland basins, whose water originates largely from the glacierized mountains. In this study, we simulated the glacial process and then analyzed its response to future climate change in a typical Tieshan Mountains watershed - Aksu watershed. To simulate glacial process, we developed a glacial module into a semi-distributed hydrologic model and then performed multi-objective sensitivity analysis and optimization by combining observed flow data and water isotope data. The calibrated model was then used to analyze the response to climate change through future climate forcing obtained by applying BMA (Bayesian Model Averaging) technique to an ensemble of one RCM and 21-GCM simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results indicated that the parameters related to groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water flow are the most sensitive parameters, and glacier-related parameters are also sensitive, indicating a large part of the streamflow is recharged by glacier melt water. Runoff will overall increase in the near future but will decrease at the end of the 21st century. The combined use of different data sources sheds some sights on hydrological modelling in the Tienshan mountainous.

  2. An estimate of glacier melting contribution to inland lakes on Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Q.; Moholdt, G.; Yao, T.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    As it is known that continental glacier melting dramatically in a warmer climate and its mass loss contribute to the sea level rise, however, there are lots of inland lakes that receives glacier melting contributions to some extent, it is still not known how much melting water from glaciers to lakes overall on a global and regional view. On the Tibetan Plateau, there are four inland basins in contrast to six external catchments at the marginal plateau. With the same reference system, co-registration and bias/offsets correction, DEMs and ICESat/GLAS data were used to calculate glacier surface elevation changes, which includes the historical DEM at 1:250,000 in 1970s, SRTM DEM and ICESat/GLAS over the whole Tibetan Plateau. According to the 1st glacier inventory database by each glacier in different basins, glacier surface elevation changes were calculated, and glacier mass changes were evaluated. It shows that, for external catchments, glacier mass change was totalled by -9.5 ± 3.6 Gt a-1 during 1970s-2000, it was more negative during 2003-2009 (-14.9 ± 6.9 Gt a-1). It shows more melting glacier water runs into the sea in recent decade. However, it was obviously less than some previous studies in HMA, e.g. Gardner et al., 2013, glacier contributed to sea level rise by 26±12 Gt a-1 .While for internal basins overall, glacier mass change was totalled by -7.6 ± 2.3 Gt a-1 during 1970s-2000, however, it was less negative during 2003-2009 (-3.05± 1.4 Gt a-1). It seems that precipitation has increased in inland Tibet and there might be less glacier melting mass runs into inland lakes in recent decade.

  3. The impact of glacier geometry on meltwater plume structure and submarine melt in Greenland fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hudson, B.; Moon, T.; Catania, G. A.; Shroyer, E. L.; Nash, J. D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Felikson, D.; Stearns, L. A.; Noël, B. P. Y.; Broeke, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet often drains subglacially into fjords, driving upwelling plumes at glacier termini. Ocean models and observations of submarine termini suggest that plumes enhance melt and undercutting, leading to calving and potential glacier destabilization. Here we systematically evaluate how simulated plume structure and submarine melt during summer months depends on realistic ranges of subglacial discharge, glacier depth, and ocean stratification from 12 Greenland fjords. Our results show that grounding line depth is a strong control on plume-induced submarine melt: deep glaciers produce warm, salty subsurface plumes that undercut termini, and shallow glaciers produce cold, fresh surface-trapped plumes that can overcut termini. Due to sustained upwelling velocities, plumes in cold, shallow fjords can induce equivalent depth-averaged melt rates compared to warm, deep fjords. These results detail a direct ocean-ice feedback that can affect the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  4. Evidence for persistent organic pollutants released from melting glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Guo-Li; Wu, Ming-Zhe; Sun, Yong; Han, Peng; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2017-01-01

    Glacier alluvial deposits record persistent organic pollutants (POPs) not only derived from the atmospheric deposition but also from the release of glacial melting. The evidence for melting glacier in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) as a secondary source of pollutants is introduced through investigating the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in four deposited profiles collected at the edge of the Changwengluozha glacier. Two concentration peaks were observed for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the past century. The first peak was observed in the 1970s, corresponding with the heavy usage of HCHs and DDTs in the surrounding countries and regions. The second one was in 2000 when the production and usage of DDTs and HCHs were strictly limited, which possibly indicated a significant release from melting glacier. This result was further supported by the enantiomeric fraction values for α-HCH and o,p'-DDT. On the other hand, the dramatic increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from atmospheric deposition, which was associated with the socioeconomic development in Tibet, shaded the release of PAHs from melting glacier. This study reveals not only the air deposition history of legacy POPs but also a substantial release of OCPs from glacier to the adjacent environment. Our research supports the hypothesis that the melting glacier in the TP represents a secondary source of OCPs, which is consistent with the findings in the Alps glaciers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of subaqueous melting of Store Glacier, West Greenland using ocean observations and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Rignot, E. J.; Menemenlis, D.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    Ice discharge from the Greenland Ice Sheet is mainly through tidewater glaciers that terminate in the ocean and melt in contact with ocean waters. Subaqueous melting at the calving front is a direct mechanism for mass loss and a potential trigger for glacier acceleration. We present an analysis of oceanographic data collected in the fjord of Store Glacier, West Greenland during August 2010 and 2012. Using these data, we calculate the subaqueous melt rates. Independently, we employ the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), modified to include melting at the calving front and outflow of subglacial water to model the ice melt rates of Store Glacier. Previous 2-D sensitivity studies showed that the subaqueous melt rate reaches several meters per day during the summer, increases non-linearly with subglacial runoff and linearly with ocean thermal forcing, and ceases when subglacial discharge is off during winter. We present new 3-D simulations at very high resolution, with measured oceanic temperature/salinity as boundary conditions, and subglacial runoff from the University of Utrecht's Regional Atmospheric Climate Model outputs on different years and seasons. We compare the ocean observations and numerical simulations and discuss the seasonal and inter-annual variations of subaqueous melting. This study helps evaluate the impact of the ocean on the subaqueous melting of Greenland tidewater glaciers and in turn on glacier mass balance. This work was carried out at University of California, Irvine and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract with NASA Cryosphere Science Program.

  6. [Hydrochemical characteristic analysis of melting water flow in Keqikaer Glacier, Tianshan (west) Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Yong-jian; Xu, Jun-li; Han, Hai-dong

    2006-07-01

    In order to study the melting water chemical characteristics in the Keqikaer Glacier, Tianshan(west)Mountains, the samples were collected from June to September in 2003. The result is found that: (1) The pH value is between 7.35-8.52, the order of which is:river water > glacier melting water > lake water on glacier > precipitation. (2) The various ionic concentrations of melting water are lower than other three kinds of samples, and average is 24% of river water. (3) Comparing and analyzing hydrochemical difference among various precipitation forms, the author found that inhomogeneous ionic concentration of rainwater is higher than the others. (4) Next, the water samples at different altitude have been analyzed, which shows that inhomogeneous ionic concentration of altitude effect is very remarkable. It is expected that if altitude is lower, the eluviation is led by glacier melting can influence the enviro-information record of ice layer.

  7. Melt Undercutting and Calving from Tidewater Glaciers: Observations and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Åström, J. A.; Luckman, A. J.; Zwinger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic models incorporating crevasse-depth calving laws have enjoyed considerable success in simulating observed behavior of tidewater glaciers. Such models are based on the assumption that longitudinal strain rates exert a first-order control on calving, and that penetration of surface and basal crevasses provides the ultimate constraint on glacier extent. However, 'second-order' processes such as melt undercutting may significantly amplify calving rates, initiating seasonal and longer-term glacier retreats. We present high temporal and spatial resolution TerraSAR-X data from Svalbard that indicate a strong annual cycle in calving rates, peaking in September-October coincident with maximum fjord temperatures. This pattern is consistent for all studied glaciers irrespective of glacier activity (fast, slow, surging or quiescent), and we conclude that in Svalbard calving is paced by melt-undercutting followed by mechanical destabilization of the ice tongue. Although parameterizations of melt undercutting are included in many models employing the crevasse-depth calving criterion, amplification of calving by melt undercutting (the 'O'Leary Effect') has not been rigorously analyzed or tested against observations. We take a novel approach to this problem, and couple the finite element model Elmer-Ice with a discrete particle model (DPM) to explore in detail the links between melt undercutting and failure of the ice tongue. Employing glacier front geometries representative of Kronebreen (Svalbard), Columbia Glacier (Alaska) and Helheim Glacier (Greenland), we use Elmer-Ice to simulate progressive undercutting of the ice front by melting. At selected time steps, the model geometry was exported into the DPM, and runs conducted to study fracturing and calving behavior using different values of the fracture stress. We quantify the O'Leary Effect for different geometries, and propose a modified calving law incorporating the effects of melt-undercutting. The results highlight

  8. Role of sub-regional variations on melting Response of Indian-Himalayan Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, S.; Hasnain, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    Glaciers play a crucial role in maintaining ecosystem stability as they act as buffers and regulate the runoff water supply from high mountains to the plains during both dry and wet spells. Retreat of Hindu Kush-Himalaya-Tibetan glaciers is one of the major environmental problems facing the south Asian and south-east Asian region. The Himalayan mountain range spans 2500 km east to west and includes diverse cultures of five countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Tibet (China), Nepal, Bhutan) and a range of weather patterns, which has been strongly affected by regional climate change. The glaciers of Indian Himalayan ranges covers an area of 19000 km2 contains over 9500 glaciers and feed major perennial river systems like Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, and sustain the livelihood of over 0.5 billion south Asians. Glaciers are melting fast but their response time varies from westerly nourished Kashmir Himalaya glaciers to south-west monsoon nourished Sikkim Himalaya glaciers based on regional climatic variations. Changes in mass balance of a glacier are considered as the most direct representative of the impacts of meteorological parameters on the glacier dynamic responses. A comparative study of mass balance, based on field measurements techniques is being conducted on two benchmark glaciers in the Indian Himalaya. The glaciers currently being monitored are Kolahoi glacier (340 07 - 340 12 N: 750 16 - 750 23E), Kashmir Himalaya and E.Rathong glacier (270 33 - 480 36 N: 880 06 - 880 08 E), Sikkim Himalaya. One year mass balance results (2008-2009) for both the benchmark glaciers are now available and are being presented. Mass balance for Kolahoi glacier located in sub-tropical to temperate setting and nourished by westerly system show range from -2.0 m.w.e. to -3.5 m.w.e. per annum. Whereas, the E. Rathong glacier located in tropical climatic settings and nourished by SW monsoon system show range from -2.0 m.w.e. to -5.0 m.w.e. per annum. The (2009/2010) mass balance

  9. Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Koji; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Ageta, Yutaka; Yasunari, Tetsuzo; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Akiko; Takeuchi, Nozomu

    2006-02-01

    Two net balance records of neighboring glaciers under different conditions are analyzed to extract temporal variations in glacier melting in the Himalayas. Significant melt was observed every year at one site (wet site), whereas no melt occurred at the second site because of its high elevation (dry site). Accumulation at the wet site of a glacier is estimated from the dry site neighboring another glacier through a measured precipitation record for a short time period. The difference between the estimated accumulation and the net balances at the wet site is obtained as the "melt index," which represents the glacier melting conditions. The melt index with an interannual timescale is significant as a climatic proxy at high elevation since no relationship between stable isotopes and temperature is established and few long-term temperature records are available at high elevations in the Himalayas. The melt index showed a decadal fluctuation with a major amplitude never reported in previous studies with respect to temperature and ice cores analyses in the Himalayas. Ice cores from a site where significant melt occurs every year have not been considered available in reconstructing past climates since climatic signals in ice were disturbed by meltwater infiltration. However, we suggest a new approach to glean temperature information by a combination of wet and dry cores, not obtainable from a good-quality ice core alone.

  10. Adjacent fjords and glaciers respond differently to ice sheet surface melt in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomaus, T. C.; Stearns, L. A.; Sutherland, D.; Shroyer, E.; Nash, J. D.; Walker, R. T.; Catania, G. A.; Felikson, D.; Carroll, D.; Fried, M.; Noel, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10,000 km^2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.

  11. Ice melt estimation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) of Ponkar Glacier, Manang, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayastha, R. B.; Armstrong, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing ice melt under debris to better understand glacier melt spatially and the ice melt contribution in river discharge is physically challenging. Remote sensing techniques are best to incorporate such glaciological studies in an inaccessible region like the Himalayas. In this study, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a DJI Phantom Quad Copter and ablation stakes are used and surveyed over the lower ablation region of the Ponkar Glacier (3881 m asl), Manang in the Nepalese Himalayas in March and July 2016 to estimate the glacier ice melt. The temporal data from the UAV are processed to an Orthomosiacs image to create a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM of 2 cm) by the surface from motion (SfM) technique. Three ablation stakes are installed to compare the melt estimation from UAV. The change in surface elevation in the two survey periods corresponds to the ice melt beneath the debris. The ice melt under the debris thickness of 11 and 20 cm on the lower ablation region of the Ponkar Glacier from 20 March to 5 July 2016 are 94 cm and 68 cm (0.88 to 0.64 cm day-1), respectively derived from two DEMs prepared based on two UAV surveys on those dates. Similarly, the ice melt observed on the installed ablation stakes on the above debris thickness are 101 cm and 69 cm (0.95 and 0.65 cm day-1), respectively for the same observation period. These melt rates are very similar to what we found in Langtang Valley, Rasuwa and Phu Valley in Manang. The observation is continuing and a fixed wind UAV will be used for survey in near future so that the whole glacier can be covered. Such a remote sensing technique with high resolution DEM has great potential to quantify the temporal and spatial ice melt of the Himalayan glaciers.

  12. Modelling the impact of submarine frontal melting and ice melange on glacier dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, J.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Weiss, J.

    2015-05-01

    Submarine melting of the calving face of tidewater glaciers and the mechanical back force applied by the ice melange layer are two mechanisms generally proposed to explain seasonal variations at the calving front of tidewater glaciers. However, the way these processes affect the calving rate and glacier dynamics remains uncertain. In this study, we used a finite element-based model that solves the full Stokes equations to simulate the impact of these forcings on two-dimensional theoretical flow line glacier configurations. The model, which includes calving processes, suggests that frontal melting affects the position of the terminus only slightly (less than a few hundred metres) and does not affect the multiannual glacier mass balance at all. However, the ice melange has a greater impact on the advance and retreat cycles of the glacier front (more than several kilometres) and its consequences for the mass balance are not completely negligible, stressing the need for better characterization of forcing properties. We also show that ice melange forcing against the calving face can mechanically prevent crevasse propagation at sea level and hence prevent calving. Results also reveal different behaviours in grounded and floating glaciers: in the case of a floating extension, the strongest forcings can disrupt the glacier equilibrium by modifying its buttressing and ice flux at the grounding line.

  13. Determining melt regime patterns and changing melt dynamics for Alaskan glaciers and icefields using passive microwave brightness temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmens, K. A.; Ramage, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and studying glacier melt dynamics is necessary for understanding how the cryosphere responds to climate variability and change. Surface melting is often a driver of enhanced glacier velocities and can affect glacial mass balance. Several decades of remotely sensed passive microwave data provides a means for characterizing and analyzing surface melt dynamics across wide spatial domains with temporal continuity. Specifically, brightness temperatures from passive microwave sensors, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing Systems (AMSR-E), enable the detection of melt timing and dynamics over large icefields with relatively high temporal resolution (0.5 to 3 days). The ability to detect melt stems from the distinctness of the melt signal at 36-37 GHz vertical polarization. Further, the sensors collect data in all weather and both day and night providing a complete record. Utilizing these datasets, we focus on large icefields in Alaska including Juneau, St. Elias, and Stikine, as well as on individual glaciers such as the Malaspina, Hubbard, and Bering glaciers to investigate changing melt dynamics and relationships to larger atmospheric circulation patterns and temperatures. A 24 year time series of annual brightness temperature histograms is constructed to determine years that are anomalous from the average and to assess the general melt regime characteristics of the area along with temporal and spatial trends. Potential causative and correlative factors are explored including climate indices, temperature, elevation, distance from coast, and discharge. Diurnal amplitude variations (brightness temperature differences between the day and night) are also calculated to determine melt variability and melt-refreeze duration. Melt regime pattern and type are hypothesized to be largely controlled by distance from coast (maritime versus continental), elevation, and latitude. Melt dynamics and brightness

  14. Glacier melt buffers river runoff in the Pamir Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Eric; Gloaguen, Richard; Andermann, Christoff; Knoche, Malte

    2017-03-01

    Newly developed approaches based on satellite altimetry and gravity measurements provide promising results on glacier dynamics in the Pamir-Himalaya but cannot resolve short-term natural variability at regional and finer scale. We contribute to the ongoing debate by upscaling a hydrological model that we calibrated for the central Pamir. The model resolves the spatiotemporal variability in runoff over the entire catchment domain with high efficiency. We provide relevant information about individual components of the hydrological cycle and quantify short-term hydrological variability. For validation, we compare the modeled total water storages (TWS) with GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) data with a very good agreement where GRACE uncertainties are low. The approach exemplifies the potential of GRACE for validating even regional scale hydrological applications in remote and hard to access mountain regions. We use modeled time series of individual hydrological components to characterize the effect of climate variability on the hydrological cycle. We demonstrate that glaciers play a twofold role by providing roughly 35% of the annual runoff of the Panj River basin and by effectively buffering runoff both during very wet and very dry years. The modeled glacier mass balance (GMB) of -0.52 m w.e. yr-1 (2002-2013) for the entire catchment suggests significant reduction of most Pamiri glaciers by the end of this century. The loss of glaciers and their buffer functionality in wet and dry years could not only result in reduced water availability and increase the regional instability, but also increase flood and drought hazards.Plain Language Summary<span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> store large amounts of water in the form of ice. They grow and shrink dominantly in response to climatic conditions. In Central Asia, where rivers originate in the high mountains, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are an important source for sustainable water availability. Thus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11A0739N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11A0739N"><span>Measuring <span class="hlt">melt</span> and velocity of Alaskan mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> using phase-sensitive radar and differential GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuhaus, S.; Tulaczyk, S. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Alaskan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> show some of the highest rates of retreat worldwide, contributing to sea level rise. This retreat is due to both increased velocity and increased <span class="hlt">melt</span>. We seek to understand the role of glacial meltwater on velocity. Matanuska <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, a land terminating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Alaska, has been well-studied using traditional glaciological techniques, but new technology has emerged that allows us to measure <span class="hlt">melt</span> and velocity more accurately. We employed high-resolution differential GPS to create surface velocity profiles across flow in the ablation zone during the summer of 2015. We also measured surface ablation using stakes and measured basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> using phase-sensitive radar designed by the British Antarctic Survey. The positions acquired by differential GPS are obtained to a resolution of less than 0.5m, while feature tracking using time-lapse photography for the same time period yields positions with greater and more variable uncertainty. The phase-sensitive radar provides ice thinning rates. Phase-sensitive radar together with ground penetrating radar provides us with an understanding of the internal structure of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. This suite of data allows us to determine the relative importance of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>, basal <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and internal deformation on ice velocity in warm mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70142330','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70142330"><span>Unusually loud ambient noise in tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> fjords: a signal of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pettit, Erin C.; Lee, Kevin M.; Brann, Joel P.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Preston S.; O'Neel, Shad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> fjords, the ice-ocean boundary is a physically and biologically dynamic environment that is sensitive to both <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow and ocean circulation. Ocean ambient noise offers insight into processes and change at the ice-ocean boundary. Here we characterize fjord ambient noise and show that the average noise levels are louder than nearly all measured natural oceanic environments (significantly louder than sea ice and non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> fjords). Icy Bay, Alaska has an annual average sound pressure level of 120 dB (re 1 μPa) with a broad peak between 1000 and 3000 Hz. Bubble formation in the water column as <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> is the noise source, with variability driven by fjord circulation patterns. Measurements from two additional fjords, in Alaska and Antarctica, support that this unusually loud ambient noise in Icy Bay is representative of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> fjords. These high noise levels likely alter the behavior of marine mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917508S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917508S"><span>Groundwater resources vulnerability due to <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Talgar alluvian fan, northern Tien-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saks, Tomas; Timuhins, Andrejs; Sennikovs, Juris; Ibraimov, Vitaliy; Sotnikov, Evgeniy; Salybekova, Valentina; Rahimov, Timur; Popovs, Konrads</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Alluvial fans on the mountain slopes in Central Asia are an important source of the groundwater, due to there capacity of storing large quantities of the fresh groundwater and due to the fact that most urban centres are situated in the mountainous terrain or along mountain slopes. The groundwater resources in the alluvial fans are replenished by the infiltration from the rivers, which drain the mountain catchments and by infiltration from the precipitation, and released on there lower reaches as a series of seasonal springs or infiltrated into the lower lying aquifers. The rivers with there catchments in the mountainous terrain are fed by the precipitation (with the peak in May-June due to snow <span class="hlt">melt</span>) and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater constitutes up to 90% of the river runoff in July-August, due to peak in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and low precipitation, providing much needed freshwater for agriculture in the dry season. In this study an attempt to quantify the importance of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater on the groundwater resources through groundwater modelling in the Talgar alluvial fan, Ili-Alatau mountain range has been performed. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater is a substantial portion of the groundwater resources in the Talgar alluvial fan, with up to 30m drop of the groundwater level, if the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> disappear, endangering existing groundwater supply. The transient simulations suggest that disappearance of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and highly variable annual precipitation would result in highly fluctuating groundwater levels, as well as disappearance of most of the springs at the foot of the alluvial fan. These results are especially relevant for the northern Tien-Shan, where <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been rapidly retreating over last 50 years, and some of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> could disappear in next decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23D0972L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23D0972L"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and runoff for a high-altitude headwater catchment in Bolivian Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, T.; Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Asaoka, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In Andes, retreat of tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is rapid, thus water resources currently available from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments would be changed in its volume and temporal variations due to climate change and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinkage. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> headwater catchments in the Cordillera Real, Andes, which is a combined contribution from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melts</span> in <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas and surface and subsurface runoff due to snowmelt and rainfall in non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas. To predict long-term availability of water resources from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments in the Cordillera Real, we developed a semi-distributed conceptual glacio-hydrological model applicable for the partially <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments in high mountains by considering different phases of precipitation, various runoff components from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> and non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas, the retarding effect by lakes and wetlands, and the change of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas based on the area-volume relationship. The model was successfully applied to the Huayna West headwater catchment located in the Cordillera Real, Bolivian Andes, for the period of June 2011 to May 2013, after calibrating by observed meteorological and hydrological conditions. Our results indicate that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> is enhanced during two transition periods, i.e. from the dry to wet season (October to early December) and the wet to dry season (March to May), while the surface runoff from snowmelt and subsurface runoff are more dominant between the two periods from December to February. It was found that the simulated runoff was highly sensible to spatial and temporal variation of air temperature, and smoothed by the subsurface flow and retarding processes in lakes and wetlands. We predicted the change of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area and runoff until 2050 under different climate scenarios, which indicates that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> continues to shrink by 2050 resulting in the areal reduction ranging from 65% to 73% and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0600N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0600N"><span>Conditions determining the partitioning of ablation between <span class="hlt">melt</span> and sublimation on East African <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, L. I.; Prinz, R.; Moelg, T.; Kaser, G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new automatic weather station on Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> on Mount Kenya (0°09’ S; 37°18’ E) allows comparison of the surface energy balance there with that of Kersten <span class="hlt">glacier</span> on Kibo, Kilimanjaro (3°04’ S; 37°21’ E), which is ca. 320 km to the south. Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, at about 4800m is ca. 1000m lower than Kersten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and annual mean temperature is accordingly higher. Consequently, while sublimation dominates in the cold dry setting of Kersten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, <span class="hlt">melt</span> dominates ablation in the relatively warm, humid atmosphere of Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Here we use a point mass and surface energy balance model, driven by a year of simultaneous automatic weather station data from the two sites to identify the conditions under which the partitioning of ablation process changes i.e. identifying times and conditions when sublimation occurs on Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and those under which <span class="hlt">melt</span> occurs on Kersten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, from which we determine a set of limiting meteorological condition for the two ablation processes. Whether ablation occurs by <span class="hlt">melt</span> or sublimation has implications for the efficiency of ice ablation due to the differing energy consumption of the two processes, and partitioning snow and ice ablation into <span class="hlt">melt</span> and sublimation determines whether the water equivalent volume is transferred into the hydrological system or the atmosphere. The energy balance of the two sites is compared to identify similarities and differences in (a) the expression of synoptic climate patterns on the two peaks and (b) the sensitivity of snow and ice ablation to variations in key meteorological variables at the two sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3286865','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3286865"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> in coherent X-ray diffractive imaging at the nanoscale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ponomarenko, O.; Nikulin, A. Y.; Moser, H. O.; Yang, P.; Sakata, O.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Coherent X-ray diffraction techniques play an increasingly significant role in the imaging of nanoscale structures, ranging from metallic and semiconductor to biological objects. In material science, X-rays are usually considered to be of a low-destructive nature, but under certain conditions they can cause significant radiation damage and heat loading on the samples. The qualitative literature data concerning the tolerance of nanostructured samples to synchrotron radiation in coherent diffraction imaging experiments are scarce. In this work the experimental evidence of a complete destruction of polymer and gold nanosamples by the synchrotron beam is reported in the case of imaging at 1–10 nm spatial resolution. Numerical simulations based on a heat-transfer model demonstrate the high sensitivity of temperature distribution in samples to macroscopic experimental parameters such as the conduction properties of materials, radiation heat transfer and convection. However, for realistic experimental conditions the calculated rates of temperature rise alone cannot explain the <span class="hlt">melting</span> transitions observed in the nanosamples. Comparison of these results with the literature data allows a specific scenario of the sample destruction in each particular case to be presented, and a strategy for damage reduction to be proposed. PMID:21685675</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9..183K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCD.....9..183K"><span>Modelling the impact of submarine frontal <span class="hlt">melting</span> and ice mélange on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krug, J.; Durand, G.; Gagliardini, O.; Weiss, J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two mechanisms are generally proposed to explain seasonal variations in the calving front of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the calving face and the mechanical back-force applied by the ice mélange. However, the way these processes affect the calving rate and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics remains uncertain. In this study, we used the finite element model Elmer/Ice to simulate the impact of these forcings on more than 200 two dimensional theoretical flowline <span class="hlt">glacier</span> configurations. The model, which includes calving processes, suggests that frontal <span class="hlt">melting</span> affects the position of the terminus only slightly (< a few hundred meters) and does not affect the pluriannual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance at all. However, the ice mélange has a greater impact on the advance and retreat cycles of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front (more than several 1000 m) and its consequences for the mass balance are not completely negligible, stressing the need for better characterization of forcing properties. We also show that ice mélange forcing against the calving face can mechanically prevent crevasse propagation at sea level and hence prevent calving. Results also revealed different behaviors in grounded and floating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: in the case of a floating extension, the heaviest forcings can disrupt the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> equilibrium by modifying its buttressing and ice flux at the grounding line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1433S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1433S"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and precipitation trends detected by surface area changes in Himalayan ponds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salerno, Franco; Thakuri, Sudeep; Guyennon, Nicolas; Viviano, Gaetano; Tartari, Gianni</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Climatic time series for high-elevation Himalayan regions are decidedly scarce. Although <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinkage is now sufficiently well described, the changes in precipitation and temperature at these elevations are less clear. This contribution shows that the surface area variations of unconnected glacial ponds, i.e. ponds not directly connected to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice, but that may have a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> located in their hydrological basin, can be considered as suitable proxies for detecting past changes in the main hydrological components of the water balance. On the south side of Mt Everest, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and precipitation have been found to be the main drivers of unconnected pond surface area changes (detected mainly with Landsat imagery). In general, unconnected ponds have decreased significantly by approximately 10 ± 5 % in terms of surface area over the last 50 years (1963-2013 period) in the study region. Here, an increase in precipitation occurred until the mid-1990s followed by a decrease until recent years. Until the 1990s, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> was constant. An increase occurred in the early 2000s, while a declining trend in maximum temperature has caused a reduction in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> during recent years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JHyd..246..123H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JHyd..246..123H"><span>A conceptual, linear reservoir runoff model to investigate <span class="hlt">melt</span> season changes in cirque <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hannah, David M.; Gurnell, Angela M.</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a conceptual, linear reservoir runoff model and applies it to a small <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> cirque basin in the French Pyrénées over the 1995 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season. A series of modelling experiments are undertaken: (i) to explore the response of diurnal hydrograph form to seasonal changes in surface meltwater recharge and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> storage and routing processes and (ii) to investigate the possible structure of the hydrological system of this remnant <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. High resolution, spatially- and temporally distributed observations of snow and ice-<span class="hlt">melt</span> (and precipitation records) are used to estimate bulk meltwater inputs, which feed into a lumped meltwater drainage model. Empirical hydrograph recession limb analysis provides a basis to identify the most likely 'structure' of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s hydrological system. This structure is then represented in the model by two ('fast' and 'slow') linear reservoirs. Although fast reservoir storage coefficients show only a moderate decline (13.00-5.25 h), the proportion of bulk meltwater entering this reservoir increases as the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snowline retreats and the slow reservoir storage coefficient decreases (45.00-17.75 h); consequently modelled hydrographs become increasingly peaked over the ablation season. Later in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season, the drainage system is mathematically best represented as a single reservoir (with a storage coefficient of 6.00-8.25 h) due to meltwater production occurring mainly in the lower-mid ablation zone, reduction in the extent (capacity) of the slower storage areas, and/or integration of the slow and fast pathways. In terms of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrology, the modelling experiments suggest that the fast reservoir represents ice-<span class="hlt">melt</span> draining into a semi-distributed system beneath the lower <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and the slow reservoir represents a snowpack-fed distributed system below the upper <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The nature of storage and routing within the hydrological system and the degree to which these processes are significant in determining</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1559G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.1559G"><span>Morphological evidence and direct estimates of rapid <span class="hlt">melting</span> beneath Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice Shelf, East Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenbaum, Jamin; Schroeder, Dustin; Grima, Cyril; Habbal, Feras; Dow, Christine; Roberts, Jason; Gwyther, David; van Ommen, Tas; Siegert, Martin; Blankenship, Donald</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> drains at least 3.5 meters of eustatic sea level potential from marine-based ice in the Aurora Subglacial Basin (ASB) in East Antarctica, more than the combined total of all <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in West Antarctica. Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has been the most rapidly thinning <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in East Antarctica since satellite altimetry time series began and the nature of the thinning suggests that it is driven by enhanced basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> due to ocean processes. While grounded ice thinning rates have been steady, recent work has shown that Totten's floating ice shelf may not have the same thinning behavior; as a result, it is critical to observe ice shelf and cavity boundary conditions and basal processes to understand this apparent discrepancy. Warm Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW), which has been linked to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat in West Antarctica, has been observed in summer and winter on the nearby Sabrina Coast continental shelf and deep depressions in the seafloor provide access for MCDW to reach the ice shelf cavity. Given its northern latitude, numerical ice sheet modeling indicates that Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> may be prone to retreat caused by hydrofracture in a warming climate, so it is important to understand how intruding MCDW is affecting thinning of Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>'s ice shelf. Here we use post-processed, focused airborne radar observations of the Totten <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice Shelf to delineate multi-km wide basal channels and flat basal terraces associated with high basal reflectivity and specularity (flatness) anomalies and correspondingly large ice surface depressions that indicate active basal <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Using a simple temperature-attenuation model, and basal roughness corrections, we present basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates associated with the radar reflection and specularity anomalies and compare them to those derived from numerical ocean circulation modeling and an ice flow divergence calculation. Sub-ice shelf ocean circulation modeling and under-ice robotic observations of Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C23A0597C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C23A0597C"><span>The contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to stream flow in the Wind River Range, WY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cable, J. M.; Williams, D. G.; Bachman, S. A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Wind River Range (Wyoming) boasts the largest concentration of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the American Rockies, and together with adjacent mountain ranges is the source of several major river systems in the western US. Declines in the volume of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> associated with recent climate warming are well documented. Such declines of alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> will reduce the amount of water available for agricultural and domestic use, especially in late summer and fall. The contribution of glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> to stream flow remains largely unquantified in many parts of the U.S., particularly in Wyoming. In this study, we estimated the fractional contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water from Dinwoody <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> to flow in Dinwoody Creek in the Wind River Range on diurnal, seasonal, and interannual time scales. The stable isotope composition of water from the Dinwoody Creek watershed was determined on spatially and temporally intensive scales in 2007 and 2008. Spatially intensive sampling took place in the summers of both years; water samples were collected from (1) above and below major confluences along Dinwoody Creek, from (2) Dinwoody <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, (3) rain water, and (4) snow. Stream samples were collected over the entire <span class="hlt">melt</span> season using an automated stream sampler placed beside an unimpaired USGS gauging station low in the watershed. Glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributed significantly to stream flow during periods of peak daily discharge (afternoon) and during late summer peak flow (late-August). In 2008, snow persisted late into the summer, so snowmelt was the main source of streamflow in mid-summer (July). Disappearance of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in this watershed will affect both ecosystem and human water supplies during the late summer period, particularly in years when snowfields do not persist late into the summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..05H"><span>Partitioning of Submarine <span class="hlt">Melt</span> and Calving across the front of Store <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hubbard, A., II; Chauche, N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Processes unique to the marine-termini of fast-flowing tidewater outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can potentially drive extreme rates of mass wastage thereby providing a rapid link between the terrestrial ice reservoir and the oceanic sink. Here we attempt to directly quantify the pattern and magnitude of calving and <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the front of Store <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a major outlet draining the western sector of the Greenland ice sheet. Integration of range-survey technologies on a robust, heavy displacement marine platform coupled with high-resolution photogrammetry allowed the production of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front. A swath-interferometric sonar system calibrated via an inertial motion unit stabilized with RTK GPS and vector-compass data-streams was combined with photogrammetric processing of repeat UAV surveys. The results of three repeat surveys across the front of Store <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in 2012 is presented during which significant ice flow, <span class="hlt">melt</span> and calving events were imaged, complimented with AWS, on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse/video camera sequences. The residual of successive DTMs yield the 3d pattern of frontal change allowing the processes calving and <span class="hlt">melt</span> to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. The pattern of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> is further validated against indirect estimates of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> derived from oceanographic circulation measurements within the fjord.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914960S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914960S"><span>Spatiotemporal tracer variability in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and its influence on hydrograph separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmieder, Jan; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are important seasonal water contributors in many mountainous regions. Knowledge on the timing and amount of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water is crucial for water resources management, especially in downstream regions where the water is needed (hydropower, drinking water) or where it represents a potential risk (drought, flood). This becomes even more relevant in a changing climate. Environmental tracers are a useful tool in the assessment of ice water resources, because they provide information about the sources, flow paths and traveling times of water contributing to streamflow at the catchment scale. Hydrometric and meteorological measurements combined with tracer analyses help to unravel streamflow composition and improve the understanding of hydroclimatological processes. Empirical studies on runoff composition are necessary to parameterize and validate hydrological models in a process-oriented manner, rather than comparing total measured and simulated runoff only. In the present study three approaches of hydrograph separation are compared to decide which sampling frequency is required to capture the spatiotemporal variability of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and to draw implications for future studies of streamflow partitioning. Therefore <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions to a proglacial stream at the sub-daily, daily, and seasonal scale were estimated using electrical conductivity and oxygen-18 as tracers. The field work was conducted during December 2015 and September 2016 in the glaciated (34%) high-elevation catchment of the Hochjochbach, a small sub-basin (17 km2) of the Oetztaler Ache river in the Austrian Alps, ranging from 2400 to 3500 m a.s.l. in elevation. Hydroclimatological data was provided by an automatic weather station and a streamflow gauging station equipped with a pressure transducer. Water samples of streamflow, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and rain were collected throughout the winter period (December to March) and the ablation season (July to September). In the proposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20446692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20446692"><span>Release of legacy pollutants from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: model evidence and conceptual understanding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bogdal, Christian; Nikolic, Divna; Lüthi, Martin P; Schenker, Urs; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Recently, increasing concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been observed in the sediment of <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed Lake Oberaar, Switzerland. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been suggested as a secondary source of POPs released to Alpine lakes. Here we further investigate whether climate warming may accelerate the release of POPs previously deposited to Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> ("<span class="hlt">glacier</span> hypothesis"). To test this hypothesis, a dynamic multimedia mass balance model is developed for the catchment area of Lake Oberaar and is applied to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT). This lake model is combined with two other models. The first is a dynamic multimedia mass balance model parametrized for the Swiss lowlands that is used to calculate (on the basis of historical emission data) the atmospheric concentrations that are an advective input into the model of the lake catchment. The second is a flow model of Oberaar <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> that determines the residence time of persistent chemicals in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> after their deposition to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. According to results from these three models in combination, the release of POPs by the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is currently increasing and accounts for the observed increase in concentrations in the lake sediment. The models indicate that approximately half of the amount of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and DDT initially incorporated into the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice is still stored in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Under the assumption that the climate is warming, accelerated release of POPs is to be expected for the future; in a model run where no climate warming is assumed, the period of time required for release of the same amount of chemicals is longer by several decades than in the scenario with a changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43B0602A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43B0602A"><span>Variations in <span class="hlt">melt</span> inputs and basal sliding velocity on the Kennicott <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, W. H.; Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Rajaram, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface motion, meteorologic, and hydrologic observations from the 2012 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season on the Kennicott <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> near McCarthy, Alaska. We record 15-second global positioning system (GPS) data from five monuments along the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> centerline, 10-minute water level data from pressure sensors in four ice-marginal basins and one on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outlet river, 10-minute air temperature and ablation rates, and one-hour time-lapse photography on two ice-marginal basins and the outlet stream. We use these data to investigate linkages between subglacial hydrology and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basal sliding velocity. Time-lapse imagery and pressure sensor time series capture a complicated early season fill-and-drain sequence on an ice-marginal lake, likely reflecting the interplay between <span class="hlt">melt</span> supply and development of a hydrologic link between the basin and a presumed nearby low-pressure subglacial conduit. We also capture a midsummer jökulhlaup in which 20-30 x 10^6 cubic meters of water drain from the ice-dammed Hidden Creek Lake over the course of 60 hours. The flood wave propagates down-<span class="hlt">glacier</span>, reaching the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus 15 kilometers away about 30 hours after the initiation of lake drainage. The flood wave raises stage by many tens of meters in ice-marginal basins and doubles discharge on the outlet stream. We compare water level records to differential GPS time series to monitor the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> sliding response to seasonal, daily, and event-based variations in water inputs. This study builds on our 2006 research in the area by increasing GPS monument density, extending the monitoring season, and including time-lapse photography. These improvements allow us to resolve in greater temporal and spatial detail the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s response to hydrologic conditions throughout the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season. Although the 2012 summer was generally cooler than summer 2006, we find remarkable similarity between the outburst flood hydrographs for the two years, indicating similarities in the evolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2309P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.2309P"><span>Unusually loud ambient noise in tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> fjords: A signal of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pettit, Erin Christine; Lee, Kevin Michael; Brann, Joel Palmer; Nystuen, Jeffrey Aaron; Wilson, Preston Scot; O'Neel, Shad</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> fjords, the ice-ocean boundary is a physically and biologically dynamic environment that is sensitive to both <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow and ocean circulation. Ocean ambient noise offers insight into processes and change at the ice-ocean boundary. Here we characterize fjord ambient noise and show that the average noise levels are louder than nearly all measured natural oceanic environments (significantly louder than sea ice and nonglacierized fjords). Icy Bay, Alaska, has an annual average sound pressure level of 120 dB (referenced to 1 μPa) with a broad peak between 1000 and 3000 Hz. Bubble formation in the water column as <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> is the noise source, with variability driven by fjord circulation patterns. Measurements from two additional fjords, in Alaska and Antarctica, support that this unusually loud ambient noise in Icy Bay is representative of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> fjords. These high noise levels likely alter the behavior of marine mammals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23C0661B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23C0661B"><span>Relation Between <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Velocity, SAR <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Zones, and the Timing of <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in the Southern Patagonia Icefield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berti, C.; Ramage, J. M.; Willis, M. J.; Semmens, K. A.; Melkonian, A. K.; Pritchard, M. E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We present the results of a regional study of the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) between latitude -48.24 and -50.25 and longitude -73.00 and -74.15 that integrates active microwave derived <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow velocities and variability with passive microwave derived snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> timing, intensity, and duration. Variations in the SPI <span class="hlt">melt</span> and flow behavior is of major interest for numerous reasons, including <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance contribution to oceanic fresh water input, global circulation and isostatic rebound. Flow velocity estimates are derived from a combination of feature offset tracking technique (in fast moving areas) and InSAR (in slow moving areas) using SAR scenes from the ERS 1 - ERS 2 tandem mission. We analyzed 9 tracks, in both ascending (tracks: 18, 204, 247, 290, 476) and descending (tracks: 153, 196, 382, 425) orbits, for a total of 60 scenes processed in 1-day interval pairs between October 1995 and March 1996 (Austral Summer). Icefield-wide observations of snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> characteristics are based on twice daily brightness temperature (Tb) and diurnal amplitude variations (DAV) from 37 GHz vertically polarized Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). <span class="hlt">Melt</span> occurrences are detected using co-occurrences of a Tb threshold of 242 K and a DAV threshold of ±10 K. SAR amplitude images are used for higher resolution interpretations of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution and characterization. This analysis is performed on the same scenes from which we generate velocity, yielding a paired <span class="hlt">melt</span>-velocity dataset for the austral summer season. Overall, the results show a strong relationship between <span class="hlt">melting</span> intensity and duration and variation in the velocity field of numerous <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> among the SPI, with the highest velocity recorded for the Jorge Montt (tens of meters/day). A pattern of increase in flow velocities can be identified, coincident with the progression of the austral summer. Short period variations in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> regime don't seem to affect the general behavior of the major</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031016"><span>Channelized ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the ocean boundary layer beneath Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanton, T P; Shaw, W J; Truffer, M; Corr, H F J; Peters, L E; Riverman, K L; Bindschadler, R; Holland, D M; Anandakrishnan, S</p> <p>2013-09-13</p> <p>Ice shelves play a key role in the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheets by buttressing their seaward-flowing outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>; however, they are exposed to the underlying ocean and may weaken if ocean thermal forcing increases. An expedition to the ice shelf of the remote Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet that has rapidly thinned and accelerated in recent decades, has been completed. Observations from geophysical surveys and long-term oceanographic instruments deployed down bore holes into the ocean cavity reveal a buoyancy-driven boundary layer within a basal channel that <span class="hlt">melts</span> the channel apex by 0.06 meter per day, with near-zero <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates along the flanks of the channel. A complex pattern of such channels is visible throughout the Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910961H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910961H"><span>Human activities and its Responses to <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Water Over Tarim River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Tarim River Basin has <span class="hlt">melted</span> in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8348W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8348W"><span>Reduced <span class="hlt">melt</span> on debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: investigations from Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagnon, Patrick; Vincent, Christian; Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Shrestha, Dibas; Soruco, Alvaro; Arnaud, Yves; Brun, Fanny; Berthier, Etienne; Futi Sherpa, Sonam</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Approximately 25% of the <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area in the Everest region is covered by debris, yet the surface mass balance of debris-covered portions of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has not been measured directly. In this study, ground-based measurements of surface elevation and ice depth are combined with terrestrial photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite elevation models to derive the surface mass balance of the debris-covered tongue of Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, located in the Everest region. Over the debris-covered tongue, the mean elevation change between 2011 and 2015 is -0.93 m year-1 or -0.84 m water equivalent per year (w.e. a-1). The mean emergence velocity over this region, estimated from the total ice flux through a cross section immediately above the debris-covered zone, is +0.37mw.e. a-1. The debris-covered portion of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> thus has an area averaged mass balance of -1.21+/-0.2mw.e. a-1 between 5240 and 5525 m above sea level (m a.s.l.). Surface mass balances observed on nearby debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> suggest that the ablation is strongly reduced (by ca. 1.8mw.e. a-1) by the debris cover. The insulating effect of the debris cover has a larger effect on total mass loss than the enhanced ice ablation due to supraglacial ponds and exposed ice cliffs. This finding contradicts earlier geodetic studies and should be considered for modelling the future evolution of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1845V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1845V"><span>Reduced <span class="hlt">melt</span> on debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: investigations from Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, Christian; Wagnon, Patrick; Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Kraaijenbrink, Philip; Shrestha, Dibas; Soruco, Alvaro; Arnaud, Yves; Brun, Fanny; Berthier, Etienne; Futi Sherpa, Sonam</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Approximately 25 % of the <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area in the Everest region is covered by debris, yet the surface mass balance of debris-covered portions of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has not been measured directly. In this study, ground-based measurements of surface elevation and ice depth are combined with terrestrial photogrammetry, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and satellite elevation models to derive the surface mass balance of the debris-covered tongue of Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, located in the Everest region. Over the debris-covered tongue, the mean elevation change between 2011 and 2015 is -0.93 m year-1 or -0.84 m water equivalent per year (w.e. a-1). The mean emergence velocity over this region, estimated from the total ice flux through a cross section immediately above the debris-covered zone, is +0.37 m w.e. a-1. The debris-covered portion of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> thus has an area-averaged mass balance of -1.21 ± 0.2 m w.e. a-1 between 5240 and 5525 m above sea level (m a.s.l.). Surface mass balances observed on nearby debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> suggest that the ablation is strongly reduced (by ca. 1.8 m w.e. a-1) by the debris cover. The insulating effect of the debris cover has a larger effect on total mass loss than the enhanced ice ablation due to supraglacial ponds and exposed ice cliffs. This finding contradicts earlier geodetic studies and should be considered for modelling the future evolution of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924940','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19924940"><span>Blast from the past: <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as a relevant source for persistent organic pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter; Zennegg, Markus; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>In this study, the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">melting</span> Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> may represent a secondary source of persistent organic chemicals is investigated. To this end, a dated sediment core from a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed lake (Lake Oberaar, Switzerland) was analyzed for a wide range of persistent organic pollutants, organochlorine pesticides, and synthetic musk fragrances. Input fluxes of all organochlorines increased in the 1950s, peaked in the 1960s-1970s, and decreased again to low levels in the 1980s-1990s. This observation reflects the emission history of these compounds and technical improvements and regulations leading to reduced emissions some decades ago. The input of synthetic musks remained at a high level in the 1950s-1990s, which is consistent with their relatively constant production throughout the second half of the 20th century. Since the late 1990s, input of all compound classes into the high-Alpine Lake Oberaar has increased sharply. Currently, input fluxes of organochlorines are similar to or even higher than in the 1960s-1970s. This second peak supports the hypothesis that there is a relevant release of persistent organic chemicals from <span class="hlt">melting</span> Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> predicted for the future, our study indicates the potential for dire environmental impacts due to pollutants delivered into pristine mountainous areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411460J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411460J"><span>A simple parameterisation of <span class="hlt">melting</span> near the grounding lines of ice shelves and tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jenkins, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are experiencing rapid change, at least in part as a result of acceleration of some of their larger, marine-terminating outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. It is generally assumed that the accelerations have been driven by the ocean, probably through changes in the submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate. However, the processes that drive <span class="hlt">melting</span>, particularly in the region close to the grounding line are difficult to observer and quantify. The rapid flow of the outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is almost always associated with an active sub-glacial hydrological system, so in the key regions where the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> either discharge into ice shelves or terminate in fjords there will be a flow of freshwater draining across the grounding line from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> bed. The input of freshwater to the ocean provides a source of buoyancy and drives convective motion alongside the ice-ocean interface. This process is modelled using the theory of buoyant plumes that has previously been applied to the study of the larger-scale circulation beneath ice shelves. The plume grows through entrainment of ocean waters, and the heat brought into the plume as a result drives <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the ice-ocean interface. The equations are non-dimensionalised using scales appropriate for the region where the sub-glacial drainage, rather than the subsequent addition of meltwater, supplies the majority of the buoyancy forcing. It is found that the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate within this region can be approximated reasonably well by a simple expression that is linear in ocean temperature, has a cube root dependence on the flux of sub-glacial meltwater, and a more complex dependency on the slope of the ice-ocean interface. The model is used to investigate variability in <span class="hlt">melting</span> induced by changes in both ocean temperature and sub-glacial discharge for a number of realistic examples of ice shelves and tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The results show how warming ocean waters and increasing sub-glacial drainage both generate increases in <span class="hlt">melting</span> near the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9086D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9086D"><span>Rapid <span class="hlt">melting</span> dynamics of the Morteratsch <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Swiss Alps) from UAV photogrammetry and field spectroscopy data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Mauro, Biagio; Garzonio, Roberto; Rossini, Micol; Baccolo, Giovanni; Julitta, Tommaso; Cavallini, Giuseppe; Mattavelli, Matteo; Colombo, Roberto</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The impact of atmospheric impurities on the optical properties of snow and ice has been largely acknowledged in the scientific literature. Beyond this, the evaluation of the effect of specific organic and inorganic particles on <span class="hlt">melting</span> dynamics remains a major challenge. In this contribution, we examine the annual <span class="hlt">melting</span> dynamics of a large valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> of the Swiss Alps using UAV photogrammetry. We then compare the <span class="hlt">melting</span> patterns to the presence of surface impurities on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. Two surveys (in July and September 2016) with a lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were organized on the ablation zone of the Morteratsch <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Swiss Alps). The UAV (DJI, Phantom 4) was equipped with a high resolution digital camera, and flew at a constant altitude of 150 from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. 30 ground control points were placed on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, and their coordinates were determined with a differential GPS (dGPS) for georeferencing UAV images. Contemporary to the UAV surveys, field spectroscopy data were collected on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD Field spec.) spectrometer covering the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and ice samples were collected to determine the abundance of microorganism and algae. From the UAV RGB data, two point clouds were created using Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. The point clouds (each consisting of about 15M points) were then converted in Digital Surface Models (DSM) and orthomosaics by interpolation. The difference between the two DSM was calculated and converted in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), in order to assess the ice lost by the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> during the ablation season. The point clouds were compared and the displacement vectors were estimated using different algorithms. The elevation changes estimated from UAV data were compared with the abundance of microorganisms and algae. The reflectance spectra of ice with microorganisms and algae show a chlorophyll absorption feature at 680 nm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715407K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715407K"><span>Directional close-contact <span class="hlt">melting</span> in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowalski, Julia; Schüller, Kai</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Saturnian moon Enceladus shows incidence of liquid water underneath a thick ice sheet cover and is thought to be a potential candidate for extraterrestrial life. However, direct exploration of these subglacial aquatic ecosystems is very challenging. Within the scope of the joint research project 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) (consisting of FH Aachen, RWTH Aachen, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Universität Bremen, TU Braunschweig und Bundeswehr Universität München), initiated by the German Space Agency, a maneuverable close-contact <span class="hlt">melting</span> probe has been developed. The force-regulated and heater-controlled probe is able to <span class="hlt">melt</span> against gravity or even on a curved trajectory. Hence, it offers additional degrees of freedom in its <span class="hlt">melting</span> motion, e.g. for target oriented <span class="hlt">melting</span> or obstacle avoidance strategies. General feasibility of the concept has been demonstrated in various field tests. However, in order to optimize its design and to adopt it to extraterrestrial missions a simulation model is needed, capable of determining <span class="hlt">melting</span> velocity and efficiency at given environmental conditions and system configurations. Within this contribution, the physical situation is abstracted into a quasi-stationary mathematical model description, and a numerical solution strategy is developed to compute <span class="hlt">melting</span> velocity and temperature distribution within the probe and the surrounding ice. We present an inverse solution approach, in which a background velocity field of the ice mimics the <span class="hlt">melting</span> velocity. The fundamental balance laws are solved with the corresponding <span class="hlt">melting</span> rate. Following Newton's laws, the resulting force acting on the probe has to balance the contact force exerted by the probe and can hence be used for convergence. We present both, analytical results to a simplified head geometry, as well as results from a simulation model implemented into the open source software Elmer for arbitrary head geometries. The latter can deal with the full 3d situation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9512C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9512C"><span>Impact of fine debris on ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at Russell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, central-west Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carr, Rachel; Linighan, James; Cumming, Alex M. J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have increased sharply in recent years, due to accelerated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> discharge and increased surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>. In 2012, 99% of the Greenland ice sheet experienced <span class="hlt">melt</span>, which was exceptional on centennial timescales, but is expected to occur frequently in the future, as climate warms. Ice albedo is a primary control on <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates and remotely sensed data shows that the GrIS has darkened substantial in recent decades, due to both inorganic and biological material. This has been particularly marked in south- and central-west Greenland and can lead to the development of positive feedbacks. Consequently, it is important to understand the relationship between <span class="hlt">melt</span> and surface albedo on the GrIS. Here we use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field data to assess the impact of fine debris on <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at Russell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, central-west Greenland. Our field data demonstrate that areas with a greater percentage coverage of fine, largely inorganic debris experienced higher <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates than in areas with a sparse coverage. However, the relationship between <span class="hlt">melt</span> and debris cover was highly spatially variable. Furthermore, the debris cover evolved substantially over time and we saw marked changes over a period of a few days. Using ASTER imagery, we show that the spatial extent of debris has expanded markedly in this section of the GrIS during the last decade, which could substantially accelerate <span class="hlt">melting</span>. However, the complex and variable relationship between debris cover and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates highlights the need for further research, in order to accurately forecast its impact on GrIS <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C33A0769Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C33A0769Y"><span>High basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates observed on Store <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, West Greenland, using phase-sensitive FMCW radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, T. J.; Christoffersen, P.; Nicholls, K. W.; Lok, L. B.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, B. P.; Stewart, C.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Brennan, P. V.; Hubbard, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass, and is currently contributing 1 mm/year to global sea level rise. The large majority of these changes can be attributed to the recent acceleration in flow of marine-terminating outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> within the last several decades. Such fast ice flow is characterised by ice deformation, as well as basal motion. However, there are few direct observations of either of these contributing mechanisms due to the difficulty of accessing the subglacial environment. In particular, although basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates have been measured on ice shelves for decades, there exist almost no equivalent observations for grounded ice sheets. We present the first time series of directly-measured rates of basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the bed of Store <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a major outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flowing into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland. The measurements were obtained using a phase-sensitive, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system installed 30 km upflow of the calving terminus at a location where the surface velocity of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is 700 m/year. Radar data were recorded every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 610-m-deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice research Experiment (SAFIRE). With internal and basal reflector ranges captured at high spatial (millimetre) and temporal (hourly) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of ice deformation and basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> coincident with englacial and subglacial borehole measurements. Here, we report sustained basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> of 3 m/year during winter, and maxima of 20 m/year during summer when basal motion is enhanced by surface water delivered to the bed. The lower, but more constant rate of winter basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> is likely to be driven by frictional heat generated from basal sliding. These discoveries indicate that basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> beneath Greenland's fast flowing outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is considerably higher than basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> reported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639886','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25639886"><span>Arctic warming: nonlinear impacts of sea-ice and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> on seabird foraging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grémillet, David; Fort, Jérôme; Amélineau, Françoise; Zakharova, Elena; Le Bot, Tangi; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Arctic climate change has profound impacts on the cryosphere, notably via shrinking sea-ice cover and retreating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and it is essential to evaluate and forecast the ecological consequences of such changes. We studied zooplankton-feeding little auks (Alle alle), a key sentinel species of the Arctic, at their northernmost breeding site in Franz-Josef Land (80°N), Russian Arctic. We tested the hypothesis that little auks still benefit from pristine arctic environmental conditions in this remote area. To this end, we analysed remote sensing data on sea-ice and coastal <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics collected in our study area across 1979-2013. Further, we recorded little auk foraging behaviour using miniature electronic tags attached to the birds in the summer of 2013, and compared it with similar data collected at three localities across the Atlantic Arctic. We also compared current and historical data on Franz-Josef Land little auk diet, morphometrics and chick growth curves. Our analyses reveal that summer sea-ice retreated markedly during the last decade, leaving the Franz-Josef Land archipelago virtually sea-ice free each summer since 2005. This had a profound impact on little auk foraging, which lost their sea-ice-associated prey. Concomitantly, large coastal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreated rapidly, releasing large volumes of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water. Zooplankton is stunned by cold and osmotic shock at the boundary between <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and coastal waters, creating new foraging hotspots for little auks. Birds therefore switched from foraging at distant ice-edge localities, to highly profitable feeding at <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water fronts within <5 km of their breeding site. Through this behavioural plasticity, little auks maintained their chick growth rates, but showed a 4% decrease in adult body mass. Our study demonstrates that arctic cryosphere changes may have antagonistic ecological consequences on coastal trophic flow. Such nonlinear responses complicate modelling exercises of current and future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H13L1589M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H13L1589M"><span>Hydrochemical Signatures of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> and Groundwater Storage on Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, R.; Ng, G. H. C.; La Frenierre, J.; Wickert, A. D.; Baraer, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>With ever-growing water demands for hydroelectricity, agriculture, and domestic use, the accelerated retreat of tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is raising concerns about future water supply sustainability. In the tropical Andes, where precipitation is seasonal and spatially heterogeneous, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are particularly important as their storage and slow release of water helps to modulate stream discharge on daily to yearly time scales. Predicting the effect their shrinkage will have on water resources is not straightforward as little is known about the connections in these glaciated volcanic catchments between meltwater, groundwater, precipitation and surficial discharge. Here, stable isotope and major ion analyses inform a hydrochemical mixing model in order to identify water sources and their relative contributions to stream and spring discharge on Volcán Chimborazo, a stratovolcano located in the Ecuadorian Andes. Moisture in this region generally arrives from the Amazon basin to the east, resulting in a steep northeast-southwest precipitation gradient that produces wet and dry sides of the mountain. Dry season water samples were collected on both sides from major streams and springs at varying elevations and distances from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongues, along with samples of precipitation (when possible) and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice. Data on specific conductivity, pH, and temperature were collected in situ for each sample. The paired catchment study allows us to isolate a primarily glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> signature on the dry side and compare it to data on the wet side, where glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> and precipitation both contribute to groundwater and surface-water discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGla..43..167N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGla..43..167N"><span>Use of ice cores from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with <span class="hlt">melting</span> for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakazawa, Fumio; Fujita, Koji</p> <p></p> <p>This study examines a new method for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations by using an ice core from a wet-snow zone on a summer-accumulation-type <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. In July 2001, a 25.1 m deep ice core was recovered from the accumulation area of Sofiyskiy <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (49°47‧ N, 87°43‧ E; 3435 m a.s.l.), located in the southern Chuyskiy range of the Russian Altai mountains, and a 4.5 m deep pit was excavated about 50 m northwest of the drill site. The observation site has a positive balance even during summer when <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs. The summer balance for each year from 1990 to 2000 was estimated from Pinaceae and Artemisia pollen peaks in these samples. Pinaceae pollen marks spring, whereas Artemisia pollen marks autumn. Moreover, meltwater intrusion did not reach the previous year's accumulation. Thus, the ice between these pollen peaks in the same year was used to estimate a summer balance. The reconstructed summer balance variations were negatively correlated with mean summer temperature variations (r = -0.72, P < 0.05). This study shows that, for summer-accumulation-type <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> such as Sofiyskiy <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, the most important climate factor controlling the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s surface mass balance is mean summer temperature. Therefore, the summer layer thickness in an ice core can be used as a proxy for reconstructing mean summer temperature variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP52A0328N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP52A0328N"><span>Reconstruction of Past Temperatures of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> Subjected to Sub-surface <span class="hlt">Melting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagornov, O. V.; Konovalov, Y.; Sergienko, O.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Many <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are subjected to <span class="hlt">melting</span> due to high summer air temperatures. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> water percolates into the snow-firn sequences. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> intensity during summer months is proportional to the third power of the mean air temperature. Hence, small changes of summer air temperatures induce large changes of the active layer temperatures. The refreezing of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water results in the sub-surface heat accumulation. The annual intensity of sub-surface heat source is proportional to the <span class="hlt">melt</span> feature index derived by analysis of extracted ice cores, while the coefficient of this dependence is unknown parameter of the problem. Joint account for the <span class="hlt">melt</span> feature index and measured oxygen isotopic ratio allowed us to calibrate the paleothermometer, and to compare different climatic proxies. New method for solution of the inverse problems was developed and applied here to reconstruct both the past <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface temperatures and time- dependent power of the sub-surface heat source. This mathematical technique allows for finding the unique solution of the problem in the explicit form. The results of temperature reconstructions are in a good agreement with early-obtained data based on the regularization method for the temperatures at the active layer depths. The reconstructions were done for several Arctic ice caps (Austfonna, Akademiya Nauk) and Central Asia mountain <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Gregoriev ice cap). The lowest surface temperatures of the Austfonna ice cap occurred during the Little Ice Age, started five hundred years ago. One hundred and fifty years ago the ice temperatures here were colder by 10-11 oC than those that were six hundred years ago. Present ice temperatures are the highest for the last 2000 years. Interpretation of the temperature data is based on comprehensive analysis of various climatic proxies and their mutual calibrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7622C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7622C"><span>Dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> water of Icelandic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chifflard, Peter; Reiss, Martin</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Recently, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been recognized as unique ecosystems with potential effects on the global carbon cycle. Among other transport processes organic carbon stored in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ecosystems is released from the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> through <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> surface that discharges into proglacial streams and finally into the ocean. Nevertheless, the potential role of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the carbon cycle remains poorly understood (Hood et al. 2015). One particular problem in this respect is that there is a lack in regional and global analysis of the total amount of organic carbon released from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Although, the release of organic carbon has been investigated in proglacial streams in Alaska, the European Alps and Greenland, to our knowledge, there is no information available for Icelandic proglacial streams. Thus, the aims of this study are: 1) to develop a first base information about the concentration of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC) in several Icelandic proglacial streams and 2) to detect the variability of DOC and POC along a proglacial stream from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> source to the mouth into the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, a field trip was conducted between 23 and 31 July 2016, whereby, 25 water samples were taken. The sampling points cover <span class="hlt">melt</span> water from the following Icelandic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, Myrdalsjökull and Tungnafellsjökull. Further water samples were taken along the river Hvitá starting at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> Langjökull and ending at the mouth into the Atlantic ocean in the southwest of Iceland. At every sample point electrical conductivity, water temperate and the pH-value were measured in situ using a calibrated portable water quality meter (Hanna Combo HI98129). The water samples (130 ml) were filtered using pre-combusted GF/F filters (Whatman, pore sizes 0.7 µm) and stored in a cooling box until the shipment to the laboratory of the Department for Geography, Philipps-University of Marburg. The DOC concentrations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466701"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Increases the Solute Concentrations of Himalayan Glacial Lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salerno, Franco; Rogora, Michela; Balestrini, Raffaella; Lami, Andrea; Tartari, Gabriele A; Thakuri, Sudeep; Godone, Danilo; Freppaz, Michele; Tartari, Gianni</p> <p>2016-09-06</p> <p>Over the past two decades, we observed a substantial rise in ionic content that was mainly determined by the sulfate concentration at 20 remote high elevation lakes located in central southern Himalaya. At LCN9, which was monitored on an annual basis for the last 20 years, the sulfate concentrations increased over 4-fold. Among the main causes, we exclude a change in the composition of wet atmospheric deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> retreat likely was the main factor responsible for the observed increase of sulfate concentrations. We attribute this chemical changes mainly to the sulfide oxidation processes that occur in subglacial environments. Moreover, we observe that the weakened monsoon of the past two decades has only partially contributed to the lakes enrichment through runoff waters that are more concentrated in solutes or lowering the water table, resulting in more rock exposed to air and enhanced mineral oxidation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816707H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816707H"><span>Attributing the changes in seasonal runoff to dominated water sources in a snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dominated catchment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Zhihua</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Attributing the changes in seasonal runoff to dominated water sources in a snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-dominated catchment Trend analysis indicates significant changes in the magnitude and timing of seasonal runoff from 1960 to 2010 in the Ala_archa catchment in Central Asia, which is dominated by snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater. This study modeled the dominated water sources, including snowmelt water, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water and rainfall water, for daily discharge events in this basin. Hydrological parameters were estimated in a stepwise method. First, parameters were divided into the <span class="hlt">melting</span> group and non-<span class="hlt">melting</span> group based on sensitive analysis. The parameters belonged to the <span class="hlt">melting</span> group effect the estimation of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span>, while it is the opposite for the parameters belonged to the non-<span class="hlt">melting</span> group. Second, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> parameters were calibrated on the observed annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance data. Third, the non-<span class="hlt">melting</span> parameters were calibrated on the observed daily discharge series using the calibrated <span class="hlt">melting</span> parameters. Fourth, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> parameters were recalibrated on both the observed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance data and the daily discharge series. The calibration steps were repeated until the relative difference of all the <span class="hlt">melting</span> parameter values between two calibration procedures were lower than 5%. The dominated water sources for each discharge event were identified by the fraction of water inputs in the whole basin during a 7-day period preceded the discharge event. The fraction of various water inputs were calculated in 300m-elevation bands. In cases the fraction of snowmelt water is higher than 0.6, the corresponding discharge events were identified as snowmelt dominated events, and it is the same for the rainfall and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> dominated events. Results show that the increasing in winter runoff is caused by the increased rainfall, the increased spring runoff is driven by the increasing of snowmelt, while the increased <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater dominated the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0587M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0587M"><span>Combining a Distributed <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Model and Meteorological Data of Shackleton <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Canadian Rockies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, M.; Jiskoot, H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Runoff from the Canadian Rocky Mountains into the Upper Columbia and Kootenay basins is strongly dominated by winter snow accumulation and spring <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and it has been suggested that future reductions in snowpack will create increased competition for water between spring and early fall (Hamlet & Lettenmaier, 1999). Although the glacierised area is substantial for affecting summer flows in these basins, there are no measurements or quantified estimates of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff contribution. In an effort to provide an estimate of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff for the region, we measured ablation over 5 years, set up weather stations and temperature sensors in Summers 2009 and 2010 and developed a <span class="hlt">melt</span> model for Shackleton <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (42.5 km2), the largest outlet of the Clemenceau Icefield Group (271 km2), which is the major local ice mass feeding into the Upper Columbia basin. Two HOBO weather stations (WS) were installed on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> for two weeks in Summer 2010, one near the left lateral moraine on very dirty ice, and one mid-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> on relatively clean ice. Instrumentation included pyranometers (solar radiation and albedo), and temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors. A weather station off ice provided additional temperature and precipitation data. Other data included daily ablation stake measurements, surface roughness measurements, temperature data from Tidbit loggers on and off ice, and daily manual weather observations. Yearly ablation stake measurements and summer weather observations have been made by our team since 2005. A BC River Forecast Centre automatic snow pillow station provides additional temperature and precipitation data. Using these meteorological and ablation data for parameterisation and optimisation, a distributed GIS <span class="hlt">melt</span> model was constructed from a simple energy balance model. The model is driven by hourly direct and diffuse radiation and DEM hillshading, an albedo parameterisation based on four ice/snow zones</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9154R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9154R"><span>Distinguishing snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> in High Asia using MODIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rittger, Karl; Brodzik, Mary J.; Bair, Edward; Racoviteanu, Adina; Barrett, Andrew; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Armstrong, Richard; Dozier, Jeff</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In High Mountain Asia, snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice contribute to streamflow, but the contribution of each of these hydrologic components is not fully understood. We generate daily maps of snow cover and exposed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice derived from MODIS at 500 m resolution as inputs to <span class="hlt">melt</span> models to estimate daily snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice contributions to streamflow. The daily maps of 1) exposed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice (EGI), 2) snow over ice (SOI) and 3) snow over land (SOL) between 2000 and 2014 are generated using fractional snow cover, snow grain size, and annual minimum ice and snow from the MODIS-derived MODSCAG and MODICE products. The method allows a systematic analysis of the annual cycle of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice extents over High Mountain Asia. We compare the time series of these three types of surfaces for nine sub-basins of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and characterize the variability over the MODIS record. Results show that the Dras Nala, Astore, and Zanskar sub-basins located in the eastern part of the UIB have the highest annual fraction of SOL driven by mid-winter westerly storms. Sub-basins in the northwestern extent of the UIB with relatively high mean elevations, the Hunza, Shigar, and Shyok show the highest annual fraction of both SOI and EGI (i.e. accumulation and ablation zones of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>). The largest sub-basin, Kharmong has the smallest annual fraction of SOL, SOI, and EGI, and a smaller SOI and EGI than the mouth of the river (Tarbela). Using these maps, snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions are then estimated for the nine Upper Indus sub-basins using two <span class="hlt">melt</span> models: a calibrated temperature-index (TI) model and an uncalibrated energy balance (EB) model. Near-surface air temperatures for the TI model are downscaled from ERA-Interim upper air temperatures, bias corrected using observed temperatures, and aggregated to 100 m elevation bands. We calibrate the seasonally variable degree-day factors for ice and snow by comparing streamflow to the sum of <span class="hlt">melt</span> (SOL+SOI+EGI) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31B0296D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31B0296D"><span>Small-Scale Variations in <span class="hlt">Melt</span> of the Debris-Covered Emmons <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Mount Rainier, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dits, T. M.; Nelson, L. I.; Moore, P. L.; Pasternak, J. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In a warming climate the vitality of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is an important measure of local response to global climate change. However, debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can respond to climate change in a nonlinear manner. Supraglacial debris alters the energy balance at the atmosphere-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> interface compared with debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and can result in both accelerated and reduced ablation through complex processes that occur on a variety of scales. Emmons <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, on the northeast slope of Mount Rainier (Washington, USA), offers an opportunity to study these processes in supraglacial debris that are otherwise difficult to study in situ (e.g. Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>). Emmons <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> underwent a steady advance in the late 20th century despite a warming climate, in part due to increased surface debris cover. Key energy balance variables were measured in August of 2013 and 2014 using a temporary weather station installed directly on the debris-covered terminus of Emmons <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Ablation of debris-covered ice was monitored in situ with ablation stakes drilled into the debris-covered ice in a 3600 m2 grid, a size comparable to a single pixel in leading thermal remote-sensing platforms. Debris thickness at the study site ranged from 3-50 cm at the ablation stakes, and textures varied from sand and gravel to large boulders with open pore space. Daily ablation rates varied by a factor of 5 in this small area and were affected by debris thickness, texture, and moisture as well as local surface slope and aspect. On this scale, ablation rates correlated better with debris surface temperature than air temperature. Spatial gradients in ablation rate may strongly influence long-term <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates through evolving surface topography and consequent redistribution of supraglacial debris, but cannot be resolved using thermal imagery from most current satellite platforms. A preliminary field experiment with a ground-based thermal infrared camera yielded temperature measurements with fine spatial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9059S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9059S"><span>Central Asian supra-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> enhanced by anthropogenic black carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Farinotti, Daniel; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Lawrence, Mark; Schwikowski, Margit</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and mountain snow. Densely populated areas near lower-lying mountain ranges are particularly vulnerable and a recent study showed that the region might lose 50 % of its <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass by 2050. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span> through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span>. 218 snow samples were taken on 4 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental carbon, mineral dust and iron among other parameters. We find the elemental carbon concentration to be at the higher end of the range reported for neighboring mountain ranges between 70 and 502 ng g-1 (interquartile range). To investigate the origin of the snow impurities, we used a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LAGRANTO. Back trajectory ensembles of 40 members with varied starting points to capture the meteorological spread were released every 6 hours for the covered period at all sites. "Footprints" were calculated and combined with emission inventories to estimate the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural BC to deposited aerosol on the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We find that more than 94 % of BC is of anthropogenic origin and the major source region is Central Asia followed by the Middle East. Further exploring the implications of mineral dust and BC deposition, we calculate the snow albedo reduction with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR). Even though mineral dust concentrations were up to a factor of 50 higher than BC concentrations, BC dominates the albedo reduction. Using these results we calculate the snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> induced by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411605H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411605H"><span>Internal <span class="hlt">melt</span> as an important contributor to the total mass balance of Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haberkorn, A.; Fischer, A.; Sailer, R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance is composed of the surface-, the internal- and the basal mass balance. Traditionally, the internal- and the basal mass change of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> are assumed to be negligible. During recent years, areas with exceptional high subsidence rates compared to their surroundings have been observed on several Alpine mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> which lead to the assumption that internal- or basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes must play an important role at such locations. Detailed measurement campaigns were carried out at the tongue of Hintereisferner, Ötztal Alps, Austria, in 2009 and 2010, in order to assess the contribution of such processes to the local mass balance. We applied a multi-method approach, which includes direct surface mass balance measurements, digital elevation models (DEM) generated during four detailed differential GPS field surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) ice thickness measurements, a simple model of local ice dynamics, as well as a comparison of DEM gained by airborne laser scanning (ALS). The total mass change was derived by DGPS measurements and amounts to -475·106 kg. The surface mass change, obtained by the direct glaciological method is just -431·106 kg and the dynamical mass change due to the ice fluxes across the test site margins is 42·106 kg. Therefore, a substantial amount of ice must be removed by internal- or basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes. Using the above mentioned values, the contribution of basal or internal <span class="hlt">melt</span> is quantified with a value of -87·106 kg, which is a relative contribution to the total mass balance of 18%. This indicates that subglacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes play a significant role at the study site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694490"><span>Sea ice breakup and marine <span class="hlt">melt</span> of a retreating tidewater outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in northeast Greenland (81°N).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk; K Ehn, Jens; Boone, Wieter; Galindo, Virginie; Hu, Yu-Bin; Dmitrenko, Igor A; Kirillov, Sergei A; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kristoffersen, Yngve; G Barber, David; Rysgaard, Søren</p> <p>2017-07-10</p> <p>Rising temperatures in the Arctic cause accelerated mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and reduced sea ice cover. Tidewater outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> represent direct connections between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and the ocean where <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at the ice-ocean interface are influenced by ocean temperature and circulation. However, few measurements exist near outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from the northern coast towards the Arctic Ocean that has remained nearly permanently ice covered. Here we present hydrographic measurements along the terminus of a major retreating tidewater outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> from Flade Isblink Ice Cap. We show that the region is characterized by a relatively large change of the seasonal freshwater content, corresponding to ~2 m of freshwater, and that solar heating during the short open water period results in surface layer temperatures above 1 °C. Observations of temperature and salinity supported that the outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is a floating ice shelf with near-glacial subsurface temperatures at the freezing point. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> from the surface layer significantly influenced the ice foot morphology of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus. Hence, <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the tidewater outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was found to be critically dependent on the retreat of sea ice adjacent to the terminus and the duration of open water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254552','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254552"><span>An heuristic model for sea level due to the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of small <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wigley, T.M.L.; Raper, S.C.B.</p> <p>1995-10-15</p> <p>Ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and small ice caps (GSICs) is an important component of past and future sea level rise. Projections made to date of future GSIC-derived sea level rise have used a simple model that has conceptual weaknesses, calibrated using data that have since been revised. Here the authors devise a more satisfactory model that accounts for regional variations in the altitudinal ranges of the world`s <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, calibrate it using recent data, and consider the implications for future sea level rise. Because of compensating factors, the new projections are similar to the earlier ones, but their methodological basis if far more sound. Wide uncertainties still remain. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C41A0060R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C41A0060R"><span>Modeling Future Sea Level Rise From the <span class="hlt">Melt</span> of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>: Assessment of Uncertainties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radic, V.; Hock, R.; Oerlemans, J.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Melting</span> and disintegrating mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been identified as the second largest contributor to rising sea level after thermal expansion of the oceans (e.g., IPCC, 2007; Meier et al., 2007), and Meier et al. (2007) show that <span class="hlt">melting</span> mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are likely to remain the dominant glaciological contributor to rising sea level through the end of the 21st century. Current work will be presented assessing the sources of uncertainty in model-derived estimates of the probable future contributions from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> wastage to rising sea level. To evaluate uncertainties associated with the choice of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance model, we apply three temperature-index and two energy mass balance models to Storglaciären, a small well-measured valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in northern Sweden. The five mass balance models are individually calibrated using ERA-40 reanalysis data from past years. These models are then forced during future years using statistically downscaled regional climate model outputs in order to simulate the future mass balances of Storglaciaren. The cumulative mass balance for the time period 2002 to 2100 AD in response to predicted temperature changes is found to vary between -81 and -92 m for four models but is estimated at -121 m for the fully distributed energy balance model. This demonstrates the sensitivity of the results to the choice of mass balance model. To investigate the sensitivity of projected future changes in the volume of Storglaciaren to the choice of climate model, we used temperature and precipitation outputs from different global climate models (GCMs) to force a temperature-index <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance model. The results show that the volume-change projections vary by 40% of the initial <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume for six different GCMs. The projections showed volume losses by 2100 AD of 50% to 90% of the initial volume of Storglaciaren. Since these volume projections are computed using a volume-area scaling approach, we further investigate the scaling approach</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010371','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120010371"><span>Variability of Basal <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Beneath the Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice Shelf, West Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> with an annual <span class="hlt">melt</span> flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced <span class="hlt">melting</span> when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall <span class="hlt">melting</span> efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22280924"><span>Differential exposure of alpine ospreys to mercury: <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, hydrology or deposition patterns?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guigueno, Mélanie F; Elliott, Kyle H; Levac, Joshua; Wayland, Mark; Elliott, John E</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant impacting even remote environments. In alpine watersheds, glacial meltwater is a source of Hg, which accumulated in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during the 1960-1980 cooling cycle. The considerable variation observed for Hg exposure of alpine animals in proximal watersheds could result from differences among those watersheds in Hg loading from glacial meltwater. Alternatively, variation may be the result of hydrology, atmospheric Hg deposition patterns, or food web characteristics. To examine those possibilities, we measured Hg in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), apex predators in 15 watersheds in western Canada. Mercury levels in feathers of nestlings increased with increasing modeled atmospheric deposition rates and decreased with lake size. In eggs mercury decreased with δ(13)C, an indicator of food web structure, and with pH and elevation. Thus, Hg levels in chicks were strongly associated with local patterns relevant when the chicks were growing (e.g. the period post-snow <span class="hlt">melt</span>: Hg deposition, lake size) while Hg levels in eggs were weakly associated with local patterns relevant during the snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> (elevation, δ(13)C), with the remainder of the Hg variation in eggs determined by other factors such as possible Hg accumulation by the adult elsewhere. Modeled atmospheric deposition from prevailing upwind locations including Asia, followed by runoff into small lakes, were related to Hg patterns in osprey, with little apparent role for recent <span class="hlt">melting</span> of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Our study highlights the importance of physical patterns to the environmental chemistry of top predators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C21E..05A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C21E..05A"><span>Getz Ice Shelf, West Antarctica: Little <span class="hlt">glacier</span> speed increase despite basal ice shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alley, K. E.; Scambos, T. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Getz Ice Shelf, stretching along ~500 km of coastline in the Amundsen Sea Sector of West Antarctica, occupies a region of changing climatic and oceanic conditions. Climatically, the region is influenced by the Amundsen Sea Low, a mean atmospheric circulation feature of West Antarctica that has slowly increased in intensity over the past several decades. Oceanographically, the shelf is affected by intrusions of Antarctic Circumpolar Deep Water, which are currently <span class="hlt">melting</span> the shelf from below at a rate of 4.3 × 0.4 meters of water per year. Recent results from gravity-based assessments of mass change in the region indicate significant mass loss for the entire Getz ice drainage area, and altimetry studies of grounded ice in the Getz Ice Shelf catchment area show significant elevation loss since the 1990s. Our study examines the history of ice velocities from 1972-present on the Getz Ice Shelf, with particular attention to the ice shelf edge and the grounding zone area during the last decade. The shelf and grounded ice are characterized by relatively narrow zones of faster outflow and steep grounded ice surface slopes. The fastest outflow speeds are found toward the western edge at DeVicq <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, typically 800-1000 ma-1 near the ice edge and 400-800 ma-1 at the grounding line. Slower speeds towards the east are generally 250-500 ma-1 at the ice edge and 150-400 ma-1 near the grounding line. Despite significant basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> and thinning of grounded ice, the Getz Ice Shelf has exhibited only modest accelerations: ~20% near the grounding line in the DeVicq <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> region, ~35% at the far eastern edge, and <10% across central sections of the shelf. This contrasts with the nearly 50% flow speed increase of Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> between 1972 and 2012, and >100% for the adjacent Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> between 1992 and 2008. We postulate that steep slopes in the grounded ice flow just above the grounding line imply high basal shear stresses for the feeder <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and therefore</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H11D..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H11D..03S"><span>Quantifying changes in the contribution of upstream snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to downstream low flows in the River Rhine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stahl, K.; Kohn, I.; Boehm, M.; Seibert, J.; Freudiger, D.; Gerlinger, K.; Weiler, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Low flows impact river ecosystems and impair water use. In the mid- and downstream reaches of one of the largest rivers in Europe, the River Rhine, low flows can threaten a variety of ecosystem services and direct uses. Low flows in summer and fall are sustained by the snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution from the <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> mountain headwaters upstream. This study explores changes in the discharge components of rain, snowmelt and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> during extreme low flow events from a downstream perspective. Quantification of the discharge components is based on a novel method of runoff component tracking that was implemented into a model chain, consisting of the HBV model, which includes a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance model allowing for areal <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes, for the headwaters and the distributed hydrological model LARSIM for the remaining Rhine basin. A transient model run at daily resolution was calibrated to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume change, basin-wide snow cover and snow water equivalent and discharge variability at many gauging stations over the period 1901-2006. The analysis of the resulting discharge components revealed that over the course of the 20th Century, the loss of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area in the headwaters appears to have compensated an increasingly negative <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance, resulting in little long-term change to the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component in summer streamflow - thus showing no clear `peak-water' trend. While the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component was less than two percent of the average annual discharge of the mid and lower reaches of the River Rhine, models suggest its fraction was much higher during extreme low flow events. The low flows of the summers of 1921, 1947, and 2003 were comprised of record daily ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> fractions of more than one fifth of the daily discharge along the mid and lower reaches from Basel to the mouth. A scenario model run with suppressed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area change suggests that the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> discharge component would have doubled if the same meteorological</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCry....9..197D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015TCry....9..197D"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-surge mechanisms promoted by a hydro-thermodynamic feedback to summer <span class="hlt">melt</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunse, T.; Schellenberger, T.; Hagen, J. O.; Kääb, A.; Schuler, T. V.; Reijmer, C. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Mass loss from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice sheets currently accounts for two-thirds of the observed global sea-level rise and has accelerated since the 1990s, coincident with strong atmospheric warming in the polar regions. Here we present continuous GPS measurements and satellite synthetic-aperture-radar-based velocity maps from Basin-3, the largest drainage basin of the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard. Our observations demonstrate strong links between surface-<span class="hlt">melt</span> and multiannual ice-flow acceleration. We identify a hydro-thermodynamic feedback that successively mobilizes stagnant ice regions, initially frozen to their bed, thereby facilitating fast basal motion over an expanding area. By autumn 2012, successive destabilization of the marine terminus escalated in a surge of Basin-3. The resulting iceberg discharge of 4.2±1.6 Gt a-1 over the period April 2012 to May 2013 triples the calving loss from the entire ice cap. With the seawater displacement by the terminus advance accounted for, the related sea-level rise contribution amounts to 7.2±2.6 Gt a-1. This rate matches the annual ice-mass loss from the entire Svalbard archipelago over the period 2003-2008, highlighting the importance of dynamic mass loss for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance and sea-level rise. The active role of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>, i.e. external forcing, contrasts with previous views of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surges as purely internal dynamic instabilities. Given sustained climatic warming and rising significance of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>, we propose a potential impact of the hydro-thermodynamic feedback on the future stability of ice-sheet regions, namely at the presence of a cold-based marginal ice plug that restricts fast drainage of inland ice. The possibility of large-scale dynamic instabilities such as the partial disintegration of ice sheets is acknowledged but not quantified in global projections of sea-level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C53B0675M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C53B0675M"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-model parameter sensitivity and transferability in the dry subarctic environment of the southwest Yukon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDougall, A. H.; Flowers, G. E.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Regional hydrology and eustatic sea-level are expected to change as a consequence of climate warming. Accurate projection of these changes requires <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-models with high parameter transferability in space and time. We have assessed the parameter transferability and sensitivity of a suite of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-models for two <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> 10 km apart in the dry subarctic environment of the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> models range in complexity from a classical temperature-index model to a simplified energy balance model. Two experiments are conducted: (1) the models are tuned to the output of a full energy balance model forced under idealized conditions to assess the sensitivity of model parameters to variations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> geometric attributes, surface conditions, and meteorological conditions; (2) the models are tuned to real ablation stake data from our two study <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over two <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons, and the parameter transferability between the two sites and the two <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons is evaluated. The parameters of the temperature-index models demonstrate high sensitivity to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> aspect, mean surface elevation, albedo, wind speed, mean annual temperature, and temperature lapse rate. The simplified energy balance model is sensitive to snow albedo. The simplified energy balance model more often than not (in seven of twelve tests) produces the highest model transferability. In the remaining five tests the classical temperature-index model produces the highest transferability twice, and a temperature-index model, where the degree-day factor is a function of potential shortwave radiation, produces the highest transferability three times. The full energy balance model when forced with real data inputs produces higher model parameter transferability than the empirical <span class="hlt">melt</span> models in nine out of twelve tests. These results suggest that caution should be observed when extending the use of <span class="hlt">melt</span> models beyond the locations where they were developed and tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6718S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.6718S"><span>Impact of local winter cooling on the <span class="hlt">melt</span> of Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>St-Laurent, P.; Klinck, J. M.; Dinniman, M. S.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The rapid thinning of the ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea is generally attributed to basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> driven by warm water originating from the continental slope. We examine the hypothesis that processes taking place on the continental shelf contribute significantly to the interannual variability of the ocean heat content and ice shelf <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. A numerical model is used to simulate the circulation of ocean heat and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> of the ice shelves over the period 2006-2013. The fine model grid (grid spacing 1.5 km) explicitly resolves the coastal polynyas and mesoscale processes. The ocean heat content of the eastern continental shelf exhibits recurrent decreases around September with a magnitude that varies from year to year. The heat loss is primarily caused by surface heat fluxes along the eastern shore in areas of low ice concentration (polynyas). The cold winter water intrudes underneath the ice shelves and reduces the basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. Ocean temperatures upstream (i.e., at the shelf break) are largely constant over the year and cannot account for the cold events. The cooling is particularly marked in 2012 and its effect on the ocean heat content remains visible over the following years. The study suggests that ocean-atmosphere interactions in coastal polynyas contribute to the interannual variability of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> of Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4670M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.4670M"><span>Turbulent plumes from a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus <span class="hlt">melting</span> in a stratified ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Magorrian, Samuel J.; Wells, Andrew J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">melting</span> of submerged faces of marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is a key contributor to the glacial mass budget via direct thermodynamic ablation and the impact of ablation on calving. This study considers the behavior of turbulent plumes of buoyant meltwater in a stratified ocean, generated by <span class="hlt">melting</span> of either near-vertical calving faces or sloping ice shelves. We build insight by applying a turbulent plume model to describe <span class="hlt">melting</span> of a locally planar region of ice face in a linearly stratified ocean, in a regime where subglacial discharge is insignificant. The plumes rise until becoming neutrally buoyant, before intruding into the ocean background. For strong stratifications, we obtain leading-order scaling laws for the flow including the height reached by the plume before intrusion, and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate, expressed in terms of the background ocean temperature and salinity stratifications. These scaling laws provide a new perspective for parameterizing glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> in response to a piecewise-linear discretization of the ocean stratification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004glac.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004glac.book.....H"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hambrey, Michael; Alean, Jürg</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are among the most beautiful natural wonders on Earth, as well as the least known and understood, for most of us. Michael Hambrey describes how <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> grow and decay, move and influence human civilization. Currently covering a tenth of the Earth's surface, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice has shaped the landscape over millions of years by scouring away rocks and transporting and depositing debris far from its source. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> meltwater drives turbines and irrigates deserts, and yields mineral-rich soils as well as a wealth of valuable sand and gravel. However, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> also threaten human property and life. Our future is indirectly connected with the fate of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and their influence on global climate and sea level. Including over 200 stunning photographs, the book takes the reader from the High-Arctic through North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, New Zealand and South America to the Antarctic. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for the first edition of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> (Cambridge, 1995). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994). JÜrg Alean is Professor of Geography at the Kantonsschule ZÜrcher Unterland in BÜlach, Switzerland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246753','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246753"><span>Estimation of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution to Liddar stream in a mountainous catchment, western Himalaya: an isotopic approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeelani, Gh; Shah, Rouf A; Jacob, Noble; Deshpande, Rajendrakumar D</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Snow- and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-dominated catchments in the Himalayas are important sources of fresh water to more than one billion people. However, the contribution of snowmelt and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to stream flow remains largely unquantified in most parts of the Himalayas. We used environmental isotopes and geochemical tracers to determine the source water and flow paths of stream flow draining the snow- and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-dominated mountainous catchment of the western Himalaya. The study suggested that the stream flow in the spring season is dominated by the snowmelt released from low altitudes and becomes isotopically depleted as the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season progressed. The tracer-based mixing models suggested that snowmelt contributed a significant proportion (5-66 %) to stream flow throughout the year with the maximum contribution in spring and summer seasons (from March to July). In 2013 a large and persistent snowpack contributed significantly (∼51 %) to stream flow in autumn (September and October) as well. The average annual contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to stream flow is little (5 %). However, the monthly contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to stream flow reaches up to 19 % in September during years of less persistent snow pack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..02S"><span>Co-evolution of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving front morphology and submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates in a high resolution ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Rapid dynamic changes at the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet, synchronous with ocean warming, have raised concern that tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can respond rapidly and sensitively to ocean forcing. One way in which ocean forcing would manifest is through the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the submerged parts of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving fronts, with the spatial distribution of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> a control on their morphology. Calving front morphology has thus far received little attention and yet has the potential to significantly impact calving rates and therefore tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics. Here we present a model which allows us to study the evolution of calving front morphology in two dimensions. We outline a new routine for calculating submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates from ocean models at calving fronts of arbitrary geometry, and for adjusting this geometry according to the calculated <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. This routine is applied to a high resolution (~1m) non-hydrostatic ocean model (MITgcm) with a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> boundary (calving front) which evolves in time according to the simulated submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. The model shows, consistent with recent observations, that submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> leads to undercutting of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving fronts. We examine how undercut magnitude, undercut depth and potential steady states respond to variation in subglacial discharge, ice velocity, and fjord depth, temperature and stratification. In addition to this analysis we use a diagnostic full-Stokes flow-line ice model to examine how these geometries affect ice internal stress and potential for calving. In undertaking this work we aim to elucidate a process which - supposing tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are sensitive to ocean forcing - must provide a fundamental link between the ocean and the ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814207S"><span>Centurial changes in the augmentation of low flows by snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> in the River Rhine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stahl, Kerstin; Kohn, Irene; Boehm, Mario; Freudiger, Daphné; Gerlinger, Kai; Seibert, Jan; Weiler, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Low flows can have severe consequences for river ecosystems, energy production, navigation and other river water uses. In the mid- and downstream reaches of the River Rhine late-summer low flows are augmented by the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component from the glaciated mountain headwaters upstream. As the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are retreating fast, the quantification of this augmentation has become a highly relevant question. Based on results from a long-term modelling experiment, this study explores the contributions of snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> to the River Rhine's daily streamflows in extreme low flow events since 1900 from a downstream perspective. While the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component only contributes a few percent to the average annual flow of the Rhine downstream of Switzerland, its contribution is much higher during drought events such as those that have caused extreme low flows in the late summers of 1921, 1947, and 2003. In these situations, over 30% of the low flow downstream of Basel was comprised of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> and this fraction remains rather similar further along the Rhine to the Netherlands. Despite the loss of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume and area in the headwaters over the course of the 20th century, an increasingly negative mass balance appears to have compensated for the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat, resulting in little long-term change to the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component in summer streamflow. However, for an extreme event such as that in 2003, the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> component would have contributed a third more flow if it had occurred in the early 1900s. We use the modeled long-term coupled changes in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and hydrology to quantify the low flow hazard that may loom ahead as the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> continue to decline.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0697S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0697S"><span>Hydro-Chemical Characterization of <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Waters of Ponkar <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Manang, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, R.; Sandeep, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The study was carried out in Ponkar <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, representing Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> of Nepal. The study aims in determining the hydrochemistry of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water. The sampling sites included moraine dammed, Ponkar Lake at 4120 m a.s.l to the downstream glaciated river at 3580 m a.s.l. The water samples were collected from the seven different sites according to the geological features. On site measurements of the parameters like pH, temperature, electrical conductivity was done by digital multi-probes. The samples were brought to the laboratory and the parameters were analyzed according to the standard guidelines and protocols. The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater was slightly basic with pH 7.44 (±0.32). The water was slightly hard 36.43 (±9.15) mg CaCO3/L and the electrical conductivity was found to be 47.14 (±11.18) µS/cm. The concentration of anion was in the order of HCO3 - > Cl- > SO42- > NO3- > PO43-. Calcium carbonate weathering was found out to be the major source of dissolved ions in the region. The parameters like chloride, total silica and iron were found to be 55.71 (±32.03) mg/L, 1.13 (±0.76) mg/L and 1.1 (±0.97) mg/L which is in the significant range. Whereas the concentration of manganese (<0.05 mg/L) and zinc (<0.02 mg/L) were not in detectable levels in few stations. The results of this study can be helpful in preliminary assessment of hydrochemistry and its linkage with climate change impacts in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10...87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10...87C"><span>Ablation from calving and surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> at lake-terminating Bridge <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, British Columbia, 1984-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chernos, M.; Koppes, M.; Moore, R. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bridge <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is a lake-calving <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and has retreated over 3.55 km since 1972. The majority of this retreat has occurred since 1991. This retreat is substantially greater than what has been inferred from regional climate indices, suggesting that it has been driven primarily by calving as the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreated across an overdeepened basin. In order to better understand the primary drivers of ablation, surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> (below the equilibrium line altitude, ELA) and calving were quantified during the 2013 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season using a distributed energy balance model (DEBM) and time-lapse imagery. Calving, estimated using areal change, velocity measurements, and assuming flotation were responsible for 23 % of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s ablation below the ELA during the 2013 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season and were limited by modest flow speeds and a small terminus cross-section. Calving and surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> estimates from 1984 to 2013 suggest that calving was consistently a smaller contributor of ablation. Although calving was estimated to be responsible for up to 49 % of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s ablation for individual seasons, averaged over multiple summers it accounted between 10 and 25 %. Calving was enhanced primarily by buoyancy and water depths, and fluxes were greatest between 2005 and 2010 as the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreated over the deepest part of Bridge Lake. The recent rapid rate of calving is part of a transient stage in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s retreat and is expected to diminish within 10 years as the terminus recedes into shallower water at the proximal end of the lake. These findings are in line with observations from other lake-calving <span class="hlt">glacier</span> studies across the globe and suggest a common large-scale pattern in calving-induced retreat in lake-terminating alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Despite enhancing glacial retreat, calving remains a relatively small component of ablation and is expected to decrease in importance in the future. Hence, surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> remains the primary driver of ablation at Bridge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19732827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19732827"><span>Bacterial diversity and bioprospecting for cold-active enzymes from culturable bacteria associated with sediment from a <span class="hlt">melt</span> water stream of Midtre Lovenbreen <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, an Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vardhan Reddy, Puram Vishnu; Shiva Nageswara Rao, Singireesu Soma; Pratibha, Mambatta Shankaranarayanan; Sailaja, Buddhi; Kavya, Bakka; Manorama, Ravoori Ruth; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Radha Srinivas, Tanuku Naga; Shivaji, Sisinthy</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Culturable bacterial diversity of Midtre Lovenbreen <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, an Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, was studied using 12 sediment samples collected from different points, along a transect, from the snout of Midtre Lovenbreen <span class="hlt">glacier</span> up to the convergence point of the <span class="hlt">melt</span> water stream with the sea. Bacterial abundance appeared to be closer to the convergence point of the glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> water stream with the sea than at the snout of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from the sediment samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the isolates (n=117) could be categorised in to 32 groups, with each group representing a different taxa belonging to 4 phyla (Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Flavobacteria and Proteobacteria). Representatives of the 32 groups varied in their growth temperature range (4-37 degrees C), in their tolerance to NaCl (0.1-1M NaCl) and in the growth pH range (2-13). Only 14 of 32 representative strains exhibited amylase, lipase and (or) protease activity and only one isolate (AsdM4-6) showed all three enzyme activities at 5 and 20 degrees C respectively. More than half of the isolates were pigmented. Fatty acid profile studies indicated that short-chain fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, branched fatty acids, cyclic and cis fatty acids are predominant in the psychrophilic bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23379156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23379156"><span>[Chemical composition and daily variation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water during ablation season in monsoonal temperate <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> region: a case study of Baishui <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No. 1].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Guo-Feng; Pu, Tao; He, Yuan-Qing; Wang, Pei-Zhen; Kong, Jian-Long; Zhang, Ning-Ning; Xin, Hui-Juan</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Melt</span> water samples collected continuously from 29 August to 3 September 2009 in the Baishui <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No. 1 at elevation of 4750 m were analyzed for pH, conductivity, delta18O and inorganic ions. The results showed that the pH had obvious diurnal variations and was increased slightly by the influence of precipitation. The dissolution of alkaline soluble salts in the dust was the main reason for the increase of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water conductivity; the value of delta18O was relatively low in strong ablation period and high in slight ablation period. Different from other research areas, the concentrations of Na+, K+, which were influenced by lithological and marine water vapor, were higher than that of Mg2+ in the study area; HCO3- and Ca2+ accounted for more than 80% of total ions in snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> water, indicating that the ions mainly came from limestone and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> water was a typical carbonate solution; The content of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water had an obvious daily change with temperature change, but the response amplitudes were different; Monsoon transport, local rock lithology, human industrial and agricultural activities were the main sources of inorganic ions and the deciding factors of the ion composition in the Baishui <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No. 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a4022X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ERL.....7a4022X"><span>Post-depositional enrichment of black soot in snow-pack and accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span> of Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Baiqing; Cao, Junji; Joswiak, Daniel R.; Liu, Xianqin; Zhao, Huabiao; He, Jianqiao</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The post-depositional enrichment of black soot in snow-pack was investigated by measuring the redistribution of black soot along monthly snow-pits on a Tien Shan <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The one-year experiment revealed that black soot was greatly enriched, defined as the ratio of concentration to original snow concentration, in the unmelted snow-pack by at least an order of magnitude. Greatest soot enrichment was observed in the surface snow and the lower firn-pack within the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season percolation zone. Black carbon (BC) concentrations as high as 400 ng g-1 in the summer surface snow indicate that soot can significantly contribute to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. BC concentrations reaching 3000 ng g-1 in the bottom portion of the firn pit are especially concerning given the expected equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) rise associated with future climatic warming, which would expose the dirty underlying firn and ice. Since most of the accumulation area on Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is within the percolation zone where snow densification is characterized by <span class="hlt">melting</span> and refreezing, the enrichment of black soot in the snow-pack is of foremost importance. Results suggest the effect of black soot on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> may currently be underestimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8396C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8396C"><span>Observations and modeling of ocean-induced <span class="hlt">melt</span> beneath Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice Shelf in northwestern Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cai, Cilan; Rignot, Eric; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Nakayama, Yoshihiro</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We update observationally based estimates of subaqueous <span class="hlt">melt</span>, Qm, beneath Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice Shelf (PGIS), Greenland, and model its sensitivity to oceanic thermal forcing, TF, and subglacial runoff, Qsg, using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), in a two-dimensional domain, with 20 m vertical and 40 m horizontal resolution at the grounding line. We adjust the drag coefficient to match the observationally based Qm. With the inclusion of Qsg, the maximum <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate (Qmmax) is 2 times larger in summer and 1/3 larger annually than in winter. Qmmax increases above linear with TF and below linear with Qsg. We estimate that Qmmax increased by 24% (+8.1 m/yr) beneath PGIS from the 1990s to the 2000s from a 0.21°C warming in ocean temperature and a doubling in Qsg, hence contributing to its thinning. If the PGIS is removed, we estimate that the modeled <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate near the grounding line will increase 13-16 times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20527763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20527763"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack <span class="hlt">melt</span> alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232236"><span>Ultravilolet-<span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> graft polymerization of acrylamide onto the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-blown polypropylene filter element by dynamic method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Lin-lin; Wu, Guang-xia; Xu, Shu-guang; Zhong, Hui; Shen, Ying-jie; Liu, He-zhi; Huang, Zheng-ming; Yang, Xin-bo; Yuan, Zong-huan; Tang, Lian-yi; Lin, Xiang-wei; Zhang, Shao-lai; Zhang, Wei-jun</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>By dynamic method under UV irradiation, commercial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-blown polypropylene (PPMB) filter element was modified with acrylamide (AAm) using benzophenone (BP) as initiator. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope verified that polyacrylamide chain was grafted on the fiber surface of PPMB filter element. Elemental content analysis with energy dispersive X-ray of fibers revealed that the polymerization content in the inner part of filter element was relatively higher than that in the outer. Degree of grafting changed with initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and reached 2.6% at the reaction condition: CBP=0.06 mol/L, CAAm=2.0 mol/L, irradiation time: 80 min, temperature: 600 degrees C. Relative water flux altered with the hydrophilicity and pore size of filter element. In the antifouling test, the modified filter gave greater flux recovery (approximately 70%) after filtration of the water extract of Liuweidihuang, suggesting that the fouling layer was more easily reversible due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified filter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11D..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C11D..04S"><span>Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates, grounding zone evolution, and dynamic response from 2008-2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I.; Smith, B.; Berthier, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Significant grounding line retreat, acceleration, and thinning have occurred along the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica in recent decades. These changes are directly linked to ice-ocean interaction beneath ice shelves, but existing observations of the spatial distribution, timing, and magnitude of ice shelf basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> are very limited. We generated ~2 m/px DEMs for all available 2010-2015 high-resolution stereo satellite imagery (WorldView-1/2/3 and GeoEye-1) of the West Antarctic coast (excluding the Ross and Ronne-Filchner ice shelves). Annual and sub-annual DEM mosaics were produced for the Amundsen Sea sector, with focus on the Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (PIG). We integrated SPIRIT ~40 m/px DEMs to extend the PIG time series to 2007/2008, and incorporated surface velocity maps from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X from 2009-2015. We use these products to compute ice thickness, Eulerian dH/dt, and Lagrangian DH/Dt, which capture evolving grounding line position, shelf thickening/thinning, and upstream ice dynamics. Ice shelf basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate estimates are derived from both lagrangian DH/Dt and dense flux gate mass budget analysis. We document the spatial and temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates for the 2008-2015 period, and compare with existing ICESat (2003-2008) <span class="hlt">melt</span> estimates and oceanographic observations. Finally, we compare observed <span class="hlt">melt</span> vs. depth relationships with existing ice flow model parameterizations. Estimated basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are >100-150 m/yr within the PIG inner cavity, with significantly lower rates of <50 m/yr beneath the outer shelf. Eulerian dh/dt observations show significant thinning (>5-10 m/yr) upstream of the PIG grounding line following the ~2008-2009 ungrounding of the PIG "ice plain," with additional thinning along lateral margins in subsequent years. A combination of reduced <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates and increased flux resulted in ice shelf regrounding on a large transverse seabed ridge and significant ice shelf thickening. These new data provide critical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27823861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27823861"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">melting</span> alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in mercury export and transport: An intensive sampling campaign in the Qugaqie Basin, inland Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Kang; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Guoshuai; Huang, Jie; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sun, Shiwei; Zhang, Qianggong</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>, particularly alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, have been receding globally at an accelerated rate in recent decades. The glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-induced release of pollutants (e.g., mercury) and its potential impact on the atmosphere and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed ecosystems has drawn increasing concerns. During 15th-20th August, 2011, an intensive sampling campaign was conducted in Qugaqie Basin (QB), a typical high mountain <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchment in the inland Tibetan Plateau, to investigate the export and transport of mercury from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to runoff. The total mercury (THg) level in Zhadang (ZD) <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ranged from <1 to 20.8 ng L(-1), and was slightly higher than levels measured in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed river. Particulate Hg (PHg) was the predominant form of Hg in all sampled environmental matrices. Mercury concentration in Qugaqie River (QR) was characterized by a clear diurnal variation which is linked to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The estimated annual Hg exports by ZD <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, the upper river basin and the entire QB were 8.76, 7.3 and 157.85 g, respectively, with respective yields of 4.61, 0.99 and 2.74 μg m(-2) yr(-1). Unique landforms and significant gradients from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus to QB estuary might promote weathering and erosion, thereby controlling the transport of total suspended particulates (TSP) and PHg. In comparison with other <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed rivers, QB has a small Hg export yet remarkably high Hg yield, underlining the significant impact of <span class="hlt">melting</span> alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on regional Hg biogeochemical cycles. Such impacts are expected to be enhanced in high altitude regions under the changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B41C0442S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.B41C0442S"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">melting</span> alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in mercury export and transport: an intensive sampling campaign in the Qugaqie Basin, inland Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, X.; Zhang, Q.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>, particularly alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, have been receding globally at an accelerated rate in recent decades. The glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-induced release of pollutants (e.g., mercury) and its potential impact on the atmosphere and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed ecosystems has drawn increasing concerns. During 15th to 20th August, 2011, an intensive sampling campaign was conducted in Qugaqie Basin (QB), a typical high mountain <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchment in the inland Tibetan Plateau, to investigate the export and transport of mercury from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to runoff. The total mercury (THg) level in Zhadang (ZD) <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ranged from < 1 to 20.8 ng L-1, and was slightly higher than levels measured in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed river. Particulate Hg (PHg) was the predominant form of Hg in all sampled environmental matrices. Mercury concentration in Qugaqie River (QR) was characterized by a clear diurnal variation which is linked to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The estimated annual Hg exports by ZD <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, the upper river basin and the entire QB were 8.76, 7.3 and 157.85 g, respectively, with respective yields of 4.61, 0.99 and 2.74 μg m-2 yr-1. Unique landforms and significant gradients from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus to QB estuary might promote weathering and erosion, thereby controlling the transport of total suspended particulates (TSP) and PHg. In comparison with other <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed rivers, QB has a small Hg export yet remarkably high Hg yield, underlining the significant impact of <span class="hlt">melting</span> alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on regional Hg biogeochemical cycles. Such impacts are expected to be enhanced in high altitude regions under the changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552623"><span>The dynamic bacterial communities of a <span class="hlt">melting</span> High Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snowpack.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hell, Katherina; Edwards, Arwyn; Zarsky, Jakub; Podmirseg, Sabine M; Girdwood, Susan; Pachebat, Justin A; Insam, Heribert; Sattler, Birgit</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Snow environments can occupy over a third of land surface area, but little is known about the dynamics of snowpack bacteria. The effect of snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> on bacterial community structure and diversity of surface environments of a Svalbard <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was examined using analyses of 16S rRNA genes via T-RFLP, qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Distinct community structures were found in different habitat types, with changes over 1 week apparent, in particular for the dominant bacterial class present, Betaproteobacteria. The differences observed were consistent with influences from depositional mode (snowfall vs aeolian dusts), contrasting snow with dust-rich snow layers and near-surface ice. Contrary to that, slush as the decompositional product of snow harboured distinct lineages of bacteria, further implying post-depositional changes in community structure. Taxa affiliated to the betaproteobacterial genus Polaromonas were particularly dynamic, and evidence for the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was uncovered, inviting the prospect that the dynamic bacterial communities associated with snowpacks may be active in supraglacial nitrogen cycling and capable of rapid responses to changes induced by snowmelt. Furthermore the potential of supraglacial snowpack ecosystems to respond to transient yet spatially extensive <span class="hlt">melting</span> episodes such as that observed across most of Greenland's ice sheet in 2012 merits further investigation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749494"><span>The dynamic bacterial communities of a <span class="hlt">melting</span> High Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snowpack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hell, Katherina; Edwards, Arwyn; Zarsky, Jakub; Podmirseg, Sabine M; Girdwood, Susan; Pachebat, Justin A; Insam, Heribert; Sattler, Birgit</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Snow environments can occupy over a third of land surface area, but little is known about the dynamics of snowpack bacteria. The effect of snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> on bacterial community structure and diversity of surface environments of a Svalbard <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was examined using analyses of 16S rRNA genes via T-RFLP, qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Distinct community structures were found in different habitat types, with changes over 1 week apparent, in particular for the dominant bacterial class present, Betaproteobacteria. The differences observed were consistent with influences from depositional mode (snowfall vs aeolian dusts), contrasting snow with dust-rich snow layers and near-surface ice. Contrary to that, slush as the decompositional product of snow harboured distinct lineages of bacteria, further implying post-depositional changes in community structure. Taxa affiliated to the betaproteobacterial genus Polaromonas were particularly dynamic, and evidence for the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was uncovered, inviting the prospect that the dynamic bacterial communities associated with snowpacks may be active in supraglacial nitrogen cycling and capable of rapid responses to changes induced by snowmelt. Furthermore the potential of supraglacial snowpack ecosystems to respond to transient yet spatially extensive <span class="hlt">melting</span> episodes such as that observed across most of Greenland's ice sheet in 2012 merits further investigation. PMID:23552623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6374R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.6374R"><span>Modeling of ocean-induced ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates of five west Greenland <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over the past two decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rignot, E.; Xu, Y.; Menemenlis, D.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Li, X.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.; den Broeke, M. van; Fenty, I.; Cai, C.; An, L.; Fleurian, B. de</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>High-resolution, three-dimensional simulations from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model ocean model are used to calculate the subaqueous <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate of the calving faces of Umiamako, Rinks, Kangerdlugssup, Store, and Kangilerngata <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, west Greenland, from 1992 to 2015. Model forcing is from monthly reconstructions of ocean state and ice sheet runoff. Results are analyzed in combination with observations of bathymetry, bed elevation, ice front retreat, and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> speed. We calculate that subaqueous <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are 2-3 times larger in summer compared to winter and doubled in magnitude since the 1990s due to enhanced subglacial runoff and 1.6 ± 0.3°C warmer ocean temperature. Umiamako and Kangilerngata retreated rapidly in the 2000s when subaqueous <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates exceeded the calving rates and ice front retreated to deeper bed elevation. In contrast, Store, Kangerdlugssup, and Rinks have remained stable because their subaqueous <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are 3-4 times lower than their calving rates, i.e., the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are dominated by calving processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C51A0627G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C51A0627G"><span>Field Investigation of the Turbulent Flux Parameterization and Scalar Turbulence Structure over a <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Valley <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, X.; Yang, K.; Yang, W.; Li, S.; Long, Z.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present a field investigation over a <span class="hlt">melting</span> valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> on the Tibetan Plateau. One particular aspect lies in that three <span class="hlt">melt</span> phases are distinguished during the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s ablation season, which enables us to compare results over snow, bare-ice, and hummocky surfaces [with aerodynamic roughness lengths (z0M) varying on the order of 10-4-10-2 m]. We address two issues of common concern in the study of glacio-meteorology and micrometeorology. First, we study turbulent energy flux estimation through a critical evaluation of three parameterizations of the scalar roughness lengths (z0T for temperature and z0q for humidity), viz. key factors for the accurate estimation of sensible heat and latent heat fluxes using the bulk aerodynamic method. The first approach (Andreas 1987, Boundary-Layer Meteorol 38:159-184) is based on surface-renewal models and has been very widely applied in glaciated areas; the second (Yang et al. 2002, Q J Roy Meteorol Soc 128:2073-2087) has never received application over an ice/snow surface, despite its validity in arid regions; the third approach (Smeets and van den Broeke 2008, Boundary-Layer Meteorol 128:339-355) is proposed for use specifically over rough ice defined as z0M > 10-3 m or so. This empirical z0M threshold value is deemed of general relevance to glaciated areas (e.g. ice sheet/cap and valley/outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>), above which the first approach gives underestimated z0T and z0q. The first and the third approaches tend to underestimate and overestimate turbulent heat/moisture exchange, respectively (relative errors often > 30%). Overall, the second approach produces fairly low errors in energy flux estimates; it thus emerges as a practically useful choice to parameterize z0T and z0q over an ice/snow surface. Our evaluation of z0T and z0q parameterizations hopefully serves as a useful source of reference for physically based modeling of land-ice surface energy budget and mass balance. Second, we explore how scalar turbulence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..71...32A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DSRII..71...32A"><span>Iron from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> fuels phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean): Phytoplankton characteristics and productivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Mills, Matthew M.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Laan, Patrick; Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.; Payne, Christopher D.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Arrigo, Kevin R.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The phytoplankton community composition and productivity in waters of the Amundsen Sea and surrounding sea ice zone were characterized with respect to iron (Fe) input from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. High Fe input from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> such as the Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, and the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves resulted in dense phytoplankton blooms in surface waters of Pine Island Bay, Pine Island Polynya, and Amundsen Polynya. Phytoplankton biomass distribution was the opposite of the distribution of dissolved Fe (DFe), confirming the uptake of glacial DFe in surface waters by phytoplankton. Phytoplankton biomass in the polynyas ranged from 0.6 to 14 μg Chl a L-1, with lower biomass at <span class="hlt">glacier</span> sites where strong upwelling of Modified Circumpolar Deep Water from beneath <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongues was observed. Phytoplankton blooms in the polynyas were dominated by the haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica, whereas the phytoplankton community in the sea ice zone was a mix of P. antarctica and diatoms, resembling the species distribution in the Ross Sea. Water column productivity based on photosynthesis versus irradiance characteristics averaged 3.00 g C m-2 d-1 in polynya sites, which was approximately twice as high as in the sea ice zone. The highest water column productivity was observed in the Pine Island Polynya, where both thermally and salinity stratified waters resulted in a shallow surface mixed layer with high phytoplankton biomass. In contrast, new production based on NO3 uptake was similar between different polynya sites, where a deeper UML in the weakly, thermally stratified Pine Island Bay resulted in deeper NO3 removal, thereby offsetting the lower productivity at the surface. These are the first in situ observations that confirm satellite observations of high phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Amundsen Sea. Moreover, the high phytoplankton productivity as a result of glacial input of DFe is the first evidence that <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have the potential to increase phytoplankton</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13E0694W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13E0694W"><span>Assessing the Climate Change Impact on Snow-<span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Dominated Basins in the Greater Himalaya Region Using a Distributed Glacio-Hydrologic Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wi, S.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Khalil, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melting</span> is main source of water supply making a large contribution to streamflow of major river basins in the Greater Himalaya region including the Syr Darya, the Amu Darya, the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra basins. Due to the critical role of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melting</span> as water supply for both food production and hydropower generation in the region (especially during the low flow season), it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> streamflow to different climate conditions. In this study, a distributed glacio-hydrologic model with high resolution climate input is developed and calibrated that explicitly simulates all major hydrological processes and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow dynamics for area further discretized by elevation bands. The distributed modeling structure and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow modules provide a better understanding about how temperature and precipitation alterations are likely to affect current <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice reserves. Climate stress test is used to explore changes in the total streamflow change, snow/<span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> contribution and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> accumulation and ablation under a variety of different temperature and precipitation conditions. The latest future climate projections provided from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to inform the possibility of different climate conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810342B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810342B"><span>1. Characterizing contributions of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and groundwater in alpine <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22876912"><span>Factors influencing legacy pollutant accumulation in alpine osprey: biology, topography, or <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elliott, John E; Levac, Joshua; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Shaw, D Patrick; Wayland, Mark; Morrissey, Christy A; Muir, Derek C G; Elliott, Kyle H</p> <p>2012-09-04</p> <p>Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can be transported long distances and deposited into alpine environments via cold trapping and snow scavenging processes. Here we examined biotic and abiotic factors determining contaminant variability of wildlife in alpine ecosystems. We measured POPs in eggs and plasma of an apex predator, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in 15 mountainous watersheds across a broad latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal range in western Canada. After accounting for proximate biotic factors such as trophic level (δ(15)N) and carbon source (δ(13)C), variability in contaminant concentrations, including ΣDDT (sum of trichlorodiphenylethane-related compounds), toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), total chlordane, and ΣPCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in osprey tissues was explained by interactions among relative size of watersheds, water bodies, elevation, and glacial input. ΣDDT in nestling plasma, for example, decreased with lake elevation, probably as a result of local past inputs from agricultural or public health usage at lower altitude sites. In contrast, toxaphene, never used as an insecticide in western Canada, increased with elevation and year-round snow and ice cover in both plasma and eggs, indicating long-range atmospheric sources as dominant for toxaphene. Lower chlorinated PCBs in plasma tended to decrease with elevation and ice cover consistent with published data and model outcomes. Temporal trends of POPs in osprey eggs are coincident with some modeled predictions of release from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> due to climate change. Currently we suggest that contaminants largely are released through annual snowpack <span class="hlt">melt</span> and deposited in large lower elevation lakes, or some smaller lakes with poor drainage. Our study highlights the importance of understanding how biological processes integrate physical when studying the environmental chemistry of wildlife.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.6278A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.6278A"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> stimulate large summer phytoplankton blooms in southwest Greenland waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Castelao, Renato M.; Luo, Hao; Rennermalm, Ósa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Mote, Thomas L.; Oliver, Hilde; Yager, Patricia L.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Each summer, large quantities of freshwater and associated dissolved and particulate material are released from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) into local fjords where they promote local phytoplankton growth. Whether the influx of freshwater and associated micronutrients in glacial meltwater is able to stimulate phytoplankton growth beyond the fjords is disputed, however. Here we show that the arrival of freshwater discharge from outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from both southeast and southwest GrIS coincides with large-scale blooms in the Labrador Sea that extend over 300 km from the coast during summer. This summer bloom develops about a week after the arrival of glacial meltwater in early July and persists until the input of glacial meltwater slows in August or September, accounting for 40% of annual net primary production for the area. In view of the absence of a significant change in the depth of the mixed layer associated with the arrival of glacial meltwater to the Labrador Sea, we suggest that the increase in phytoplankton biomass and productivity in summer is likely driven by a greater nutrient supply (most likely iron). Our results highlight that the ecological impact of meltwater from the GrIS likely extends far beyond the boundaries of the local fjords, encompassing much of the eastern Labrador Sea. Such impacts may increase if <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the GrIS accelerates as predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C31C0513N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C31C0513N"><span>A calving law for ice sheet models; Investigating the role of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> on dynamics of Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nick, F. M.; van der Veen, C. J.; Vieli, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>alving of icebergs accounts for perhaps as much as half the ice transferred from the Greenland Ice Sheet into the surrounding ocean, and virtually all of the ice loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. We have formulated a calving model that can be readily incorporated into time-evolving numerical ice-flow models. Our model is based on downward penetration of water-filled surface crevasses and upward propagation of basal crevasses. A calving event occurs when the depth of the surface crevasse (which increases as <span class="hlt">melting</span> progresses through the summer) reaches the height of the basal crevasse. Our numerical ice sheet model is able to reproduce observed seasonal changes of Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, such as fluctuations in flow speed and terminus positions. We have applied the model to Helheim <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> on the east coast, and Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the northwest. Our model suggests that rapid retreat of the claving front is highly affected by the amplified calving rate due to increasing water level in surface crevasses during warmer summers. Our results show little response to seasonally enhanced basal lubrication from surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>. This modeling study provides insights into the role of surface and basal hydrology to ice sheet dynamics and on how to incorporate calving in ice sheet models and therefore advances our ability to predict future ice sheet change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7225A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7225A"><span>Annually-layered lake sediments reveal strongly increased release of persistent chemicals due to accelerated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Blüthgen, Nancy; Bogdal, Christian; Schmid, Peter</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> may represent a secondary source of chemical pollutants that have previously been incorporated and stored in the ice. Of particular concern are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as the insecticide dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and industrial chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are hazardous environmental contaminants due to their persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. They were introduced in the 1930s and eventually banned in the 1970s. After release into the environment these chemicals were atmospherically transported to even remote areas such as the Alps and were deposited and stored in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Ongoing drastic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> due to global warming, which is expected to further accelerate, implies the significance of studying the fate of these 'legacy pollutants'. Proglacial lake sediments provide well-dated and high-resolution archives to reconstruct timing and quantities of such a potentially hazardous remobilization. The goal of this study is to reconstruct the historical inputs of POPs into remote alpine lakes and to investigate the accelerated release of POPs from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Due to their lipophilic character, these chemicals exhibit a high tendency to adsorb to particles whereas concentrations in water are expected to be low. Therefore, quantitative determination in annually-layered lake sediment provides an excellent way to investigate the temporal trend of inputs into lakes that act as particle sinks. For this purpose, sediment cores were sampled from proglacial lakes in the Bernese Alps (Switzerland), which are exclusively fed by glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> waters. For comparison, cores were also taken from nearby high-alpine lakes located in non-glaciated catchments, which only should record the initial atmospheric fall-out. Sediment layers were dated by annual varve counting and radionuclide measurements; they cover the time period from the mid 20th century to today. The measured time series of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4889S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.4889S"><span>Integrated simulation of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> in water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework at Hunza River Basin of Pakistan Karakoram region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, Maheswor; Koike, Toshio; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Xue, Yongkang; Wang, Lei; Rasul, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Energy budget-based distributed modeling of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> runoff is essential in a hydrologic model to accurately describe hydrologic processes in cold regions and high-altitude catchments. We developed herein an integrated modeling system with an energy budget-based multilayer scheme for clean <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, a single-layer scheme for debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and multilayer scheme for seasonal snow over <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, soil, and forest within a distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework. Model capability is demonstrated for Hunza River Basin (13,733 km2) in the Karakoram region of Pakistan on a 500 m grid for 3 hydrologic years (2002-2004). Discharge simulation results show good agreement with observations (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.93). Flow composition analysis reveals that the runoff regime is strongly controlled by the snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> runoff (50% snowmelt and 33% <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>). Pixel-by-pixel evaluation of the simulated spatial distribution of snow-covered area against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived 8 day maximum snow cover extent data indicates that the areal extent of snow cover is reproduced well, with average accuracy 84% and average absolute bias 7%. The 3 year mean value of net mass balance (NMB) was estimated at +0.04 myr-1. It is interesting that individual <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> show similar characteristics of NMB over 3 years, suggesting that both topography and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hypsometry play key roles in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance. This study provides a basis for potential application of such an integrated model to the entire Hindu-Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region toward simulating snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrologic processes within a water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8900D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8900D"><span>Trend of <span class="hlt">melt</span> under Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ice shelf modulated by high variability in ocean temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dutrieux, Pierre; De Rydt, Jan; Jenkins, Adrian; Holland, Paul R.; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Povl Abrahamsen, E.; Jacobs, Stanley S.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and neighbouring outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of West Antarctica have thinned and accelerated over the last 2 decades, significantly contributing to global sea level rise. Increased ocean heat transport beneath Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ice shelf and unpinning from a seabed ridge are thought to be the primary drivers of such changes. However, the acceleration of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> paused since 2009, renewing questions about the main processes presently affecting the ice/ocean system, the future behaviour of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and the associated impacts. Here, we present ocean observations taken in austral Spring 2012 to show a 200 m lowering of the thermocline at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving front and a 50% decrease of meltwater production from 2009. High-resolution simulations of the ocean circulation in the cavity beneath the floating tongue of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> demonstrate that for the present ice geometry, the seabed ridge blocks the warmest deep waters from reaching the ice and strongly ties meltwater production to thermocline depth above the ridge, hereby making it susceptible to relatively high variability in time, from intraseasonal to interannual. These results highlight the role of climatic variability in glacial ice loss and the fundamental importance of local ice shelf and seabed geometry for determining ice-ocean dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919224B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919224B"><span>New evidence for geothermal controls upon recent basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> of mid-latitude <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Butcher, Frances; Gallagher, Colman; Arnold, Neil; Balme, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Lewis, Stephen; Hagerman, Axel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Diagnostic evidence for past <span class="hlt">melting</span> of putative debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (DCGs) in Mars' mid-latitudes [e.g. 1-2] is extremely rare. As such, it is widely believed that these DCGs have been perennially frozen to their beds in cold-based thermal regimes [e.g. 3] since their formation 40 Ma to 1 Ga [4-8]. Here, we present a geomorphic map and propose a landsystem model that challenges this paradigm. We identify a sinuous ridge emerging from the terminus of a DCG in the broad rift zone NE of the Tharsis volcanic province. We interpret this ridge as an esker formed by deposition of sediment within a subglacial meltwater conduit. This is only the second esker-like ridge to be identified in association with a mid-latitude DCG. Recent work [9] identified a complex of esker-like ridges on the foreland of an extant DCG in Phlegra Montes, for which high-resolution analysis is ongoing [10]. Significantly, both candidate eskers are located within graben. Graben are topographic troughs formed by crustal extension and are commonly associated with elevated geothermal heat flux [e.g. 11]. A paucity of meltwater morphologies associated with DCGs elsewhere in Mars' mid-latitudes implies that atmospheric warming alone was insufficient for widespread basal <span class="hlt">melting</span>. We argue that, during deglaciation, atmospheric warming supplemented enhanced geothermal heat flux within graben such that the basal temperature threshold for basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> of DCGs was surpassed in these locations [9]. This has implications for the search for recent life on Mars, as it helps constrain the likely regions of recent meltwater production within protected subglacial environments. As eskers are exposed relicts of subglacial drainage systems, they are accessible to landed missions without the high-risk requirement to drill through remnant decametre-thick debris-mantled ice. FEGB is funded by STFC grant ST/N50421X/1 [1] Head, J.W. et al. (2010), Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 294, 306-320. [2] Levy, J.S. et al. (2014), J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C21A0721W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C21A0721W"><span>Ocean <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Greenland (OMG) bathymetric survey of northwest Greenland and implications for the recent evolution of its <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Willis, J. K.; Fenty, I. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Oceans <span class="hlt">Melting</span> Greenland (OMG) is a five-year Earth Ventures Suborbital Mission funded by NASA to investigate the role of the oceans in ice loss around the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which includes measurements of seafloor bathymetry from multibeam surveys and airborne gravity, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface elevation from high-frequency radar interferometry, and temperature/salinity/depth from vessels and airborne-dropped probes. Here, we describe the results of the 2016 bathymetry survey of northwest Greenland that took place in the summer of 2015: july 22-August 19 and Sept 2-Sept 16 spanning from Ilulissat to Thule AFB in north Greenland, and to be complemented by a survey of southeast Greenland in 2016. We deployed a multibeam Reson 7160 with 512 beams installed on the hull of the Cape Race vessel, with enhanced capabilities for fjord wall and ice face mapping. The survey tracks were optimized based on the IBCAO3 database, recent cruises, airborne gravity data collected by NASA Operation IceBridge which indicated the presence of troughs, bed topography mapped inland using a mass conservation approach, the spatial distribution of ice discharge to locate the largest outlets and maximizing the number of major fjords sampled during the survey, with the goal to identify all troughs that are major pathways for subsurface ocean heat, and constrain as many <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice front thickness as permitted by time and the practicality of navigating the ice-choked fjords. The data reveal many deep, U-shaped, submarine valleys connected to the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, intercut with sills and over deepened in narrower passages where former <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice streams merged into larger units; as well as fjords ending in shallow plateaus with <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in retreated positions. The presence of warm, salty water of Atlantic origin (AW) in the fjords is documented using CTD. Some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> sit on shallow plateaus in cold, fresh polar waters (PW) at the end of deep fjords, while others are deeper and standing in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HESSD..10..807J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HESSD..10..807J"><span>The influence of precipitation and temperature input schemes on hydrological simulations of a snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> dominated basin in Northwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, X.; Luo, Y.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Basins with <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and snow provide water storage and supply for downstream irrigated farmland, but their hydrology is often poorly known because there are limited observation networks in high mountain regions. Large uncertainties in hydrological simulations also arise from errors associated with meteorological forcing data. The influence of precipitation and temperature forcing data on hydrological simulations in rain/snow dominated watershed is well documented, but less so in basins with <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We analyzed the impacts and reliability of precipitation/temperature input solutions on hydrological simulations in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>/snow dominated Manas River Basin, showing that precipitation pattern has significant impact on snow accumulation and <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and further impacts on simulated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> behavior. The temperature inputs affect not only the timing of discharge but also the total water yield. The uncertainty associated with simple estimated input data propagates and is amplified through the modeling process. We suggest that the impacts of forcing data on hydrological simulations in basins with <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are more complex than in common rain/snow dominated watersheds. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> behavior may conceal uncertainties that are actually derived from input data. Assessment of hydrological model performance should include investigation of key processes involved in the hydrologic cycle individually, not just comparisons of simulated and observed discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13E0701R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13E0701R"><span>Investigating the Evolution of Imja Lake and Imja-Lhotse Shar <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> with a Debris-Covered <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Model and Lake Expansion Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rounce, D.; McKinney, D. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">melt</span> of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Himalayas over the past half-century due to global temperature increase has led to the formation of many glacial lakes. These lakes typically form on the tongue of stagnant debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with gentle slopes where there is significant amount of differential <span class="hlt">melting</span> due to the spatial variation of debris thickness. Once the lake develops, the water acts as a heat sink thereby increasing the rate of mass loss as the lake expands rapidly due to calving retreat. Imja Lake is an excellent example of a glacial lake that developed in the 1950's and has been undergoing rapid expansion due to calving retreat for many decades. This study seeks to use a debris-covered <span class="hlt">melt</span> model in conjunction with a lake expansion model to investigate the evolution of Imja Lake and Imja-Lhotse Shar <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26312740','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26312740"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> contaminated by legacy atmospheric depositions are important sources of PCBs and high-molecular-weight PAHs for the Ganges floodplain during dry periods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Brij Mohan; Nizzetto, Luca; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Melymuk, Lisa; Sáňka, Ondřej; Přibylová, Petra; Audy, Ondřej; Larssen, Thorjørn</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are natural redistributors of legacy airborne pollutants, affecting exposure of pristine proglacial environments. Our data shows that <span class="hlt">melting</span> Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be major contributors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for surface water in the Gangetic Plain during the dry season. Glacial emissions can exceed in some cases inputs from diffuse sources within the catchment. We analyzed air, deposition and river water in several sections along the Ganges River and its major headwaters. The predominant glacial origin of these contaminants in the Himalayan reach was demonstrated using air-water fugacity ratios and mass balance analysis. The proportion of meltwater emissions compared to pollutant discharge at downstream sections in the central part of the Gangetic Plain was between 2 and 200%. By remobilizing legacy pollutants from <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, climate change can enhance exposure levels over large and already heavily impacted regions of Northern India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........62Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........62Z"><span>Recent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface snowpack <span class="hlt">melt</span> in Novaya Zemlya and Severnaya Zemlya derived from active and passive microwave remote sensing data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Meng</p> <p></p> <p>The warming rate in the Russian High Arctic (RHA) (36˜158°E, 73˜82°N) is outpacing the pan-Arctic average, and its effect on the small <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> across this region needs further examination. The temporal variation and spatial distribution of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> onset date (MOD) and total <span class="hlt">melt</span> days (TMD) throughout the Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) archipelagoes serve as good indicators of ice mass ablation and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to regional climate change in the RHA. However, due to the harsh environment, long-term glaciological observations are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to study the surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> dynamics. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to work without solar illumination and penetrate non-precipitating clouds make microwave remote sensing an ideal tool to detect <span class="hlt">melt</span> in this region. This work extracts resolution-enhanced passive and active microwave data from different periods and retrieves a decadal <span class="hlt">melt</span> record for NovZ and SevZ. The high correlation among passive and active data sets instills confidence in the results. The mean MOD is June 20th on SevZ and June 10th on NovZ during the period of 1992-2012. The average TMDs are 47 and 67 days on SevZ and NovZ from 1995 to 2011, respectively. NovZ had large interannual variability in the MOD, but its TMD generally increased. SevZ MOD is found to be positively correlated to local June reanalysis air temperature at 850hPa geopotential height and occurs significantly earlier (˜0.73 days/year, p-value < 0.01) from 1992 to 2011. SevZ also experienced a longer TMD trend (˜0.75 days/year, p-value < 0.05) from 1995 to 2011. Annual mean TMD on both islands are positively correlated with regional summer mean reanalysis air temperature and negatively correlated to local sea ice extent. These strong correlations might suggest that the Russian High Arctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are vulnerable to the continuously diminishing sea ice extent, the associated air temperature</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4812508J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4812508J"><span>Role of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> in controlling river hydrology in Liddar watershed (western Himalaya) under current and future climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeelani, G.; Feddema, Johannes J.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Stearns, Leigh</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Snowmelt and icemelt are believed to be important regulators of seasonal discharge of Himalayan rivers. To analyze the long term contribution of snowmelt and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>/icemelt to river hydrology we apply a water budget model to simulate hydrology of the Liddar watershed in the western Himalaya, India for the 20th century (1901-2010) and future IPCC A1B climate change scenario. Long term (1901-2010) temperature and precipitation data in this region show a warming trend (0.08°C yr-1) and an increase in precipitation (0.28 mm yr-1), with a significant variability in seasonal trends. In particular, winter months have undergone the most warming, along with a decrease in precipitation rates; precipitation has increased throughout the spring. These trends have accelerated the <span class="hlt">melting</span> and rapid disappearance of snow, causing a seasonal redistribution in the availability of water. Our model results show that about 60% of the annual runoff of the Liddar watershed is contributed from the snowmelt, while only 2% is contributed from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice. The climate trend observed from the 1901 to 2010 time period and its impact on the availability of water will become significantly worse under the IPCC climate change scenarios. Our results suggest that there is a significant shift in the timing and quantity of water runoff in this region of the Himalayas due to snow distribution and <span class="hlt">melt</span>. With greatly increased spring runoff and its reductions in summer potentially leading to reduced water availability for irrigation agriculture in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510987C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510987C"><span>On the influence of debris in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> modelling: a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carenzo, Marco; Mabillard, Johan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Reid, Tim; Brock, Ben; Burlando, Paolo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The increase of rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and of englacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out material has led to an increase of the debris cover extent on Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. In recent years, distributed debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate enhancing/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya. Some of the input data such as wind or temperature are also of difficult extrapolation from station measurements. Due to their lower data requirement, empirical models have been used in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> modelling. However, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single <span class="hlt">melt</span>-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of debris thickness on <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model accounting for the debris thickness feedback in the computation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at the debris-ice interface. The empirical parameters (temperature factor, shortwave radiation factor, and lag factor accounting for the energy transfer through the debris layer) are optimized at the point scale for several debris thicknesses against <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter has been validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. The new model is developed on Miage <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Italy, a debris cover <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in which the ablation area is mantled in near-continuous layer of rock. Subsequently, its transferability is tested on Haut <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> d'Arolla, Switzerland, where debris is thinner and its extension has been seen to expand in the last decades. The results show that the performance of the new debris temperature-index model (DETI) in simulating the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate at the point scale</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EOSTr..83..389F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EOSTr..83..389F"><span>Tropical <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fountain, Andrew</p> <p></p> <p>The term "tropical <span class="hlt">glacier</span>" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> fit into this scene? Like <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> everywhere, tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Thus, tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds <span class="hlt">melt</span> and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021199','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150021199"><span>An Integrated Modeling System for Estimating <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and Snow <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Driven Streamflow from Remote Sensing and Earth System Data Products in the Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Sen Gupta, A.; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and their <span class="hlt">melt</span> outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (Geo- SFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519.1859B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519.1859B"><span>An integrated modeling system for estimating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> driven streamflow from remote sensing and earth system data products in the Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Gupta, A. Sen; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.; Hummel, P.; Gray, M.; Duda, P.; Zaitchik, B.; Mahat, V.; Artan, G.; Tokar, S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and their <span class="hlt">melt</span> outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911559R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911559R"><span>Quantifying the individual contributions of <span class="hlt">melt</span> from snow and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in High Mountain Asia river basins: Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rittger, Karl; Bair, Edward; Racoviteanu, Adina; Brodzik, Mary J.; Armstrong, Richard L.; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Raup, Bruce; Painter, Thomas H.; Dozier, Jeff</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In High Mountain Asia, snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice contribute to streamflow, but the respective contributions are not fully understood. We use daily maps of snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice from MODIS at 500 m spatial resolution as input to an energy balance <span class="hlt">melt</span> model to estimate daily snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice contributions to streamflow. Daily maps of 1) snow over ice (SOI), 2) exposed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice (EGI), and 3) snow over land (SOL) are generated using fractional snow cover, snow grain size, and annual minimum ice and snow from MODIS-derived MODSCAG and MODICE products. These maps are calibrated using semi-automated class maps from Landsat 8 at 30 m spatial resolution. We estimate snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions using an uncalibrated energy balance model (ParBal) forced with CERES meteorological data. We summarize rainfall from APHRODITE for available years in the MODIS record to complete the balance of atmospheric sources of water. The ParBal model is superior for estimating snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> volumes relative to a temperature index model because it does not rely on calibration and can easily be transferred from basin to basin. It is also less sensitive to temperature biases frequently observed in reanalysis data because solar and longwave radiation contribute significant energy to <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In cloudy regions, using CERES data is more accurate than widely-used LDAS forcing data. We compare total <span class="hlt">melt</span> volumes from ParBal summed with rainfall from APHRODITE to streamflow in the Naryn sub-basin of the Syr Darya River basin, the Vakhsh sub-basin of the Amu Darya River basin, the Narayani, Sapta Kosi, and Karnali sub-basins of the Ganges River basin and multiple nested sub-basins of the Indus River basin. The expansive modeled geographic area captures a wide range of snow and ice conditions including: highly <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> regions, less <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> and more arid regions, and lower elevation regions with only seasonal snow cover and large contributions from rainfall. For example, <span class="hlt">melt</span> from the Par</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43B0610Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C43B0610Z"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> characterization and trend analysis (1992-2011) in the Russian High Arctic from combined resolution-enhanced scatterometer and passive microwave data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, M.; Ramage, J. M.; Semmens, K. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Global warming has been pronounced in the remote <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> archipelagoes (Severnaya Zemlya, Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land) of the Russian High Arctic (RHA) and its effect on the low altitude, high latitude small ice caps needs examination. The timing and spatial variability of snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> onset, duration and intensity are key factors influencing mass balance and the ice marginal hydrological system as well as important indicators of glacial response to anthropogenic and natural forcings. Characterization and trend analysis of RHA <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> behaviors provide insight about assessing the mass loss rate under recent Arctic climate change. However, due to the harsh environment, long term records of glaciological data for RHA are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to accomplish the research. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to penetrate non-precipitating clouds enables microwave remote sensing to detect <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The appearance of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water in snow dramatically decreases the returned scatterometer radar signal from active microwave sensors and sharply augments passive microwave emission. Based on this feature, we combined resolution-enhanced ERS-1/2 C-band (1992-2000), QuickSCAT Ku-band (2000-2009), ASCAT C-band (2009-2011) scatterometer data and SSMI 37 GHz (1995-2007) vertically polarized passive microwave products from Brigham Young University and analyzed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> trends from 1992 to 2011 with a spatial resolution downscaled to 4.45km. We concatenated scatterometer derived <span class="hlt">melt</span> behaviors by overlapping years and refined the results based on passive microwave data. Cross-validation shows that <span class="hlt">melt</span> timing to be consistent between the active and passive sensors. Trend analysis (α < 0.005) reveals that the average <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> onset date occurs earlier by approximately 0.85 days/year in Severnaya Zemlya which outpaced the mean advancing rate in the pan-Arctic. Surrounded by ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e000099.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e000099.jpg.html"><span>NASA-funded study says <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shape matters and influences vulnerability to <span class="hlt">melting</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>A new NASA-funded study has identified which <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in West Greenland are most susceptible to thinning in the coming decades by analyzing how they’re shaped. The research could help predict how much the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to future sea level rise in the next century, a number that currently ranges from inches to feet. “There are <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that popped up in our study that flew under the radar until now,” said lead author Denis Felikson, a graduate research assistant at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) and a Ph.D. student in The University of Texas Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. Felikson’s study was published in Nature Geoscience on April 17. Read more: go.nasa.gov/2pJJwNA Caption: Terminus of Kangerlugssuup Sermerssua <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in west Greenland Photo credit: Denis Felikson, Univ. of Texas NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..419W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NatGe...5..419W"><span>Geologic methane seeps along boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walter Anthony, Katey M.; Anthony, Peter; Grosse, Guido; Chanton, Jeffrey</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, accumulates in subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs, such as coal beds and natural gas deposits. In the Arctic, permafrost and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> form a `cryosphere cap' that traps gas leaking from these reservoirs, restricting flow to the atmosphere. With a carbon store of over 1,200Pg, the Arctic geologic methane reservoir is large when compared with the global atmospheric methane pool of around 5Pg. As such, the Earth's climate is sensitive to the escape of even a small fraction of this methane. Here, we document the release of 14C-depleted methane to the atmosphere from abundant gas seeps concentrated along boundaries of permafrost thaw and receding <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Alaska and Greenland, using aerial and ground surface survey data and in situ measurements of methane isotopes and flux. We mapped over 150,000 seeps, which we identified as bubble-induced open holes in lake ice. These seeps were characterized by anomalously high methane fluxes, and in Alaska by ancient radiocarbon ages and stable isotope values that matched those of coal bed and thermogenic methane accumulations. Younger seeps in Greenland were associated with zones of ice-sheet retreat since the Little Ice Age. Our findings imply that in a warming climate, disintegration of permafrost, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and parts of the polar ice sheets could facilitate the transient expulsion of 14C-depleted methane trapped by the cryosphere cap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4917964','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4917964"><span>The biogeography of red snow microbiomes and their role in <span class="hlt">melting</span> arctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Raiswell, Rob; Edwards, Arwyn; Newton, Rob J.; Gill, Fiona; Benning, Liane G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Arctic is <span class="hlt">melting</span> at an unprecedented rate and key drivers are changes in snow and ice albedo. Here we show that red snow, a common algal habitat blooming after the onset of <span class="hlt">melting</span>, plays a crucial role in decreasing albedo. Our data reveal that red pigmented snow algae are cosmopolitan as well as independent of location-specific geochemical and mineralogical factors. The patterns for snow algal diversity, pigmentation and, consequently albedo, are ubiquitous across the Arctic and the reduction in albedo accelerates snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> and increases the time and area of exposed bare ice. We estimated that the overall decrease in snow albedo by red pigmented snow algal blooms over the course of one <span class="hlt">melt</span> season can be 13%. This will invariably result in higher <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. We argue that such a ‘bio-albedo' effect has to be considered in climate models. PMID:27329445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711968L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711968L"><span>The biogeography of red snow microbiomes and their role in <span class="hlt">melting</span> arctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Raiswell, Rob; Edwards, Arwyn; Newton, Rob J.; Gill, Fiona; Benning, Liane G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Arctic is <span class="hlt">melting</span> at an unprecedented rate and key drivers are changes in snow and ice albedo. Here we show that red snow, a common algal habitat blooming after the onset of <span class="hlt">melting</span>, plays a crucial role in decreasing albedo. Our data reveal that red pigmented snow algae are cosmopolitan as well as independent of location-specific geochemical and mineralogical factors. The patterns for snow algal diversity, pigmentation and, consequently albedo, are ubiquitous across the Arctic and the reduction in albedo accelerates snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> and increases the time and area of exposed bare ice. We estimated that the overall decrease in snow albedo by red pigmented snow algal blooms over the course of one <span class="hlt">melt</span> season can be 13%. This will invariably result in higher <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. We argue that such a `bio-albedo' effect has to be considered in climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27329445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27329445"><span>The biogeography of red snow microbiomes and their role in <span class="hlt">melting</span> arctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Raiswell, Rob; Edwards, Arwyn; Newton, Rob J; Gill, Fiona; Benning, Liane G</p> <p>2016-06-22</p> <p>The Arctic is <span class="hlt">melting</span> at an unprecedented rate and key drivers are changes in snow and ice albedo. Here we show that red snow, a common algal habitat blooming after the onset of <span class="hlt">melting</span>, plays a crucial role in decreasing albedo. Our data reveal that red pigmented snow algae are cosmopolitan as well as independent of location-specific geochemical and mineralogical factors. The patterns for snow algal diversity, pigmentation and, consequently albedo, are ubiquitous across the Arctic and the reduction in albedo accelerates snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> and increases the time and area of exposed bare ice. We estimated that the overall decrease in snow albedo by red pigmented snow algal blooms over the course of one <span class="hlt">melt</span> season can be 13%. This will invariably result in higher <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. We argue that such a 'bio-albedo' effect has to be considered in climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Detection in Complex Terrain Using New AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Passive microwave (PM) 18 GHz and 36 GHz horizontally- and vertically-polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) channels from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) have been important sources of information about snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> status in glacial environments, particularly at high latitudes. PM data are sensitive to the changes in near-surface liquid water that accompany <span class="hlt">melt</span> onset, <span class="hlt">melt</span> intensification, and refreezing. Overpasses are frequent enough that in most areas multiple (2-8) observations per day are possible, yielding the potential for determining the dynamic state of the snow pack during transition seasons. AMSR-E Tb data have been used effectively to determine <span class="hlt">melt</span> onset and <span class="hlt">melt</span> intensification using daily Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds. Due to mixed pixels in historically coarse spatial resolution Tb data, <span class="hlt">melt</span> analysis has been impractical in ice-marginal zones where pixels may be only fractionally snow/ice covered, and in areas where the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is near large bodies of water: even small regions of open water in a pixel severely impact the microwave signal. We use the new enhanced-resolution Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record product's twice daily obserations to test and update existing snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> algorithms by determining appropriate <span class="hlt">melt</span> thresholds for both Tb and DAV for the CETB 18 and 36 GHz channels. We use the enhanced resolution data to evaluate <span class="hlt">melt</span> characteristics along <span class="hlt">glacier</span> margins and <span class="hlt">melt</span> transition zones during the <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons in locations spanning a wide range of <span class="hlt">melt</span> scenarios, including the Patagonian Andes, the Alaskan Coast Range, and the Russian High Arctic icecaps. We quantify how improvement of spatial resolution from the original 12.5 - 25 km-scale pixels to the enhanced resolution of 3.125 - 6.25 km improves the ability to evaluate <span class="hlt">melt</span> timing across boundaries and transition zones in diverse glacial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..403..116L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..403..116L"><span>Influence of spatial discretization, underground water storage and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> on a physically-based hydrological model of the Upper Durance River basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Etchevers, P.; Martin, E.; Obled, C.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>SummaryThe SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU hydrological model ( Habets et al., 2008) presents severe limitations for alpine catchments. Here we propose possible model adaptations. For the catchment discretization, Relatively Homogeneous Hydrological Units (RHHUs) are used instead of the classical 8 km square grid. They are defined from the dilineation of hydrological subbasins, elevation bands, and aspect classes. <span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> and non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas are also treated separately. In addition, new modules are included in the model for the simulation of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and retention of underground water. The improvement resulting from each model modification is analysed for the Upper Durance basin. RHHUs allow the model to better account for the high spatial variability of the hydrological processes (e.g. snow cover). The timing and the intensity of the spring snowmelt floods are significantly improved owing to the representation of water retention by aquifers. Despite the relatively small area covered by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, accounting for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> is necessary for simulating the late summer low flows. The modified model is robust over a long simulation period and it produces a good reproduction of the intra and interannual variability of discharge, which is a necessary condition for its application in a modified climate context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911240A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911240A"><span>Improving Understanding of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Contribution to High Asian River Discharge through Collaboration and Capacity Building with High Asian CHARIS Partner Institutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Armstrong, Betsy; Barrett, Andrew; Fetterer, Florence; Hill, Alice; Jodha Khalsa, Siri; Racoviteanu, Adina; Raup, Bruce; Rittger, Karl; Williams, Mark; Wilson, Alana; Ye, Qinghua</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Contribution to High Asia Runoff from Ice & Snow (CHARIS) project uses remote sensing data combined with modeling from 2000 to the present to improve proportional estimates of <span class="hlt">melt</span> from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and seasonal snow surfaces. Based at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, the CHARIS project objectives are twofold: 1) capacity-building efforts with CHARIS partners from eight High Asian countries to better forecast future availability and vulnerability of water resources in the region, and 2) improving our ability to systematically assess the role of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and seasonal snow in the freshwater resources of High Asia. Capacity-building efforts include working with CHARIS partners from Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Our capacity-building activities include training, data sharing, supporting fieldwork, graduate student education and infrastructure development. Because of the scarcity of in situ data in this High Asian region, we are using the wealth of available remote sensing data to characterize digital elevation, daily maps of fractional snow-cover, annual maps of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and permanent snow cover area and downscaled reanalysis temperature data in snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> models to estimate the relative proportions of river runoff from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> and seasonally snow-covered surfaces. Current collaboration with Qinghua Ye, visiting scientist at NSIDC from the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, CAS, focuses on remote sensing methods to detect changes in the mountain cryosphere. Collaboration with our Asian partners supports the systematic analysis of the annual cycle of seasonal snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> across the High Mountain Asia region. With our Asian partners, we have derived reciprocal benefits, learning from their specialized local knowledge and obtaining access to their in situ data. We expect that the improved understanding of runoff from snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C23A0388B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C23A0388B"><span>Near Ice Oceanographic Observations of the Breiðamerkurjökull <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Plume in Jökulsárlón Lagoon, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Breiðamerkurjökull <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap and it has a marine terminus in a lagoon connected to the North Atlantic Ocean. The lagoon waters have characteristics determined by the Atlantic water, subglacial run-off and the local <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice calved from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The lagoon is not a fjordic environment, but many similar physical processes are operating. We conducted four hydrographic sections within the lagoon to determine the effects of the ocean on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Three of the sections across the lagoon allow us to determine the pathway of Atlantic water towards the glacial ice. One hydrographic section of 16 stations along the Breiðamerkurjökull <span class="hlt">glacier</span> face was always within 3 to 30m from the ice face. This very near ice section showed both the warmest and coldest water sampled in the lagoon. The coldest water was close to the maximum depth of our measurements and was formed through contact with the ice. A heat and salt conservation model has enabled the relative contributions of the inflowing Atlantic derived saline water, the sub glacial fresh water run-off and the <span class="hlt">melt</span> from the ice face to be determined. Overall the dominant freshwater contribution to the lagoon in the upper 20 m is from the sub-glacial freshwater. Beneath 20 m the dominant factor is modified North Atlantic water. The contribution from <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice is observed below 10 m, and below 40 m depth this is in layers. Individual CTD measurements show that within the layers of higher ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> there are strong peaks of increased <span class="hlt">melt</span>, and so there is a 3 dimensional structure to the <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The highest resolution data we obtained show that the water at these depths is in places statically unstable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33B0815S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33B0815S"><span>Glacio-hydrological Modeling in the <span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> Tamor River Basin, Eastern Nepal using Temperature Index <span class="hlt">Melt</span> Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, A.; Kayastha, R. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the region with sparse hydro-meteorological data, use of temperature index <span class="hlt">melt</span> model to estimate snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> has shown to be an effective method to <span class="hlt">melt</span> modeling. This study presents the estimation of daily discharge of Tamor River basin located in eastern Nepal with relative contribution of snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> using this approach, which is based on the relation that the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of snow or ice during any particular period is proportional to the positive temperature linked by positive degree day factor. The study basin is one of the sub-basins of Koshi River basin that lies in the Himalayan region and has an area of 4001.2 km2 with approximately 9.4 % of the total basin covered by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (debris covered and clean ice type) and approximately 21.5 % of the area lying above 5000 m a.s.l. The model is calibrated from 2001 to 2005 and validated from 2007 to 2010. The model efficiency assessments show good results with Nash - Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients and volume differences as 0.80 and 4.8 %, respectively in calibration and 0.83 and 1.1 %, respectively in validation periods. The average discharges during these periods are 237.95 m3/s and 231.49 m3/s with 43.3 % and 40.7 % of average snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions, respectively. The model is also used to project river discharge from 2020 to 2050 with meteorological input data (i.e., temperature and precipitation) projected from Regional Climate Model using Weather Research and Forecasting (V3.5) model of 12 km resolution and boundary conditions from NorESM, which is bias corrected to the basin scale for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate scenarios. The model projection shows increase in river discharge by 0.24 m3/s per year with decreasing snow and ice contribution by 0.03 m3/s per year under RCP 4.5 scenario, whereas it shows decrease in total river discharge and snow and ice contribution as well by 0.29 m3/s and 0.28 m3/s per year, respectively under RCP 8.5 scenario. The study indicates that this model can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149..177L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149..177L"><span>Recent decadal <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balances over the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and the increase in their <span class="hlt">melting</span> contribution to Nam Co Lake measured by differential bistatic SAR interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gang; Lin, Hui</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains locates in the southeastern center of the Inner Tibetan Plateau (ITP). <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in this region are influenced by both the continental climate of Central Asia and the Indian Monsoon system. Their <span class="hlt">melting</span> on the western slopes feeds the Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest endorheic lake in the ITP. The elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.25 ± 0.12 m year- 1 from 2003 to 2009. In this study, aimed at quantifying the decadal <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance in the Western Nyainqentanglha Mountains and their increasing <span class="hlt">melting</span> contribution to Nam Co Lake; we applied the differential Bistatic SAR interferometry method to five pairs of TanDEM CoSSC datasets observed between 2013 and 2014 and SRTM acquired in 2000. The mean annual mass loss rate was - 0.235 ± 0.127 m w.e. year- 1 for the entire range. The mass loss rate for the northwestern slope (inside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) and the southeastern slope (outside the Nam Co Lake drainage basin) were - 0.268 ± 0.129 m w.e. year- 1 and ¬ 0.219 ± 0.126 m w.e. year- 1, respectively. Our results agree well with previous fieldwork at the Zhadang and Gurenhekou <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> located on the northwestern and southeastern slopes. Debris-cover suppressed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> downwasting to some extent. By presuming that all of the <span class="hlt">melted</span> ice flows into the lake, the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>' <span class="hlt">melting</span> contribution to Nam Co Lake's increasing water volume was approximately 10.50 ± 9.00% during the period between 2003 and 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589951"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: a probable source of DDT to the Antarctic marine ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geisz, Heidi N; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Cochran, Michele A; Fraser, William R; Ducklow, Hugh W</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Persistent organic pollutants reach polar regions by long-range atmospheric transport and biomagnify through the food web accumulating in higher trophic level predators. We analyzed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) samples collected from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate current levels of sigmaDDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE) in these birds, which are confined to Antarctica. Ratios of p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE in Adélie penguins have declined significantly since 1964 indicating current exposure to old rather than new sources of sigmaDDT. However, sigmaDDT has not declined in Adélie penguins from the Western Antarctic Peninsula for more than 30 years and the presence of p,p'-DDT in these birds indicates that there is a current source of DDT to the Antarctic marine food web. DDT has been banned or severely restricted since peak use in the 1970s, implicating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater as a likely source for DDT contamination in coastal Antarctic seas. Our estimates indicate that 1-4 kg x y(-1) sigmaDDT are currently being released into coastal waters along the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet due to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ablation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53A0296A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C53A0296A"><span>Methane seeps along boundaries of arctic permafrost thaw and <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anthony, P.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Grosse, G.; Chanton, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, accumulates in subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Arctic, impermeable icy permafrost and glacial overburden form a 'cryosphere cap' that traps gas leaking from these reservoirs, restricting flow to the atmosphere. We document the release of geologic methane to the atmosphere from abundant gas seeps concentrated along boundaries of permafrost thaw and receding <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Alaska. Through aerial and ground surveys we mapped >150,000 seeps identified as bubbling-induced open holes in lake ice. Subcap methane seeps had anomalously high fluxes, 14C-depletion, and stable isotope values matching known coalbed and thermogenic methane accumulations in Alaska. Additionally, we observed younger subcap methane seeps in Greenland that were associated with ice-sheet retreat since the Little Ice Age. These correlations suggest that in a warming climate, continued disintegration of permafrost, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and parts of the polar ice sheets will relax pressure on subsurface seals and further open conduits, allowing a transient expulsion of geologic methane currently trapped by the cryosphere cap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23504742"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and stoichiometric implications for lake community structure: zooplankton species distributions across a natural light gradient.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laspoumaderes, Cecilia; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, María Sol; Bastidas Navarro, Marcela; Cuassolo, Florencia; Balseiro, Esteban</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> around the globe are <span class="hlt">melting</span> rapidly, threatening the receiving environments of the world's fresh water reservoirs with significant changes. The meltwater, carried by rivers, contains large amounts of suspended sediment particles, producing longitudinal gradients in the receiving lakes. These gradients may result in changes in the light : nutrient ratio that affect grazer performance by altering elemental food quality. Thus, glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> may induce a shift in the phytoplankton carbon : nutrient ratio and hence influence the dominance of herbivorous zooplankton through stoichiometric mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we combined field and experimental data, taking advantage of a natural light intensity gradient caused by glacial clay input in a deep oligotrophic Patagonian lake. Across this gradient, we evaluated the abundances of two consumer taxa with different phosphorus requirements, the copepod Boeckella gracilipes and the cladoceran Daphnia commutata, using a six-station transect along the lake. We found significant differences in light : nutrient ratio and stoichiometric food quality of the seston, together with a switch from dominance of P-rich Daphnia in low carbon : nutrient stations to dominance of low-P copepods in high carbon : nutrient stations. The laboratory experiments confirmed that the difference in the carbon : nutrient ratio across the gradient is sufficient to impair Daphnia growth. The overall patterns are consistent with our prediction that shifts in the environmental light : nutrient ratio as a result of glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> would contribute to shifts in the dominance of stoichiometrically contrasting taxa in consumer guilds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615007G"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glacier</span> impacts the community structure of Bacteria, Fungi and Archaea in Chilean Patagonia fjord system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gutiérrez, Marcelo, ,, Dr.; Galand, Pierre; Moffat, Carlos; Pantoja, Silvio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Seasonal and spatial variability in microbial community composition was studied by analyzing sequences of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi in the fjord adjacent to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> Jorge Montt (48º20'S; 73º30' W), which has evidenced one of the most significant retreats during the past century in Patagonian Icefields. A detailed description of prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) and fungal communities was carried out by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the ITS region, respectively. Our results showed high diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in bacteria followed by the fungal community. In contrast, Archaea was characterized by low OTU abundance in most of the sampling sites and depths. Similarity in OTU composition evidenced a microbial community structure associated with hydrographic features of the fjord basin, where strong stratification maintained by the continuous input of meltwaters produces differences in the microbial composition between surface and bottom waters. Our results also showed seasonal changes in microbial components, evidencing the presence of OTUs related to cold and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> environments in surface waters during autumn, when a wider layer of meltwater was observed. We identified at least three different microbial communities inhabiting the downstream fjord ecosystem: i) a surface waters community in autumn, with a predominance of OTUs matching with Cyanobacteria, ii) a bottom water community in autumn, where fungal OTUs predominated, and iii) a microbial community during winter with a significant presence of OTUs of Archaea. The composition of these microbial communities agrees with patterns of bacterial communities in glacial environments, marine sediments and waters and with fungal composition in coastal, marine and continental airborne. Our results indicate that hydrodynamic and water column characteristics play a main role in structuring microbial community and suggest that the progressive input of meltwater can strongly impacts the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856307','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856307"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glacier</span> impacts community structure of Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi in a Chilean Patagonia fjord.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Galand, Pierre E; Moffat, Carlos; Pantoja, Silvio</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Jorge Montt <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, located in the Patagonian Ice Fields, has undergone an unprecedented retreat during the past century. To study the impact of the meltwater discharge on the microbial community of the downstream fjord, we targeted Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi communities during austral autumn and winter. Our results showed a singular microbial community present in cold and low salinity surface waters during autumn, when a thicker meltwater layer was observed. Meltwater bacterial sequences were related to Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes previously identified in freshwater and cold ecosystems, suggesting the occurrence of microorganisms adapted to live in the extreme conditions of meltwater. For Fungi, representative sequences related to terrestrial and airborne fungal taxa indicated transport of allochthonous Fungi by the meltwater discharge. In contrast, bottom fjord waters from autumn and winter showed representative Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) related to sequences of marine microorganisms, which is consistent with current models of fjord circulation. We conclude that meltwater can significantly modify the structure of microbial communities and support the development of a major fraction of microorganisms in surface waters of Patagonian fjords. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SedG..149..183T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SedG..149..183T"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> base during a small-volume subglacial rhyolite eruption: evidence from Bláhnúkur, Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tuffen, H.; Pinkerton, H.; McGarvie, D. W.; Gilbert, J. S.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>Although observations of recent volcanic eruptions beneath Vatnajökull, Iceland have improved the understanding of ice deformation and meltwater drainage, little is known about the processes that occur at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> base. We present observations of the products of a small-volume, effusive subglacial rhyolite eruption at Bláhnúkur, Torfajökull, Iceland. Lava bodies, typically 7 m long, have unusual conical morphologies and columnar joint orientations that suggest emplacement within cavities <span class="hlt">melted</span> into the base of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Cavities appear to have been steep-walled and randomly distributed. These features can be explained by a simple model of conductive heat loss during the ascent of a lava body to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> base. The released heat <span class="hlt">melts</span> a cavity in the overlying ice. The development of vapour-escape pipes in the waterlogged, permeable breccias surrounding the lava allows rapid heat transfer between lava and ice. The formed meltwater percolates into the breccias, recharging the cooling system and leaving a steam-filled cavity. The slow ascent rates of intrusive rhyolitic magma bodies provide ample time for a cavity to be <span class="hlt">melted</span> in the ice above, even during the final 10 m of ascent to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> base. An equilibrium cavity size is calculated at which <span class="hlt">melting</span> is balanced by creep closure. This is dependent upon the heat input and the difference between glaciostatic and cavity pressure. The cavity sizes inferred from Bláhnúkur are consistent with a pressure differential of 2-4 MPa, suggesting that the ice was at least 200 m thick. This is consistent with the volcanic stratigraphy, which indicates that the ice exceeded 350 m in thickness. Although this is the first time that a subglacial cavity system of this type has been reconstructed from an ancient volcanic sequence, it shares many characteristics with the modern firn cave system formed by fumarolic <span class="hlt">melting</span> within the summit crater of Mount Rainier, Washington. At both localities, it appears that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3830919','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3830919"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> gliomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prasad, Gautam; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neuro-oncologic literature. Extensive retrospective cohort data in pediatric populations after therapeutic intracranial radiation show a clearly increased risk in glioma incidence that is both patient age- and radiation dose/volume-dependent. Data in adults are more limited but show heightened risk in certain groups exposed to radiation. In both populations, there is no evidence linking increased risk associated with routine exposure to diagnostic radiation. At the molecular level, recent studies have found distinct genetic differences between <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> gliomas and their spontaneously-occurring counterparts. Clinically, there is understandable reluctance on the part of clinicians to re-treat patients due to concern for cumulative neurotoxicity. However, available data suggest that aggressive intervention can lead to improved outcomes in patients with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> gliomas. PMID:19831840</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C53B0557M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C53B0557M"><span>Temporal variation of basal stress in temperate Icelandic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during the early <span class="hlt">melt</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Minchew, B. M.; Simons, M.; Hensley, S.; Larour, E. Y.; Morlighem, M.; Bjornsson, H.; Palsson, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present time-series estimates of the basal stress field of Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland, inferred using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). We use estimates of the surface velocity field derived from multiple InSAR observations of the entire ice cap, along with high-resolution surface and bedrock topography maps, to constrain the ice-flow models. NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) collected the InSAR data between June 3 and June 15, 2012, approximately two weeks after the onset of seasonal <span class="hlt">melt</span>, from multiple vantage points allowing for estimates of the full 3D velocity field on multiple days using only the InSAR line-of-sight measurements. We correct the InSAR data for measurement errors caused by differential surface moisture content prior to inferring the 3D velocity field. In situ meteorological data complement the InSAR data and allow us to estimate the daily <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate on the ice cap. The data indicate an apparent slow down of the mean daily velocity between early and late June despite nearly constant surface meltwater production rates throughout the data collection time window. Because of the short timescales, slowdowns are likely due to increases in the effective basal stress. This behavior is consistent with theoretical models that describe the transition of the basal hydrology from a relatively closed system comprised primarily of isolated or partially connected cavities to an open system of channels that efficiently transport a constant volume of surface meltwater along the bed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2793K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2793K"><span>Accelerated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> on Snow Dome, Mount Olympus, Washington, USA, due to deposition of black carbon and mineral dust from wildfire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaspari, Susan; McKenzie Skiles, S.; Delaney, Ian; Dixon, Daniel; Painter, Thomas H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Assessing the potential for black carbon (BC) and dust deposition to reduce albedo and accelerate <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> is of interest in Washington because snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> are an important source of water resources, and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are retreating. In August 2012 on Snow Dome, Mount Olympus, Washington, we measured snow surface spectral albedo and collected surface snow samples and a 7 m ice core. The snow and ice samples were analyzed for iron (Fe, used as a dust proxy) via inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry, total impurity content gravimetrically, BC using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2), and charcoal through microscopy. In the 2012 summer surface snow, BC (54 ± 50 µg/L), Fe (367±236 µg/L) and gravimetric impurity (35 ± 18 mg/L) concentrations were spatially variable, and measured broadband albedo varied between 0.67-0.74. BC and dust concentrations in the ice core 2011 summer horizon were a magnitude higher (BC = 3120 µg/L, Fe = 22000 µg/L, and gravimetric impurity = 1870 mg/L), corresponding to a modeled broadband albedo of 0.45 based on the measured BC and gravimetric impurity concentrations. The Big Hump forest fire is the likely source for the higher concentrations. Modeling constrained by measurements indicates that the all-sky 12 h daily mean radiative forcings in summer 2012 and 2011 range between 37-53 W m-2 and 112-149 W m-2, respectively, with the greater forcings in 2011 corresponding to a 29-38 mm/d enhancement in snowmelt. The timing of the forest fire impurity deposition is coincident with an increase in observed discharge in the Hoh River, highlighting the potential for BC and dust deposition on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from forest fires to accelerate <span class="hlt">melt</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5853297','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5853297"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> pneumothorax</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002pcbb.book..249M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002pcbb.book..249M"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Bioradicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mondelaers, Win; Lahorte, Philippe</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter is part one of a review in which the production and application of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bioradicals is discussed. Bioradicals play a pivotal role in the complex chain of processes starting with the absorption of radiation in biological materials and ending with the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> biological after-effects. The general aspects of the four consecutive stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) are discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. The close relationship between radiation dose and track structure, induced DNA damage and cell survival or killing is treated in detail. The repair mechanisms that cells employ, to insure DNA stability following irradiation, are described. Because of their great biomedical importance tumour suppressor genes involved in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> DNA repair and in checkpoint activation will be treated briefly, together with the molecular genetics of radiosensitivity. Part two of this review will deal with modern theoretical methods and experimental instrumentation for quantitative studies in this research field. Also an extensive overview of the applications of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bioradicals will be given. A comprehensive list of references allows further exploration of this research field, characterised in the last decade by a substantial advance, both in fundamental knowledge and in range of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23E..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23E..07K"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ecosystems of Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Biological activity on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Since the microorganisms growing on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by <span class="hlt">melt</span> water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span>. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2840S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2840S"><span>Tracer and hydrometric techniques to determine the contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> to a proglacial stream in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol, Austria)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmieder, Jan; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are important seasonal water contributors in many mountainous landscapes. For water resources management it is important to know about the timing and amount of released <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water, especially in downstream regions where the water is needed (hydropower, drinking water) or where it represents a potential risk (drought, flood). Seasonal availability of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water is strongly dependent on boundary layer atmospheric processes and becomes even more relevant in a changing climate. Environmental tracers are a useful tool in the assessment of snow and ice water resources, because they provide information about the sources, flow paths and traveling times of water contributing to streamflow at the catchment scale. Previously, high-elevation tracer studies throughout the Alps have been scarce as they require intense field work in remote areas. However, hydrometric and meteorological measurements combined with tracer analyses help to unravel streamflow composition and improve the understanding of hydroclimatological processes. On top of that, empirical studies are necessary to parameterize and validate hydrological models in more process-oriented ways, rather than comparing total measured and simulated runoff only. In the present study three approaches are applied to derive <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions to a proglacial stream at the seasonal scale and to identify their individual advances and limitations. Tracers used for each approach are (1) electrical conductivity, (2) stable isotopes of water and (3) heavy metals. The field work was conducted during the summer of 2015 in the glaciated (35%) high-elevation catchment of the Hochjochbach, a small sub-basin (17 km²) of the Ötztaler Ache river in the Austrian Alps, ranging from 2400 to 3500 m.a.s.l. in elevation. Hydroclimatological data was provided by an automatic weather station and a gauging station equipped with a pressure transducer. Water samples from shallow groundwater, streamflow, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C41A0045S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C41A0045S"><span>Quantification of Dead-ice <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in Ice-Cored Moraines at the High-Arctic <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Holmströmbreen, Svalbard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>An extensive dead-ice area has developed at the stagnant snout of the Holmströmbreen <span class="hlt">glacier</span> on Svalbard following its Little Ice Age maximum. Dead-ice appears mainly as ice-cored moraines, ice-cored eskers and ice- cored kames. The most common dead-ice landform is sediment gravity flows on ice-cored slopes surrounding a large ice-walled, moraine-dammed lake. The lake finally receives the sediment from the resedimentation processes. Dead-ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> is described and quantified through field studies and analyses of high-resolution, multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Field measurements of backwasting of ice-cored slopes indicate short-term <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates of c. 9.2 cm/day. Long-term downwasting rates indicate a surface lowering of ice-cored moraines of c. 0.9 m/yr from 1984-2004. Different measures for dead-ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> are assessed in relation to the temperature record from Svalbard since the termination of the Little Ice Age. The most prominent impact of dead-ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> is the evolution of the ice-walled lake with an area increasing near-exponentially over the last 40 years. As long as backwasting and mass movement processes prevent build-up of an insulating debris-cover and expose ice-cores to <span class="hlt">melting</span>, the de-icing continues even though the area is characterized by continuous permafrost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002pcbb.book..277L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002pcbb.book..277L"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Bioradicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim</p> <p></p> <p>This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2902123','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2902123"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">Induced</span> Oral Mucositis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11A1646A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11A1646A"><span>Towards a robust calving and <span class="hlt">melt</span>-history for Helheim <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, SE Greenland, for the last 100 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andersen, T. J.; Ellegaard, M.; Markussen, T. N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Observations of increased ice-discharge from tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Greenland in the early and mid 2000s has led to concern about a possible rapid loss of ice from the ice sheet in a scenario with increasing air and ocean water temperatures. In order to evaluate the strength and uniqueness of the observed increase a robust data-set on the temporal variation of calving and <span class="hlt">melt</span> is strongly needed. The only reliable data prior to the period of aerial photographs and instrumental observations is the archive preserved at the seabed in the fjords and coastal waters off the ice sheet. Establishment of core-chronology is central in studies of these archives and is based on Pb-210 dating which will reach approx. 100 years back in time. Establishment of a detailed and accurate core-chronology by means of Pb-210 dating and Cs-137 peaks is by no means a trivial task in environments influenced by episodic deposition of ice-rafted debris (IRD). The deposition will have a relatively large component of random variability which could be mistaken for actual changes in sedimentation rate, especially so if only one or a few cores are analyzed. To increase the reliability of the calving reconstruction, a total of 13 cores have been sampled in this study in Sermilik Fjord in August 2012 at depths between approximately 700 to 900 m. Eleven of the cores are from within the central basin north of 66 degrees North and two are from the outer part of the fjord south of that line. CTD-profiles and measurements of floc size in situ indicate that the sedimentation is significantly influenced by deposition of IRD and temporal changes in sediment accumulation rates will therefore be examined for all the cores. The cores are also being analyzed for their content of dinoflagellate cysts and diatoms in order to examine possible temporal changes in ocean water temperature in the fjord. So far (August 2013) six cores have been studied and the total average accumulation rate for each year since 1925 has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5967995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5967995"><span>The thermophysics of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zotikov, I.A.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This volume presents the results of experimental and theoretical work on the thermodynamics of ice sheets and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The author has carried out extensive field work in both the Soviet Union and Antarctica over the last 25 years and has contributed to the understanding of the thermophysics of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The topics covered in this volume embrace heat flow measurement and temperature distributions in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, the thermal drilling of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, the <span class="hlt">melting</span> and freezing of ice sheets, and other thermophysical problems. Also included are topics of relevance to glacial engineering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149676','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1149676"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">Induced</span> Genomic Instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morgan, William F.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5330R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.5330R"><span>Modelling the runoff regime of the glacierised upper Aconcagua River Basin using a distributed hydrological model: a multi-criteria approach for simulations of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions to streamflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ragettli, Silvan; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Molnar, Darcy; Rimkus, Stefan; Helbing, Jakob; Escobar, Fernando; Burlando, Paolo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the Central Andes of Chile the interactions between snow, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and water resources are governed by a distinct climatological forcing. Summers are dry and stable, with precipitation close to zero, low relative humidity and intense solar radiation. During the summer months, water originates almost exclusively from snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Evidence of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreat and changes in the seasonal snow cover suggests that climate change might have an impact on the water resources in the area. We use the physically-based, spatially-distributed hydrological model TOPKAPI to study the processes governing the exchange between the climate, snow and ice in the upper Aconcagua River Basin. The model incorporates the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of snow and ice based on a simplified energy-balance approach (ETI model) and the routing of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water through the glacial system. The model has numerous empirical parameters used in the computation of the single components of the hydrological cycle, the determination of which might lead to problems of equifinality. To address this issue we set up a rigorous calibration procedure that allows calibration of the main model parameters in three different steps by separating parameters governing distinct processes. We evaluate the parameters' transferability in time and investigate the differences in model parameters and performance that result from applying the model at different spatial scales. The model ability to simulate the relevant processes is tested against a data set of meteorological data, measurements of surface ablation and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff at the snout of the Juncal Norte <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> during two ablation seasons. Modelled snow height is compared to snow maps derived from terrestrial photos. Results show that the magnitude of snow and icemelt rates on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongue is correctly reproduced, but simulations at higher elevation have a larger uncertainty. Crucial factors affecting model performance are the model ability to simulate the redistribution of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..294....1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JVGR..294....1C"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> during lava dome growth at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): Evidences of a major threat before main eruptive phases at ice-caped volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Capra, L.; Roverato, M.; Groppelli, G.; Caballero, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nevado de Toluca volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. During Late Pleistocene its activity was characterized by large dome growth and subsequent collapse emplacing large block and ash flow deposits, intercalated by Plinian eruptions. Morphological and paleoclimate studies at Nevado de Toluca and the surrounding area evidenced that the volcano was affected by extensive glaciation during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the older recognized glacial period (27-60 ka, MIS 3), the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was disturbed by the intense magmatic and hydrothermal activity related to two dome extrusion episodes (at 37 ka and 28 ka). <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> reconstruction indicates maximum ice thickness of 90 m along main valleys, as at the Cano ravines, the major glacial valley on the northern slope of the volcano. Along this ravine, both 37 and 28 ka block-and-ash deposits are exposed, and they directly overlay a fluviatile sequence, up to 40 m-thick, which 14C ages clearly indicate that their emplacement occurred just before the dome collapsed. These evidences point to a clear interaction between the growing dome and its hydrothermal system with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. During dome growth, a large amount of <span class="hlt">melting</span> water was released along major glacial valleys forming thick fluvioglacial sequences that were subsequently covered by the block-and-ash flow deposits generated by the collapse of the growing dome. Even though this scenario is no longer possible at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the data presented here indicate that special attention should be paid to the possible inundation areas from fluviatile/lahar activity prior to the main magmatic eruption at ice-capped volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386k/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386k/"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of North America - <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Molnia, Bruce F.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p> literature for each of the 11 mountain ranges, the large island, the island chain, and the archipelago was conducted to determine both the individual and the regional status of Alaskan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and to characterize changes in thickness and terminus position of representative <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in each mountain range or island group. In many areas, observations used for determining changes date from the late 18th or early 19th century. Temperature records at all Alaskan meteorological recording stations document a 20th century warming trend. Therefore, characterizing the response of Alaska's <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to changing climate helps to quantify potential sea-level rise from past, present, and future <span class="hlt">melting</span> of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice (deglaciation of the 14 <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> regions of Alaska), understand present and future hydrological changes, and define impacts on ecosystems that are responding to deglacierization. Many different types of data were scrutinized to determine baselines and to assess the magnitude of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change. These data include the following: published descriptions of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (1794-2000), especially the comprehensive research by Field (1975a) and his colleagues in the Alaska part of Mountain <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of the Northern Hemisphere, aerial photography (since 1926), ground photography (since 1884), airborne radar (1981-91), satellite radar (1978-98), space photography (1984-94), multispectral satellite imagery (since 1972), aerial reconnaissance and field observations made by many scientists during the past several decades, and various types of proxy data. The published and unpublished data available for each <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> region and individual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> varied significantly. Geospatial analysis of digitized U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is used to statistically define selected glaciological parameters in the eastern part of the Alaska Range. The analysis determined that every mountain range and island group investigated can be characterized by significant glac</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED22A..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED22A..04A"><span>Hydrology of Himalayas Mountains through gauging of flood and <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> <span class="hlt">Melt</span> historic data hydrographs over selected watersheds under changing climate, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, Z.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Mountainous areas of higher altitudes in the northern Pakistan have numerous rivers of great surface runoff during the rainy months and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons that play a significant role in water resources and hydro-power production. Many of these rivers are unexploited for their water resource potential. If the potential of these rivers are explored, hydro-power production and water supplies in these areas may be improved. The Indus is the mighty river in the Asian countries originating from mountainous area of the Himalayas of Baltistan, Pakistan in which most of the smaller streams and four main rivers drain. Under the larger interest of the economic development of the country, hydrology of these mountainous in northern Pakistan is studied in the perspective of climate change, which includes eight watersheds namely Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Astore, Jhelum, Swat and Chitral. Available historic data from1960-2005 have been precisely utilized to study the hydrological changes with respect to variability in precipitation, temperature and mean monthly flows, trend of snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> runoff, daily hydrographs of selected periods (1990 to 1999), water yield and runoff relationship, and flow duration curves. Precipitation from ten meteorological stations in mountainous area of northern Pakistan has not shown uniform distribution of rains but variability in the winter and summer rains is noticed. Review of mean monthly temperature of ten stations suggested that the Upper Indus Basin can be categorized into three hydrological regimes i.e., high altitude catchments with large <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> parts, middle altitude catchments south of Karakoram, and foothill catchments. A 3-D finite element model (Feflow) has also been used for regional groundwater flow modeling of the Upper Chaj Doab in Indus Basin, Pakistan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C12B..07S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C12B..07S"><span>In-situ GPS records of surface mass balance, firn compaction rates, and ice-shelf basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates for Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shean, D. E.; Christianson, K.; Larson, K. M.; Ligtenberg, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B.; Stevens, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In recent decades, Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (PIG) has experienced marked retreat, speedup and thinning due to ice-shelf basal <span class="hlt">melt</span>, internal ice-stream instability and feedbacks between these processes. In an effort to constrain recent ice-stream dynamics and evaluate potential causes of retreat, we analyzed 2008-2010 and 2012-2014 GPS records for PIG. We computed time series of horizontal velocity, strain rate, multipath-based antenna height, surface elevation, and Lagrangian elevation change (Dh/Dt). These data provide validation for complementary high-resolution WorldView stereo digital elevation model (DEM) records, with sampled DEM vertical error of 0.7 m. The GPS antenna height time series document a relative surface elevation increase of 0.7-1.0 m/yr, which is consistent with estimated surface mass balance (SMB) of 0.7-0.9 m.w.e./yr from RACMO2.3 and firn compaction rates from the IMAU-FDM dynamic firn model. An abrupt 0.2-0.3 m surface elevation decrease due to surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> and/or greater near-surface firn compaction is observed during a period of warm atmospheric temperatures from December 2012 to January 2013. Observed surface Dh/Dt for all PIG shelf sites is highly linear with trends of -1 to -4 m/yr and <0.4 m residuals. Similar Dh/Dt estimates with reduced variability are obtained after removing expected downward GPS pole base velocity from observed GPS antenna Dh/Dt. Estimated Dh/Dt basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are 10 to 40 m/yr for the outer PIG shelf and 4 m/yr for the South shelf. These <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are similar to those derived from ice-bottom acoustic ranging, phase-sensitive ice-penetrating radar, and high-resolution stereo DEM records. The GPS/DEM records document higher <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates within and near transverse surface depressions and rifts associated with longitudinal extension. Basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates for the 2012-2014 period show limited temporal variability, despite significant change in ocean heat content. This suggests that sub-shelf <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are less sensitive to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5004106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5004106"><span>Dynamics of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> amorphization in intermetallic compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. ); Devanathan, R. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Meshii, M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>Recent progress in molecular-dynamics simulations of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> crystalline-to-amorphous transition in intermetallic compounds and the relationship between amorphization and <span class="hlt">melting</span> are discussed. By focusing on the mean-square static displacement, which provides a generic measure of energy stored in the lattice in the forms of chemical and topological disorder, a unified description of solid-state amorphization as a disorder-induced, isothermal <span class="hlt">melting</span> process can be developed within the framework of a generalized Lindemann criterion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS22A..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMNS22A..03S"><span>Afghanistan <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Diminution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shroder, J. F.; Bishop, M.; Haritashya, U.; Olsenholler, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in Afghanistan represent a late summer - early fall source of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water for late season crop irrigation in a chronically drought-torn region. Precise river discharge figures associated with <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> drainage basins are generally unavailable because of the destruction of hydrological gauging stations built in pre-war times although historic discharge data and prior (1960s) mapped <span class="hlt">glacier</span> regions offer some analytical possibilities. The best satellite data sets for <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-change detection are declassified Cornona and Keyhole satellite data sets, standard Landsat sources, and new ASTER images assessed in our GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Regional Center for Southwest Asia (Afghanistan and Pakistan). The new hyperspectral remote sensing survey of Afghanistan completed by the US Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines offers potential for future detailed assessments. Long-term climate change in southwest Asia has decreased precipitation for millennia so that <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, rivers and lakes have all declined from prehistoric and historic highs. As many <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> declined in ice volume, they increased in debris cover until they were entirely debris-covered or became rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and the ice was protected thereby from direct solar radiation, to presumably reduce ablation rates. We have made a preliminary assessment of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> location and extent for the country, with selected, more-detailed, higher-resolution studies underway. In the Great Pamir of the Wakhan Corridor where the largest <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> occur, we assessed fluctuations of a randomly selected 30 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from 1976 to 2003. Results indicate that 28 <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-terminus positions have retreated, and the largest average retreat rate was 36 m/yr. High albedo, non-vegetated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> forefields formed prior to 1976, and geomorphological evidence shows apparent <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-surface downwasting after 1976. Climatic conditions and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat have resulted in disconnection of tributary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...124....1S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...124....1S"><span>Can mountain <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> explains the GRACE-observed mass loss in the southeast Tibetan Plateau: From a climate perspective?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Chunqiao; Ke, Linghong; Huang, Bo; Richards, Keith S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The southeast Tibetan Plateau (SETP) includes the majority of monsoonal temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in High Mountain Asia (HMA), which is an important source of water for the upper reaches of several large Asian river systems. Climatic change and variability has substantial impacts on cryosphere and hydrological processes in the SETP. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravimetry observations between 2003 and 2009 suggest that there was an average mass loss rate of - 5.99 ± 2.78 Gigatonnes (Gt)/yr in this region. Meanwhile, the hydrological data by model calculations from the GLDAS/Noah and CPC are used to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes with a slight negative trend of about - 0.3 Gt/yr. The recent studies (Kääb et al., 2012; Gardner et al., 2013) reported the thinning rates of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in HMA based on the satellite laser altimetry, and an approximate estimation of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass budget in the SETP was 4.69 ± 2.03 Gt/yr during 2003-2009. This estimate accounted for a large proportion (~ 78.3%) of the difference between the GRACE TWS and model-calculated TWS changes. To better understand the cause of sharp mass loss existing in the SETP, the correlations between key climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) and the GRACE TWS changes are examined at different timescales between 2003 and 2011. The results show that precipitation is the leading factors of abrupt, seasonal and multi-year undulating signals of GRACE TWS anomaly time series, but with weak correlations with the inter-annual trend and annual mass budget of GRACE TWS. In contrast, the annual mean temperature is tightly associated with the annual net mass budget (r = 0.81, p < 0.01), which indirectly suggests that the GRACE-observed mass loss in the SETP may be highly related to glacial processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12c4004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ERL....12c4004R"><span>The effect of spatial averaging and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> on detecting a forced signal in regional sea level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richter, Kristin; Marzeion, Ben; Riva, Riccardo</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We investigate the spatial scales that are necessary to detect an externally forced signal in regional sea level within a selected fixed time period. Detection on a regional scale is challenging due to the increasing magnitude of unforced variability in dynamic sea level on progressingly smaller spatial scales. Using unforced control simulations with no evolving forcing we quantify the magnitude of regional internal variability depending on the degree of spatial averaging. We test various averaging techniques such as zonal averaging and averaging grid points within selected radii. By comparing the results from the control simulations with historical and 21st-century simulations, the procedure allows to estimate to what degree the data has to be averaged spatially in order to detect a forced signal within certain periods (e.g. periods with good observational coverage). We find that zonal averaging over ocean basins is necessary to detect a forced signal in steric and dynamic sea level during the past 25 years, while a signal emerges in 63% of the ocean areas over the past 45 years when smoothing with a 2000 km filter or less is applied. We also demonstrate that the addition of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution increases the signal-to-noise ratio of regional sea level changes, thus leading to an earlier emergence by 10–20 years away from the sources of the ice mass loss. With smoothing, this results in the detection of an external signal in 90% of the ocean areas over the past 45 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP41D..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP41D..04A"><span>Modeling the Rock <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Cycle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to <span class="hlt">melt</span> entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-derived" rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> case. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to debris-covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-derived" rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We explore the dependence of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> can transform to a much shorter rock</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C13E..01B"><span>Ocean forcing drives <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat sometimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bassis, J. N.; Ultee, E.; Ma, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Observations show that marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> respond to climate forcing nonlinearly, with periods of slow or negligible <span class="hlt">glacier</span> advance punctuated by abrupt, rapid retreat. Once <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat has initiated, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can quickly stabilize with a new terminus position. Alternatively, retreat can be sustained for decades (or longer), as is the case for Columbia <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska where retreat initiated ~1984 and continues to this day. Surprisingly, patterns of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat show ambiguous or even contradictory correlations with atmospheric temperature and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface mass balance. Despite these puzzles, observations increasingly show that intrusion of warm subsurface ocean water into fjords can lead to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> erosion rates that can account for a substantial portion of the total mass lost from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Here we use a simplified flowline model to show that even relatively modest submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates (~100 m/a) near the terminus of grounded <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can trigger large increases in iceberg calving leading to rapid <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat. However, the strength of the coupling between submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> and calving is a strong function of the geometry of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (bed topography, ice thickness and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> width). This can lead to irreversible retreat when the terminus is thick and grounded deeply beneath sea level or result in little change when the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is relatively thin, grounded in shallow water or pinned in a narrow fjord. Because of the strong dependence on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> geometry, small perturbations in submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> can trigger <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in their most advanced—and geometrically precarious—state to undergo sudden retreat followed by much slower re-advance. Although many details remain speculative, our model hints that some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are more sensitive than others to ocean forcing and that some of the nonlinearities of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to climate change may be attributable to variations in difficult-to-detect subsurface water temperatures that need to be better</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813165M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813165M"><span>Dynamics of bedload size and rate during snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> in a high-gradient Andean stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mao, Luca; Carrillo, Ricardo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> during the snowmelt and early glaciermelting, sediment availability appears to be unlimited and hysteresis can be ascribed to pulses of sediments coming from the proglacial area. Instead, as the glaciermelting season progresses, sediment availability decreases probably due to the progressive exhaustion of sediments stored in the channel bed, and counterclockwise hysteresis can be ascribed to changes in the organization of the surface sediments at the scale of clusters. Results highlight the complex relationships between dynamics of sediment sources at the basin scale and changes in channel sediment storage overtime, resulting in abrupt changes in rate and size of sediment transport. Long-term assessment of these dynamics using indirect methods to assess bedload transport can provide important insights for understanding probable trajectories of morphological evolution of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> streams which are subject to rapid environmental changes. This research is being developed within the framework of Project FONDECYT 1130378.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001479.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001479.jpg.html"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and Sea Level Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>This ice cave in Belcher <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (Devon Island, Canada) was formed by <span class="hlt">melt</span> water flowing within the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice. To learn about the contributions of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to sea level rise, visit: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-sea-rise.html Credit: Angus Duncan, University of Saskatchewan NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.4505P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.4505P"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> of major <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric temperature trend (1979-2008)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasad, A. K.; Yang, K.-H. S.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric temperatures of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>, which are the largest <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric temperatures acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) since 1979-2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric temperature trend based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.048±0.026°K/year or 1.44°K over 30 years) of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau) is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming trend over the Himalayas (0.016±0.005°K/year), and Tibetan Plateau (0.008±0.006°K/year) is positive, the month to month warming trend is higher (by 2-3 times, positive and significant) only over a period of six months (December to May). The factors responsible for the reversal of this trend from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming trends of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic) plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms) over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived temperature trend over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.032±0.027°K/year) and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.068±0.033°K/year) also shows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000289&hterms=dna+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddna%2Bevidence','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000289&hterms=dna+evidence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddna%2Bevidence"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> genomic instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kronenberg, A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000289&hterms=mitosis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmitosis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050000289&hterms=mitosis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dmitosis"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> genomic instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kronenberg, A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364656','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21364656"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Premelting of Ice at Silica Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schoeder, S.; Reichert, H.; Schroeder, H.; Mezger, M.; Okasinski, J. S.; Dosch, H.; Honkimaeki, V.; Bilgram, J.</p> <p>2009-08-28</p> <p>The existence of surface and interfacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice below 0 deg. C has been confirmed by many different experimental techniques. Here we present a high-energy x-ray reflectivity study of the interfacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice as a function of both temperature and x-ray irradiation dose. We found a clear increase of the thickness of the quasiliquid layer with the irradiation dose. By a systematic x-ray study, we have been able to unambiguously disentangle thermal and <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> premelting phenomena. We also confirm the previously announced very high water density (1.25 g/cm{sup 3}) within the emerging quasiliquid layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvL.103i5502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvL.103i5502S"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Premelting of Ice at Silica Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schöder, S.; Reichert, H.; Schröder, H.; Mezger, M.; Okasinski, J. S.; Honkimäki, V.; Bilgram, J.; Dosch, H.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The existence of surface and interfacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice below 0°C has been confirmed by many different experimental techniques. Here we present a high-energy x-ray reflectivity study of the interfacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice as a function of both temperature and x-ray irradiation dose. We found a clear increase of the thickness of the quasiliquid layer with the irradiation dose. By a systematic x-ray study, we have been able to unambiguously disentangle thermal and <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> premelting phenomena. We also confirm the previously announced very high water density (1.25g/cm3) within the emerging quasiliquid layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040050637','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040050637"><span>Greenland <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Albedo Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA) is a NASA-funded project with the prime goal of addressing the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. Since the formal initiation of the program in 1995, there has been a significant improvement in the estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheet. Results from this program reveal that the high-elevation regions of the ice sheet are approximately in balance, but the margins are thinning. Laser surveys reveal significant thinning along 70 percent of the ice sheet periphery below 2000 m elevations, and in at least one outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, Kangerdlugssuaq in southeast Greenland, thinning has been as much as 10 m/yr. This study examines the albedo variability in four outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to help separate out the relative contributions of surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> versus ice dynamics to the recent mass balance changes. Analysis of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder albedo shows that at the Petermann and Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, there has been a negative trend in albedo at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus from 1981 to 2000, whereas the Stor+strommen and Kangerdlugssuaq <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> show slightly positive trends in albedo. These findings are consistent with recent observations of <span class="hlt">melt</span> extent from passive microwave data which show more <span class="hlt">melt</span> on the western side of Greenland and slightly less on the eastern side. Significance of albedo trends will depend on where and when the albedo changes occur. Since the majority of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> occurs in the shallow sloping western margin of the ice sheet where the shortwave radiation dominates the energy balance in summer (e.g. Jakobshavn region) this region will be more sensitive to changes in albedo than in regions where this is not the case. Near the Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, even larger changes in albedo have been observed, with decreases as much as 20 percent per decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002000.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002000.jpg.html"><span>Susitna <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>NASA image acquired August 27, 2009 Like rivers of liquid water, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> flow downhill, with tributaries joining to form larger rivers. But where water rushes, ice crawls. As a result, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> gather dust and dirt, and bear long-lasting evidence of past movements. Alaska’s Susitna <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> revealed some of its long, grinding journey when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra satellite passed overhead on August 27, 2009. This satellite image combines infrared, red, and green wavelengths to form a false-color image. Vegetation is red and the glacier’s surface is marbled with dirt-free blue ice and dirt-coated brown ice. Infusions of relatively clean ice push in from tributaries in the north. The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface appears especially complex near the center of the image, where a tributary has pushed the ice in the main <span class="hlt">glacier</span> slightly southward. A photograph taken by researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey (archived by the National Snow and Ice Data Center) shows an equally complicated Susitna <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in 1970, with dirt-free and dirt-encrusted surfaces forming stripes, curves, and U-turns. Susitna flows over a seismically active area. In fact, a 7.9-magnitude quake struck the region in November 2002, along a previously unknown fault. Geologists surmised that earthquakes had created the steep cliffs and slopes in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, but in fact most of the jumble is the result of surges in tributary <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> surges—typically short-lived events where a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> moves many times its normal rate—can occur when <span class="hlt">melt</span> water accumulates at the base and lubricates the flow. This water may be supplied by meltwater lakes that accumulate on top of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>; some are visible in the lower left corner of this image. The underlying bedrock can also contribute to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surges, with soft, easily deformed rock leading to more frequent surges. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3300T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3300T"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> cardiovascular effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tapio, Soile</p> <p></p> <p>Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cardiac damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175239','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175239"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-derived August runoff in northwest Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clark, Adam; Harper, Joel T.; Fagre, Daniel B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The second largest concentration of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is located in <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> National Park (GNP), Montana. The total <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-covered area in this region decreased by ∼35% over the past 50 years, which has raised substantial concern about the loss of the water derived from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during the summer. We used an innovative weather station design to collect in situ measurements on five remote <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, which are used to parameterize a regional <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model. This model offered a first-order estimate of the summer meltwater production by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We find, during the normally dry month of August, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the region produce approximately 25 × 106 m3 of potential runoff. We then estimated the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff component in five gaged streams sourced from GNP basins containing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Glacier-melt</span> contributions range from 5% in a basin only 0.12% <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> to >90% in a basin 28.5% <span class="hlt">glacierized</span>. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> loss would likely lead to lower discharges and warmer temperatures in streams draining basins >20% <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-covered. Lower flows could even be expected in streams draining basins as little as 1.4% <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> if <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> were to disappear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRF..119..717B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRF..119..717B"><span>Global response of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff to twenty-first century climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bliss, Andrew; Hock, Regine; Radić, Valentina</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The hydrology of many important river systems in the world is influenced by the presence of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in their upper reaches. We assess the global-scale response of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff to climate change, where <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff is defined as all <span class="hlt">melt</span> and rain water that runs off the <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area without refreezing. With an elevation-dependent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance model, we project monthly <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff for all mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps outside Antarctica until 2100 using temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. We aggregate results for 18 <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> regions. Despite continuous <span class="hlt">glacier</span> net mass loss in all regions, trends in annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff differ significantly among regions depending on the balance between increased <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and reduction in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> storage as <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> shrink. While most regions show significant negative runoff trends, some regions exhibit steady increases in runoff (Canadian and Russian Arctic), or increases followed by decreases (Svalbard and Iceland). Annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff is dominated by <span class="hlt">melt</span> in most regions, but rain is a major contributor in the monsoon-affected regions of Asia and maritime regions such as New Zealand and Iceland. Annual net <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass loss dominates total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> especially in some high-latitude regions, while seasonal <span class="hlt">melt</span> is dominant in wetter climate regimes. Our results highlight the variety of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff responses to climate change and the need to include <span class="hlt">glacier</span> net mass loss in assessments of future hydrological change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5636383','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5636383"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> bladder carcinoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Two cases are presented of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5439125','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5439125"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Oral Mucositis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28589080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28589080"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Oral Mucositis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001480.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001480.jpg.html"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and Sea Level Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p><span class="hlt">Melt</span> water ponded at surface in the accumulation zone of Columbia <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska, in July 2008. To learn about the contributions of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to sea level rise, visit: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-sea-rise.html Credit: W. Tad Pfeffer, University of Colorado at Boulder NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814229M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814229M"><span>The <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of HARMONIE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mottram, Ruth; Gleeson, Emily; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Developed by the large ALADIN-HIRLAM consortium, the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model system HARMONIE is run by a large number of national weather services and research institutions in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa for weather forecasting. It is now being adopted for climate research purposes as a limited area model in a form known as HCLIM. It is currently run for a number of domains, mostly in Europe but also including Greenland, at a very high resolution (~2.5 km). HARMONIE is a convection permitting non-hydrostatic model that includes the multi-purpose SURFEX surface model. By improving the characterization of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces within SURFEX we show that weather forecast errors over both the Greenland ice sheet and over Icelandic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be significantly reduced. The improvements also facilitate increasingly accurate ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> and runoff computations, which are important both for ice surface mass balance estimations and hydropower forecasting. These improvements will also benefit the operational HARMONIE domains that cover the Svalbard archipelago, the Alps and the Scandinavian mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Future uses of HCLIM for these regions, where accurately characterizing glacial terrain will be crucial for climate and glaciological applications, are also expected to benefit from this improvement. Here, we report the first results with a new <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface scheme in the HARMONIE model, validated with observations from the PROMICE network of automatic weather stations in Greenland. The scheme upgrades the existing surface energy balance over <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> by including a new albedo parameterization for bare <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice and appropriate coefficients for calculating the turbulent fluxes. In addition the snow scheme from the SURFEX land surface module has been upgraded to allow the retention and refreezing of meltwater in the snowpack. These changes allow us to estimate surface mass balance over <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> at a range of model resolutions that can take full</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C53D0775J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C53D0775J"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Sensitivity in the Monsoonal Himalayas: Relative Contributions of Feedback Mechanisms to Regional <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Mass Balance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, E. S.; Rupper, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Despite their societal relevance, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balances across High Mountain Asia (HMA) remain poorly constrained due, in part, to the limited number of direct measurements, regional climate heterogeneity, and uncertainty in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance models. Many studies that model <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> throughout HMA cite surface feedbacks as an important factor affecting <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, however, little has been done to actually quantify their effects. This study develops a fully distributed surface energy- and mass-balance model to quantify the contributions of 3 surface feedbacks to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance. The 3 target feedbacks are an accumulation/snow depth feedback, a sensible heat feedback, and an albedo feedback. The model follows well-known energy balance methods, but includes unique "switches" which allow individual feedbacks to be independently turned on and off. The model applies meteorological inputs from the High Asia Refined analysis to an idealized <span class="hlt">glacier</span> for 4 different climate settings in HMA. The results show that surface feedbacks increase <span class="hlt">melt</span> by up to 67% for a +1°C temperature forcing, but that feedback contributions vary significantly under different climate settings. For any given <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, the feedback strength is highest near the equilibrium line altitude. Furthermore, feedbacks that directly reduce surface albedo consistently contribute the most to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass loss. Feedback magnitude depends most strongly on the frequency of snowfall events occurring concurrently with the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season, and on the magnitude of incoming shortwave radiation for that region. These results highlight the potential significance of feedbacks on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance in HMA, what conditions maximize these feedback magnitudes, and what regions are likely most sensitive to them. They also highlight physical processes that need to be especially well constrained in future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance models for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in regions with high feedback sensitivity. Creating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27908375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27908375"><span>Treatment of <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Urethral Strictures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofer, Matthias D; Liu, Joceline S; Morey, Allen F</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Radiation therapy may result in urethral strictures from vascular damage. Most <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> urethral strictures occur in the bulbomembranous junction, and urinary incontinence may result as a consequence of treatment. Radiation therapy may compromise reconstruction due to poor tissue healing and radionecrosis. Excision and primary anastomosis is the preferred urethroplasty technique for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> urethral stricture. Principles of posterior urethroplasty for trauma may be applied to the treatment of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> urethral strictures. Chronic management with suprapubic tube is an option based on patient comorbidities and preference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20850000"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> moyamoya syndrome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.</p> <p>2006-07-15</p> <p>Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e5005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e5005S"><span>Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outflow: insights into <span class="hlt">glacier</span> carbon sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spencer, Robert G. M.; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle; Hood, Eran</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14C-DOC with increasing discharge during the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13C-DOC, Δ 14C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> during onset and senescence of <span class="hlt">melt</span>. In the peak <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> period, the Δ 14C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (-181.7 to -355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (-207.2 to -390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface is exported in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff. The pre-aged DOC in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass and runoff in the coming century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1105A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016TCry...10.1105A"><span>Modeling debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>: response to steady debris deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are common in rapidly eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. If continuous debris cover is present, ablation rates can be significantly reduced leading to increases in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. In order to quantify feedbacks in the debris-<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-climate system, we developed a 2-D long-valley numerical <span class="hlt">glacier</span> model that includes englacial and supraglacial debris advection. We ran 120 simulations on a linear bed profile in which a hypothetical steady state debris-free <span class="hlt">glacier</span> responds to a step increase of surface debris deposition. Simulated <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> advance to steady states in which ice accumulation equals ice ablation, and debris input equals debris loss from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus. Our model and parameter selections can produce 2-fold increases in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. Debris flux onto the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and the relationship between debris thickness and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate strongly control <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude, where ice discharge is high, results in the greatest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extension when other debris-related variables are held constant. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude re-emerges high in the ablation zone and therefore impacts <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate over a greater fraction of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. Continuous debris cover reduces ice discharge gradients, ice thickness gradients, and velocity gradients relative to initial debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Debris-forced <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extension decreases the ratio of accumulation zone to total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area (AAR). Our simulations reproduce the "general trends" between debris cover, AARs, and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface velocity patterns from modern debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We provide a quantitative, theoretical foundation to interpret the effect of debris cover on the moraine record, and to assess the effects of climate change on debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5091218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5091218"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>There is a paucity of information on <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598557"><span>Drainage-system development in consecutive <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons at a polythermal, Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, evaluated by flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma</p> <p>2013-07-26</p> <p>[1] The drainage systems of polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice flow rate. Flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. Linear-flow recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d(-1) in 1999 and 0.52 h d(-1) in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and other polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with smaller proportions of temperate ice. Linear-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282401','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4282401"><span>Drainage-system development in consecutive <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons at a polythermal, Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, evaluated by flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hodgkins, Richard; Cooper, Richard; Tranter, Martyn; Wadham, Jemma</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>[1] The drainage systems of polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> play an important role in high-latitude hydrology, and are determinants of ice flow rate. Flow-recession analysis and linear-reservoir simulation of runoff time series are here used to evaluate seasonal and inter-annual variability in the drainage system of the polythermal Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard, in 1999 and 2000. Linear-flow recessions are pervasive, with mean coefficients of a fast reservoir varying from 16 (1999) to 41 h (2000), and mean coefficients of an intermittent, slow reservoir varying from 54 (1999) to 114 h (2000). Drainage-system efficiency is greater overall in the first of the two seasons, the simplest explanation of which is more rapid depletion of the snow cover. Reservoir coefficients generally decline during each season (at 0.22 h d−1 in 1999 and 0.52 h d−1 in 2000), denoting an increase in drainage efficiency. However, coefficients do not exhibit a consistent relationship with discharge. Finsterwalderbreen therefore appears to behave as an intermediate case between temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and other polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with smaller proportions of temperate ice. Linear-reservoir runoff simulations exhibit limited sensitivity to a relatively wide range of reservoir coefficients, although the use of fixed coefficients in a spatially lumped model can generate significant subseasonal error. At Finsterwalderbreen, an ice-marginal channel with the characteristics of a fast reservoir, and a subglacial upwelling with the characteristics of a slow reservoir, both route meltwater to the terminus. This suggests that drainage-system components of significantly contrasting efficiencies can coexist spatially and temporally at polythermal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. PMID:25598557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012430','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012430"><span>What Influences Climate and <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Change in the Southwestern China?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yasunari, Teppei J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The subject of climate change in the areas of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of available water resources from their mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Many of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over the region have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable. Other studies report that some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Himalayas show acceleration on their shrinkage. However, the causes of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">meltings</span> are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> issues. However, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable the future prediction on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5543469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5543469"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> sarcoma of the thyroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )</p> <p>1989-08-01</p> <p>A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> sarcoma of the thyroid gland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41G0137C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41G0137C"><span>Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are of great interest as they can modify the response of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of <span class="hlt">melt</span>. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> winds were observed over the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. These winds extended well beyond the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10532&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAquamarines','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=10532&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAquamarines"><span>Alaska <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and Rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> also feeds <span class="hlt">glacier</span> lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.2135M"><span>Satellite-Based Study of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> Retreat in Northern Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munir, Siraj</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is covered by Pakistan. These <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> depletion, especially recent <span class="hlt">melting</span> can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> of seasonal snowfall and permanent <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura <span class="hlt">glacier</span> for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Although accurate changes in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5861G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5861G"><span>Integrated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow hydrological modelling in the Urumqi No.1 <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> catchment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> water from mountainous area is an essential water resource in Northwest China, where the climate is arid. Therefore a hydrologic model including <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> simulation is in an urgent need for water resources management and prediction under climate change in this region. In this study, the Urumqi No.1 <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> catchment in Northwest China, with 51% area covered by <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, was selected as the study site. An integrated daily hydrological model was developed to systematically simulate the hydrograph, runoff separation (<span class="hlt">glacier</span> and non-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff), the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance (GMB), the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), and the snow water equivalent (SWE). Only precipitation, temperature and sunshine hour data is required as forcing input. A combination method, which applies degree-day approach during dry periods and empirical energy balance formulation during wet seasons, was implemented to simulate snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Detailed snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes were included in the model, including the water holding capacity of snow pack, the liquid water refreezing process in snow pack, and the change of albedo with time. A traditional rainfall-runoff model (Xinanjiang) was applied to simulate the rainfall(snowmelt)-runoff process in non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area. Additionally, the influence of elevation on temperature and precipitation distribution, and the impact of different aspect on snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> were considered. The model was validated, not only by long-term observed daily runoff data, but also by measured snow (SWE) and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> data (GMB, ELA) of over 50 years. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be upscaled into a larger catchment, which further supports our proposed model and optimized parameter sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25123485"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>. Attribution of global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass loss to anthropogenic and natural causes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marzeion, Ben; Cogley, J Graham; Richter, Kristin; Parkes, David</p> <p>2014-08-22</p> <p>The ongoing global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is affecting human societies by causing sea-level rise, changing seasonal water availability, and increasing geohazards. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are an icon of anthropogenic climate change. However, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response times are typically decades or longer, which implies that the present-day <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is a mixed response to past and current natural climate variability and current anthropogenic forcing. Here we show that only 25 ± 35% of the global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass loss during the period from 1851 to 2010 is attributable to anthropogenic causes. Nevertheless, the anthropogenic signal is detectable with high confidence in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance observations during 1991 to 2010, and the anthropogenic fraction of global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass loss during that period has increased to 69 ± 24%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112871R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112871R"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> outburst floods from Ghulkin <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, upper Hunza Valley, Pakistan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, S. D.; Quincey, D. J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Outburst floods from Ghulkin <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in 2008 caused localised damage to properties, land and infrastructure of Ghulkin village and to the Karakoram Highway in the upper Hunza Valley of northern Pakistan. The unexpected nature of the floods highlights a poor understanding of glacial flood potential related to advancing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Karakoram. Here we describe the Ghulkin floods and examine the broader glaciological controls on flood generation. Ghulkin <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is an active mountain <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, its steep (up to 12˚ ), debris-covered snout bound by a continuous latero-terminal moraine. Three separate outburst floods during May and June 2008 exited the right lateral moraine close to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus, resulting in two separate flood paths; one flowing down the existing outwash fan that resulted in no damage and the other flowing directly through properties and land of Ghulkin village. In 2008, the snout of Ghulkin <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> was overriding its terminal moraine, and local villagers report an associated increase in debris flows and rock fall since 2005. High surface velocities (of the order of 50 m a-1) near the terminus are associated with the current period of advance, and an increase in the number and size of transient supraglacial lakes during the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season has been observed. Assessment of the processes and characteristics of the summer 2008 floods provides a conceptual model for local <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hazards associated with advancing mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Karakoram. Crevasses and seracs associated with the high flow velocities have steep, debris-free ice cliffs that <span class="hlt">melt</span> rapidly during the summer ablation season and provide a route for the meltwater to enter the englacial drainage system. Meltwater is stored temporarily in supraglacial, and probably englacial, settings; whilst drainage is facilitated by the formation of new, or re-organisation of existing, conduits under the active ice conditions. The steep <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface gradient and active ice results in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3473R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3473R"><span>Stationary monitoring of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to climate change in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Jiawen; Li, Zhongqin; Qin, Xiang; He, Yuanqing; He, Xiaobo; Li, Huilin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>At present, there are about 48571 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with a total area of about 51.8×103 km2 and a volume of about 5.6×103 km3 in China. They are distributed widely in the high mountains in and surrounding the Tibetan Plateau and other high mountains such as Tianshan, Altay and Pamir. In view of differences in climatic conditions and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> types, stationary monitoring of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> variations has been ongoing in different regions in order to investigate the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to climate change. The monitoring results show that all the monitoring <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been in retreat during the past decades and especially since 1990's the retreat rate has an accelerating trend. The accumulative mass balance is much negative and has a large annual variability for the monsoonal maritime <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in comparison with the continental and sub-continental <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Under climate warming background, the acceleration of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> is mainly attributed to rise in air temperature, ice temperature augment and albedo reduction of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. Particularly, the albedo reduction has a positive feedback effect on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Based on long term observation of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> variations and physical properties, a simple dynamics model is coupled with mass balance modeling to make a projection of a typical <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change in future. The primary modeling results suggest that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> will continue in shrinkage until vanishing within 50-90 years.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000298.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000298.html"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Swap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-16</p> <p>ISS040-E-000298 (16 May 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, works with the General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator (<span class="hlt">GLACIER</span>) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000297.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000297.html"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Swap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-16</p> <p>ISS040-E-000297 (16 May 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, works with the General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator (<span class="hlt">GLACIER</span>) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000296.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss040e000296.html"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Swap</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-16</p> <p>ISS040-E-000296 (16 May 2014) --- NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, works with the General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator (<span class="hlt">GLACIER</span>) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03386.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03386.html"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Piedmont <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> occur where valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0872J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0872J"><span>Monitoring Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> using Sequential Landsat Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jian, Z.; Zhuoqi, C.; Cheng, X.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is the fastest (19 m per day) and one of the most active <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> around the world. Discharging more than 35km3 of ice every year, its mass loss surpasses anyone else outside the Antarctic. From Landsat 8 OLI Images on August 14, 2015, we find a huge iceberg about 5 km2 calved from resulting in the front shrinking for 1060.8m. NSIDC ice velocity data and weather station data on Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">glacier</span> are used to analyze the cause of calving. On one hand, upstream <span class="hlt">glacier</span> push forward the Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">glacier</span> westward continually, many cracks were formed over the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. Surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> water flow into the interior of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to accelerate calving. On the other hand with the gradually rising temperature, the bottom of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> accelerate ablation. When <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> move into the ocean and the thin bottom can not provide strong enough support, calving occurs. Before this incident, we trace sequential Landsat data during 1986 to 2015. In 2010, it had another large-scale calving. We draw from our data that Jakobshavn retreated intensely in the past 30 years although in the last 10 years it appears more stable. The speed of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinking during 1996 to 2006 is three times as fast as past 10 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..385..351M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JNuM..385..351M"><span>A molecular dynamics study of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> diffusion in uranium dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, G.; Maillard, S.; Brutzel, L. Van; Garcia, P.; Dorado, B.; Valot, C.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The nuclear oxide fuels are submitted 'in-pile' to strong structural and chemical modifications due to the fissions and temperature. The diffusion of species is notably the result of a thermal activation and of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> diffusion. This study proposes to estimate to what extent the <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> diffusion contributes to the diffusion of lattice atoms in UO2. Irradiations are simulated using molecular dynamics simulation by displacement cascades induced by uranium primary knock-on atoms between 1 and 80 keV. As atoms are easier to displace when their vibration amplitude increases, the temperature range which have been investigated is 300-1400 K. Cascade overlaps were also simulated. The material is shown to <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the end of cascades, yielding a reduced threshold energy displacement. The nuclear contribution to the <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> diffusion is compared to thermally activated diffusion under in-reactor and long-term storage conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1981/0850d/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1981/0850d/report.pdf"><span>Effects of volcanism on the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mount St. Helens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brugman, Melinda M.; Post, Austin</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 km2 (about 0.13 km3) of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring, Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from <span class="hlt">melting</span> on Swift and Dryer <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> and recrystalization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mudflows and generate outburst floods. Study of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that remain on this active volcano may assist in recognizing potential hazards on other volcanoes and lead to new contributions to knowledge of the transient response of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to changes in mass balance or geometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.152....1Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.152....1Y"><span>Levoglucosan on Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> under different atmospheric circulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>You, Chao; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Chao; Song, Lili</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are natural documents of the specific biomass burning biomarker levoglucosan from regions around. However, knowledge about the characteristics of levoglucosan distributions on Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> under the different climate systems is poorly understood. In this study, we detected levoglucosan in snow samples from the Zuoqiupu (ZQP) <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> affected by the Indian summer monsoon and the Muji (MJ) <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> dominated by the westerlies. Results found that the ZQP <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> was more heavily affected by fire emissions than the MJ <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, caused by stronger emission sources on the windward direction and shorter transport distances. Elevations for the appearance of levoglucosan maxima on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces are roughly around the equilibrium line altitudes. However, levoglucosan displays a wider distribution range on the MJ <span class="hlt">glacier</span> than on the ZQP <span class="hlt">glacier</span> due to weaker summer <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Injection height of fire smokes and glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> can affect the altitudinal distribution of levoglucosan. Black carbon and levoglucosan show different temporal variations in snow-pit samples on those two <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The post-depositional effects, e.g. the <span class="hlt">melting</span> and refreezing processes, can modulate the vertical distribution of levoglucosan in snow/ice layers. Our results are helpful for understanding the geochemical behaviors of levoglucosan happened on Tibetan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5422455','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5422455"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> vaginal stenosis: current perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morris, Lucinda; Do, Viet; Chard, Jennifer; Brand, Alison H</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Treatment of gynecological cancer commonly involves pelvic radiation therapy (RT) and/or brachytherapy. A commonly observed side effect of such treatment is <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> vaginal stenosis (VS). This review analyzed the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation(s) and assessment and grading of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> VS. In addition, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and follow-up schedules are also discussed. The limited available literature on many of these aspects suggests that additional studies are required to more precisely determine the best management strategy of this prevalent group after RT. PMID:28496367</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994REDS..129...91L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994REDS..129...91L"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> amorphization of intermetallic compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lam, N. Q.; Sabochick, M. J.; Okamoto, P. R.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>In the present paper, important results of our recent computer simulation of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> amorphization in the ordered compounds CuTi and Cu4Ti3 are summarized. The energetic, structural, thermodynamic and mechanical responses of these intermetallics during chemical disordering, point-defect production and heating were simulated, using molecular dynamics and embedded-atom potentials. From the atomistic details obtained, the critical role of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> structural disorder in driving the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5705H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5705H"><span>Future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff at the global scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huss, Matthias; Hock, Regine</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Water resources in mountain areas worldwide importantly depend on the runoff contribution by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Glacial water storage acts as an equilibrating element in the global hydrological cycle on various temporal scales. With ongoing and future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat a growing concern regarding water supply security in <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed basins arises. However, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff projections at the regional or global scale are still rare and better models are urgently needed for planning and adaptation measures to cope with a changing seasonal distribution of water yields. Moreover, it is still an open debate in which region "peak water" - the maximum contribution of <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to runoff - has already been reached, i.e. whether increasing or declining annual runoff volumes must be expected. Here, we present results of a novel global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> model for calculating the 21st century response of surface mass balance, three-dimensional <span class="hlt">glacier</span> geometry and monthly water discharge for each individual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> around the globe. The current surface geometry and thickness distribution for each of the world's roughly 200'000 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is extracted from the Randolph <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory and terrain models. Our simulations are driven with 14 Global Circulation Models from the CMIP5 project using the RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. We focus on the timing of peak water from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments in all climatic regions of the earth and the corresponding importance of changes in the runoff regime on hydrological stress. The maximum rate of water release from glacial storage is subject to a high spatio-temporal variability depending on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> characteristics and the transient response to climatic change. Furthermore, we discuss the significance of projected variations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff in relation to the hydrology of the world's large-scale drainage basins and population distribution, and highlight 'hot spot' regions where the wastage of current ice volume is particularly relevant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020677','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020677"><span>Water flow through temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fountain, A.G.; Walder, J.S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Understanding water movement through a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is fundamental to several critical issues in glaciology, including <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics, <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-induced floods, and the prediction of runoff from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> drainage basins. to this end we have synthesized a conceptual model os water movement through a temperate <span class="hlt">glacier</span> from the surface to the outlet stream. Processes that regulate the rate and distribution of water input at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface and that regulate water movement from the surface to the bed play important but commonly neglected roles in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrology. Where a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is covered by a layer of porous, permeable firn (the accumulation zone), the flux of water to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> interior varies slowly because the firn temporarily stores water and thereby smooths out variations in the supply rate. In the firn-free ablation zone, in contrast, the flux of water into the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> depends directly on the rate of surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> or rainfall and therefore varies greatly in time. Water moves from the surface to the bed through an upward branching arborescent network consisting of both steeply inclined conduits, formed by the enlargement of intergranular veins, and gently inclined conduits, sprqwned by water flow along the bottoms of near-surface fractures (crevasses). Englacial drainage conduits deliver water to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> bed at a linited number of points, probably a long distance downglacier of where water enters the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Englacial conduits supplied from the accumulation zone are quasi steady state features that convey the slowly varying water flux delivered via the firn. their size adjusts so that they are usually full of water and flow is pressurized. In contrast, water flow in englacial conduits supplied from the ablation area is pressurized only near times of peak daily flow or during rainstorms; flow is otherwise in an open-channel configuration. The subglacial drainage system typically consists of several elements that are distinct both morpphologically and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21059938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21059938"><span>Contribution potential of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to water availability in different climate regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaser, Georg; Grosshauser, Martin; Marzeion, Ben</p> <p>2010-11-23</p> <p>Although reliable figures are often missing, considerable detrimental changes due to shrinking <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are universally expected for water availability in river systems under the influence of ongoing global climate change. We estimate the contribution potential of seasonally delayed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water to total water availability in large river systems. We find that the seasonally delayed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution is largest where rivers enter seasonally arid regions and negligible in the lowlands of river basins governed by monsoon climates. By comparing monthly <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions with population densities in different altitude bands within each river basin, we demonstrate that strong human dependence on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> is not collocated with highest population densities in most basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001909.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001909.jpg.html"><span>Gyldenlove <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>On April 11, 2011, IceBridge finally got the clear weather necessary to fly over <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in southeast Greenland. But with clear skies came winds of up to 70 knots, which made for a bumpy ride over the calving front of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> like Gyldenlove. Operation IceBridge, now in its third year, makes annual campaigns in the Arctic and Antarctic where science flights monitor <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, ice sheets and sea ice. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Michael Studinger To learn more about Ice Bridge go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/icebridge/news/spr11/index.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19820453','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19820453"><span>Factors that modify <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kennedy, Ann R</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>It is known that numerous factors can influence radiation carcinogenesis in animals; these factors include the specific characteristics of the radiation (radiation type and dose, dose-rate, dose-fractionation, dose distribution, etc.) as well as many other contributing elements that are not specific to the radiation exposure, such as animal genetic characteristics and age, the environment of the animal, dietary factors and whether specific modifying agents for radiation carcinogenesis have been utilized in the studies. This overview focuses on the modifying factors for radiation carcinogenesis, in both in vivo and in vitro systems, and includes a discussion of agents that enhance (e.g., promoting agents) or suppress (e.g., cancer preventive agents) <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis. The agents that enhance or suppress radiation carcinogenesis in experimental model systems have been shown to lead to effects equally as large as other known modifying factors for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis (e.g., dose-rate, dose-fractionation, linear energy transfer). It is known that dietary factors play an important role in determining the yields of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancers in animal model systems, and it is likely that they also influence <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer risks in human populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23388505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23388505"><span>Molecular pathways: <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Moore, Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Each year, approximately 200,000 patients in the United States will receive partial- or whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of primary or metastatic brain cancer. Early and delayed radiation effects are transient and reversible with modern therapeutic standards; yet, late radiation effects (≥6 months postirradiation) remain a significant risk, resulting in progressive cognitive impairment. These risks include functional deficits in memory, attention, and executive function that severely affect the patient's quality of life. The mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment remain ill defined. Classically, <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> alterations in vascular and neuroinflammatory glial cell clonogenic populations were hypothesized to be responsible for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> brain injury. Recently, preclinical studies have focused on the hippocampus, one of two sites of adult neurogenesis within the brain, which plays an important role in learning and memory. Radiation ablates hippocampal neurogenesis, alters neuronal function, and induces neuroinflammation. Neuronal stem cells implanted into the hippocampus prevent the decrease in neurogenesis and improve cognition after irradiation. Clinically prescribed drugs, including PPARα and PPARγ agonists, as well as RAS blockers, prevent <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment independent of improved neurogenesis. Translating these exciting findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the quality of life of brain tumor patients who receive radiotherapy. ©2013 AACR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8077P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8077P"><span>Hasty retreat of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in northern Patagonia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Frank; Mölg, Nico</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> decline (area and thickness loss). Some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreated more than 3 km over this time period or even disappeared completely. Typically, these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> lost contact to the accumulation areas of tributaries and <span class="hlt">melted</span> away as dead ice. Furthermore, numerous proglacial lakes formed or expanded rapidly, increasing the local hazard potential. On the other hand, some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> located on or near to (still active) volcanoes have also slightly advanced over the same time period. Observed trends in temperature (decreasing) are in contrast to the observed strong <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinkage, indicating that also other factors must play a role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001874.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001874.jpg.html"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>NASA image captured August 31, 2000 The tongue of the Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, the largest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Alaska, fills most of this image. The Malaspina lies west of Yakutat Bay and covers 1,500 sq. MI (3,880 sq. km). Credit: NASA/Landsat NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20745.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA20745.html"><span>Glorious <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>This image has low-sun lighting that accentuates the many transverse ridges on this slope, extending from Euripus Mons (mountains). These flow-like structures were previously called "lobate debris aprons," but the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on MRO has shown that they are actually debris-covered flows of ice, or <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. There is no evidence for present-day flow of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, so they appear to be remnants of past climates. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001938.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001938.jpg.html"><span>Matusevich <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>NASA image acquired September 6, 2010 The Matusevich <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> flows toward the coast of East Antarctica, pushing through a channel between the Lazarev Mountains and the northwestern tip of the Wilson Hills. Constrained by surrounding rocks, the river of ice holds together. But stresses resulting from the glacier’s movement make deep crevasses, or cracks, in the ice. After passing through the channel, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has room to spread out as it floats on the ocean. The expanded area and the jostling of ocean waves prompts the ice to break apart, which it often does along existing crevasses. On September 6, 2010, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image of the margin of Matusevich <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Shown here just past the rock-lined channel, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is calving large icebergs. Low-angled sunlight illuminates north-facing surfaces and casts long shadows to the south. Fast ice anchored to the shore surrounds both the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongue and the icebergs it has calved. Compared to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and icebergs, the fast ice is thinner with a smoother surface. Out to sea (image left), the sea ice is even thinner and moves with winds and currents. Matusevich <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> does not drain a significant amount of ice off of the Antarctic continent, so the glacier’s advances and retreats lack global significance. Like other Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, however, Matusevich helps glaciologists form a larger picture of Antarctica’s glacial health and ice sheet volume. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott based on image interpretation by Robert Bindschadler, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and Walt Meier, National Snow and Ice Data Center. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3589954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3589954"><span>[Quantification of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic risk].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ehling, U H</p> <p>1987-05-01</p> <p>Associated with technical advances of our civilization is a radiation- and chemically-induced increase in the germ cell mutation rate in man. This would result in an increase in the frequency of genetic diseases and would be detrimental to future generations. It is the duty of our generation to keep this risk as low as possible. The estimation of the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic risk of human populations is based on the extrapolation of results from animal experiments. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> mutations are stochastic events. The probability of the event depends on the dose; the degree of the damage does not. The different methods to estimate the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic risk will be discussed. The accuracy of the predicted results will be evaluated by a comparison with the observed incidence of dominant mutations in offspring born to radiation exposed survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. These methods will be used to predict the genetic damage from the fallout of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. For the exposure dose we used the upper limits of the mean effective life time equivalent dose from the fallout values in the Munich region. According to the direct method for the risk estimation we will expect for each 100 to 500 spontaneous dominant mutations one <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> mutation in the first generation. With the indirect method we estimate a ratio of 100 dominant spontaneous mutations to one <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> dominant mutation. The possibilities and the limitations of the different methods to estimate the genetic risk will be discussed. The discrepancy between the high safety standards for radiation protection and the low level of knowledge for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mutagens will be emphasized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020269','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020269"><span>The geochemical record in rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Steig, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Potter, N.; Clark, D.H.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A 9.5 m ice core was extracted from beneath the surficial debris cover of a rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> at Galena Creek, northwestern Wyoming. The core contains clean, bubble-rich ice with silty debris layers spaced at roughly 20 cm intervals. The debris layers are similar in appearance to those in typical alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, reflecting concentration of debris by <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the surface during the summer ablation season. Profiles of stable isotope concentrations and electrical conductivity measurements provide independent evidence for <span class="hlt">melting</span> in association with debris layers. These observations are consistent with a glacial origin for the ice, substantiating the glacigenic model for rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> formation. The deuterium excess profile in the ice indicates that the total depth of meltwater infiltration is less than the thickness of one annual layer, suggesting that isotope values and other geochemical signatures are preserved at annual resolution. This finding demonstrates the potential for obtaining useful paleoclimate information from rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/38/4/319','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/38/4/319"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> microseismicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>West, Michael E.; Larsen, Christopher F.; Truffer, Martin; O'Neel, Shad; LeBlanc, Laura</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We present a framework for interpreting small <span class="hlt">glacier</span> seismic events based on data collected near the center of Bering <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska, in spring 2007. We find extremely high microseismicity rates (as many as tens of events per minute) occurring largely within a few kilometers of the receivers. A high-frequency class of seismicity is distinguished by dominant frequencies of 20–35 Hz and impulsive arrivals. A low-frequency class has dominant frequencies of 6–15 Hz, emergent onsets, and longer, more monotonic codas. A bimodal distribution of 160,000 seismic events over two months demonstrates that the classes represent two distinct populations. This is further supported by the presence of hybrid waveforms that contain elements of both event types. The high-low-hybrid paradigm is well established in volcano seismology and is demonstrated by a comparison to earthquakes from Augustine Volcano. We build on these parallels to suggest that fluid-induced resonance is likely responsible for the low-frequency <span class="hlt">glacier</span> events and that the hybrid <span class="hlt">glacier</span> events may be caused by the rush of water into newly opening pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/jakobshavn_glacier','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/jakobshavn_glacier"><span>Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-17</p> <p>article title:  Greenland's Coast in Holiday Colors     ... blues adorn this view of the area surrounding the Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> on the western coast of Greenland. The image is a false-color (near-infrared, green, blue) view ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23857302"><span>Flow velocities of Alaskan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burgess, Evan W; Forster, Richard R; Larsen, Christopher F</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Our poor understanding of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics remains the primary source of uncertainty in sea level rise projections. On the ice sheets, mass lost from tidewater calving exceeds the amount lost from surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>. In Alaska, the magnitude of calving mass loss remains unconstrained, yet immense calving losses have been observed. With 20% of the global new-water sea level rise coming from Alaska, partitioning of mass loss sources in Alaska is needed to improve sea level rise projections. Here we present the first regionally comprehensive map of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow velocities in Central Alaska. These data reveal that the majority of the regional downstream flux is constrained to only a few coastal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We find regional calving losses are 17.1 Gt a(-1), which is equivalent to 36% of the total annual mass change throughout Central Alaska.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3400082','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3400082"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> brain injury: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> brain injury. Given that <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512341E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512341E"><span>Arctic polynya and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edwards, Laura</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from the polar ice sheets and ice caps. Understanding changes across the Arctic is vital as major potential contributors to sea level, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the ice caps and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Most ice mass loss is currently focused at a relatively small number of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> catchments where ice acceleration, thinning and calving occurs at ocean margins. Research suggests that these tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> accelerate and iceberg calving rates increase when warming ocean currents increase <span class="hlt">melt</span> on the underside of floating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice and when adjacent sea ice is removed causing a reduction in 'buttressing' back stress. Thus localised changes in ocean temperatures and in sea ice (extent and thickness) adjacent to major glacial catchments can impact hugely on the dynamics of, and hence mass lost from, terrestrial ice sheets and ice caps. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~50,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas play a vital role in the heat balance of the polar oceans and strongly impact regional oceanography. Where polynyas develop adjacent to tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures may play a major part in controlling subsurface ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. Areas of open water also play a significant role in controlling the potential of the atmosphere to carry moisture, as well as allowing heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean, and so can influence accumulation on (and hence thickness of) <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps. Polynya presence and size also has implications for sea ice extent and therefore potentially the buttressing effect on neighbouring</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915896D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915896D"><span>A fjord-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> coupled system model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Andrés, Eva; Otero, Jaime; Navarro, Francisco; Prominska, Agnieszka; Lapazaran, Javier; Walczowski, Waldemar</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>With the aim of studying the processes occurring at the front of marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, we couple a fjord circulation model with a flowline <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics model, with subglacial discharge and calving, which allows the calculation of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> and its influence on calving processes. For ocean modelling, we use a general circulation model, MITgcm, to simulate water circulation driven by both fjord conditions and subglacial discharge, and for calculating submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front. To constrain freshwater input to the fjord, we use estimations from European Arctic Reanalysis (EAR). To determine the optimal values for each run period, we perform a sensitivity analysis of the model to subglacial discharge variability, aimed to get the best fit of model results to observed temperature and salinity profiles in the fjord for each of these periods. Then, we establish initial and boundary fjord conditions, which we vary weekly-fortnightly, and calculate the submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate as a function of depth at the calving front. These data are entered into the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-flow model, Elmer/Ice, which has been added a crevasse-depth calving model, to estimate the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus position at a weekly time resolution. We focus our study on the Hansbreen <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-Hansbukta Fjord system, in Southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, where a large set of data are available for both <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and fjord. The bathymetry of the entire system has been determined from ground penetrating radar and sonar data. In the fjord we have got temperature and salinity data from CTDs (May to September, 2010-2014) and from a mooring (September to May, 2011-2012). For Hansbreen, we use <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface topography data from the SPIRIT DEM, surface mass balance from EAR, centre line <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocities from stake measurements (May 2005-April 2011), weekly terminus positions from time-lapse photos (Sept. 2009-Sept. 2011), and sea-ice concentrations from time-lapse photos and Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C43B0799A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C43B0799A"><span>Estimating Heat Transfer at <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Margins using Ground-Based Infrared Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubry-Wake, C.; Zephir, D.; Baraer, M.; McKenzie, J. M.; Mark, B. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> constitute an important water resource for downstream populations. However, our understanding of their physical processes is limited due to their high elevation and remote location. In order to gain information on the processes driving the ablation of tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, we acquired time-lapse (5-10 minute interval) high-resolution (0.64 m2 pixel size) infrared imagery of the Cuchillacocha <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in June 2014. This temperature dataset allows for the investigation of small-scale processes observed on the surface of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and surroundings, such as the longwave transfer from the rock adjacent to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. This process is particularly important for tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, where the intense incoming solar radiation results in relatively high temperatures of the rocks adjacent the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and enhances longwave radiation emission. This radiative flux, varying between 81 and 120 W m-2 daily, is affected by local shading but shows no significant dependency on elevation. The longwave flux derived from the infrared images is integrated into an energy-balance model of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to compare <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> margin to that occurring on the surface of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We can then estimate the <span class="hlt">melt</span> volume generated by this enhanced longwave radiation at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> margins during the dry season. Including the quantification of the longwave flux at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> margin results in an improved assessment of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> energy budget and <span class="hlt">melt</span> water generation of tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7138788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7138788"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> meningiomas in pediatric patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5716354','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5716354"><span>Bile acids in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3163779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3163779"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> meningiomas in pediatric patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moss, S D; Rockswold, G L; Chou, S N; Yock, D; Berger, M S</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C22B..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C22B..03G"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Contributions to Sea Level Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Wouters, B.; Wiese, D. N.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Global mean sea level is rising in response to two primary factors: warming oceans and diminishing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice sheets. If <span class="hlt">melted</span> completely, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> would raise sea levels by half a meter, much less than that the 80 meters or so that would result from total <span class="hlt">melt</span> of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. That is why <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contributions to sea level rise have been less studied, allowing estimates of to vary widely. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> contributions to sea level change are challenging to quantify as they are broadly distributed, located in remote and poorly accessible high latitude and high altitude regions, and ground observations are sparse. Advances in satellite altimetry (ICESat) and gravimetry (GRACE) have helped, but they also have their own challenges and limitations. Here we present an updated (2003-2014) synthesis of multiple techniques adapted for varying regions to show that rates of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> loss change little between the 2003-2009 and 2003-2014 periods, accounting for roughly one third of global mean sea level rise. Over the next century and beyond <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are expected to continue to contribute substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans, motivating continued study of how <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> respond to climate change that will improve projections of future sea levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53A1710P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNH53A1710P"><span>Central Himalayan <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and Climate Change- Pinder <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>- A preliminary study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pillai, J.; Patel, L. K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) are the prime lifeline of Indian Subcontinent. There are about nine thousand <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of different size in this region. It is located within the latitudes 270N to 360N and longitude 720E to 960E. The second largest <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, outside the polar and sub polar regions, Siachen <span class="hlt">glacier</span> of length 74 km, is located in IHR. Many rivers in this continent originated from these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Study on the fluctuations especially of the snow cover and related parameters are important for the proper management of these rivers. Annual balance, fluctuations of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, hydrological behaviour and the assessment of the winter snow pack are also critical for the proper flow and control of Himalayan Rivers. There are many hydroelectric and irrigation facilities in these snow fed rivers. Glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> is important as far as the river flow is concerned. Researchers had observed that the glacial mass balance has been found to show an inverse relationship with the monsoon. Glacial hydrometry and glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> are important aspects as far the studies of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in this region. Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are also important for ecosystem stability. In this perspective attempts had been made to examine the various environmental parameters of Pindari <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and the upper reaches of the Pindari river. Pindari <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is located in the Central Himalayan region. It is of length 8 Km. A few records available with Geological Survey of India for a period of hundred years reveals that Pindari glacial have an annual retreat of 8-10 M. Pindrai <span class="hlt">glacier</span> had retreated about 425 M with in a period of fifty seven years. Pindari river originates from the buffer zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and is located in the lower regime of Pindari <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. It is one of the prominent tributaries of Alaknanda. Tributaries of Pindari river are from Maktoli <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, Kafani <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and Sunderdhunga <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The changes in the Pindiari catchment area had been examined from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003719','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003719"><span>What do We Know the Snow Darkening Effect Over Himalayan <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; Gautam, R.; Kim, K. M.; Dasilva, A. M.; Colarco, P. R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The atmospheric absorbing aerosols such as dust, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) are now well known warming factors in the atmosphere. However, when these aerosols deposit onto the snow surface, it causes darkening of snow and thereby absorbing more energy at the snow surface leading to the accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span> of snow. If this happens over Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">meltings</span> are expected and may contribute the mass balance changes though the mass balance itself is more complicated issue. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has mainly two parts: ablation and accumulation zones. Those are separated by the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA). Above and below ELA, snow accumulation and <span class="hlt">melting</span> are dominant, respectively. The change of ELA will influence the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> disappearance in future. In the Himalayan region, many <span class="hlt">glacier</span> are debris covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> at the terminus (i.e., in the ablation zone). Debris is pieces of rock from local land and the debris covered parts are probably not affected by any deposition of the absorbing aerosols because the snow surface is already covered by debris (the debris covered parts have different mechanism of <span class="hlt">melting</span>). Hence, the contribution of the snow darkening effect is considered to be most important "over non debris covered part" of the Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (i.e., over the snow or ice surface area). To discuss the whole <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat, mass balance of each <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is most important including the discussion on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow, vertical compaction of <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, <span class="hlt">melting</span> amount, etc. The contribution of the snow darkening is mostly associated with "the snow/ice surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>". Note that the surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> itself is not always directly related to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreats because sometimes <span class="hlt">melt</span> water refreezes inside of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We should discuss <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreats in terms of not only the snow darkening but also other contributions to the mass balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/282970','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/282970"><span>Study of chemical and <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> carcinogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chmura, A.</p> <p>1995-11-01</p> <p>The study of chemical and <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5474762"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> heart disease in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lauk, S.; Kiszel, Z.; Buschmann, J.; Trott, K.R.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>After local irradiation of the rat heart with X ray doses of over 10 Gy (single dose), animals developed symptoms of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> heart disease, which at higher doses would lead to fatal cardiac failure. The LD 50 at 1 year was between 15 Gy and 20 Gy. The pericardium and epicardium responded to irradiation with exudative pericarditis after 4 months. Focal myocardial damage was secondary to progressive capillary damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6167961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6167961"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> fracture of the scapula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riggs, J.H. III; Schultz, G.D.; Hanes, S.A. )</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>A case of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> osteonecrosis resulting in a fracture of the scapula in a 76-yr-old female patient with a history of breast carcinoma is presented. Diagnostic imaging, laboratory recommendations and clinical findings are discussed along with an algorithm for the safe management of patients with a history of cancer and musculoskeletal complaints. This case demonstrates the necessity of a thorough investigation of musculoskeletal complaints in patients with previous bone-seeking carcinomas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513236H"><span>Climate sensitivity of Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> - past and future implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heyman, Jakob; Hubbard, Alun; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Harbor, Jonathan M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most extensively glaciated, non-Polar regions of the world, and its mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are the primary source of <span class="hlt">melt</span> water for several of the largest Asian rivers. During glacial cycles, Tibetan Plateau <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> advanced and retreated multiple times, but remained restricted to the highest mountain areas as valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps. Because <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extent is dominantly controlled by climate, the past extent of Tibetan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> provide information on regional climate. Here we present a study analyzing the past maximum extents of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on the Tibetan Plateau with the output of a 3D <span class="hlt">glacier</span> model, in an effort to quantify Tibetan Plateau climate. We have mapped present-day <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and glacial landforms deposited by formerly more extensive <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in eight mountain regions across the Tibetan Plateau, allowing us to define present-day and past maximum <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outlines. Using a high-resolution (250 m) higher-order <span class="hlt">glacier</span> model calibrated against present-day <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extents, we have quantified the climate perturbations required to expand present-day <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to their past maximum extents. We find that a modest cooling of at most 6°C for a few thousand years is enough to attain past maximum extents, even with 25-75% precipitation reduction. This evidence for limited cooling indicates that the temperature of the Tibetan Plateau remained relatively stable over Quaternary glacial cycles. Given the significant sensitivity to temperature change, the expectation is perhaps that a future warmer climate might result in intense <span class="hlt">glacier</span> reduction. We have tested this hypothesis and modeled the future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> development for the three mountain regions with the largest present-day <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cover using a projected warming of 2.8 to 6.2°C within 100 years (envelope limits from IPCC). These scenarios result in dramatic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> reductions, including 24-100% ice volume loss after 100 years and 77-100% ice volume loss after 300 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23819596"><span>Quercetin inhibits <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> skin fibrosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horton, Jason A; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281888','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4281888"><span>Quercetin Inhibits <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Skin Fibrosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348250','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348250"><span>Imaging <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> normal tissue injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robbins, Mike E; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K; Peiffer, Ann M; Tsien, Christina I; Bailey, Janet E; Marks, Lawrence B</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Technological developments in radiation therapy and other cancer therapies have led to a progressive increase in five-year survival rates over the last few decades. Although acute effects have been largely minimized by both technical advances and medical interventions, late effects remain a concern. Indeed, the need to identify those individuals who will develop <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late effects, and to develop interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects is a critical area of radiobiology research. In the last two decades, preclinical studies have clearly established that late radiation injury can be prevented/ameliorated by pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late effects. These insights have been accompanied by significant technological advances in imaging that are moving radiation oncology and normal tissue radiobiology from disciplines driven by anatomy and macrostructure to ones in which important quantitative functional, microstructural, and metabolic data can be noninvasively and serially determined. In the current article, we review use of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy to generate pathophysiological and functional data in the central nervous system, lung, and heart that offer the promise of, (1) identifying individuals who are at risk of developing <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late effects, and (2) monitoring the efficacy of interventions to prevent/ameliorate them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0387b/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/0387b/report.pdf"><span>Recent Activity of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Mount Rainier, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sigafoos, Robert S.; Hendricks, E.L.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Knowing the ages of trees growing on recent moraines at Mount Rainier, Wash., permits the moraines to be dated. Moraines which are ridges of boulders, gravel, sand, and dust deposited at the margins of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, mark former limits of a receding <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Knowing past glacial activity aids our understanding of past climatic variations. The report documents the ages of moraines deposited by eight <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Aerial photographs and planimetric maps show areas where detailed field studies were made below seven <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Moraines, past ice positions, and sample areas are plotted on the photographs and maps, along with trails, roads, streams, and landforms, to permit critical areas to be identified in the future. Ground photographs are included so that sample sites and easily accessible moraines can be found along trails. Tables present data about trees sampled in areas near the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mount Rainier, Wash. The data in the tables show there are modern moraines of different age around the mountain; some valleys contain only one modern moraiine; others contain as many as nine. The evidence indicates a sequence of modern glacial advances terminating at about the following A.D. dates: 1525, 1550, 1625-60, 1715, 1730-65, 1820-60, 1875, and 1910. Nisqually River valley near Nisqually <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> contains one moraine formed before A.D. 1842; Tahoma Creek valley near South Tahoma <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> contains three moraines formed before A.D. 1528; 1843, and 1864; South Puyallup River valley near Tahoma <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, six moraines A.D. 1544, 1761, 1841, 1851, 1863, 1898; Puyallup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, one moraine, A.D. 1846; Carbon <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, four moraines, 1519, 1763, 1847, 1876; Winthrop <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, four moraines, 1655, 1716, 1760, amid 1822; Emmons <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, nine moraines, 1596, 1613, 1661, 1738, 1825, 1850, 1865, 1870, 1901; and Ohanapecosh <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, three moraines, 1741, 1846, and 1878. Abandoned <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water and flood channels were identified within moraine complexes below three <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and their time of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04715&hterms=garden+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgarden%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04715&hterms=garden+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dgarden%2Bclimate"><span>Alpine <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/>Released 27 August 2003<p/>This image shows part of the western flank of Arsia Mons, the southernmost of the three great Tharsis Montes. The surface shows parallel ridges more reminiscent of a Zen garden than any typical geological feature. These ridges are not typical of lava flow fronts, so a different explanation has been proposed by Mars scientists. These ridges may instead be ancient signs of previously existing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that formed high on the volcano's flank. As <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreat with the seasons and shifting climate, they leave behind a mound of debris along their receding edge. Successive retreats can produce a series of parallel ridges similar to those seen here.<p/>Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.9, Longitude 230.5 East (129.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04715&hterms=debris+glacier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddebris%2Bglacier','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA04715&hterms=debris+glacier&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddebris%2Bglacier"><span>Alpine <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/> [figure removed for brevity, see original site] <p/>Released 27 August 2003<p/>This image shows part of the western flank of Arsia Mons, the southernmost of the three great Tharsis Montes. The surface shows parallel ridges more reminiscent of a Zen garden than any typical geological feature. These ridges are not typical of lava flow fronts, so a different explanation has been proposed by Mars scientists. These ridges may instead be ancient signs of previously existing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that formed high on the volcano's flank. As <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreat with the seasons and shifting climate, they leave behind a mound of debris along their receding edge. Successive retreats can produce a series of parallel ridges similar to those seen here.<p/>Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.9, Longitude 230.5 East (129.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C32C..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C32C..07L"><span>Response of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> to Climate Change in Northwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Z.; Wang, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In Northwest China, an extremely dry region, more than 20,000 mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are developed. Glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> water is vital for local water resources, ecosystem in the lower reaches, peoples' living and city development there. During the past several decades, due to climate warming, the most <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in NW China are in a state of rapid retreating. To obtain the general idea on response of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in that region, Tianshan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences selected more than ten <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in six sub-regions along Altai Mountain, Tianshan and Qilian Mountain, respectively, doing in-situ observations. Based on field observation and remote sensing technique, this study has revealed that the area reductions in different regions range between 8.8%~34.2 % during the past four decades. The potential impact of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession on water resource in future will be spatially different. For the Tarim River, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff is estimated to maintain its current level or increase somewhat in next 30~50 years. In the north slope of Tianshan, the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with a size smaller than 1 km2 are most likely to be <span class="hlt">melted</span> away in next 20~40 years, and those larger than 5 km2 are <span class="hlt">melting</span> intensively. In eastern Xinjiang, because the number of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is small and also because the climate is extremely dry, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreating are causing the water shortage problem. For Ili River and Irtysh River, because they are dominant by snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> runoff, the impact of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinkage and temperature rise would be limited on the quantity of the river runoff, but significant on the annual distribution of the river runoff. For Qilian Mountains, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are quite small. The vanishing of small <span class="hlt">glacier</span> will have significant impact on local water resources in near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0610553','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0610553"><span><span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> SLIDING,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The theory of the sliding of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> presented in earlier papers has been generalized (1) by taking into account the resistance to sliding offered...bed at the downstream side of an obstacle. The sliding velocities and controlling obstacle sizes which are found from the generalized theory are...magnitude smaller in thickness than the height of the controlling obstacles can cause an appreciable increase in the sliding velocity. The generalized</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8662F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8662F"><span>Short term dynamics of the debris-covered Miage <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fyffe, Catriona; Brock, Ben; Kirkbride, Martin; Mair, Doug; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Due to the often inaccessible nature of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, studies of their dynamics tend to be restricted to those using remotely sensed data. This paper presents data on the short-term <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics of the debris-covered Miage <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Western Italian Alps. The <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity was calculated from repeat occupation of up to 22 points using a differential GPS system over two <span class="hlt">melt</span> seasons. Meteorological, hydrological and water chemistry data were collected over the same time periods, and the nature of the hydrological system was studied using dye tracing, to allow the short term variations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics to be understood in terms of the likely glacial drainage system and its evolution. The highest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocities and the greatest velocity variability was found near to where a cluster of moulins enter the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, close to the limit of continuous debris cover. The <span class="hlt">melt</span> from the clean and dirty ice occasionally led to inputs overcoming the channelized system (both in spring and mid-summer), leading to increased velocities. On the debris-covered lower <span class="hlt">glacier</span> however velocities were lower and less variable, and significant speed-up was confined to a period when subglacial water was thought to have been transferred subglacially from higher upglacier. The subdued sub-debris <span class="hlt">melt</span> signal is thought to be the cause of the reduced velocity variability, in spite of the hydrological system beneath this part of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> remaining inefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41A0333K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41A0333K"><span>Modeling Runoff from Partially <span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> Catchments in the Tropical Andes with Different <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Coverage and Land Cover Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinouchi, T.; Mendoza, J.; Luna, J.; Asaoka, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In Bolivian Andes, retreats of tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are rapid, thus water resources currently available from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments for drinking, agriculture, industry and hydropower would be changed in its volume and variations due to changing climate. Water resources in La Paz and El Alto, the capital city areas of Bolivia, strongly depend on the runoff from partially <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> catchments located in the Cordillera Real, which is a combined contribution of surface and subsurface flow from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> and non-<span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas due to rainfall, snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. To predict the long-term availability of water resources for the capital city areas, we developed a semi-distributed conceptual glacio-hydrological model that considers various runoff pathways from partially <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> high-altitudinal catchments located in the outer tropics. In the model, the retarding effect of lakes and wetlands was considered, based on the observed hydraulic functions and distribution of wetlands. The model was applied to three sub-catchments of the Tuni Lake watershed (98km2), from which the water resources for La Paz and El Alto are supplied. With calibrated parameters, the model reproduced well the observed seasonal variations of daily runoff during recent two years. Simulated results of water balance suggested that for the catchment with a larger <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cover, more than 40% of the annual total runoff is contributed from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas due to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> and snowmelt. The contribution from <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> areas in other two sub-catchments, with relatively smaller areas covered by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice, was calculated to be between 10-15%. We found that the role of wetlands and lakes are essential in retarding and regulating the runoff from partially <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> high-mountain catchments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918586S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1918586S"><span>Ocean impact on Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Northeast Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaffer, Janin; Kanzow, Torsten; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Mayer, Christoph</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> around Greenland. The largest of three outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> draining the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (also referred to as 79 North <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>). Historic observations showed that warm waters of Atlantic origin are present in the subglacial cavity below the 80 km long floating ice tongue of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and cause strong basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the grounding line, but to date it has been unknown how those warm water enter the cavity. In order to understand how Atlantic origin waters carry heat into the subglacial cavity beneath Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, we performed bathymetric, hydrographic, and velocity observations in the vicinity of the main <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving front aboard RV Polarstern in summer 2016. The bathymetric multibeam data shows a 500 m deep and 2 km narrow passage downstream of a 310 m deep sill. This turned out to be the only location deep enough for an exchange of Atlantic waters between the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cavity and the continental shelf. Hydrographic and velocity measurements revealed a density driven plume in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving front causing a rapid flow of waters of Atlantic origin warmer 1°C into the subglacial cavity through the 500 m deep passage. In addition, glacially modified waters flow out of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cavity below the 80 m deep ice base. In the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, the glacially modified waters form a distinct mixed layer situated above the Atlantic waters and below the ambient Polar water. At greater distances from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> this layer is eroded by lateral mixing with ambient water. Based on our observations we will present an estimate of the ocean heat transport into the subglacial cavity. In comparison with historic observations we find an increase in Atlantic water temperatures throughout the last 20 years. The resulting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514695','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5514695"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> injury of the esophagus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lepke, R.A.; Libshitz, H.I.</p> <p>1983-08-01</p> <p>Forty patients with functional or morphologic esophageal abnormalities following radiotherapy were identified. Abnormalities included abnormal motility with and without mucosal edema, stricture, ulceration and pseudodiverticulum, and fistula. Abnormal motility occurred 4 to 12 weeks following radiotherapy alone and as early as 1 week after therapy when concomitant chemotherapy had been given. Strictures developed 4 to 8 months following completion of radiotherapy. Ulceration, pseudodiverticulum, and fistula formation did not develop in a uniform time frame. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> esophageal injury is more frequent when radiotherapy and chemotherapy are combined than it is with radiotherapy alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310706','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5310706"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> esophagitis in lung cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1353020','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1353020"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> detwinning in nanotwinned Cu</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Youxing; Wang, Haiyan; Kirk, Mark A.; Li, Meimei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xinghang</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Superior radiation tolerance has been experimentally examined in nanotwinned metals. The stability of nanotwinned structure under radiation is the key factor for advancing the application of nanotwinned metals for nuclear reactors. We thus performed in situ radiation tests for nanotwinned Cu with various twin thicknesses inside a transmission electron microscope. We found that there is a critical twin thickness (10 nm), below which, <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> detwinning is primarily accomplished through migration of incoherent twin boundaries. Lastly, detwinning is faster for thinner twins in this range, while thicker twins are more stable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6209339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6209339"><span>A report on <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> gliomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )</p> <p>1991-01-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..19T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..19T"><span>Ice sheet features identification, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity estimation, and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> zones classification using high-resolution optical and SAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thakur, Praveen K.; Dixit, Ankur; Chouksey, Arpit; Aggarwal, S. P.; Kumar, A. Senthil</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ice sheet features, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity estimation and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> zones or facies classification are important research activities highlighting the dynamics of ice sheets and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Polar Regions and in inland <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The Cband inSAR data is of ERS 1/2 tandem pairs with one day interval for spring of 1996 and L-band PolinSAR data of ALOS-PALSAR-2 for spring of 2015 is used in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity estimation. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> classification is done using multi-temporal C-and L-band SAR data and also with single date full polarization and hybrid polarization data. In first part, a mean displacement of 9 cm day-1 was recorded using SAR interferometric technique using ERS 1/2 tandem data of 25-26 March 1996. Previous studies using optical data based methods has shown that Gangotri <span class="hlt">glacier</span> moves with an average displacement of 4 cm and 6 cm day-1. As present results using ERS 1/2 data were obtained for one day interval, i.e., 25th March 05:00pm to 26th March 05:00 pm, 1996, variation in displacement may be due to presence of snow or wet snow <span class="hlt">melting</span> over the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, since during this time snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> season is in progress in Gangotri <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area. Similarly the results of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity derived using ALOSPALSAR- 2 during 22 March - 19 April 2015 shows the mean velocity of 5.4 to 7.4 cm day-1 during 28 day time interval for full <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and main trunk <span class="hlt">glacier</span> respectively. This L-band data is already corrected for Faraday's rotation effects by JAXA, and tropospheric correction are also being applied to refine the results. These results are significant as it is after gap of 20 years that DInSAR methods has given <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocity for fast moving Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. RISAT-1 FRS-1 hybrid data is used to create Raney's decompositions parameters, which are further used for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> zones classification using support vector machine based classification method. The Radarsat-2 and ALOS-PALSAR-2 fully polarized data of year 2010 and 2015 are also used for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> classification. The identified</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..1IT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9877E..1IT"><span>A geomorphic and morphometric analysis of surface ice velocity variation of different valley type <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiwari, R. K.; Garg, P. K.; Shukla, A.; Ahluwalia, R. S.; Singh, N.; Chauhan, P.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> surface ice velocity is one of the important parameters which determine the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics. If the surface ice velocity is high in upper zone (accumulation zone) of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, more ice is brought to the lower zone (ablation zone) of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> where it <span class="hlt">melts</span> more rapidly. The surface ice velocity depends on multiple factors like geomorphology of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> valley, ice load, orientation of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, slope and debris cover. In this study, we have used latest multi-temporal Landsat-8 satellite images to calculate the surface ice velocity of different <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from the Himalayan region and a relationship of velocity and geomorphology and geo-morphometry of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has been studied. The standard procedure has been implied to estimate the glacial velocity using image to image correlation technique. The geo-morphometric parameters of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface have been derived using SRTM 90 m global DEM. It has been observed that the slope of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is one of the main factors on which the velocity is dependent i.e. higher the slope higher is the velocity and more ice is brought by the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to the ablation zone. The debris cover over the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and at the terminus also affects the velocity of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> by restricting ice flow. Thus, observations suggest that the geomorphology and geo-morphometry of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has a considerable control on the surface ice velocity of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23D0962F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23D0962F"><span>Biogeochemistry of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outflow in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fegel, T. S.; Baron, J.; Hall, E.; Boot, C. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are <span class="hlt">melting</span> at unprecedented rates worldwide, releasing bioavailable minerals and nutrients and altering downstream biogeochemistry. Though much research has focused on the recession of ice-<span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in alpine environments, far less is known about the <span class="hlt">melt</span> dynamics and biogeochemistry of rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, which are mixtures of ice and rocks that flow like a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, are far more abundant in mountainous regions of the western United States than ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Little is known about their influence on downstream hydrology and water quality. We report here preliminary results of a west-wide survey of the influence of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on headwater properties. Measurements of specific conductance, nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), dissolved silica, and dissolved organic matter were compared between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and snow-fed reference streams from three basins in the Colorado Front Range. Samples were collected from ice, where possible, and downstream at 500m intervals from the first flowing water to tree line. UV and fluorescence data were analyzed using excitation emission matrices (EEMs) and PARAFAC modeling. High concentrations of NH4+ were only found in ice and the most upstream locations; NH4+ was below detection at all lower elevation sites, whereas NO3- concentrations were low in the headwaters and higher downstream. The fluorescence spectrum of DOC from both ice and the highest elevations had a strong autochthonous (microbial or algal) signal that was replaced by a more allochtonous, terrestrially-derived DOC as it approached tree line. Rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> stream chemistry was intermediate between <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed streams and strictly snow fed drainages. DOC levels for ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> ranged 2-3mg/L with increasing values downstream, while rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> ranged from 1-2.5 mg/L with attenuation downstream. Snowfed only streams had DOC values at detection <0.5mg/L, with the exception at Lake Husted outflow, with an upland wetland, unlike the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24909163"><span>Epigenetics in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weigel, C; Schmezer, P; Plass, C; Popanda, O</p> <p>2015-04-23</p> <p>Radiotherapy is a major cancer treatment option but dose-limiting side effects such as late-onset fibrosis in the irradiated tissue severely impair quality of life in cancer survivors. Efforts to explain <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis, for example, by genetic variation remained largely inconclusive. Recently published molecular analyses on radiation response and fibrogenesis showed a prominent role of epigenetic gene regulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epigenetic modifications in fibrotic disease and radiation response, and it points out the important role for epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, microRNAs and histone modifications in the development of this disease. The synopsis illustrates the complexity of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis and reveals the need for investigations to further unravel its molecular mechanisms. Importantly, epigenetic changes are long-term determinants of gene expression and can therefore support those mechanisms that induce and perpetuate fibrogenesis even in the absence of the initial damaging stimulus. Future work must comprise the interconnection of acute radiation response and long-lasting epigenetic effects in order to assess their role in late-onset radiation fibrosis. An improved understanding of the underlying biology is fundamental to better comprehend the origin of this disease and to improve both preventive and therapeutic strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22275701','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22275701"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> conductivity in space dielectric materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T. Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Molinie, P.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.</p> <p>2014-01-21</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon{sup ®} FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon{sup ®} FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115c3713H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115c3713H"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> conductivity in space dielectric materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanna, R.; Paulmier, T.; Molinie, P.; Belhaj, M.; Dirassen, B.; Payan, D.; Balcon, N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> conductivity of some polymers was described mainly in literature by a competition between ionization, trapping/detrapping, and recombination processes or by radiation assisted ageing mechanisms. Our aim is to revise the effect of the aforementioned mechanisms on the complex evolution of Teflon® FEP under space representative ionizing radiation. Through the definition of a new experimental protocol, revealing the effect of radiation dose and relaxation time, we have been able to demonstrate that the trapping/recombination model devised in this study agrees correctly with the observed experimental phenomenology at qualitative level and allows describing very well the evolution of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> conductivity with irradiation time (or received radiation dose). According to this model, the complex behavior observed on Teflon® FEP may be basically ascribed to the competition between electron/hole pairs generation and recombination: electrons are deeply trapped and act as recombination centers for free holes. Relaxation effects have been characterized through successive irradiations steps and have been again well described with the defined model at qualitative level: recombination centers created by the irradiation induce long term alteration on the electric properties, especially the effective bulk conductivity. One-month relaxation does not allow a complete recovery of the material initial charging behavior.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209205"><span>Mouse models for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael J; Schiestl, Robert H</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Potential ionising radiation exposure scenarios are varied, but all bring risks beyond the simple issues of short-term survival. Whether accidentally exposed to a single, whole-body dose in an act of terrorism or purposefully exposed to fractionated doses as part of a therapeutic regimen, radiation exposure carries the consequence of elevated cancer risk. The long-term impact of both intentional and unintentional exposure could potentially be mitigated by treatments specifically developed to limit the mutations and precancerous replication that ensue in the wake of irradiation The development of such agents would undoubtedly require a substantial degree of in vitro testing, but in order to accurately recapitulate the complex process of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis, well-understood animal models are necessary. Inbred strains of the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, present the most logical choice due to the high number of molecular and physiological similarities they share with humans. Their small size, high rate of breeding and fully sequenced genome further increase its value for use in cancer research. This chapter will review relevant m. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animals of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myeloid leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast and lung cancers. Method of cancer induction and associated molecular pathologies will also be described for each model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/2/131.abstract','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/2/131.abstract"><span>Modeled climate-induced <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change in <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> National Park, 1850-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hall, M.H.P.; Fagre, D.B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Blackfoot-Jackson <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Basin of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> National Park, Montana, decreased in area from 21.6 square kilometers (km2) in 1850 to 7.4 km2 in 1979. Over this same period global temperatures increased by 0.45??C (?? 0. 15??C). We analyzed the climatic causes and ecological consequences of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat by creating spatially explicit models of the creation and ablation of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and of the response of vegetation to climate change. We determined the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate and spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> under two possible future climate scenarios, one based on carbon dioxide-induced global warming and the other on a linear temperature extrapolation. Under the former scenario, all <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the basin will disappear by the year 2030, despite predicted increases in precipitation; under the latter, <span class="hlt">melting</span> is slower. Using a second model, we analyzed vegetation responses to variations in soil moisture and increasing temperature in a complex alpine landscape and predicted where plant communities are likely to be located as conditions change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH11B1123T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH11B1123T"><span>Surface change detection in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> regions using ALOS PALSAR data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomiyama, N.; Ono, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Mountainous <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are important water resources in the high mountainous region. The <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> not only supply water for drinking and agriculture, but also produce energy in hydroelectric power plants to local communities. The recent rapid <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is at high risk for severe water shortage in the near future. And the <span class="hlt">melting</span> water of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> sometimes leads to landslide disaster or <span class="hlt">glacier</span> lake outburst flood (GLOF). Actually, the debris flow happened and damaged the buildings at the valley of Pacuni <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Bolivia in December 2007. Consequently, the monitoring of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> regions is very important both to manage water resources and to mitigate the damage from landslide disaster. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite “DAICHI” (ALOS) has three sensors, two visible imagers and one L-band polarimetric SAR, and has been observing the land surface since 2006. This study discusses the availability of the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) of ALOS for surface change detection in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> regions in Bolivia. The observation by PALSAR is unaffected by weather. And this characteristic is the most important for the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> monitoring. Some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and their surrounding mountainous regions are selected as a test sites for this study and many landslides near Pacuni <span class="hlt">glacier</span> were detected by Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using PALSAR data of ALOS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816971M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816971M"><span>Surface characteristics and evolution of debris covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mölg, Nico; Vieli, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias; Bauder, Andreas; Bhattacharya, Atanu</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global climate change has led to increasing <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat in most parts of the world. However, many heavily debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have shown much smaller recession rates than their clean-ice neighbours. This can be attributed to the insulation effect of the supraglacial debris. Remote-sensing based investigations revealed that recent mass balances of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are equally negative. This fact is partly due to enhanced <span class="hlt">melting</span> at supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs but can also be caused by reduced mass flux. In this context, insufficient process understanding constitutes a major challenge for large scale <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change assessment and modelling. In this project, we aim at better understanding the evolution of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in connection with changes in supra-glacial debris coverage. It is performed on Zmutt <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Matter valley in Switzerland and on Gangotri <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Garwhal Himalaya in India. Changes in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length, area, debris coverage, and surface elevation were compiled based on topographic maps, oblique photos, aerial and satellite orthoimages, digital terrain models (DTMs), and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> monitoring data for a 50 (Gangotri) and 120 (Zmutt) year period, respectively. The subsequent analysis revealed that Zmutt <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has been in a slow but almost continuous retreating state since the end of the 19th century and showed a clear reduction in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and volume. Similarly, Gangotri <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has retreated and, to a smaller degree, lost volume. However, the change in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length and area is clearly smaller than for other nearby, less debris-covered or debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. This fact is attributed to the larger debris-covered area that has steadily increased. Further in the project, this data will serve as an important input and validation for the envisaged 3D flow modelling and, hence, will contribute to the understanding of the development of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and debris-covered ice in a period of fast climatic changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26830316"><span>Complex Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow captured.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A; Truffer, Martin</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> and flow acceleration in outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710524A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...710524A"><span>Complex Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow captured</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> and flow acceleration in outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740423','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740423"><span>Complex Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow captured</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aschwanden, Andy; Fahnestock, Mark A.; Truffer, Martin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Greenland Ice Sheet is losing mass at an accelerating rate due to increased surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> and flow acceleration in outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Quantifying future dynamic contributions to sea level requires accurate portrayal of outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in ice sheet simulations, but to date poor knowledge of subglacial topography and limited model resolution have prevented reproduction of complex spatial patterns of outlet flow. Here we combine a high-resolution ice-sheet model coupled to uniformly applied models of subglacial hydrology and basal sliding, and a new subglacial topography data set to simulate the flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Flow patterns of many outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are well captured, illustrating fundamental commonalities in outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow and highlighting the importance of efforts to map subglacial topography. Success in reproducing present day flow patterns shows the potential for prognostic modelling of ice sheets without the need for spatially varying parameters with uncertain time evolution. PMID:26830316</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79..123W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998EOSTr..79..123W"><span>Principles of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Waddington, Edwin D.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are awesome in size and move at a majestic pace, and they frequently occupy spectacular mountainous terrain. Naturally, many Earth scientists are attracted to <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Some of us are even fortunate enough to make a career of studying <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow. Many others work on the large, flat polar ice sheets where there is no scenery. As a leader of one of the foremost research projects now studying the flow of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (Storglaciaren, Norway), Roger Hooke is well qualified to describe the principles of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mechanics. Principles of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Mechanics is written for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students with an interest in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and the landforms that <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> produce. While most of the examples in the text are drawn from valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> studies, much of the material is also relevant to “<span class="hlt">glacier</span> flatland” on the polar ice sheets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614115K"><span>Effects of light absorbing impurities on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> albedo in the Tibetan Plateau: a case study of Zhadang <span class="hlt">glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Shichang; Qu, Bin; Ming, Jing</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Light absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC, or element carbon) and mineral dust, can deposit and accumulate on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface through dry and wet deposition, hence reducing the surface albedo and resulting in more solar radiation absorption, thus accelerates the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) can be affected by BC and dust from the surrounding areas. To investigate effects of BC and dust on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> albedo, we collected surface firn/ice samples in July and fresh snow samples in August, 2012, and measured albedo in Zhadang <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (southern Tibetan Plateau). Concentrations of BC (DRI method) (80.9 - 472.6 ppbm) and dust (33.6 - 1891.9 ppmm) are much higher in firn/ice than these of BC (40.8 - 59.4 ppbm) and dust (3.4 - 8.2 ppmm) in fresh snow, indicating that BC and dust can accumulate when snow starts <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Both BC and dust concentrations in snow reduced while albedo increased when elevation increased. Snow ice aerosol radiative (SNICAR) model were used to quantify the contribution rate of BC and dust to the snow albedo reduction. BC and dust in fresh snow contributed 47.7% and 13.6% for the reduction of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> albedo, respectively, meanwhile other factors (snow particle size, moisture content changes) contributed 38.7%, suggesting BC was a major factor for snow <span class="hlt">melting</span> in Zhadang <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. However, the contribution of dust to albedo reduction could be as high as 71% when the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> experienced strong <span class="hlt">melting</span> when the surface coverage was almost entirely dirty bare ice. The radiative forcing (RF) caused by dust could reach 33.9 Wm-2, while that caused by BC was only 4.5 Wm-2, indicating that dust, rather than BC, was the most dominant factor on the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> during the intensive <span class="hlt">melting</span> season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5517481','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5517481"><span>South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> bibliography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fountain, A.G.; Fulk, M.A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, in Washington State, resides in a well-defined basin with mainly unglacierized divides making it ideal for most glaciological and hydrological studies. This bibliography is divided into three cateogories: (1) studies done about South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> specifically; (2) studies that use data from South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> but do not focus on or give insight to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> itself; and (3) instrumentation studies and non-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> projects including snow studies done in the basin. (ACR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5734466','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5734466"><span>Role of neurotensin in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hypothermia in rats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The role of neurotensin in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hypothermia, suggesting that <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B54B..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.B54B..05H"><span>Differences in dissolved organic matter lability between alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and alpine rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of the American West</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, E.; Fegel, T. S., II; Baron, J.; Boot, C. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>While alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in montane regions represent the largest flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from global ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> no research has examined the bioavailability of DOM <span class="hlt">melted</span> out of glacial ice in the western continental United States. Furthermore, rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are an order of magnitude more abundant than ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in U.S., yet are not included in budgets for perennial ice carbon stores. Our research aims to understand differences in the bioavailability of carbon from ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> along the Central Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Identical microbial communities were fed standardized amounts of DOM from four different ice <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> pairs. Using laboratory incubations, paired with mass spectrometry based metabolomics and 16S gene sequencing; we were able to examine functional definitions of DOM lability in glacial ice. We hypothesized that even though DOM quantities are similar in the outputs of both glacial types in our study area, ice glacial DOM would be more bioavailable than DOM from rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> due to higher proportions of byproducts from microbial metabolism than rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> DOM, which has higher amounts of "recalcitrant" plant material. Our results show that DOM from ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is more labile than DOM from geologically and geographically similar paired rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Ice <span class="hlt">glacier</span> DOM represents an important pool of labile carbon to headwater ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains. Metabolomic analysis shows numerous compounds from varying metabolite pathways, including byproducts of nitrification before and after incubation, meaning that, similar to large maritime <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Alaska and Europe, subglacial environments in the mountain ranges of the United States are hotspots for biological activity and processing of organic carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157091','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157091"><span>Subglacial discharge at tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> revealed by seismic tremor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Walter, Jacob I.; O'Neel, Shad; West, Michael E.; Larsen, Christopher F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Subglacial discharge influences <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basal motion and erodes and redeposits sediment. At tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini, discharge drives submarine terminus <span class="hlt">melting</span>, affects fjord circulation, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. However, our present inability to track subglacial discharge and its variability significantly hinders our understanding of these processes. Here we report observations of hourly to seasonal variations in 1.5–10 Hz seismic tremor that strongly correlate with subglacial discharge but not with basal motion, weather, or discrete icequakes. Our data demonstrate that vigorous discharge occurs from tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during summer, in spite of fast basal motion that could limit the formation of subglacial conduits, and then abates during winter. Furthermore, tremor observations and a <span class="hlt">melt</span> model demonstrate that drainage efficiency of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> evolves seasonally. Glaciohydraulic tremor provides a means by which to quantify subglacial discharge variations and offers a promising window into otherwise obscured <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5020593','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5020593"><span>Subglacial discharge at tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> revealed by seismic tremor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amundson, Jason M.; Walter, Jacob I.; O'Neel, Shad; West, Michael E.; Larsen, Christopher F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Subglacial discharge influences <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basal motion and erodes and redeposits sediment. At tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini, discharge drives submarine terminus <span class="hlt">melting</span>, affects fjord circulation, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. However, our present inability to track subglacial discharge and its variability significantly hinders our understanding of these processes. Here we report observations of hourly to seasonal variations in 1.5–10 Hz seismic tremor that strongly correlate with subglacial discharge but not with basal motion, weather, or discrete icequakes. Our data demonstrate that vigorous discharge occurs from tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during summer, in spite of fast basal motion that could limit the formation of subglacial conduits, and then abates during winter. Furthermore, tremor observations and a <span class="hlt">melt</span> model demonstrate that drainage efficiency of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> evolves seasonally. Glaciohydraulic tremor provides a means by which to quantify subglacial discharge variations and offers a promising window into otherwise obscured <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> environments. PMID:27667869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981evgm.rept.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981evgm.rept.....B"><span>Effects of volcanism on the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mount St. Helens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugman, M. M.; Post, A.</p> <p></p> <p>The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens May 18, 1980, removed 2.9 sq/km of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow and ice including a large part of Shoestring Forsyth, Wishbone, Ape, Nelson, and all of Loowit and Leschi <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>. Minor eruptions and bulging of the volcano from March 27 to May 17 shattered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> which were on the deforming rock and deposited ash on other <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Thick ash layers persisted after the May 18 eruption through the summer on most of the remaining snow and ice, and protected winter snow from <span class="hlt">melting</span> on Swift and Dryer <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> and recrystallization of snow and ice surviving on Mount St. Helens could cause and lubricate mud flows and generate outburst floods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27667869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27667869"><span>Subglacial discharge at tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> revealed by seismic tremor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bartholomaus, Timothy C; Amundson, Jason M; Walter, Jacob I; O'Neel, Shad; West, Michael E; Larsen, Christopher F</p> <p>2015-08-16</p> <p>Subglacial discharge influences <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basal motion and erodes and redeposits sediment. At tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini, discharge drives submarine terminus <span class="hlt">melting</span>, affects fjord circulation, and is a central component of proglacial marine ecosystems. However, our present inability to track subglacial discharge and its variability significantly hinders our understanding of these processes. Here we report observations of hourly to seasonal variations in 1.5-10 Hz seismic tremor that strongly correlate with subglacial discharge but not with basal motion, weather, or discrete icequakes. Our data demonstrate that vigorous discharge occurs from tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during summer, in spite of fast basal motion that could limit the formation of subglacial conduits, and then abates during winter. Furthermore, tremor observations and a <span class="hlt">melt</span> model demonstrate that drainage efficiency of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> evolves seasonally. Glaciohydraulic tremor provides a means by which to quantify subglacial discharge variations and offers a promising window into otherwise obscured <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0582B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23A0582B"><span>Regional Observations of Alaska <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgess, E. W.; Forster, R. R.; Hall, D. K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Alaska <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> contribute more to sea level rise than any other <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> mountain region in the world. Alaska is loosing ~84 Gt of ice annually, which accounts for ~0.23 mm/yr of SLR (Luthcke et al., 2008). Complex <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow dynamics, frequently related to tidewater environments, is the primary cause of such rapid mass loss (Larsen et al., 2007). Indirect observations indicate these complex flow dynamics occur on many <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> throughout Alaska, but no comprehensive velocity measurements exist. We are working to measure <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface velocities throughout Alaska using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset tracking. This work focuses on the Seward/Malaspina, Bering, Columbia, Kaskawulsh, and Hubbard <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and uses a MODIS land surface temperature "<span class="hlt">melt</span>-day" product (Hall et al., 2006, 2008) to identify potential links between velocity variability and summertime temperature fluctuations. Hall, D., R. Williams Jr., K. Casey, N. DiGirolamo, and Z. Wan (2006), Satellite-derived, <span class="hlt">melt</span>-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance, Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11). Hall, D., J. Box, K. Casey, S. Hook, C. Shuman, and K. Steffen (2008), Comparison of satellite-derived and in-situ observations of ice and snow surface temperatures over Greenland, Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(10), 3739-3749. Larsen, C. F., R. J. Motyka, A. A. Arendt, K. A. Echelmeyer, and P. E. Geissler (2007), <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise, J. Geophys. Res. Luthcke, S., A. Arendt, D. Rowlands, J. McCarthy, and C. Larsen (2008), Recent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass changes in the Gulf of Alaska region from GRACE mascon solutions, Journal of Glaciology, 54(188), 767-777.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008WRR....44.2422S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008WRR....44.2422S"><span>Coupled modelling of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and streamflow response to future climate scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stahl, K.; Moore, R. D.; Shea, J. M.; Hutchinson, D.; Cannon, A. J.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>This study investigated the sensitivity of streamflow to changes in climate and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cover for the Bridge River basin, British Columbia, using a semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model coupled with a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response model. Mass balance data were used to constrain model parameters. Climate scenarios included a continuation of the current climate and two transient GCM scenarios with greenhouse gas forcing. Modelled <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance was used to re-scale the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> every decade using a volume-area scaling relation. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> area and summer streamflow declined strongly even under the steady-climate scenario, with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreating to a new equilibrium within 100 years. For the warming scenarios, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat continued with no evidence of reaching a new equilibrium. Uncertainty in parameters governing <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> produced uncertainty in future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat and streamflow response. Where mass balance information is not available to assist with calibration, model-generated future scenarios will be subject to significant uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26488756','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26488756"><span>Triptolide Mitigates <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Pulmonary Fibrosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Mei; Chen, Chun; Cao, Yongbin; Tian, Yeping; Guo, Yangsong; Zhang, Bingrong; Wang, Xiaohui; Yin, Liangjie; Zhang, Zhenhuan; O'Dell, Walter; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lurong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Triptolide (TPL) may mitigate <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late pulmonary side effects through its inhibition of global pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we evaluated the effect of TPL in C57BL/6 mice, the animals were exposed to radiation with vehicle (15 Gy), radiation with TPL (0.25 mg/kg i.v., twice weekly for 1, 2 and 3 months), radiation and celecoxib (CLX) (30 mg/kg) and sham irradiation. Cultured supernatant of irradiated RAW 264.7 and MLE-15 cells and lung lysate in different groups were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays at 33 h. Respiratory rate, pulmonary compliance and pulmonary density were measured at 5 months in all groups. The groups exposed to radiation with vehicle and radiation with TPL exhibited significant differences in respiratory rate and pulmonary compliance (480 ± 75/min vs. 378 ± 76/min; 0.6 ± 0.1 ml/cm H2O/p kg vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 ml/cm H2O/p kg). Seventeen cytokines were significantly reduced in the lung lysate of the radiation exposure with TPL group at 5 months compared to that of the radiation with vehicle group, including profibrotic cytokines implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, such as IL-1β, TGF- β1 and IL-13. The radiation exposure with TPL mice exhibited a 41% reduction of pulmonary density and a 25% reduction of hydroxyproline in the lung, compared to that of radiation with vehicle mice. The trichrome-stained area of fibrotic foci and pathological scaling in sections of the mice treated with radiation and TPL mice were significantly less than those of the radiation with vehicle-treated group. In addition, the radiation with TPL-treated mice exhibited a trend of improved survival rate compared to that of the radiation with vehicle-treated mice at 5 months (83% vs. 53%). Three <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> profibrotic cytokines in the radiation with vehicle-treated group were significantly reduced by TPL treatment, and this partly contributed to the trend of improved survival rate and pulmonary density and function and the decreased severity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632967"><span>Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Temperate Alpine <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>: 1. Effect of Percolating Meltwater on their Distribution in <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Ice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pavlova, Pavlina Aneva; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Schmid, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; Steinlin, Christine; Schwikowski, Margit</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>In Alpine regions, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> act as environmental archives and can accumulate significant amounts of atmospherically derived pollutants. Due to the current climate-warming-induced accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span>, these pollutants are being released at correspondingly higher rates. To examine the effect of <span class="hlt">melting</span> on the redistribution of legacy pollutants in Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls in an ice core from the temperate Silvretta <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, located in eastern Switzerland. This <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is affected by surface <span class="hlt">melting</span> in summer. As a result, liquid water percolates down and particles are enriched in the current annual surface layer. Dating the ice core was a challenge because meltwater percolation also affects the traditionally used parameters. Instead, we counted annual layers of particulate black carbon in the ice core, adding the years with negative <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance, that is, years with <span class="hlt">melting</span> and subsequent loss of the entire annual snow accumulation. The analyzed samples cover the time period 1930-2011. The concentration of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) in the Silvretta ice core follows the emission history, peaking in the 1970s (2.5 ng/L). High PCB values in the 1990s and 1930s are attributed to meltwater-induced relocation within the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The total iPCB load at the Silvretta ice core site is 5 ng/cm(2). A significant amount of the total PCB burden in the Silvretta <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has been released to the environment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530834','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/530834"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> mutation at minisatellite loci</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubrova, Y.E. |; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>We are studying the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of {gamma}-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure {sup 137}Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5012360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5012360"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> mutations and plant breeding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Naqvi, S.H.M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5105223','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5105223"><span>Transesophageal Echocardiography and <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> Damages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cottini, Marzia; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Buffa, Vitaliano; Musumeci, Francesco</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The long-term sequelae of mantle therapy include, especially lung and cardiac disease but also involve the vessels and the organs in the neck and thorax (such as thyroid, aorta, and esophagus). We presented the case of 66-year-old female admitted for congestive heart failure in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> heart disease. The patient had undergone to massive radiotherapy 42 years ago for Hodgkin's disease (type 1A). Transesophageal echocardiography was performed unsuccessfully with difficulty because of the rigidity and impedance of esophageal walls. Our case is an extraordinary report of radiotherapy's latency effect as a result of dramatic changes in the structure of mediastinum, in particular in the esophagus, causing unavailability of a transesophageal echocardiogram. PMID:27867461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243218','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5243218"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> carcinoma of the larynx</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amendola, B.E.; Amendola, M.A.; McClatchey, K.D.</p> <p>1985-07-01</p> <p>A squamous cell carcinoma presented in a 20 year old female nonsmoker three years after receiving a high dosage of radiation therapy to the base of the skull, face and entire neuroaxis and intense combination chemotherapy for a parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is reported. The larynx received a dose of about 3,500 rads over an eight week period. This dosage in conjunction with the associated intense chemotherapy regimen given to the patient may explain the appearance of a <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> tumor in an unusually short latent period. This certainly represents a risk in young patients in whom an aggressive combined approach is taken and the physician should be aware of.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101202"><span>Management of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> rectal bleeding.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laterza, Liboria; Cecinato, Paolo; Guido, Alessandra; Mussetto, Alessandro; Fuccio, Lorenzo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Pelvic radiation disease is one of the major complication after radiotherapy for pelvic cancers. The most commonly reported symptom is rectal bleeding which affects patients' quality of life. Therapeutic strategies for rectal bleeding are generally ignored and include medical, endoscopic, and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Most cases of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bleeding are mild and self-limiting, and treatment is normally not indicated. In cases of clinically significant bleeding (i.e. anaemia), medical therapies, including stool softeners, sucralfate enemas, and metronidazole, should be considered as first-line treatment options. In cases of failure, endoscopic therapy, mainly represented by argon plasma coagulation and hyperbaric oxygen treatments, are valid and complementary second-line treatment strategies. Although current treatment options are not always supported by high-quality studies, patients should be reassured that treatment options exist and success is achieved in most cases if the patient is referred to a dedicated centre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450063"><span>Calving rates at tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> vary strongly with ocean temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luckman, Adrian; Benn, Douglas I; Cottier, Finlo; Bevan, Suzanne; Nilsen, Frank; Inall, Mark</p> <p>2015-10-09</p> <p>Rates of ice mass loss at the calving margins of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (frontal ablation rates) are a key uncertainty in sea level rise projections. Measurements are difficult because mass lost is replaced by ice flow at variable rates, and frontal ablation incorporates sub-aerial calving, and submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> and calving. Here we derive frontal ablation rates for three dynamically contrasting <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Svalbard from an unusually dense series of satellite images. We combine ocean data, ice-front position and terminus velocity to investigate controls on frontal ablation. We find that frontal ablation is not dependent on ice dynamics, nor reduced by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface freeze-up, but varies strongly with sub-surface water temperature. We conclude that calving proceeds by <span class="hlt">melt</span> undercutting and ice-front collapse, a process that may dominate frontal ablation where submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> can outpace ice flow. Our findings illustrate the potential for deriving simple models of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to oceanographic forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C22A..02N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C22A..02N"><span>Response of major Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to oceanic and atmospheric forcing: Results from numerical modeling on Petermann, Jakobshavn and Helheim <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nick, F. M.; Vieli, A.; Pattyn, F.; Van de Wal, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Oceanic forcing has been suggested as a major trigger for dynamic changes of Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Significant <span class="hlt">melting</span> near their calving front or beneath the floating tongue and reduced support from sea ice or ice melange in front of their calving front can result in retreat of the terminus or the grounding line, and an increase in calving activities. Depending on the geometry and basal topography of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, these oceanic forcing can affect the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamic differently. Here, we carry out a comparison study between three major outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Greenland and investigate the impact of a warmer ocean on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics and ice discharge. We present results from a numerical ice-flow model applied to Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the north, Jakobshavn <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the west, and Helheim <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the southeast of Greenland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03386&hterms=melting+glaciers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmelting%2Bglaciers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03386&hterms=melting+glaciers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmelting%2Bglaciers"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska, Perspective with Landsat Overlay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in southeastern Alaska is considered the classic example of a piedmont <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Piedmont <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> occur where valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is actually a compound <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, formed by the merger of several valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (left) and Seward <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (right). In total, Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea. <p/>This perspective view was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Landsat views both visible and infrared light, which have been combined here into a color composite that generally shows glacial ice in light blue, snow in white, vegetation in green, bare rock in grays and tans, and the ocean (foreground) in dark blue. The back (northern) edge of the data set forms a false horizon that meets a false sky. <p/><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <p/><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are sensitive indicators of climatic change. They can grow and thicken with increasing snowfall and/or decreased <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Conversely, they can retreat and thin if snowfall decreases and/or atmospheric temperatures rise and cause increased <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Landsat imaging has been an excellent tool for mapping the changing geographic extent of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> since 1972. The elevation measurements taken by SRTM in February 2000 now provide a near-global baseline against which future non-polar region glacial thinning or thickening can be assessed. <p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1386i/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1386i/report.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of South America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Landsat images, together with maps and aerial photographs, have been used to produce <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventories, define <span class="hlt">glacier</span> locations, and study <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics in the countries of South America, along with the Andes Mountains. In Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia, the small <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been undergoing extensive <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession since the late 1800's. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-related hazards (outburst floods, mud flows, and debris avalanches) occur in Colombia, in Ecuador, and associated with the more extensive (2,600 km2) <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Peru. The largest area of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice is found in Argentina and Chile, including the northern Patagonian ice field (about 4,200 km2) and the southern Patagonian ice field (about 13,000 km2), the largest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in the Southern Hemisphere outside Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8...37B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ISPAn.II8...37B"><span>A Revised <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory of Bhaga Basin Himachal Pradesh, India : Current Status and Recent <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birajdar, F.; Venkataraman, G.; Bahuguna, I.; Samant, H.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> show large uncertainty regarding their present and future state due to their sensitive reaction towards change in climatic condition. Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are unique as they are located in tropical, high altitude regions, predominantly valley type and many are covered with debris. The great northern plains of India sustain on the perennial <span class="hlt">melt</span> of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> meeting the water requirements of agriculture, industries, domestic sector even in the months of summer when large tracts of the country go dry. Therefore, it is important to monitor and assess the state of snow and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and to know the sustainability of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in view of changing global scenarios of climate and water security of the nation. Any information pertaining to Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is normally difficult to be obtained by conventional means due to its harsh weather and rugged terrains. Due to the ecological diversity and geographical vividness, major part of the Indian Himalaya is largely un-investigated. Considering the fact that Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are situated in a harsh environment, conventional techniques of their study is challenging and difficult both in terms of logistics and finances whereas the satellite remote sensing offers a potential mode for monitoring <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in long term. In order to gain an updated overview of the present state of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> cover and its changes since the previous inventories, an attempt has been made to generate a new remotesensing- derived <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventory on 1:50,000 scale for Bhaga basin (N32°28'19.7'' - N33°0'9.9'' ; E76°56'16.3'' - E77°25'23.7'' ) Western Himalaya covering an area of 1695.63 km2. having 231 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and occupying <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area of 385.17 ±3.71 km2. ranging from 0.03 km2. to 29.28 km2. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> inventory has been carried out using high resolution IRS P6 LISS III data of 2011, ASTER DEM and other ancillary data. Specific measurements of mapped <span class="hlt">glacier</span> features are the inputs for generating the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventory data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113002K"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> lake and permafrost distribution in the Brahmaputra river basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kääb, A.; Frauenfelder, R.; Hoelzle, M.; Sossna, I.; Avian, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> distribution, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> lakes and their changes, and mountain permafrost occurrence are investigated and compared to climate scenarios in order to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and degrading permafrost on the long-term runoff of the Upper Brahmaputra River. In this contribution we derive <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventories for three test areas in the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin based on semi-automatic classification of Landsat data of 2000 and supplementary ASTER data. The resulting <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outlines are intersected with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> outlines of the Chinese <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory from about the 1970s-1980s and compared to selected Corona satellite data from the 1960s. In total, an area loss of about 18% was observed over the period investigated. We estimate the according ice volume loss to be on the order of 20%. Using the Chinese <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory and our inventory results we upscale the above <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change to the entire Upper Brahmaputra River Basin. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> lakes are mapped for the boundary region between Bhutan and Tibet using 1990 and 2000 Landsat imagery. Changes in lake area are compared to the observed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes. The permafrost distribution in the study region is estimated using regionally adapted versions of two empirical models, both originally developed to estimate the permafrost distribution on a regional scale in the Swiss Alps. One model (PERMAKART) applies a topo-climatic key, based on the relation between altitude above sea level, aspect, and permafrost probability. The second model (PERMAMAP) is based on a linear spatial relation between the bottom temperature of the winter snow cover (BTS), the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and the potential direct solar radiation. Adaptation of the models is done through the inclusion of ground based meteorological data and validated using distribution patterns of rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The latter are mapped from high resolution satellite data such as CORONA and Quickbird imagery. Both, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1386e/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1386e/report.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>ALPS: AUSTRIAN: An overview is provided on the occurrence of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Eastern Alps of Austria and on the climatic conditions in this area, Historical documents on the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been available since the Middle Ages. Special glaciological observations and topographic surveys of individual <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> were initiated as early as 1846. Recent data in an inventory based on aerial photographs taken in 1969 show 925 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Austrian Alps with a total area of 542 square kilometers. Present research topics include studies of mass and energy balance, relations of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and climate, physical glaciology, a complete inventory of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and testing of remote sensing methods. The location of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> areas is shown on Landsat multispectral scanner images; the improved capabilities of the Landsat thematic mapper are illustrated with an example from the Oztaler Alpen group. ALPS: SWISS: According to a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventory published in 1976, which is based on aerial photography of 1973, there are 1,828 <span class="hlt">glacier</span> units in the Swiss Alps that cover a total area of 1fl42 square kilometers. The Rhonegletscher, currently the ninth largest in the country, was one of the first to be studied in detail. Its surface has been surveyed repeatedly; velocity profiles were measured, and the fluctuations of its terminus were mapped and recorded from 1874 to 1914. Recent research on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has included climatological, hydrological, and massbalance studies. Glaciological research has been conducted on various other <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Switzerland concerning <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrology, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hazards, fluctuations of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini, ice mechanics, ice cores, and mass balance. Good maps are available showing the extent of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from the latter decades of the 19th century. More recently, the entire country has been mapped at scales of 1:25,000, 1:50,000, 1:100,000, 1:200,000, and 1:500,000. The 1:25,000-scale series very accurately represents the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as well as locates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......152L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......152L"><span>Solar-forced roughening of Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and the Martian icecaps: How surficial debris and roughness affect glacial <span class="hlt">melting</span> in Taylor Valley, Antarctica and how this can be applied to the Martian icecaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, Karen Jane</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica exhibit significant variations in surface roughness from smooth surfaces to large basins and canyon up to 15 meters deep and 100 meters across. The walls defining these basins and canyons show a consistent asymmetry, with near-vertical slopes facing the direction of maximum irradiance (north) and slopes of 30 to 40 degrees otherwise. Energy balance and modeling studies presented here show that these features generate their own microclimate. The radiation and turbulent terms of the energy balance within the basins differ significantly from those on adjacent horizontal surfaces. Radiation absorption within the basins is also strongly affected by basin geometry, with increased radiation on the north facing walls and reduced radiation on the south facing slopes relative to adjacent horizontal surfaces. Averaged over an entire basin, these variations in radiation receipt result in increased <span class="hlt">melt</span> from the basins as compared with adjacent horizontal surfaces. The basins and canyons appear to evolve from patches of surficial debris. To support this hypothesis, results from dust plot experiments and modeling of cryoconite hole growth are presented. Experiment results highlight the effects of debris on surface energy balance. The modeling indicates that evolution of cryoconite holes is slow as long as the holes are ice-covered. Holes of a meter or more in diameter with no ice cover can rapidly deepen, developing a geometry similar to that of the large basins. The dry valleys environment may serve as a terrestrial analogue for the Martian icecaps. The Martian icecaps exhibit two types of roughness features: large troughs of up to 100 km in length, 10 km wide and a kilometer deep that incise both the north and south polar residual caps, and "swiss-cheese" terrain, fields of circular basins 10 m deep and 100 m across found on the south polar residual cap near 87°S. Comparison of the Martian trough and basin features with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C32A..06R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C32A..06R"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Changes in the Bhutanese Himalaya - Present and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rupper, S.; Schaefer, J. M.; Burgener, L. K.; Maurer, J.; Smith, R.; Cook, E.; Putnam, A. E.; Krusic, P.; Tsering, K.; Koenig, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model, our results show that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. The most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values (1980-2000), almost 10% of Bhutan's <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. New mapping of <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area from 2000-2010 shows a significant change in <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area of 4-6%. Thus the conservative steady-state area changes predicted by the model are already being realized. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is predicted to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28596060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28596060"><span>[Medical prevention and treatment of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> pulmonary complications].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lung injury, or to treat <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5224528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5224528"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tanaka, S.; Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Fukui, M.; Kitamura, K.; Hikita, K. )</p> <p>1989-10-01</p> <p>The case of a patient who developed osteosarcoma in the sphenoid bone 15 years after radiation therapy for a craniopharyngioma is reported. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone has not been reported previously. Reported cases of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> osteosarcomas are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.C21C0456T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.C21C0456T"><span>Warm Oceans, Fast <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>: the connections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Amundson, J. M.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Over the last decade many outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from the Greenland Ice Sheet have accelerated and thinned, and in a number of cases their termini have retreated. There is much in common from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> that emerges as these changes are studied, yet the actual physical mechanisms remain unclear. One can show that the spatial patterns and timing of outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes around Greenland coincide with changes in sea surface temperature and length of the sea-ice-free season in the surrounding ocean, and that large <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes appear to initiate within one to a few years of shifts in these conditions. While ocean warming has a direct impact on rates of <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice/ocean interface, its impact on ice flow is less direct. The spatial and temporal coincidence between changing ocean conditions and speedup is compelling, but the causal link between warmer ocean water and rapid responses from outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> around Greenland is more complex. Observations of rapid calving retreats, the appearance of calving-related long-period seismicity at some large <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> undergoing change, and the loss of floating ice tongues all suggest that the direct impact of ocean-driven change is on the stability of the lowest reach of these tidewater outlets. In <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with a floating tongue, enhanced basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> may be destabilizing by thinning the tongue to below its structural integrity; at grounded termini this effect is lacking. However, rapid <span class="hlt">melt</span> at the near-vertical face can play a significant role for slowly flowing systems. For large grounded <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with terminus flow rates of meters per day, the impact of increased <span class="hlt">melt</span> in summer would seem less important. At such <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> the link between ocean temperatures, sea ice cover and terminus stability manifests itself by the cessation of calving in fall and winter, which leads to terminus advance and the formation of a floating tongue. The loss of sea ice cover in early spring leads to a disintegration of the seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910327R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910327R"><span>Mass-balance modelling of Ak-Shyirak massif <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>, Inner Tian Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rets, Ekaterina; Barandun, Martina; Belozerov, Egor; Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alena</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Tian Shan is a water tower of Central Asia. Rapid and accelerating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> downwasting is typical for this region. Study sites - Sary-Tor <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No.354 are located in Ak-Shyirak massif, Naryn headwaters. Sary-Tor was chosen as representative for Ak-Shyirak (Ushnurtsev, 1991; Oledeneniye TianShanya, 1995) for direct mass-balance measurements in 1985-1991. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No.354 was an object of direct mass-balance measurements for 2011-2016. An energy-balance distributed A-<span class="hlt">Melt</span> model (Rets et al, 2010) was used to reconstruct mass-balance for the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> for 2003-2015. Verification of modelingresults showed a good reproduction of direct <span class="hlt">melting</span> measurements data on ablation stakes and mass loss according to geodetic method. Modeling results for <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> No. 354 were compared to different modeling approach: distributed accumulation and temperature-index <span class="hlt">melt</span> (Kronenberg et al, 2016)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPB..91..370Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994NIMPB..91..370Y"><span>The effects of hyper velocity impact phenomena on <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamanaka, C.; Ikeya, M.</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Effects of high speed impacts on <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> defects were investigated with a plasma rail-gun. Vitreous quartz targets irradiated by γ-ray were shocked with polycarbonate projectiles at a speed of 7 km/s, then the remaining destroyed pieces were examined by ESR spectroscopy to investigate the degree of "impact-annealing". The white substance from the impact point showed a trace of <span class="hlt">melting</span> and no ESR signal, while the rest of the scattered pieces showed a decrease of E' center density to 50 ± 10% of the initial density. The defect production efficiency for the impacted silica was almost two-third of the original material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1121805','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1121805"><span>Modeling the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frans, Chris D.; Clarke, Garry K. C.; Burns, P.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Naz, B. S.</p> <p>2014-02-27</p> <p>Here, we describe an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamic model, and use it to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in the South Saskatchewan River are partly due to the retreat of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the river's headwaters. Modeling the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes on streamflow response in river basins such as the South Saskatchewan is complicated due to the inability of most existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models to represent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics. We compare predicted variations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge made with the integrated model with satellite estimates of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and terminus position, observed streamflow and snow water equivalent measurements over the period of 1980 2007. Simulations with the coupled hydrology-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> model reduce the uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Our results suggested that on average, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution to the Bow River flow upstream of Lake Louise is about 30% in summer. For warm and dry years, however, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution can be as large as 50% in August, whereas for cold years, it can be as small as 20% and the timing of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> signature can be delayed by a month.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1121805-modeling-effect-glacier-recession-streamflow-response-using-coupled-glacio-hydrological-model','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1121805-modeling-effect-glacier-recession-streamflow-response-using-coupled-glacio-hydrological-model"><span>Modeling the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Frans, Chris D.; Clarke, Garry K. C.; Burns, P.; ...</p> <p>2014-02-27</p> <p>Here, we describe an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamic model, and use it to investigate the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in the South Saskatchewan River are partly due to the retreat of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the river's headwaters. Modeling the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes on streamflow response in river basins such as the South Saskatchewan is complicated due to the inability of most existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models to represent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics.more » We compare predicted variations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge made with the integrated model with satellite estimates of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and terminus position, observed streamflow and snow water equivalent measurements over the period of 1980 2007. Simulations with the coupled hydrology-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> model reduce the uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Our results suggested that on average, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution to the Bow River flow upstream of Lake Louise is about 30% in summer. For warm and dry years, however, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contribution can be as large as 50% in August, whereas for cold years, it can be as small as 20% and the timing of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> signature can be delayed by a month.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6261D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6261D"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> discharge and climate variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dominguez, M. Carmen; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion; Encinas, Ascension H.; Visus, Isabel; Eraso, Adolfo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Different studies account for the warming in the polar regions that consequently would affect <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Discharge (GD). Since changes in GD may cause large changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes, we ask about the relationships between GD and climate anomalies, which have not been quantified yet. In this study we apply different statistical methods such as correlation, Singular Spectral Analysis and Wavelet to compare the behaviour of GD data in two Experimental Pilot Catchments (CPE), one (CPE-KG-62°S) in the Antarctica and the other (CPE-KVIA-64°N) in the Arctic regions. Both CPE's are measuring sub- and endo-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> drainage for recording of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water run-off. The CPE-KG-62°S is providing hourly GD time series since January 2002 in Collins <span class="hlt">glacier</span> of the Maxwell Bay in King George Island (62°S, 58°W). The second one, CPE-KVIA-64°N, is providing hourly GD time series since September 2003 in the Kviarjökull <span class="hlt">glacier</span> of the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland (64°N, 16°W). The soundings for these measurements are pressure sensors installed in the river of the selected catchments for the ice cap (CPE-KG-62°S) and in the river of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> for (CPE-KVIA-64°N). In each CPE, the calibration function between level and discharge has been adjusted, getting a very high correlation coefficient (0.99 for the first one and 0.95 for the second one), which let us devise a precise discharge law for the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We obtained relationships between GD with atmospheric variables such as radiation, temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and precipitation. We also found a negative response of GD to El Niño teleconnection index. The results are of great interest due to the GD impact on the climate system and in particular for sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818147Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818147Z"><span>Model based historical runoff contribution from an Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoccatelli, Davide; Bonato, Paola; Carturan, Luca; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Borga, Marco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> years above 50% and an average above 25% in the last 10 years of simulation. The contribution of water from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> have peaked around 2003, and the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume in the simulation has been more than halved during the 30 years. Beside the reduction of runoff from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice after 2003, the modelling approach allowed to highlight also an increase of the inter-annual variability in meltwater runoff in the last ten years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24712530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24712530"><span>Comparative metagenome analysis of an Alaskan <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Choudhari, Sulbha; Lohia, Ruchi; Grigoriev, Andrey</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The temperature in the Arctic region has been increasing in the recent past accompanied by <span class="hlt">melting</span> of its <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We took a snapshot of the current microbial inhabitation of an Alaskan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (which can be considered as one of the simplest possible ecosystems) by using metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA recovered from ice/snow samples. Somewhat contrary to our expectations and earlier estimates, a rich and diverse microbial population of more than 2,500 species was revealed including several species of Archaea that has been identified for the first time in the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of the Northern hemisphere. The most prominent bacterial groups found were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes. Firmicutes were not reported in large numbers in a previously studied Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> but were dominant in an Antarctic subglacial lake. Representatives of Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes were among the most numerous, likely reflecting the dependence of the ecosystem on the energy obtained through photosynthesis and close links with the microbial community of the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) of nucleotide word frequency revealed distinct sequence clusters for different taxonomic groups in the Alaskan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> community and separate clusters for the glacial communities from other regions of the world. Comparative analysis of the community composition and bacterial diversity present in the Byron <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Alaska with other environments showed larger overlap with an Arctic soil than with a high Arctic lake, indicating patterns of community exchange and suggesting that these bacteria may play an important role in soil development during glacial retreat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13382.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13382.html"><span>Susitna <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-13</p> <p>Folds in the lower reaches of valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be caused by powerful surges of tributary ice streams. This phenomenon is spectacularly displayed by the Sustina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the Alaska Range as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23B0629H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C23B0629H"><span>Greenland outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics from Extreme Ice Survey (EIS) photogrammetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hawbecker, P.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J. D.; Ahn, Y.; Benson, R. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Time Lapse cameras fill gaps in our observational capabilities: 1. By providing much higher temporal resolution than offered by conventional airborne or satellite remote sensing. 2. While GPS or auto-theodolite observations can provide higher time resolution data than from photogrammetry, survival of these instruments on the hazardous <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface is limited, plus, the maintenance of such systems can be more expensive than the maintenance of a terrestrial photogrammetry installation. 3. Imagery provide a high spatial density of observations across the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, higher than is realistically available from GPS or other in-situ observations. 4. time lapse cameras provide observational capabilities in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames while GPS or theodolite targets, going along for a ride on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, provide only Lagrangian data. Photogrammetry techniques are applied to a year-plus of images from multiple west Greenland <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to determine the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front horizontal velocity variations at hourly to seasonal time scales. The presentation includes comparisons between <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front velocities and: 1. surface <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates inferred from surface air temperature and solar radiation observations; 2. major calving events identified from camera images; 3. surface and near-surface ocean temperature; 4. land-fast sea ice breakup; 5. tidal variations; 6. supra-glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> lake drainage events observed in daily optical satellite imagery; and 7.) GPS data. Extreme Ice Survey (EIS) time lapse camera overlooking the Petermann <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, installed to image <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics and to capture the predicted ice "island" detachment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RaPC...72...19P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005RaPC...72...19P"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> degradation of aqueous fluoranthene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Popov, Petar; Getoff, Nikola</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> degradation of fluoranthene (FA) in slightly alkaline aqueous solution was investigated in the presence of air as well as of N 2O. Depending on the starting FA-concentration the determined Gi(-FA) was 0.34 for 1×10 -5 mol/l FA upto 0.67 for 4.6×10 -5 mol/l FA. As major radiolytic products found by HPLC-analysis were: 9-fluorene carboxylic acid ( Gi =0.006), 9-fluorenone ( Gi=0.004) and fluorene ( Gi=0.002) in addition to a mixture of carboxylic acids and aldehydes. In the presence of N 2O (90% OH, 10% H) practically the same products were observed, however in this case the yield of the carboxylic acids was about 2-times higher than in solutions saturated with air, but 4-times less aldehydes, resp. For illustration of the rather complicated degradation process a probable reaction mechanism is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/203774"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> segregation, hardening, and IASCC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eason, E.D.; Nelson, E.E.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Intergranular cracking has been discovered after extended radiation exposure in several boiling water reactor (BWR) internal components made of austenitic stainless steel and nickel-based alloys. There are fewer field observations of intergranular cracking in pressurized water reactors (PWR), but failures have occurred in bolts, springs, and fuel cladding. There is concern for other PWR components, some of which will receive greater radiation doses than BWR components during the plant lifetime. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the connection between <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> segregation, hardening and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). A data base was developed containing the available data on austenitic stainless steel where the grain boundary composition was measured by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Transmission Election Microscopy (FEG-STEM), the stress corrosion susceptibility was measured by constant extension rate tests (CERT) in light water reactor environments, some estimate of irradiated strength was available and the irradiation was conducted in a power reactor. The data base was analyzed using advanced data analysis techniques, including tree-structured pattern recognition and transformation analysis codes. The most sensitive variables and optimal modeling forms were identified using these techniques, then preliminary models were calibrated using nonlinear least squares. The results suggest that more than one mechanism causes IASCC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26661320"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> valvular heart disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gujral, Dorothy M; Lloyd, Guy; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Radiation to the mediastinum is a key component of treatment with curative intent for a range of cancers including Hodgkin's lymphoma and breast cancer. Exposure to radiation is associated with a risk of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> heart valve damage characterised by valve fibrosis and calcification. There is a latent interval of 10-20 years between radiation exposure and development of clinically significant heart valve disease. Risk is related to radiation dose received, interval from exposure and use of concomitant chemotherapy. Long-term outlook and the risk of valve surgery are related to the effects of radiation on mediastinal structures including pulmonary fibrosis and pericardial constriction. Dose prediction models to predict the risk of heart valve disease in the future and newer radiation techniques to reduce the radiation dose to the heart are being developed. Surveillance strategies for this cohort of cancer survivors at risk of developing significant heart valve complications are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997805','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997805"><span>Ionizing <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Endothelial Cell Senescence and Cardiovascular Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yingying; Boerma, Marjan; Zhou, Daohong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Exposure to ionizing <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induces</span> not only apoptosis but also senescence. While the role of endothelial cell apoptosis in mediating <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> acute tissue injury has been extensively studied, little is known about the role of endothelial cell senescence in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late effects. Senescent endothelial cells exhibit decreased production of nitric oxide and expression of thrombomodulin, increased expression of adhesion molecules, elevated production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines and an inability to proliferate and form capillary-like structures in vitro. These findings suggest that endothelial cell senescence can lead to endothelial dysfunction by dysregulation of vasodilation and hemostasis, induction of oxidative stress and inflammation and inhibition of angiogenesis, which can potentially contribute to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> late effects such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this article, we discuss the mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induces</span> endothelial cell senescence, the roles of endothelial cell senescence in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CVDs and potential strategies to prevent, mitigate and treat <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CVDs by targeting senescent endothelial cells. PMID:27387862</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RaPC...18..503K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RaPC...18..503K"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaji, K.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 {kcal}/{mol} between 20 and 60°C and 10 {kcal}/{mol} between 60 and 80°C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70°C, show maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130°C and then breaks off at 136°C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt such as sodium and calcium, the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300°C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and its metallic salts do not form <span class="hlt">melting</span> drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption, however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. The sodium salt of 15% graft shows the same level of moisture regain as cotton. The AA-grafted PE filament and its metallic salts can be dyed with cationic dyes even at 1% graft. Tensile properties of PE filament is impaired neither by grafting nor by conversion to metallic salts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCry....7.1205N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCry....7.1205N"><span>Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, L. I.; Prinz, R.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, but full understanding of the interaction of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance and its climatic drivers has been hampered by a lack of long-term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface from October 2009 to February 2012. The location of measurements is in the upper portion of Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, but this location experiences negative annual mass balance, and the conditions are comparable to those experienced in the lower ablation zones of South American <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the inner tropics. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial East Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris, where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle, and Kilimanjaro, where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate was high throughout the year, with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface reaching the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear-sky conditions, and thus the frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. The analyses shown here form the basis for future <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mt Kenya.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TCD.....6.5181N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012TCD.....6.5181N"><span>Micrometeorological conditions and surface mass and energy fluxes on Lewis <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, Mt Kenya, in relation to other tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, L.; Prinz, R.; Mölg, T.; Kaser, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> on Mt Kenya is one of the best-studied tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, but full understanding of the interaction of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance and climate forcing has been hampered by a lack of long term meteorological data. Here we present 2.5 yr of meteorological data collected from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface from October 2009-February 2012, which indicate that mean meteorological conditions in the upper zone of Lewis <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> are comparable to those experienced in the ablation zones of South American tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. In the context of other glaciated mountains of equatorial east Africa, the summit zone of Mt Kenya shows strong diurnal cycles of convective cloud development as opposed to the Rwenzoris where cloud cover persists throughout the diurnal cycle and Kilimanjaro where clear skies prevail. Surface energy fluxes were calculated for the meteorological station site using a physical mass- and energy-balance model driven by hourly measured meteorological data and additional input parameters that were determined by Monte Carlo optimization. Sublimation rate was lower than those reported on other tropical <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate was high throughout the year, with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface reaching the <span class="hlt">melting</span> point on an almost daily basis. Surface mass balance is influenced by both solid precipitation and air temperature, with radiation providing the greatest net source of energy to the surface. Cloud cover typically reduces the net radiation balance compared to clear sky conditions, and thus the more frequent formation of convective clouds over the summit of Mt Kenya, and the associated higher rate of snow accumulation are important in limiting the rate of mass loss from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. The analyses shown here are the basis for <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-wide mass and energy balance modeling to determine the climate proxy offered by the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mt Kenya.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5198088"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Alopecia after Endovascular Embolization under Fluoroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ounsakul, Vipawee; Iamsumang, Wimolsiri</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> alopecia after fluoroscopically guided procedures is becoming more common due to an increasing use of endovascular procedures. It is characterized by geometric shapes of nonscarring alopecia related to the area of radiation. We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with asymptomatic, sharply demarcated rectangular, nonscarring alopecic patch on the occipital scalp following cerebral angiography with fistula embolization under fluoroscopy. His presentations were compatible with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> alopecia. Herein, we also report a novel scalp dermoscopic finding of blue-grey dots in a target pattern around yellow dots and follicles, which we detected in the lesion of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> alopecia. PMID:28074164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53B0838M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53B0838M"><span>First order projections of frontal ablation at Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McNabb, R. W.; Hock, R. M.; Beedlow, A. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Frontal ablation (the sum of mass loss by calving and submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span>) is an important yet poorly constrained component of tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance. Because of the complicated nature of both calving and ice-ocean interations, there are relatively few studies of frontal ablation on a regional scale, and no projections of frontal ablation on a regional scale. We compare two methods for constraining projections of frontal ablation from 50 Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The first method is based on conservation of mass, and estimates frontal ablation using surface mass balance and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. This method has already been used to estimate rates of frontal ablation from 50 Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, over the period 1950-2009; we estimate that frontal ablation accounts for more than half of the net mass loss for all Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over this time period. The second method uses a cross-sectional area of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> bed, along with different scenarios for hypothetical changes in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> velocities, to estimate rates of frontal ablation from 50 Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We use these two methods, along with projected surface mass balances, to present a range of future losses through frontal ablation from all 50 Alaska tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> until 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27169866','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27169866"><span>Lipotransfer for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> skin fibrosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, R; Griffin, M; Adigbli, G; Kalavrezos, N; Butler, P E M</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> fibrosis (RIF) is a late complication of radiotherapy that results in progressive functional and cosmetic impairment. Autologous fat has emerged as an option for soft tissue reconstruction. There are also sporadic reports suggesting regression of fibrosis following regional lipotransfer. This systematic review aimed to identify cellular mechanisms driving RIF, and the potential role of lipotransfer in attenuating these processes. PubMed, OVID and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify all original articles regarding lipotransfer for RIF. All articles describing irradiated fibroblast or myofibroblast behaviour were included. Data elucidating the mechanisms of RIF, role of lipotransfer in RIF and methods to quantify fibrosis were extracted. Ninety-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A single, definitive model of RIF is yet to be established, but four cellular mechanisms were identified through in vitro studies. Twenty-one studies identified connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor β1 cytokines as drivers of fibrotic cascades. Hypoxia was demonstrated to propagate fibrogenesis in three studies. Oxidative stress from the release of reactive oxygen species and free radicals was also linked to RIF in 11 studies. Purified autologous fat grafts contain cellular and non-cellular properties that potentially interact with these processes. Six methods for quantifying fibrotic changes were evaluated including durometry, ultrasound shear wave elastography, thermography, dark field imaging, and laser Doppler and laser speckle flowmetry. Understanding how lipotransfer causes regression of RIF remains unclear; there are a number of new hypotheses for future research. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056360"><span>Delayed <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rauch, Philipp J.; Park, Henry S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Chiang, Veronica L.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262097','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262097"><span>Mouse models of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivina, Leena; Schiestl, Robert</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> (RI) secondary cancers were not a major clinical concern even as little as 15 years ago. However, advances in cancer diagnostics, therapy, and supportive care have saved numerous lives and many former cancer patients are now living for 5, 10, 20, and more years beyond their initial diagnosis. The majority of these patients have received radiotherapy as a part of their treatment regimen and are now beginning to develop secondary cancers arising from normal tissue exposure to damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Because historically patients rarely survived past the extended latency periods inherent to these RI cancers, very little effort was channeled towards the research leading to the development of therapeutic agents intended to prevent or ameliorate oncogenic effects of normal tissue exposure to radiation. The number of RI cancers is expected to increase very rapidly in the near future, but the field of cancer biology might not be prepared to address important issues related to this phenomena. One such issue is the ability to accurately differentiate between primary tumors and de novo arising secondary tumors in the same patient. Another issue is the lack of therapeutic agents intended to reduce such cancers in the future. To address these issues, large-scale epidemiological studies must be supplemented with appropriate animal modeling studies. This work reviews relevant mouse (Mus musculus) models of inbred and F1 animals and methodologies of induction of most relevant radiation-associated cancers: leukemia, lymphoma, and lung and breast cancers. Where available, underlying molecular pathologies are included. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020502','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020502"><span>Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and Galena Creek rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Meltwater runoff from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and <span class="hlt">melted</span> glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Tritium concentrations from the rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> deposited in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6828A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6828A"><span>Test of a simple <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat parameterization for two Norwegian ice cap <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alesina, Samuel; Beldring, Stein; Melvold, Kjetil; Schaefli, Bettina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In Norway, the ice cap <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat will be an important phenomena under climate change projections and will largely influence water resources.Three new versions of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat algorithm based on the parameterization proposed by Huss et al. (2010) are implemented and tested on the Distributed Element Water Model of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate. After selection of the best performing algorithm version, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat parameters of the model are calibrated on observed discharge and mass balance data for two ice cap <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Norway: Nigardsbreen (maritime <span class="hlt">glacier</span>) and Midtdalsbreen (semi continental <span class="hlt">glacier</span>). The calibration performance is acceptable: ice thickness is reproduced with a Root Mean Square Error of 20 respectively 15 m for the two case studies; <span class="hlt">glacier</span> annual mass balance is overestimated for negative years; daily discharge is reproduced with a Nash Sutcliffe performance criterion between 0.80-0.86 for the period of 1961-1990: Climate change projections are performed for these 2 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> using downscaled Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from IPCC A1B emission scenario for greenhouse gases. According to our results, these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are going to decrease dramatically: the ice volume could be reduced by 70 to 80 % in 2100, the annual discharge could increase by 30% till 2070-2080. The annual daily regime can also be assumed to change: the simulation results show that the maximum discharge during summer will decrease whereas winter discharge will increase after a longer recession period in autumn. The beginning of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> period will not change substantially. The model sensitivity of the applied <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat parameterization (Huss et al. 2010) is analyzed with two approaches: 1/ comparing the ice volume evolution for all Huss parameters sets obtained through calibration in this study to the ones proposed in literature; 2/ varying one parameter after the other keeping the three others fixed. The evolution of the ice</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022704&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022704&hterms=glacier+velocity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dglacier%2Bvelocity"><span>Recent acceleration of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferrigno, J. G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The first velocity measurements for Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> were made by R. J. Allen in 1977. He compared features of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and Iceberg Tongue on aerial photography from 1947 and 1967 with 1972 Landsat images, and measured average annual displacements of 3.7 and 2.3 km/a. Using his photogrammetric experience and taking into consideration the lack of definable features and the poor control in the area, he estimated an average velocity of 2.0 to 2.9 km/a to be more accurate. In 1985, Lindstrom and Tyler also made velocity estimates for Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Using Landsat imagery from 1972 and 1983, their estimates of the velocities of 33 points ranged from 2.99 to 4.02 km/a, with an average of 3.6 km/a. The accuracy of their estimates is uncertain, however, because in the absence of fixed control points, they assumed that the velocities of icebergs in the fast ice were uniform. Using additional Landsat imagery in 1984 and 1990, accurate coregistration with the 1972 image was achieved based on fixed rock points. For the period 1972 to 1984, 25 points on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface ranged in average velocity from 2.47 to 2.76 km/a, with an overall average velocity of 2.62 +/- 0.02 km/a. For the period 1984 to 1990, 101 points ranged in velocity from 2.54 to 3.15 km/a, with an overall average of 2.84 km/a. During both time periods, the velocity pattern showed the same spatial relationship for three longitudinal paths. The 8-percent acceleration in a decade is significant. This recent acceleration may be associated with changes observed in this region since 1986. Fast ice <span class="hlt">melted</span> and several icebergs calved from the base of the Iceberg Tongue and the terminus of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. However, as early as 1972, the Iceberg Tongue had very little contact with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022704&hterms=Wais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930022704&hterms=Wais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DWais"><span>Recent acceleration of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferrigno, J. G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The first velocity measurements for Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> were made by R. J. Allen in 1977. He compared features of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and Iceberg Tongue on aerial photography from 1947 and 1967 with 1972 Landsat images, and measured average annual displacements of 3.7 and 2.3 km/a. Using his photogrammetric experience and taking into consideration the lack of definable features and the poor control in the area, he estimated an average velocity of 2.0 to 2.9 km/a to be more accurate. In 1985, Lindstrom and Tyler also made velocity estimates for Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Using Landsat imagery from 1972 and 1983, their estimates of the velocities of 33 points ranged from 2.99 to 4.02 km/a, with an average of 3.6 km/a. The accuracy of their estimates is uncertain, however, because in the absence of fixed control points, they assumed that the velocities of icebergs in the fast ice were uniform. Using additional Landsat imagery in 1984 and 1990, accurate coregistration with the 1972 image was achieved based on fixed rock points. For the period 1972 to 1984, 25 points on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface ranged in average velocity from 2.47 to 2.76 km/a, with an overall average velocity of 2.62 +/- 0.02 km/a. For the period 1984 to 1990, 101 points ranged in velocity from 2.54 to 3.15 km/a, with an overall average of 2.84 km/a. During both time periods, the velocity pattern showed the same spatial relationship for three longitudinal paths. The 8-percent acceleration in a decade is significant. This recent acceleration may be associated with changes observed in this region since 1986. Fast ice <span class="hlt">melted</span> and several icebergs calved from the base of the Iceberg Tongue and the terminus of Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. However, as early as 1972, the Iceberg Tongue had very little contact with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..415F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..415F"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> shrinkage and water resources in the Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francou, Bernard; Coudrain, Anne</p> <p></p> <p>For more than a century <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> around the world have been <span class="hlt">melting</span> as air temperatures rise due to a combination of natural processes and human activity. The disappearance of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can have wide-ranging effects, such as the creation of new natural hazards or changes in stream flow that could threaten water suppliesSome of the most dramatic <span class="hlt">melting</span> has occurred in the Andes mountain range in South America. To highlight the climatic and glacial change in the Andes and to encourage the scientific community to strengthen the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> observation network that stretches from Colombia to the Patagonian ice fields, the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Perú, and the Institute of Research and Development (IRD), France, recently organized the second Symposium on Mass Balance of Andean <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in Huaráz,Perú.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5909R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.5909R"><span>Undercutting of marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in West Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rignot, Eric; Fenty, Ian; Xu, Yun; Cai, Cilan; Kemp, Chris</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> control most of Greenland's ice discharge into the ocean, but little is known about the geometry of their frontal regions. Here we use side-looking, multibeam echo sounding observations to reveal that their frontal ice cliffs are grounded deeper below sea level than previously measured and their ice faces are neither vertical nor smooth but often undercut by the ocean and rough. Deep <span class="hlt">glacier</span> grounding enables contact with subsurface, warm, salty Atlantic waters (AW) which <span class="hlt">melts</span> ice at rates of meters per day. We detect cavities undercutting the base of the calving faces at the sites of subglacial water (SGW) discharge predicted by a hydrological model. The observed pattern of undercutting is consistent with numerical simulations of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> in which buoyant plumes of SGW transport warm AW to the ice faces. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> undercutting likely enhances iceberg calving, impacting ice front stability and, in turn, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26632968"><span>Polychlorinated Biphenyls in a Temperate Alpine <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>: 2. Model Results of Chemical Fate Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Lüthi, Martin P; Scheringer, Martin; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>We present results from a chemical fate model quantifying incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the Silvretta <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, a temperate Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> located in Switzerland. Temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, in contrast to cold <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, are <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> where <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes are prevalent. Incorporation of PCBs into cold <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has been quantified in previous studies. However, the fate of PCBs in temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has never been investigated. In the model, we include <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes, inducing elution of water-soluble substances and, conversely, enrichment of particles and particle-bound chemicals. The model is validated by comparing modeled and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core collected in the Silvretta accumulation area. We quantify PCB incorporation between 1900 and 2010, and discuss the fate of six PCB congeners. PCB concentrations in the ice core peak in the period of high PCB emissions, as well as in years with strong <span class="hlt">melt</span>. While for lower-chlorinated PCB congeners revolatilization is important, for higher-chlorinated congeners, the main processes are storage in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice and removal by particle runoff. This study gives insight into PCB fate and dynamics and reveals the effect of snow accumulation and <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes on the fate of semivolatile organic chemicals in a temperate Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26104673"><span>Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> (Hans <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>--grounded tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and Werenskiold <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-land-based valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span>) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Hans <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5543P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5543P"><span>Major 20th Century Contribution to Sea Level Rise from Uncharted <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parkes, David; Marzeion, Ben</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Global mean sea-level rise (GMSLR) during the 20th century was caused by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and ice sheet mass loss, thermal expansion of ocean water, and change of terrestial water storage. Whether based on observations or results of climate models, the sum of estimates of each of these contributors tends to fall short of the observed GMSLR. All estimates of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to GMSLR rely on the application of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventory data, which are known to undersample the smallest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> size classes. Here we show that these missing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (those that we expect to exist today but which are not represented in the inventories) may have contributed 42.6 mm to GMSLR during the period 1901 to 2015, even though their current ice mass is very small (less than 5 mm sea-level equivalent). Additionally, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that completely <span class="hlt">melted</span> within the 20th century, and which are therefore not included in global <span class="hlt">glacier</span> inventories (vanished <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>), may have contributed 5.1 mm to GMSLR. Together, uncharted <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (missing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and vanished <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> combined) made an estimated contribution of 47.7 mm to GMSLR, and the failure to consider these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> may be the cause of difficulties in closing the GMSLR budget during the 20th century. Because of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>' small current ice mass, their potential to impact future GMSLR is much smaller.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26638969','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26638969"><span>Release of PCBs from Silvretta <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Switzerland) investigated in lake sediments and meltwater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pavlova, P A; Zennegg, M; Anselmetti, F S; Schmid, P; Bogdal, C; Steinlin, C; Jäggi, M; Schwikowski, M</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This study is part of our investigations about the release of persistent organic pollutants from <span class="hlt">melting</span> Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and the relevance of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as secondary sources of legacy pollutants. Here, we studied the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-related release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in proglacial lakes and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> streams of the catchment of the Silvretta <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, located in the Swiss Alps. To explore a spatial and temporal distribution of chemicals in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, we combined two approaches: (1) analysing a sediment record as an archive of past remobilization and (2) passive water sampling to capture the current release of PCBs during <span class="hlt">melt</span> period. In addition, we determined PCBs in a non-<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed stream as a reference for the background pollutant level in the area. The PCBs in the sediment core from the Silvretta lake generally complied with trends of PCB emissions into the environment. Elevated concentrations during the most recent ten years, comparable in level with times of the highest atmospheric input, were attributed to accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span> of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. This interpretation is supported by the detected PCB fractionation pattern towards heavier, less volatile congeners, and by increased activity concentrations of the radioactive tracer (137)Cs in this part of the sediment core. In contrast, PCB concentrations were not elevated in the stream water, since no significant difference between pollutant concentrations in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed and the non-<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed streams was detected. In stream water, no current decrease of the PCBs with distance from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was observed. Thus, according to our data, an influence of PCBs release due to accelerated <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> was only detected in the proglacial lake, but not in the other compartments of the Silvretta catchment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C34A..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.C34A..08B"><span>Response of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benn, D. I.; Lindsey, N.; Kathryn, H.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The presence of supraglacial debris strongly influences <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ablation, and the mass balance of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> differs significantly from that of clean <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in similar climatic settings. Predicting the response of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to climate change is important for hazard mitigation strategies in many high mountain environments, especially where temporary lakes are likely to form on stagnating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongues. Accurate prediction of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> evolution requires a robust mass balance function which incorporates the effect of debris cover. We present a new model for calculating ablation beneath supraglacial debris layer from meteorological data, based on coupling the surface energy balance and conductive heat flux through the debris layer. The model performs well in a wide range of climatic settings, and results correlate well with measured <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates in the European Alps and Svalbard. The ablation model is used to construct theoretical mass balance curves for debris covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, providing surface boundary conditions for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> flow models. Modelled mass balance curves display reverse gradients on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini where the effect of thickening debris cover with decreasing altitude outweighs that of higher air temperatures. This explains the widely-noted tendency for debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to stagnate under warming climates. When the mass balance of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> as a whole is negative, increasing ablation with altitude causes the lower tongue to decrease in gradient. As gradients and ice thicknesses decline, the process is reinforced by a positive feedback with velocity, so less ice is delivered to the terminal zone. Low surface gradients encourage the formation of supraglacial ponds which can grow rapidly, significantly increasing mass loss from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and potentially posing flood hazards.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418507','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418507"><span>Ocean forcing of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cook, A J; Holland, P R; Meredith, M P; Murray, T; Luckman, A; Vaughan, D G</p> <p>2016-07-15</p> <p>In recent decades, hundreds of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced <span class="hlt">melting</span> are the primary cause of retreat for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21E..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21E..01R"><span>Regional projections of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume and runoff in response to twenty-first century climate scenarios (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radic, V.; Bliss, A. K.; Hock, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Changes in mass contained by mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps can modify the Earth's hydrological cycle on multiple scales. On a global scale, the mass loss from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> contributes to sea level rise. On regional and local scales, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water is an important contributor to and modulator of river flow. In this study we use an elevation-dependent <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance model to project annual volume changes and monthly runoff from all mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps in the world (excluding those in the Antarctic periphery) for the 21st century forced by temperature and precipitation scenarios from 14 global climate models. The largest contributors to projected total volume loss are the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Canadian and Russian Arctic, Alaska and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> peripheral to Greenland ice sheet. Although small contributors to global volume loss, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Central Europe, low-latitude South America, Caucasus, North Asia, and Western Canada and US are projected to lose more than 75% of their volume by 2100. The magnitude and sign of trends in annual runoff totals differ considerably among regions depending on the balance between enhanced <span class="hlt">melt</span> and the reduction of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> reservoir by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat and shrinkage. Most regions show strong declines in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff indicating that the effect of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> shrinkage is more dominant than increased <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates. Some high-latitude regions (Arctic Canada North, Russian Arctic and Greenland) exhibit increases in runoff totals. Iceland and Svalbard show an increase in runoff followed by a multi-decadal decrease in annual runoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28440606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28440606"><span>Pathogenesis and Prevention of <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> Myocardial Fibrosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Li Kun; Ouyang, Weiwei; Zhao, Xing; Su, Sheng Fa; Yang, Yan; Ding, Wen Jin; Luo, Da Xian; He, Zhi Xu; Lu, Bing</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Radiation therapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. However, in radiotherapy for thoracic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mediastinal lymphoma, the heart, located in the mediastinum, is inevitably affected by the irradiation, leading to pericardial disease, myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, valvular lesions, and cardiac conduction system injury, which are considered <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> heart diseases. Delayed cardiac injury especially myocardial fibrosis is more prominent, and its incidence is as high as 20–80%. Myocardial fibrosis is the final stage of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> heart diseases, and it increases the stiffness of the myocardium and decreases myocardial systolic and diastolic function, resulting in myocardial electrical physiological disorder, arrhythmia, incomplete heart function, or even sudden death. This article reviews the pathogenesis and prevention of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myocardial fibrosis for providing references for the prevention and treatment of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myocardial fibrosis. Creative Commons Attribution License</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238428"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> charge trapping in bipolar base oxides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fleetwood, D.M.; Riewe, L.C.; Witczak, Schrimpf, R.D.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>Capacitance-voltage and thermally stimulated current methods are used to investigate <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> charge trapping in bipolar base oxides. Results are compared with models of oxide and interface trap charge buildup at low electric fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1347093','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1347093"><span>Radar detection of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ionization in air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Gopalsami, Nachappa; Heifetz, Alexander; Chien, Hual-Te; Liao, Shaolin; Koehl, Eugene R.; Raptis, Apostolos C.</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>A millimeter wave measurement system has been developed for remote detection of airborne nuclear radiation, based on electromagnetic scattering from <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ionization in air. Specifically, methods of monitoring <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ionization of air have been investigated, and the ionized air has been identified as a source of millimeter wave radar reflection, which can be utilized to determine the size and strength of a radiation source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33E0862P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33E0862P"><span>Quantifying <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Runoff Contribution to Nooksack River, WA in 2013-15</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pelto, M. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The 2015 hydrologic year has been posited in terms of temperature as an analog for the future for the Pacific Northwest (PNW), with record warm air temperatures, warm stream temperatures and low summer streamflow. The high stream temperatures and low flows are both threats to salmon in the watershed and are offset in part by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff. Freezing levels were the highest relative to the median in the key winter months of January through May, 2015. The snowline on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> across the region in early July is typically at levels observed 1-2 months later in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season. This increases ablation since <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice <span class="hlt">melts</span> faster than <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snowcover. Very high 2015 ablation rates are occurring because <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff in the PNW is primarily controlled by ablation season temperatures. In July, 2015 streamflow in the North Fork Nooksack River has been at a record low for the 77 years of record, which would increase the role of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff in stream discharge. We have measured both <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff and ablation on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the North Fork Nooksack River basin during the summers of 2013-15 that allows determination of the percent of total stream discharge contributed by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. In 2014 the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution exceeded 40% of total streamflow on 21 days all occurring in Aug. and Sept. Here we will present the results of 2013-2015 <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff observations and the 1984-2015 mass balance observations to put in context 2015 results from our ongoing field work this summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53A0828B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C53A0828B"><span>Fluctuations of a Temperate Mountain <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Response to Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachmann, M.; Bidlake, W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> mass balance is a fundamental parameter for understanding and predicting the evolution of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on the landscape in response to climate change. The USGS Ice and Climate Project (ICP) continues to extend the longest-running USGS benchmark <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass-balance record at South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Washington. Due to the importance of South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> data sets for glaciological and climate research, ICP is releasing decades-old previously unpublished <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface and bed maps, mass balance data at individual sites, ice velocity data, and an updated ice inventory for the surrounding basin. The complete record includes a pre-Industrial Revolution reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and seasonal mass balance measurements for the past 54 years (1958-2012). Since 2000, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has experienced four of the five most negative summer balances and two of the largest positive accumulation years, indicating that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is continuing to respond to recent warming and precipitation changes. Recently, ICP has developed a temperature-index <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model that extrapolates daily accumulation and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates from intermittent field observations based on regional meteorological data, and an expert system for mass balance that captures the strengths of both measurement and modeling for assessing mass balance. The models have been successfully calibrated at South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, where ample observations are available, but are designed to be used with as few or as many glaciological field data as are available for a given ice mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H51G0441R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H51G0441R"><span>Source-to-sink study of erosion at Grinnell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> National Park, Montana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Riihimaki, C. A.; MacGregor, K. R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Cirques have been used as proxies for past climatic conditions, yet the detailed physical processes that act to form cirques remain poorly understood. In July 2005, we continued a field study at Grinnell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Montana to examine the relevant glacial and geomorphic processes driving cirque development. As in July 2004, we installed a grid of nine velocity poles to measure ice motion using differential GPS, and several temperature sensors and snow stakes to monitor snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> across Grinnell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. We supplemented these data with time-series of 15-minute measurements of snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> recorded by an ultrasonic ranging sensor. Air temperature and snowmelt correlate well, with diurnal fluctuations in <span class="hlt">melt</span> corresponding to diurnal temperature fluctuations. The ultrasonic sensor recorded an average <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate of snow over the 24-day period of observation of 3.5 cm d-1 (water equivalent), with average daily rates as high as 6 cm d-1. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> rates declined as snowmelt revealed debris-covered ice below. These observations suggest that debris-cover may play an important role in insolating Grinnell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> from summer <span class="hlt">melt</span>, particularly in coming decades as debris concentrations are expected to rise. Average velocity near the center of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, where ice thickness was ~44 meters, was ~5 cm d-1 during this time. Our measurements span the period of earthquake activity that occurred in Montana July 25-27. Iceberg calving was associated with the ground shaking. Downstream from Grinnell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, we collected 5 lake cores to document sedimentation rates in Swiftcurrent and Josephine Lakes, source areas for erosion in the drainage basin, and environmental change due to forest fires and changes in vegetation. Two cores from Swiftcurrent Lake and one core from Lake Josephine are >5 m in length, providing us one of the first high-resolution lake records in <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> National Park. While the core analysis remains a work-in-progress, preliminary work indicates that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15304020B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.15304020B"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11888858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11888858"><span>[Update in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> neoplasms: genetic studies].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chauveinc, Laurent; Lefevre, Sandrine; Malfoy, Bernard; Dutrillaux, Bernard</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> tumors are a possible (very) late complications of radiotherapy. The evaluation of the risks of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> tumors has been presented in different epidemiological studies, with the evaluation of the relative risk for different tissues. But, the genetic studies are rare, and no global theory exists. Two cytogenetic profiles are described, one with translocations and one with genetic material losses, evoking two different genetic evolutions. Two questions are stated. What are the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic mechanisms? Is it possible to differentiate the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> and spontaneous tumors with genetic approaches? With 37 cytogenetic cases, 12 analyzed in our laboratory, the <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> tumors were characterized by genetic material losses. An anti-oncogenic evolution is probable. A new molecularly study confirm these results. Only thyroid tumors do not have this evolution. For tumors with simple karyotype, like meningioma, <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> tumors seem to be more complex than spontaneous tumors. But for the others, the differentiation is impossible to be done with cytogenetic. The mechanism of the chromosomic material losses in unknown, but some hypothesis are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6470J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6470J"><span><span class="hlt">Melting</span> West Antarctic ice-shelves: role of coastal warming versus changes in cavity geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdain, Nicolas; Mathiot, Pierre; Durand, Gael; Le Sommer, Julien; Spence, Paul</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The mass loss of West Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has accelerated over the last 15 years, most likely in response to ocean warming in Antarctic coastal waters. This oceanic warming in Antarctic coastal waters has recently been suggested to be caused by the positive trend of the Southern Annular Mode. But the mechanisms controlling he changes in <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates underneath outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are still poorly understood. For instance, despite recent developments in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> modeling, <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates are usually prescribed in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> models. This strongly limits the ability of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> models to predict the future evolution of West Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Several ocean models are now able to simulate ocean circulation beneath ice-shelves, therefore allowing a direct study of the mechanisms controlling the changes in <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates underneath outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Building upon these developments, we here investigate the relative influence of ocean warming in coastal waters and changes in ice-shelves cavern geometries on <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates underneath West Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. To this purpose, we use a regional ocean/sea-ice model configuration based on NEMO, centered on the Admundsen sea, that explicitly represents flows in ice-shelves cavities. A series of sensitivity experiments is conducted with different cavern geometries and under different atmospheric forcing scenarios in order to identify the leading mechanism controlling the changes in <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates underneath West Antarctic <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over the 21st century. Our results provide a first assessment on the importance of coupling <span class="hlt">glacier</span> models to ocean models for predicting the future evolution of outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0863S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0863S"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Facies Mapping and movement Estimation using Remote Sening Techniques: A Case Study at Samudra Tapu <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sood, S.; Thakur, P. K.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p> rate of <span class="hlt">melt</span> of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. KeywordsClimate change, Himalayan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, Accumulation, Ablation, Polarimetric SAR, <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> facies, Object oriented classification, Snow line, Firn line, <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> flow, InSAR, Feature tracking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C23C0417L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C23C0417L"><span>Modeling Ocean-Forced Changes in Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lilien, D.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> along the Amundsen Coast are changing rapidly, which has drawn substantial scientific and public attention. Modeling and observation suggest warm-water intrusion and consequent <span class="hlt">melting</span> as the cause of observed changes, and that unstoppable retreat may have already been triggered in some drainages. While Pine Island and Thwaites <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are losing the most mass and have been the predominant objects study, other systems, particularly Smith, Pope and Kohler <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and the corresponding Dotson and Crosson Shelves, are changing more rapidly relative to their size. Though smaller, these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> still have potentially large implications for overall regional dynamics as their beds connect below sea level to surrounding basins. In particular, the long, deep trough of Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> nearly links to the large eastern tributary of Thwaites, potentially causing rapid changes of Smith to have significant impact on the continuing retreat of Thwaites.We implemented a numerical model in Elmer/Ice, an open-source, full-Stokes, finite-element software package, to investigate the response of the Smith/Pope/Kohler system to different initial conditions. We use various parameterizations of sub-shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span> with constant magnitude to examine the sensitivity of overall dynamics to <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution. Because <span class="hlt">melt</span> distribution affects lateral buttressing and upstream grounded areas, it is potentially an important control on ice shelf and outlet <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics. Through comparison to the most recent velocity data, we evaluate the ability of differing <span class="hlt">melt</span> parameterizations to reproduce the behavior currently seen in Smith/Pope/Kohler <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. In addition, we investigate the effect of using different years of velocity data with constant elevation input when initiating model runs. By comparing results over the satellite record to initiation with synchronous observations, we assess the accuracy of the often necessary practice of using differently timestamped datasets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C11A..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C11A..02A"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> seismology in a coastal temperate rainforest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amundson, J. M.; Walter, J. I.; O'Neel, S.; Parker, T.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Seismology is proving to be a powerful tool for studying a variety of glaciological phenomena, including iceberg calving, ice fracture, and basal processes. Many logistical and scientific challenges remain, however, especially in the dynamic environment of the ablation zone where crevassing, high <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates, and rapidly evolving supraglacial stream networks make instrument deployment and recovery difficult. Due to these instrumental challenges, the full potential for seismology to aid studies of the evolution of the subglacial drainage system and associated changes in basal motion is unknown. Here we present preliminary results from a passive seismic and GPS deployment on and around the lower reaches of Mendenhall <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a maritime, lake-calving <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Southeast Alaska that experiences extreme <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates during summer. The project is motivated by (1) a need to develop a field-hardened seismometer for work on temperate <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and (2) a recent cycle of outburst floods that have threatened local infrastructure. We compare seismic signals recorded on land to those recorded by sensors deployed in shallow boreholes in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and relate those signals to changes in ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TCry....5.1099G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011TCry....5.1099G"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> contribution to streamflow in two headwaters of the Huasco River, Dry Andes of Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gascoin, S.; Kinnard, C.; Ponce, R.; Lhermitte, S.; MacDonell, S.; Rabatel, A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Quantitative assessment of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to present-day streamflow is a prerequisite to the anticipation of climate change impact on water resources in the Dry Andes. In this paper we focus on two glaciated headwater catchments of the Huasco Basin (Chile, 29° S). The combination of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> monitoring data for five <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (Toro 1, Toro 2, Esperanza, Guanaco, Estrecho and Ortigas) with five automatic streamflow records at sites with <span class="hlt">glacier</span> coverage of 0.4 to 11 % allows the estimation of the mean annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to discharge between 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 hydrological years. In addition, direct manual measurements of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff were conducted in summer at the snouts of four <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, which provide the instantaneous contribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> meltwater to stream runoff during summer. The results show that the mean annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to streamflow ranges between 3.3 and 23 %, which is greater than the glaciated fraction of the catchments. We argue that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution is partly enhanced by the effect of snowdrift from the non-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> area to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> mass loss is evident over the study period, with a mean of -0.84 m w.e. yr-1 for the period 2003/2004-2007/2008, and also contributes to increase <span class="hlt">glacier</span> runoff. An El Niño episode in 2002 resulted in high snow accumulation, modifying the hydrological regime and probably reducing the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution in favor of seasonal snowmelt during the subsequent 2002/2003 hydrological year. At the hourly timescale, summertime <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contributions are highly variable in space and time, revealing large differences in effective <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and glacierets (from 1 mm w.e. h-1 to 6 mm w.e. h-1).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991EOSTr..72..466B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991EOSTr..72..466B"><span>Bering <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> may be in retreat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bush, Susan</p> <p></p> <p>The Bering <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, the largest (6000 km2) and longest (200 km) <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in North America, may be undergoing a stage of irreversible calving retreat, said Bruce Molnia of the U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va. The situation there today appears to be a rapid breaking apart of blocks of ice (icebergs). The retreat has resulted in the formation of Vitus Lake (Figure 1), a large freshwater, icemarginal lake, which may evolve into a saltwater bay or fiord system, said Molnia, the spokesperson for a USGS research group that includes Austin Post, Dennis C. Trabant, and James W. Schoonmaker.Unlike most <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that lose ice through <span class="hlt">melting</span>, calving <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> like Bering end in bodies of water, such as lakes, and lose icebergs from their termini or margins through fracturing or fragmentation. The icebergs, influenced by surface currents and wind, then drift away. During the past 80 years, retreat of the Bering <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has resulted in much of its terminus becoming an iceberg calving margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386f/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386f/"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This chapter is the ninth to be released in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of the World, a series of 11 chapters. In each of the geographic area chapters, remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, are used to analyze the specific <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> region of our planet under consideration and to monitor <span class="hlt">glacier</span> changes. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the middle to late 1970s and early 1980s, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study various geographic regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> geographic region, the present areal distribution of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of a growing international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth?s surface. The chapter is divided into seven geographic parts and one topical part: <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of the Former Soviet Union (F-1), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of China (F-2), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Afghanistan (F?3), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Pakistan (F-4), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of India (F-5), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Nepal (F?6), <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of Bhutan (F-7), and the Paleoenvironmental Record Preserved in Middle-Latitude, High-Mountain <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> (F-8). Each geographic section describes the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extent during the 1970s and 1980s, the benchmark time period (1972-1981) of this volume, but has been updated to include more recent information. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of the Former Soviet Union are located in the Russian Arctic and various mountain ranges of Russia and the Republics of Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakstun. The <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory of the USSR and the World Atlas of Ice and Snow Resources recorded a total of 28,881 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> covering an area of 78,938 square kilometers (km2). China includes many of the mountain-<span class="hlt">glacier</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://wa.water.usgs.gov/projects/glacier/data/bidlake_AGU_2010.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://wa.water.usgs.gov/projects/glacier/data/bidlake_AGU_2010.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> modeling in support of field observations of mass balance at South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Washington, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Josberger, Edward G.; Bidlake, William R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The long-term USGS measurement and reporting of mass balance at South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> was assisted in balance years 2006 and 2007 by a new mass balance model. The model incorporates a temperature-index <span class="hlt">melt</span> computation and accumulation is modeled from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> air temperature and gaged precipitation at a remote site. Mass balance modeling was used with glaciological measurements to estimate dates and magnitudes of critical mass balance phenomena. In support of the modeling, a detailed analysis was made of the "<span class="hlt">glacier</span> cooling effect" that reduces summer air temperature near the ice surface as compared to that predicted on the basis of a spatially uniform temperature lapse rate. The analysis was based on several years of data from measurements of near-surface air temperature on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The 2006 and 2007 winter balances of South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, computed with this new, model-augmented methodology, were 2.61 and 3.41 mWE, respectively. The 2006 and 2007 summer balances were -4.20 and -3.63 mWE, respectively, and the 2006 and 2007 net balances were -1.59 and -0.22 mWE. PDF version of a presentation on the mass balance of South Cascade <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2996705"><span>Contribution potential of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to water availability in different climate regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kaser, Georg; Großhauser, Martin; Marzeion, Ben</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although reliable figures are often missing, considerable detrimental changes due to shrinking <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are universally expected for water availability in river systems under the influence of ongoing global climate change. We estimate the contribution potential of seasonally delayed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water to total water availability in large river systems. We find that the seasonally delayed <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution is largest where rivers enter seasonally arid regions and negligible in the lowlands of river basins governed by monsoon climates. By comparing monthly <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions with population densities in different altitude bands within each river basin, we demonstrate that strong human dependence on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> is not collocated with highest population densities in most basins. PMID:21059938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31B0282P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C31B0282P"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Changes in the Russian High Arctic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pritchard, M. E.; Willis, M. J.; Melkonian, A. K.; Golos, E. M.; Stewart, A.; Ornelas, G.; Ramage, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">glacier</span> compared to rates found using ERS data in the mid-90s. Speeds have at least doubled at some of the smaller <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> that feed the Matusevich from the south. We investigate the causes of acceleration at both archipelagoes by comparing sea surface temperatures and passive microwave observations of the timing and duration of ice surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305754','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4305754"><span>Clinical and dosimetric factors of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> esophageal injury: <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> esophageal toxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qiao, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yan-Bin; Wang, Rui-Zhi</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To analyze the clinical and dosimetric predictive factors for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> esophageal injury in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 208 consecutive patients (146 men and 62 women) with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. The median age of the patients was 64 years (range 35-87 years). The clinical and treatment parameters including gender, age, performance status, sequential chemotherapy, concurrent chemotherapy, presence of carinal or subcarinal lymph nodes, pretreatment weight loss, mean dose to the entire esophagus, maximal point dose to the esophagus, and percentage of volume of esophagus receiving >55 Gy were studied. Clinical and dosimetric factors for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury were analyzed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-five (12%) of the two hundred and eight patients developed acute or late grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Among them, nine patients had both acute and late grade 3-5 esophageal injury, two died of late esophageal perforation. Concurrent chemotherapy and maximal point dose to the esophagus ≥60 Gy were significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury. Fifty-four (26%) of the two hundred and eight patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Among them, 25 (46%) developed grade 3-5 esophageal injury (P = 0.0001<0.01). However, no grade 3-5 esophageal injury occurred in patients who received a maximal point dose to the esophagus <60 Gy (P = 0.0001<0.01). CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemotherapy and the maximal esophageal point dose ≥60 Gy are significantly associated with the risk of grade 3-5 esophageal injury in patients with NSCLC treated with 3D-CRT. PMID:15849822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C12B..02N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.C12B..02N"><span>Investigating role of ice-ocean interaction on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamic: Results from numerical modeling applied to Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nick, F. M.; van der Veen, C. J.; Vieli, A.; Pattyn, F.; Hubbard, A.; Box, J. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Calving of icebergs and bottom <span class="hlt">melting</span> from ice shelves accounts for roughly half the ice transferred from the Greenland Ice Sheet into the surrounding ocean, and virtually all of the ice loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (north Greenland) with its ~17 km wide and ~ 60 km long floating ice-shelf is experiencing high rates of bottom <span class="hlt">melting</span>. The recent partial disintegration of its shelf (in August 2010) presents a natural experiment to investigate the dynamic response of the ice sheet to its shelf retreat. We apply a numerical ice flow model using a physically-based calving criterion based on crevasse depth to investigate the contribution of processes such as shelf disintegration, bottom <span class="hlt">melting</span>, sea ice or sikkusak disintegration and surface run off to the mass balance of Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and assess its stability. Our modeling study provides insights into the role of ice-ocean interaction, and on response of Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> to its recent massive ice loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27363134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27363134"><span>[Mercury Transport from <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> to Runoff in Typical Inland Glacial Area in the Tibetan Plateau].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Xue-jun; Wang, Kang; Guo, Jun-ming; Kang, Shi-chang; Zhang, Guo-shuai; Huang, Jie; Cong, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Qiang-gong</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>To investigate the transport of mercury from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to runoff in typical inland glacial area in the Tibetan Plateau, we selected Zhadang <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and Qugaqie river Basin located in the Nyainqentanglha Range region and collected samples from snow pit, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water and Qugaqie river water during 15th August to 9'h September 2011. Mercury speciation and concentrations were determined and their distribution and controlling factors in different environmental compartments were analyzed. The results showed that the average THg concentrations were (3.79 +/- 5.12) ng x L(-1), (1.06 +/- 0.77) ng x L(-1) and (1.02 +/- 0.24) ng x L(-1) for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water and Qugaqie river water, respectively, all of which were at the global background levels. Particulate-bound mercury accounted for large proportion of mercury in all environmental matrices, while mercury in glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water was controlled by total suspended particle, and mercury in Qugaqie river water co-varied with runoff. With the increase of temperature, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melted</span> and released water as well as mercury into <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-fed river. Total mercury concentrations in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> water, upstream and downstream peaked at 14:00, 16:00 and after 20:00, respectively, reflecting the process of mercury release from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and its subsequent transport in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> fed river. The transport of riverine mercury was controlled by multiple factors. Under the context of climate change, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ablation and the increasing runoff will play increasingly important roles in mercury release and transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815611A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815611A"><span>The response of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to climate change: A numerical modeling approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Leif S.; Anderson, Robert S.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are common in rapidly-eroding alpine landscapes. When thicker than a few centimeters, surface debris suppresses <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. Continuous debris cover can therefore reduce the mass balance gradient in the ablation zone, leading to increases in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. In order to quantify feedbacks in the debris-<span class="hlt">glacier</span>-climate system, we developed a 2D long-valley numerical <span class="hlt">glacier</span> model that includes deposition of debris on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, and both englacial and supraglacial debris advection. We ran 120 simulations in which a steady state debris-free <span class="hlt">glacier</span> responds to a step increase of surface debris deposition. Simulated <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> advance to new steady states in which ice accumulation equals ice ablation, and debris input equals debris loss from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The debris flux onto the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, and the details of the relationship between debris thickness and <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate strongly control <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length. Debris deposited near the equilibrium-line altitude, where ice discharge is high, results in the greatest <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extension when other debris-related variables are held constant. Continuous debris cover reduces ice discharge gradients, ice thickness gradients, and velocity gradients relative to debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> forced by the same climate. Debris-forced <span class="hlt">glacier</span> extension decreases the ratio of accumulation zone to total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area (AAR). The model reproduces first-order relationships between debris cover, AARs, and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface velocities reported from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in High Asia. We also explore the response of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to increases in the equilibrium-line altitude (climate warming). We highlight the conditions required to generate a low surface velocity 'dead' ice terminal reach during a warming climate, and the associated increase of fractional <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface debris. We also compare our debris-covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> climate response results with data from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in High Asia. Our model provides a quantitative, theoretical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014410','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014410"><span>Sensitivity and Response of Bhutanese <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> to Atmospheric Warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rupper, Summer; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Burgener, Landon K.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tsering, Karma; Cook, Edward</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model, our results show that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. However, the most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values, almost 10% of Bhutan s <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1 C regional warming, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is going to continue until about 25% of Bhutan s <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%. Citation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3919503R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3919503R"><span>Sensitivity and response of Bhutanese <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to atmospheric warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rupper, Summer; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Burgener, Landon K.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tsering, Karma; Cook, Edward R.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacierized</span> change in the Himalayas affects river-discharge, hydro-energy and agricultural production, and Glacial Lake Outburst Flood potential, but its quantification and extent of impacts remains highly uncertain. Here we present conservative, comprehensive and quantitative predictions for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes in Bhutan, monsoonal Himalayas. In particular, we quantify the uncertainties associated with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater flux changes due to uncertainty in climate data, a critical problem for much of High Asia. Based on a suite of gridded climate data and a robust <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> model, our results show that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and meltwater change projections can vary by an order of magnitude for different climate datasets. However, the most conservative results indicate that, even if climate were to remain at the present-day mean values, almost 10% of Bhutan's <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area would vanish and the meltwater flux would drop by as much as 30%. Under the conservative scenario of an additional 1°C regional warming, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat is going to continue until about 25% of Bhutan's <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> area will have disappeared and the annual meltwater flux, after an initial spike, would drop by as much as 65%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002161.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e002161.jpg.html"><span>Icefall, Lambert <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>Image taken 12/2/2000: The Lambert <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in Antarctica, is the world's largest <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The focal point of this image is an icefall that feeds into the Lambert <span class="hlt">glacier</span> from the vast ice sheet covering the polar plateau. Ice flows like water, albeit much more slowly. Cracks can be seen in this icefall as it bends and twists on its slow-motion descent 1300 feet (400 meters) to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> below. This Icefall can be found on Landsat 7 WRS Path 42 Row 133/134/135, center: -70.92, 69.15. To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C53D0769B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C53D0769B"><span>Quantification of sensitivity of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to climate change with the use of a block model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bach, E.; Radic, V.; Schoof, C.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Despite comprising a small fraction of the Earth's total ice volume, <span class="hlt">melting</span> of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> due to climate change constitutes a significant contribution to recent sea level rise. Mathematical models of volume evolution of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are thus important in projecting sea level into the future. While state-of-the-art ice-flow models for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exist, these rely on detailed data on the bed and surface of a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, data that is available for only a small sample of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> worldwide. Starting with a simple block model of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume response, we improve it by adding the volume-area-length scaling and a more realistic representation of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance profile. We analyze the resulting model and derive expressions for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>' volume sensitivity to temperature change and their volume response times. To obtain regionally differentiated estimates of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> sensitivities, we apply the model on a global scale with data from the Randolph <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Inventory and a statistical model for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance profile. Finally, we run the model forward in time with an ensemble of global climate models and compare the results to previous projections of regional <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contributions to sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8489A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.8489A"><span>Measuring <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface temperatures with ground-based thermal infrared imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aubry-Wake, Caroline; Baraer, Michel; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Mark, Bryan G.; Wigmore, Oliver; Hellström, Robert È.; Lautz, Laura; Somers, Lauren</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Spatially distributed surface temperature is an important, yet difficult to observe, variable for physical <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> models. We utilize ground-based thermal infrared imagery to obtain spatially distributed surface temperature data for alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The infrared images are used to investigate thermal microscale processes at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, such as the effect of surface cover type and the temperature gradient at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> margins on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s temperature dynamics. Infrared images were collected at Cuchillacocha <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Cordillera Blanca, Peru, on 23-25 June 2014. The infrared images were corrected based on ground truth points and local meteorological data. For the control points, the Pearson's correlation coefficient between infrared and station temperatures was 0.95. The ground-based infrared camera has the potential for greatly improving <span class="hlt">glacier</span> energy budget studies, and our research shows that it is critical to properly correct the thermal images to produce robust, quantifiable data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.739E..39L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESASP.739E..39L"><span>Decadal <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Mass Balance over West Nyainqentanglha Range and its Contribution to Nam Co Lake Increasing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Gang; Lin, Hui</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Nyainqentanglha Range locates in the south-eastern center of Inner Tibetan Plateau. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the whole range covered an area of 795 km2 in 2001 and locate at the transection zone between continental and maritime <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Their <span class="hlt">melting</span> at the northwestern slope feeds Nam Co Lake. Elevation of Nam Co Lake increased at a rate of 0.26m/a during 2003-2009 by ICESat laser altimetry monitoring which implied that retreating of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> within its drainage might accelerated. Previous study applied in situ observations on Zhadang <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>'s height change (-0.59m/a) and yielded during 1999 and 2010 <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> contributed 28.7% of the lake increasing (Lei et al., 2013). However, Zhadang <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> only occupies less than 1% of the whole <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area and almost bellows zero equilibrium line (ZEL), therefore the result should be biased and with large error. In this study, aiming on analyzing <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span>'s contribution to the endorheic lake increasing we applied DEM differencing method to quantify <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance at Nyainqentanglha Range by using SRTM and newly obtained bistatic TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910394W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910394W"><span>Geoengineering Outlet <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> and Ice Streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolovick, Michael</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives <span class="hlt">melting</span> of ice shelves and marine terminated <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. This warm water resides offshore at depth and accesses the grounding line through deep but narrow troughs and fjords. Here, we investigate the possibility of blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a buoyant-plume model of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span>, we find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed or reversed for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice-shelf cavities. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> with a floating shelf exhibit a strong response to the presence of the artificial sill regardless of our choice of calving law, while tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> require a strong linkage between submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> and iceberg calving for the artificial sill to have an effect. As a result of this difference and as a result of differing degrees of overdeepening in the basal topography, Antarctica and Greenland present very different societal cost-benefit analyses. Intervention in Greenland would be low-cost and low-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is comparable to existing large public works projects such as the Dubai Islands or the Suez Canal, but the magnitude of averted sea-level rise is small, the success of the intervention depends on the choice of calving law, and the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> return to their non-geoengineered trajectories within one to two centuries. Intervention in Antarctica, on the other hand, would be high-cost and high-reward: the volume of the artificial sill is one to two orders of magnitude greater, but the averted sea level rise is much larger, the intervention is successful regardless of the choice of calving law, and the ice streams remain far from their non-geoengineered trajectories throughout the 1000 year duration of our model runs. In both cases, an</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128013','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128013"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> myeloid leukemia in murine models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis. As <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included. PMID:25062865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062865"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> myeloid leukemia in murine models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael; Schiestl, Robert H</p> <p>2014-07-25</p> <p>The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinogenesis. As <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H54A..05T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H54A..05T"><span>Improvement of the SPHY Model <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Module and its Application in the Tamakoshi River Basin, Nepal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Terink, W.; Lutz, A. F.; Immerzeel, W.; Nepal, S.; Khanal, S.; Shrestha, A. B.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Snow and ice reserves are an important source of water for several regions around the globe, especially for the people living in the river basins in the Himalayan region. More than 1 billion people depend on the water resources from the Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, and Yellow Rivers. The upstream snow and ice reserves are exposed to the effects of climate change, making long-term water availability in this region more challenging. Increased temperatures result in reduced <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and snow covered areas due to the increased <span class="hlt">melting</span> of snow and ice as well as reduced accumulation of snow. To study these snow and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and accumulation processes, it is crucial to have model concepts available that describe these processes accurately without the need of data demanding energy-balance approaches. For this reason we have improved and validated the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> module in the Spatial Processes in HYdrology (SPHY) v2.0 model. Within the current version of the SPHY model (v2.0), <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are not mass-conserving; i.e. precipitation falling onto the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface as either rain or snow is not accounted for. The current version of SPHY schematizes <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as fixed entities <span class="hlt">melting</span> with a rate depending on temperature and a degree-day-factor. A coarser model grid resolution is often required to be computation efficient in case of larger modeling areas. In this case substantial errors in the estimation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> from snow and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be made because of the assumption of the same air temperature for the entire grid cell, which in reality differs for the various <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> located at different altitudes within the grid cell. Within the improved <span class="hlt">glacier</span> module for SPHY each model grid cell can contain one or more unique <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, being either debris covered or debris free. Each unique combination of model grid cell ID and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ID leads to an elevation difference, enabling accurate temperature estimates per <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in each model grid cell. This makes it possible to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8178F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8178F"><span>One decade of scientific studies of snow management on Austria's <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ski resorts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Andrea; Helfricht, Kay</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>After the extremely warm summer of 2003, when <span class="hlt">melt</span> affected Austria's <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> up to the highest elevations, a scientific study on artificial modification of mass balance was initiated. It examined the effects of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> covers and water injection, but also various grooming methods and snow accumulations based on monitoring and modelling of snow and energy balance. The results showed that covering the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was the most effective and cheapest method, saving about 70% of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> in places. But covers are restricted to a small portion of the area, as they require high maintenance. In recent years, snow production and snow accumulation by wind drift have gained more and more importance, not only modifying <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance, but also guaranteeing an early season start. Initially about 35 ha of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area (<10% of the ski resort area and less than one per mille of the total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area in Austria) were covered and later the area was reduced as snow production possibilities increased. Snow depots are often used as fun parks for snow boarders. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> covers are not primarily used for keeping snow for early season start on ski tracks, but to maintain the surface, especially close to cable car infrastructure, at a constant elevation and slope. Despite <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dynamics, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surfaces with snow management show reduced decrease of surface elevation , both on piste and along lift tracks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.284..115A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.284..115A"><span>Assessing linkages between spatial facies changes and dimensional variations of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the upper Indus Basin, western Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, Iram; Shukla, Aparna; Romshoo, Shakil A.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The present study provides an insight into the heterogeneous response of 45 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Lidder and Sindh river basins, western Himalaya, and explores the linkages between <span class="hlt">glacier</span> facies variability and changing <span class="hlt">glacier</span> parameters. Results show that the region has undergone an overall deglaciation of 12 ± 1.5% (11.9 ± 1.4 km2) from 1996 to 2014. Fluctuations in the temperature and precipitation patterns seem to be the primary factor controlling the changes in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> dimensions (R2 > 0.82 in all cases). <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> facies changes suggest depletion in snow-ice cover ( 18 ± 2.3%) and an increase in ice-mixed debris ( 4 ± 1.4%), supraglacial debris ( 6 ± 1.5%), and periglacial debris ( 17 ± 1.2%). These <span class="hlt">glacier</span> facies transitions are possibly the result of ice-<span class="hlt">melting</span>; however, its relative rate and elevation decides the nature of facies conversion. An increase in the proportion of supraglacial debris has led to the conversion of 11 clean <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to sparsely debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and 5 sparsely debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. The size of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> greatly influenced the rate of conversion of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> < 2 km2 dominated the others in this regard. The small <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> also experienced maximum shrinkage. Further, the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with varying supraglacial debris cover respond differently, as sparsely debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exhibit the highest rates of retreat (25 ± 7.3 m/y), followed by clean (23.7 ± 7.3 m/y) and debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (13.1 ± 7.3 m/y). Thus, the findings of this work clearly show that the climate change driven dimensional changes of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and variations in the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> facies have strong mutual control on each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........60D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........60D"><span>Evaluating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> movement fluctuations using remote sensing: A case study of the Baird, Patterson, LeConte, and Shakes <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in central Southeastern Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davidson, Robert Howard</p> <p></p> <p>. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> movement rates were greatest for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> whose terminuses were in fresh water (Patterson and Shakes <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>), less for those with terminuses in salt water (LeConte <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>), and least for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with terminuses on dry land (Baird <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>).Based upon these findings, the presence of water, especially fresh water, at the terminal end of the Patterson and Shakes <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> had a greater effect on <span class="hlt">glacier</span> movement than slope. Possible explanations for this effect might include a heat sink effect or tidal motions that hasten <span class="hlt">glacier</span> disintegration in the ablation zone. In a heat sink scenario, the water bodies in which the Patterson and Shakes <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> terminus are located could act as a thermal energy transfer medium that increases <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and subsequent retreat. On the other hand, tidal motions could act as horizontal and vertical push/pull forces, which increase the fracturing rate, calving, and subsequent retreat of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> terminus that are is salt water like the LeConte <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Over the length of the study period, 1975 through 2010, there has been a 0.85°C increase in annual air temperatures that, although may seem low, may prove important when determining glacial mass balance rates. Further studies are necessary to test these hypotheses to determine if a heat sink effect and tidal motions significantly affected the movement rates for the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in this study area. An additional significant result of this study was the creation of shapefiles delineating the positions of the Shakes <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> that are being submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) program for inclusion in their master worldwide <span class="hlt">glacier</span> database.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28163355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28163355"><span>An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> accounting for thickness effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carenzo, M; Pellicciotti, F; Mabillard, J; Reid, T; Brock, B W</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> modelling. For debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single <span class="hlt">melt</span>-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on <span class="hlt">melt</span> and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire <span class="hlt">melt</span> across a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate to debris thickness, summarised by the </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...94..457C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...94..457C"><span>An enhanced temperature index model for debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> accounting for thickness effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carenzo, M.; Pellicciotti, F.; Mabillard, J.; Reid, T.; Brock, B. W.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are increasingly studied because it is assumed that debris cover extent and thickness could increase in a warming climate, with more regular rockfalls from the surrounding slopes and more englacial <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out material. Debris energy-balance models have been developed to account for the <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate enhancement/reduction due to a thin/thick debris layer, respectively. However, such models require a large amount of input data that are not often available, especially in remote mountain areas such as the Himalaya, and can be difficult to extrapolate. Due to their lower data requirements, empirical models have been used extensively in clean <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> modelling. For debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, however, they generally simplify the debris effect by using a single <span class="hlt">melt</span>-reduction factor which does not account for the influence of varying debris thickness on <span class="hlt">melt</span> and prescribe a constant reduction for the entire <span class="hlt">melt</span> across a <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. In this paper, we present a new temperature-index model that accounts for debris thickness in the computation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates at the debris-ice interface. The model empirical parameters are optimized at the point scale for varying debris thicknesses against <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates simulated by a physically-based debris energy balance model. The latter is validated against ablation stake readings and surface temperature measurements. Each parameter is then related to a plausible set of debris thickness values to provide a general and transferable parameterization. We develop the model on Miage <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Italy, and then test its transferability on Haut <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> d'Arolla, Switzerland. The performance of the new debris temperature-index (DETI) model in simulating the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate at the point scale is comparable to the one of the physically based approach, and the definition of model parameters as a function of debris thickness allows the simulation of the nonlinear relationship of <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate to debris thickness, summarised by the </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001HyPr...15.3447T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001HyPr...15.3447T"><span>The altitudinal distribution of snow algae on an Alaska <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Gulkana <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the Alaska Range)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Nozomu</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The altitudinal distribution of a snow algal community was investigated on an Alaska <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Gulkana <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in the Alaska Range) from 1270 to 1770 m a.s.l.. Seven species of snow and ice algae (Chlorophyta and cyanobacteria) were observed on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface. These species were Chlamydomonas nivalis, Mesotaenium berggrenii, Ancylonema nordenskioldii, Cylindrocystis brébissonii, Raphidonema sp., and two Oscillatoriaceae cyanobacteria. The altitudinal distribution of snow algae was different among the species: Cd. nivalis was distributed on the middle to upper area, M. berggrenii; A. nordenskioldii, and one Oscillatoriaceae cyanobacterium on the middle to lower area; Raphidonema sp. on the middle area; and Cyl. brébissonii and one Oscillatoriaceae cyanobacterium on the lower area. The total cell concentration and the cell volume biomass of the snow algae ranged from 4·4 × 103 to 9·9 × 105 cells ml-1 and from 33 to 2211 µl m-2 respectively. The cell volume biomass changed with altitude; the biomass increased with altitude below 1600 m a.s.l., and decreased above 1600 m a.s.l. The community structure showed that <IA. nordenskioldii</I dominated on the lower part of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, and that <ICd. nivalis</I dominated on the upper part. The species diversity was relatively high at the lowest and middle sites. The pH was 4·7 to 5·3 for snow and 4·9 to 5·7 for ice on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The altitudinal distribution of snow algae is discussed in terms of the physical and chemical condition of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, and is compared with that on a Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. A larger biomass in the snow area on the Alaska <span class="hlt">glacier</span> than that of the Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is likely due to less frequent snow cover in summer in Alaska. Small amounts of filamentous cyanobacteria on the Alaska <span class="hlt">glacier</span> may allow washouts of unicellular green algae by running <span class="hlt">melt</span> water and may cause a different pattern of altitudinal distribution of algal biomass on the ice area from the Himalayan <span class="hlt">glacier</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610408F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610408F"><span>Austrian <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in historical documents of the last 400 years: implications for historical hydrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Andrea; Seiser, Bernd</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>First documentations of Austrian <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> date from as early as 1601. Early documentations were triggered by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> advances that created <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-dammed lakes that caused floods whenever the dam collapsed . Since then, Austrian <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been documented in drawings, descriptions and later on in maps and photography. These data are stored in historical archives but today only partly exploited for historical glaciology. They are of special interest for historical hydrology in <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-covered basins, as the extent of the snow, firn and ice cover and its elevation affect the hydrological response of the basin to precipitation events in several ways: - Firn cover: the more area is covered by firn, the higher is the capacity for retention or even refreezing of liquid precipitation and <span class="hlt">melt</span> water. - Ice cover: the area covered by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be affected by <span class="hlt">melt</span> and contributes to a peak discharge on summer afternoons. - Surface elevation and temperatures: in case of precipitation events, the lower surface temperatures and higher surface elevation of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> compared to ice-free ground have some impact on the capacity to store precipitation. - <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> floods: for the LIA maximum around 1850, a number of advancing <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> dammed lakes which emptied during floods. These parameters show different variability with time: <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area varies only by about 60% to 70% between the LIA maximum and today. The variability of the maximum meltwater peak changes much more than the area. Even during the LIA maximum, several years were extremely warm, so that more than twice the size of today's <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area was subject to <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The minimum elevations of large <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> were several hundred meters lower than today, so that in terms of today's summer mean temperatures, the <span class="hlt">melt</span> water production from ice ablation would have been much higher than today. A comparison of historical <span class="hlt">glacier</span> images and description with today's makes it clear that the extent of the snow cover and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C31C..04J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C31C..04J"><span>Mechanisms that Amplify, Attenuate and Deviate <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Response to Climate Change in Central East Greenland. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiskoot, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p> only pose problems for the direct interpretation of climate change from length and volume changes due to their dynamically-driven advance and retreat regimes, but also for the reconstruction of LIA extents from trimlines and moraines, and the reconstruction of surface mass balance due to crevasses, potholes or debris-cover. This presentation will address a range of MAAD, including thermal regime transitions; ocean influences on tidewater-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>; <span class="hlt">glacier</span> fragmentation and tributary-trunk interaction; <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surging and tidewater behaviour; seasonal variations; <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hypsometry and morphology; terrain and substrate; <span class="hlt">melt</span>-albedo and <span class="hlt">melt</span>-ice flow feedbacks; and ice marginal lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033573','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033573"><span>Passive microwave (SSM/I) satellite predictions of valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrology, Matanuska <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kopczynski, S.E.; Ramage, J.; Lawson, D.; Goetz, S.; Evenson, E.; Denner, J.; Larson, G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We advance an approach to use satellite passive microwave observations to track valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snowmelt and predict timing of spring snowmelt-induced floods at the terminus. Using 37 V GHz brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Special Sensor Microwave hnager (SSM/I), we monitor snowmelt onset when both Tb and the difference between the ascending and descending overpasses exceed fixed thresholds established for Matanuska <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. <span class="hlt">Melt</span> is confirmed by ground-measured air temperature and snow-wetness, while <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hydrologic responses are monitored by a stream gauge, suspended-sediment sensors and terminus ice velocity measurements. Accumulation area snowmelt timing is correlated (R2 = 0.61) to timing of the annual snowmelt flood peak and can be predicted within ??5 days. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11A1642P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11A1642P"><span>Bathymetric Controls On Observed Tidewater <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Retreat In Northwest Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, D. F.; Tinto, K. J.; Boghosian, A.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Although many of the largest <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Greenland are losing mass, the large variability in observed mass wastage of the remaining <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> clouds interpretation of the proposed external forcings, such as warming of the ocean or atmosphere. Some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are accelerating and thinning while other nearby <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> advance and gain mass. Recent efforts suggest that increased ocean temperatures may be responsible for the observed glacial retreat in Greenland and Antarctica through increased basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> beneath floating ice tongues and vertical ice faces of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Basal <span class="hlt">melting</span> may contribute significantly to calving and thinning, and to an eventual speeding up of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, resulting in thinning further inland. Knowledge of fjord geometry is crucial for ice-ocean interaction because the availability of ocean heat to the ice will be restricted by narrow sills and shallow grounding lines. We investigate whether the variability in observed changes among Greenland <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can be partially explained by variation in fjord geometry. Some features of a fjord that could influence the ice-ocean system include the depth of the grounding line, the presence of sills, sloping bed, and the water cavity shape beneath floating ice. New estimates of fjord bathymetries in northwest Greenland, using airborne gravimetry measurements from NASA Operation IceBridge flights, are compared to estimates of ice acceleration and mass wastage of neighboring <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. We investigate the correlation between fjord geometry features and several <span class="hlt">glacier</span> parameters, such as surface velocity and elevation changes. We determine that the geometry of glacial fjords play a large role in determining the stability of outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Deep sills and deep terminus grounding lines will allow greater interaction with the deep and warm Atlantic water off the shelf break. For two neighboring <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in northwest Greenland, we find that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> with a deeper grounding line, and presumably in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656544"><span>Hypopharyngeal carcinoma after radiation for tuberculosis: <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Putten, Lisa; de Bree, Remco; Kuik, Dirk J; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Radiation may cause <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancers after a long latency period. In a group of 111 patients surgically treated for hypopharyngeal carcinoma, patients previously treated with radiotherapy for tuberculosis in the neck were compared to patients without previous radiotherapy. Seven patients (7.4%) underwent radiotherapy (median age 15 years) and developed a hypopharyngeal carcinoma (median age 70 years, median latency period 54.4 year). Considering this long latency period and the localisation in the previous radiation field these tumours can be classified as potentially <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinomas. Patients with potentially <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> carcinomas were significantly older when the hypopharyngeal carcinoma was diagnosed (p=0.048), were more frequently females (p=0.05) and had a worse 5-year regional control rate (p=0.048). When radiotherapy is considered in young patients the risk of induction of tumours has to be kept in mind. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11419.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA11419.html"><span>Byrd <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-11-17</p> <p>Byrd <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is a major <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in Antarctica; it drains an extensive area of the polar plateau and flows eastward between the Britannia Range and the Churchill Mountains to discharge into the Ross Ice Shelf. This image is from NASA Terra satellite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C21B0693M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C21B0693M"><span>The Effect of Submarine <span class="hlt">Melting</span> on Iceberg Calving</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, Y.; Bassis, J. N.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>It is widely known that submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> can largely affect calving behavior of tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> by removing supportive mass from the calving front. There have been both observational and modeling efforts that indicate a positive correlation between submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> and iceberg calving, with some claiming that the total mass loss is unchanged. However, it still remains unclear how and which direction submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> influences calving rate. We want to investigate this question by building on our 2D full-Stokes <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving model, which not only takes into consideration both surface and basal crevasses but tensile and shear failure regimes as well. A variety of submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates and profiles are considered in order to investigate the resulting shape of the calving front and thus its influence on local stress field and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> calving behavior. We find that once an overhang starts to form, areas of large tensile and shear stress tend to grow around the part where the overhang connects to the rest of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, making the ice more likely to calve off from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Given the same ice thickness and water depth, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> with increased submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> are more vulnerable to calving; given the same ice thickness and submarine <span class="hlt">melt</span> rate, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> terminating in deeper water are more vulnerable to calving. Nevertheless, the sizes of the icebergs that break off are smaller compared to those without submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span>, which might serve to explain the unaffected total mass loss in spite of an increased frequency of calving events. By examining the change of stress field near the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> front, our model offers a physical insight into the way submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> modifies the calving dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1656.color.218148c/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1656.color.218148c/"><span>HORSESHOE CURVE IN <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT ROAD NEAR <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT. HALF ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>HORSESHOE CURVE IN <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT ROAD NEAR <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. SAME VIEW AT CA-157-2. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37' 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1656.photos.190898p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1656.photos.190898p/"><span>2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT ROAD NEAR <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT. ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT ROAD NEAR <span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS N-37 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5716304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5716304"><span>Panretinal photocoagulation for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ocular ischemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Augsburger, J.J.; Roth, S.E.; Magargal, L.E.; Shields, J.A.</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4289523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4289523"><span>The Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Bystander Effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Najafi, M; Fardid, R; Hadadi, Gh; Fardid, M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bystander effect is the phenomenon which non-irradiated cells exhibit effects along with their different levels as a result of signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Responses of non-irradiated cells may include changes in process of translation, gene expression, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cells death. These changes are confirmed by results of some In-Vivo studies. Most well-known important factors affecting <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> bystander effect include free radicals, immune system factors, expression changes of some genes involved in inflammation pathway and epigenetic factors. PMID:25599062</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20739262"><span>[Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> enteritis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinkó, Dániel; Baranyai, Zsolt; Nemeskéri, Csaba; Teknos, Dániel; Jósa, Valéria; Hegedus, László; Mayer, Arpád</p> <p>2010-09-05</p> <p>The number of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant diseases is increasing worldwide. During the radiotherapy of tumors in the minor pelvis and abdomen intestinal inflammation of different degree may occur even if special attention is paid. Irradiation to the minor pelvis causes in half of the cases <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> acute enteritis, whereas in 25% chronic enteritis and colitis will develop. Chronic enteritis following radiotherapy raises a number of diagnostic and therapeutic problems that can be solved only with cooperation of different specialties. Authors present a short review regarding therapeutical options of <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> enteritis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4715W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4715W"><span>Ocean and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> interactions in Svalbard area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walczowski, Waldemar; Błaszczyk, Małgorzata; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz; Beszczyńska-Möller, Agnieszka</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Arctic fjords are a link between land and ocean. The inshore boundary of the fjords system is usually dominated by the tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and seasonal freshwater input while its offshore boundary is strongly influenced by oceanic waters. Improved understanding of the fjords-ocean exchange and processes within Arctic fjords is of a highest importance because their response to atmospheric, oceanic and glacial variability provides a key to understand the past and to forecast the future of the high latitude <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and Arctic climate. Rapidly changed Arctic climate requires multidisciplinary and complex investigations of the basic climate components and interactions between them. The aim of the Polish-Norwegian project 'Arctic climate system study of ocean, sea ice and <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> interactions in Svalbard area' (AWAKE-2) is to understand the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. The main oceanic heat source in Svalbard region is the West Spitsbergen Current consisting of multi-branch, northward flow of warm, Atlantic origin water (AW). During its transit through the Nordic Seas, AW releases a large amount of heat to the atmosphere. When entering the Western Svalbard fjords, AW modifies hydrographic conditions, reduces winter ice cover and directly influences tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. An impact of the AW variability on atmosphere and sea ice is clearly visible with strong correlations between AW properties and air temperature or sea ice coverage. For tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> these effects can be recognized, but correlations are weaker due to different processes that influence the intensity of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and calving. The dedicated, multidisciplinary approach was adopted to achieve the AWAKE-2 project's aims by carrying out the coordinated meteorological, oceanographic, glaciological and geophysical observations in the Hornsund fjord, the adjacent shelf and ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16421567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16421567"><span>Low sea level rise projections from mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and icecaps under global warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raper, Sarah C B; Braithwaite, Roger J</p> <p>2006-01-19</p> <p>The mean sea level has been projected to rise in the 21st century as a result of global warming. Such projections of sea level change depend on estimated future greenhouse emissions and on differing models, but model-average results from a mid-range scenario (A1B) suggests a 0.387-m rise by 2100 (refs 1, 2). The largest contributions to sea level rise are estimated to come from thermal expansion (0.288 m) and the <span class="hlt">melting</span> of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and icecaps (0.106 m), with smaller inputs from Greenland (0.024 m) and Antarctica (- 0.074 m). Here we apply a <span class="hlt">melt</span> model and a geometric volume model to our lower estimate of ice volume and assess the contribution of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to sea level rise, excluding those in Greenland and Antarctica. We provide the first separate assessment of <span class="hlt">melt</span> contributions from mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and icecaps, as well as an improved treatment of volume shrinkage. We find that icecaps <span class="hlt">melt</span> more slowly than mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, whose area declines rapidly in the 21st century, making <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> a limiting source for ice <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Using two climate models, we project sea level rise due to <span class="hlt">melting</span> of mountain <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and icecaps to be 0.046 and 0.051 m by 2100, about half that of previous projections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6893610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6893610"><span>High porosity of basal till at Burroughs <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, southeastern Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through <span class="hlt">melt</span> out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out till at Burroughs <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal <span class="hlt">melt</span>-out till deposited directly by basal <span class="hlt">melt</span> out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712408P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712408P"><span>Seasonal and interannual variations in snow cover thickness, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance, and gravity-induced dynamics in a high Arctic valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span> watershed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prokop, Alexander; Tolle, Florian; Bernard, Eric; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Griselin, Madeleine</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>For 3 consecutive years, terrestrial laser scanning surveys have been conducted in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basin of Austre Lovénbreen (Svalbard, 79°N). Each year, high density point clouds were acquired on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface and on the surrounding slopes. Two yearly scanning sessions were required in order to spatialize and quantify snow cover. The first session was done late April at the expected annual snow maximum. The second session was done in August near the end of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> season. On the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> itself, laser scans were produced on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snout, in the area close to the equilibrium line, and in the upper reaches of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Manual snow drilling measurements and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance data were subsequently used to validate snow cover results. In the steep slopes surrounding the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, scans were acquired on slopes at various altitudes and orientations in order to get a representative view of different snow cover settings. Particular attention was granted to snowdrift and avalanche processes, and their consequences on remaining packed snow stored in perennial snow accumulation at the bottom of slopes. A good knowledge of the dynamics of the snow cover is of particular interest in a <span class="hlt">glacier</span> undergoing a clear retreat. Snow is protecting the ice from <span class="hlt">melting</span> for part of the season, and snow is also providing what will constitute future <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice in the upper reaches of the basin. Snow on slopes is also of importance as avalanches reaching on the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> can contribute to the overall mass balance. Snow cover, by keeping the slopes permafrost from thawing early in the season, or by providing liquid water affecting it later in the season, is also playing a key role in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basin morphology and its interactions with the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24940494"><span>Association of XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene haplotypes with the development of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Yip, Shea Ping; Kwong, Dora Lai Wan; Wu, Vincent Wing Cheung</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> fibrosis is one of the late complications of radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 and 3 (XRCC1 and XRCC3, respectively) gene haplotypes and <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis in NPC patients. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 120 NPC patients previously treated with RT. In total, 12 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from the XRCC1 and XRCC3 genes and were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or unlabeled probe <span class="hlt">melting</span> analysis. Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The functional variant rs861539 of XRCC3 may be associated with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis [asymptotic P-value (Pasym)<0.05]. No significant association was observed between <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis and any of the tag SNPs of XRCC1 and XRCC3 in either single-marker or haplotype analysis after 10,000 permutations [empirical P-value (Pemp)>0.05]. Our preliminary results indicated that the rs861539 variant of XRCC3 may be associated with an increased risk of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> fibrosis; however, a large-scale study is required to confirm this result.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7270916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7270916"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span>-terminus fluctuations in the Wrangell and Chugach mountains resulting from non-climate controls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sturm, M.; Hall, D.K.; Benson, C.S.; Field, W.O.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>Non-climatically controlled fluctuations of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini were studied in two regions in Alaska. In the Wrangell Mountains, eight <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on Mt. Wrangell, an active volcano, have been monitored over the past 30 years using terrestrial surveys, aerial photogrammetry and digitally registered satellite images. Results, which are consistent between different methods of measurement, indicate that the termini of most <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> were stationary or had retreated slightly. However, the termini of the 30-km-long Ahtna <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and the smaller Center and South MacKeith <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> began to advance in the early 1960s and have advanced steadily at rates between 5 and 18 m yr-1 since then. These three <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> flow from the summit caldera of ML Wrangell near the active North Crater, where increased volcanic heating since 1964 has <span class="hlt">melted</span> over 7 x 107 M3 of ice. The authors suspect that volcanic meltwater has changed the basal conditions for the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, resulting in their advance. In College Fjord, Prince William Sound, the terminus fluctuations of two tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been monitored since 1931 by terrestrial surveying, photogrammetry, and most recently, from satellite imagery. Harvard <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a 40-kmlong tidewater <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, has been advancing steadily at nearly 20 m yr-1 since 1931, while the adjacent Yale <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> has retreated at approximately 50 m yr-1 during the same period, though for short periods, both rates have been much higher.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004REDS..159..667D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004REDS..159..667D"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> defects in Pr3+-activated LiYF4 laser host</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhoble, S. J.; Deshpande, S. P.; Pode, R. B.; Dhoble, N. S.; Gundurao, T. K.</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Rare earth doped fluorides have been used in laser applications. Not much is known about the effect of ionizing radiation on the lasing and other properties of fluorides. Therefore, in recent years much attention has been paid to the study of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> defects in laser materials, as they affect the optical and stimulated emission properties. The defect formation by gamma-ray irradiation in Pr3+ activated LiYF4, powder prepared by <span class="hlt">melt</span> method, have been studied by thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance techniques and are reported in this paper. It is shown that LiYF4:Pr3+ is sensitive to gamma-ray radiation. Characterization of this laser material using ESR and photoluminescence techniques is also described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..459S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JESS..125..459S"><span>Role of debris cover to control specific ablation of adjoining Batal and Sutri Dhaka <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Chandra Basin (Himachal Pradesh) during peak ablation season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Parmanand; Patel, Lavkush K.; Ravindra, Rasik; Singh, Ajit; K, Mahalinganathan; Thamban, Meloth</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As part of the on-going annual mass balance measurements on Batal and Sutri Dhaka <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, observations were made during peak ablation (August-September) season in 2013 to understand the response of debris covered and clean-ice (debris free) <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface to <span class="hlt">melting</span> processes. Though, both the Batal and Sutri Dhaka <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have almost similar geographical disposition, Batal shows extensive debris cover (90% of the ablation area), while the latter is free from debris (only 5% of the ablation area). The thickness of debris in Batal <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is inversely proportional to altitude, whereas Sutri Dhaka mostly experienced debris-free zone except snout area. Observation revealed that the vertical gradient of ablation rate in ablation area is contrastingly opposite in these two <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, reflecting significant control of debris thickness and their distribution over <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface on the ablation rates. While different thickness (2-100 cm) of debris have attenuated <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates up to 70% of total <span class="hlt">melting</span>, debris cover of <2 cm thickness has accelerated <span class="hlt">melting</span> up to 10% of the total <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Estimated <span class="hlt">melt</span> ratio reveals that about 90% of the ablation area has experienced inhibited <span class="hlt">melting</span> in Batal <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, whereas only less than 5% ablation area of Sutri Dhaka has undergone inhibited <span class="hlt">melting</span>. Comparison of topographical maps of 1962 with successive satellite images of the area demonstrates a terminus retreat of 373 ± 33.5 m and 579 ± 33.5 m for Batal and Sutri Dhaka <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> for the period 1962-2013, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17641167"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> dominate eustatic sea-level rise in the 21st century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meier, Mark F; Dyurgerov, Mark B; Rick, Ursula K; O'neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W Tad; Anderson, Robert S; Anderson, Suzanne P; Glazovsky, Andrey F</p> <p>2007-08-24</p> <p>Ice loss to the sea currently accounts for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming, and about 60% of the ice loss is from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps rather than from the two ice sheets. The contribution of these smaller <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has accelerated over the past decade, in part due to marked thinning and retreat of marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> associated with a dynamic instability that is generally not considered in mass-balance and climate modeling. This acceleration of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> may cause 0.1 to 0.25 meter of additional sea-level rise by 2100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174306','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70174306"><span><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> dominate eustatic sea-level rise in the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Meier, Mark Frederick; Dyurgerov, M.B.; Rick, Ursula K.; Pfeffer, William Tad; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Glazovsky, Andrey F.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ice loss to the sea currently accounts for virtually all of the sea-level rise that is not attributable to ocean warming, and about 60% of the ice loss is from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice caps rather than from the two ice sheets. The contribution of these smaller <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> has accelerated over the past decade, in part due to marked thinning and retreat of marine-terminating <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> associated with a dynamic instability that is generally not considered in mass-balance and climate modeling. This acceleration of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> may cause 0.1 to 0.25 meter of additional sea-level rise by 2100.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3243F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3243F"><span>Seasonal acceleration of Russell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Western Greenland during 2009 & 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fitzpatrick, A.; Quincey, D.; Joughin, I.; Luckman, A.; Van As, D.; Hubbard, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Seasonal changes in surface velocity of the Russell <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> catchment, Western Greenland, have been derived using a combination of interferometry and satellite image feature tracking and are compared with the output of a well calibrated distributed energy balance model. Analysis is conducted between the extent and longevity of <span class="hlt">melt</span>-driven flow acceleration between two contrasting years, the relatively short <span class="hlt">melt</span> season of 2009 and the record high <span class="hlt">melt</span> season of 2010. In both 2009 and 2010 the largest horizontal surface acceleration occurred at the ice margin soon after initiation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> with the effect propagating up-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> with reduced magnitude as the <span class="hlt">melt</span>-season evolved. In both years ice flow near the margin of the Ice Sheet (within 14 km) had returned to winter values within ~80 days of the first recorded <span class="hlt">melt</span>. However, within each 100m elevation band, <span class="hlt">melt</span>-induced flow acceleration and magnitude of observed speedup in 2010 exceeded that of 2009. Up <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (to 35 km), ice speed in 2010 continued above the background winter mean 126 days after the initiation of <span class="hlt">melt</span>, in contrast to only 102 days in 2009. Structural changes in surface velocity patterns are also evident during the winter months, with measured velocities in February 2010 (22-57km) 26% greater at the end of winter compared to values from November 2010. This study highlights the large heterogeneity in spatial and temporal velocity structure occurring at the land terminating margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and lends support for the idea that the evolution of the subglacial drainage system acts to regulate basal flow near the ice margin, thereby limiting the feedback between meltwater and ice flux. Further up <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (>35km) the effect of this behavior is reduced even though large fluxes of surface meltwater were still generated in 2010, which suggests that in the upper zone of the catchment (where ice thickness exceeds 1000m) there is limited evolution of the subglacial meltwater system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999726"><span>Polychlorinated biphenyls in <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. 2. Model results of deposition and incorporation processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Schmid, Peter; Hungerbühler, Konrad</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>In previous work, Alpine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been identified as a secondary source of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, detailed understanding of the processes organic chemicals undergo in a glacial system was missing. Here, we present results from a chemical fate model describing deposition and incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into an Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Fiescherhorn, Switzerland) and an Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> (Lomonosovfonna, Norway). To understand PCB fate and dynamics, we investigate the interaction of deposition, sorption to ice and particles in the atmosphere and within the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, revolatilization, diffusion and degradation, and discuss the effects of these processes on the fate of individual PCB congeners. The model is able to reproduce measured absolute concentrations in the two <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> for most PCB congeners. While the model generally predicts concentration profiles peaking in the 1970s, in the measurements, this behavior can only be seen for higher-chlorinated PCB congeners on Fiescherhorn <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We suspect seasonal <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes are disturbing the concentration profiles of the lower-chlorinated PCB congeners. While a lower-chlorinated PCB congener is mainly deposited by dry deposition and almost completely revolatilized after deposition, a higher-chlorinated PCB congener is predominantly transferred to the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface by wet deposition and then is incorporated into the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice. The incorporated amounts of PCBs are higher on the Alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> than on the Arctic <span class="hlt">glacier</span> due to the higher precipitation rate and aerosol particle concentration on the former. Future studies should include the effects of seasonal <span class="hlt">melt</span> processes, calculate the quantities of PCBs incorporated into the entire <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface, and estimate the quantity of chemicals released from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to determine the importance of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as a secondary source of organic chemicals to remote aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..361Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy..tmp..361Z"><span>Differences in mass balance behavior for three <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> from different climatic regions on the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Meilin; Yao, Tandong; Yang, Wei; Xu, Baiqing; Wu, Guanjian; Wang, Xiaojun</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> mass balance shows a spatially heterogeneous pattern in response to global warming on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), and the climate mechanisms controlling this pattern require further study. In this study, three <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> where systematic glaciological and meteorological observations have been carried out were selected, specifically Parlung No. 4 (PL04) and Zhadang (ZD) <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> on the southern TP and Muztag Ata No. 15 (MZ15) <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in the eastern Pamir. The characteristics of the mass and energy balances of these three <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> during the periods between October 1th, 2008 and September 23rd, 2013 were analyzed and compared using the energy and mass balance model. Results show that differences in surface <span class="hlt">melt</span>, which mainly result from differences in the amounts of incoming longwave radiation (L in ) and outgoing shortwave radiation (S out ), represent the largest source of the observed differences in mass balance changes between PL04 and ZD <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and MZ15 <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, where air temperature, humidity, precipitation and cloudiness are dramatically different. In addition, sensitivity experiments show that mass balance sensitivity to air temperature change is remarkably higher than that associated with precipitation change on PL04 and ZD <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, in contrast results from MZ15 <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. And significantly higher sensitivities to air temperature change are noted for PL04 and ZD <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> than for MZ15 <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. These significant differences in the sensitivities to air temperature change are mainly caused by differences in the ratio of snowfall to precipitation during the ablation season, <span class="hlt">melt</span> energy (L in +S out ) during the ablation season and the seasonality of precipitation among the different regions occupied by <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. In turn, these conditions are related to local climatic conditions, especially air temperature. These factors can be used to explain the different patterns of change in Tibetan <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance under global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4619K"><span>Glacial lakes amplify <span class="hlt">glacier</span> recession in the central Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya <span class="hlt">glacier</span> mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different <span class="hlt">glacier</span> clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice <span class="hlt">melt</span>. Surface lowering is only concentrated at <span class="hlt">glacier</span> termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of the Tama Koshi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22519575"><span>Mercury distribution and deposition in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow over western China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qianggong; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Mark, Loewen; Xu, Jianzhong; Armstrong, Debbie; Li, Chaoliu; Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang</p> <p>2012-05-15</p> <p>Western China is home to the largest aggregate of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> outside the polar regions, yet little is known about how the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in this area affect the transport and cycling of mercury (Hg) regionally and globally. From 2005 to 2010, extensive <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow sampling campaigns were carried out in 14 snowpits from 9 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> over western China, and the vertical distribution profiles of Hg were obtained. The Total Hg (THg) concentrations in the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snow ranged from <1 to 43.6 ng L(-1), and exhibited clear seasonal variations with lower values in summer than in winter. Spatially, higher THg concentrations were typically observed in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> snows from the northern region where atmospheric particulate loading is comparably high. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> snowpit Hg was largely dependent on particulate matters and was associated with particulate Hg, which is less prone to postdepositional changes, thus providing a valuable record of atmospheric Hg deposition. Estimated atmospheric Hg depositional fluxes ranged from 0.74 to 7.89 μg m(-2) yr(-1), agreeing very well with the global natural values, but are one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the neighboring East Asia. Elevated Hg concentrations were observed in refrozen ice layers in several snowpits subjected to intense <span class="hlt">melt</span>, indicating that Hg can be potentially released to meltwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nps.gov/glba/learn/nature/upload/Madison_Etherington_2005_Ocean2004AnnualReport-2.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://www.nps.gov/glba/learn/nature/upload/Madison_Etherington_2005_Ocean2004AnnualReport-2.pdf"><span>Monitoring of oceanographic properties of <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay, Alaska 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay is a recently (300 years ago) deglaciated fjord estuarine system that has multiple sills, very deep basins, tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and many streams. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay experiences a large amount of runoff, high sedimentation, and large tidal variations. High freshwater discharge due to snow and ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> and the presence of the tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> makes the bay extremely cold. There are many small- and large-scale mixing and upwelling zones at sills, glacial faces, and streams. The complex topography and strong currents lead to highly variable salinity, temperature, sediment, primary productivity, light penetration, stratification levels, and current patterns within a small area. The oceanographic patterns within <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay drive a large portion of the spatial and temporal variability of the ecosystem. It has been widely recognized by scientists and resource managers in <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay that a program to monitor oceanographic patterns is essential for understanding the marine ecosystem and to differentiate between anthropogenic disturbance and natural variation. This year’s sampling marks the 12th continuous year of monitoring the oceanographic conditions at 23 stations along the primary axes within <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Bay, AK, making this a very unique and valuable data set in terms of its spatial and temporal coverage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2627S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2627S"><span>Hillslope-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> coupling: from debris cover to landscape evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherler, D.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> are important landscape-shaping agents in many orogens worldwide, but their interaction with adjacent periglacial hillslopes is not well studied. In this contribution, and in analogy to hillslope-channel coupling in fluvial systems, we consider the processes relevant for hillslope-<span class="hlt">glacier</span> coupling and their linkages to topography. In particular, we focus on the role of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> as conveyer belts of hillslope-derived debris, which affects surface-<span class="hlt">melt</span> rates and thus glacial mass balances. We present examples for strong and weak couplings between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and hillslopes from different regions in the Himalaya and discuss implications for glacial landscape development on continental plateaus. We find that supraglacial debris covers increase with topographic relief and the steepness of snow-accumulation areas, which results in greater ice extents but lower accumulation-area ratios. As accumulation areas get steeper and hillslope-debris fluxes increase, the longitudinal distribution of flow velocities and thus glacial erosion potential is progressively shifted upglacier. We present preliminary results from a numerical model in which we couple the formation of debris covers on <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to the production and supply of debris from adjacent hillslopes. Model results reproduce observed <span class="hlt">glacier</span>-surface velocity patterns and allow us to contrast the behavior of debris-covered versus clean-ice <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03387&hterms=melting+glaciers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmelting%2Bglaciers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA03387&hterms=melting+glaciers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmelting%2Bglaciers"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska, Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><p/>This anaglyph view of Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in southeastern Alaska was created from a Landsat satellite image and an elevation model generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is considered the classic example of a piedmont <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Piedmont <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> occur where valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> exit a mountain range onto broad lowlands, are no longer laterally confined, and spread to become wide lobes. Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is actually a compound <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, formed by the merger of several valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, the most prominent of which seen here are Agassiz <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (left) and Seward <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (right). In total, Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is up to 65 kilometers (40 miles) wide and extends up to 45 kilometers (28 miles) from the mountain front nearly to the sea. <p/><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> erode rocks, carry them down slope, and deposit them at the edge of the <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice, typically in elongated piles called moraines. The moraine patterns at Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> are quite spectacular in that they have huge contortions that result from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> crinkling as it gets pushed from behind by the faster-moving valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <p/>Numerous other features of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and the adjacent terrain are clearly seen when viewing this image at full resolution. The series of tonal arcs on Agassiz <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>'s extension onto the piedmont are called 'ogives.' These arcs are believed to be seasonal features created by deformation of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> as it passes over bedrock irregularities at differing speeds through the year. Assuming one light-and-dark ogive pair per year, the rate of motion of the glacial ice can be estimated (in this case, about 200 meters per year where the ogives are most prominent). Just to the west, moraine deposits abut the eroded bedrock terrain, forming a natural dam that has created a lake. Near the northwest corner of the scene, a recent landslide has deposited rock debris atop a small <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Sinkholes are common in many areas of the moraine deposits. The sinkholes form when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6592933','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6592933"><span>Poor outcome in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> constrictive pericarditis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. )</p> <p>1993-01-15</p> <p>The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142118&hterms=Carcinogen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCarcinogen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142118&hterms=Carcinogen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DCarcinogen"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullrich, R. L.; Ponnaiya, B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE: A model that identifies <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic instability as the earliest cellular event in the multi-step sequence leading to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer was previously proposed. In this paper ongoing experiments are discussed which are designed to test this model and its predictions in mouse mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Several lines of evidence are presented that appear to support this model: first, the development of delayed mutations in p53 following irradiation in altered growth variants; secondly, the high frequencies for the induction of both instability and transformation following irradiation in mammary epithelial cells; and finally, the demonstration that susceptibility to the induction of cytogenetic instability is a heritable trait that correlates with susceptibility to transformation and <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> mammary cancer. Mice resistant to transformation and mammary cancer development are also resistant to the development of instability after irradiation. In contrast, mice sensitive to transformation and cancer are also sensitive to the development of cytogenetic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this laboratory and from the studies cited above suggest a specific, and perhaps unique, role for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> instability as a critical early event associated with initiation of the carcinogenic process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142118&hterms=mammary+gland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmammary%2Bgland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142118&hterms=mammary+gland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmammary%2Bgland"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ullrich, R. L.; Ponnaiya, B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE: A model that identifies <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> genetic instability as the earliest cellular event in the multi-step sequence leading to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cancer was previously proposed. In this paper ongoing experiments are discussed which are designed to test this model and its predictions in mouse mammary epithelial cells. RESULTS: Several lines of evidence are presented that appear to support this model: first, the development of delayed mutations in p53 following irradiation in altered growth variants; secondly, the high frequencies for the induction of both instability and transformation following irradiation in mammary epithelial cells; and finally, the demonstration that susceptibility to the induction of cytogenetic instability is a heritable trait that correlates with susceptibility to transformation and <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> mammary cancer. Mice resistant to transformation and mammary cancer development are also resistant to the development of instability after irradiation. In contrast, mice sensitive to transformation and cancer are also sensitive to the development of cytogenetic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this laboratory and from the studies cited above suggest a specific, and perhaps unique, role for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> instability as a critical early event associated with initiation of the carcinogenic process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6358753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6358753"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> augmentation of the immune response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Troup, G.M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> augmentation of the immune response has been shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro. Evidence is presented to implicate injury to an extremely radiosensitive T cell in the expression of this phenomenon. Experiments are outlined which could be employed to support or reflect this hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065928','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4065928"><span>Use of probiotics for prevention of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Delia, P; Sansotta, G; Donato, V; Frosina, P; Messina, G; De Renzis, C; Famularo, G</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a high-potency probiotic preparation on prevention of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea in cancer patients. METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four hundred and ninety patients who underwent adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for sigmoid, rectal, or cervical cancer were assigned to either the high-potency probiotic preparation VSL#3 (one sachet t.i.d.,) or placebo starting from the first day of radiation therapy. Efficacy endpoints were incidence and severity of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea, daily number of bowel movements, and the time from the start of the study to the use of loperamide as rescue medication. RESULTS: More placebo patients had <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea than VSL#3 patients (124 of 239 patients, 51.8%, and 77 of 243 patients, 31.6%; P < 0.001) and more patients given placebo suffered grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared with VSL#3 recipients (55.4% and 1.4%, P < 0.001). Daily bowel movements were 14.7 ± 6 and 5.1 ± 3 among placebo and VSL#3 recipients (P < 0.05), and the mean time to the use of loperamide was 86 ± 6 h for placebo patients and 122 ± 8 h for VSL#3 patients (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Probiotic lactic acid-producing bacteria are an easy, safe, and feasible approach to protect cancer patients against the risk of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> diarrhea. PMID:17352022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3480242"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment-from bench to bedside</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Approximately 100 000 patients per year in the United States with primary and metastatic brain tumor survive long enough (>6 months) to develop <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> brain injury. Before 1970, the human brain was thought to be radioresistant; the acute central nervous system (CNS) syndrome occurs after single doses of ≥30 Gy, and white matter necrosis can occur at fractionated doses of ≥60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern radiation therapy techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become increasingly important, having profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenic mechanisms involved in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment. Although reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function have been observed in rodent models, it is important to recognize that other brain regions are affected; non–hippocampal-dependent reductions in cognitive function occur. Neuroinflammation is viewed as playing a major role in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment. During the past 5 years, several preclinical studies have demonstrated that interventional therapies aimed at modulating neuroinflammation can prevent/ameliorate <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> cognitive impairment independent of changes in neurogenesis. Translating these exciting preclinical findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the quality of life in patients with brain tumors who receive radiation therapy. PMID:23095829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9257424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9257424"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> xerostomia: pathophysiology, clinical course and supportive treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guchelaar, H J; Vermes, A; Meerwaldt, J H</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Xerostomia, or oral dryness, is one of the most common complaints experienced by patients who have had radiotherapy of the oral cavity and neck region. The hallmarks of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> damage are acinar atrophy and chronic inflammation of the salivary glands. The early response, resulting in atrophy of the secretory cells without inflammation might be due to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> apoptosis. In contrast, the late response with inflammation could be a result of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> necrosis. The subjective complaint of a dry mouth appears to be poorly correlated with objective findings of salivary gland dysfunction. Xerostomia, with secondary symptoms of increased dental caries, difficulty in chewing, swallowing and speaking, and an increased incidence of oral candidiasis, can have a significant effect on the quality of life. At present there is no causal treatment for <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> xerostomia. Temporary symptomatic relief can be offered by moistening agents and saliva substitutes, and is the only option for patients without residual salivary function. In patients with residual salivary function, oral administration of pilocarpine 5-10 mg three times a day is effective in increasing salivary flow and improving the symptoms of xerostomia, and this therapy should be considered as the treatment of choice. Effectiveness of sialogogue treatment requires residual salivary function, which emphasizes the potential benefit from sparing normal tissue during irradiation. The hypothesis concerning the existence of early apoptotic and late necrotic effects of irradiation on the salivary glands theoretically offers a way of achieving this goal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2340','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2340"><span>SPHINX Measurements of <span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">Induced</span> Conductivity of Foam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ballard, W.P.; Beutler, D.E.; Burt, M.; Dudley, K.J.; Stringer, T.A.</p> <p>1998-12-14</p> <p>Experiments on the SPHINX accelerator studying <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> conductivity (RIC) in foam indicate that a field-exclusion boundary layer model better describes foam than a Maxwell-Garnett model that treats the conducting gas bubbles in the foam as modifying the dielectric constant. In both cases, wall attachment effects could be important but were neglected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5930133"><span>Obstructive jaundice due to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hepatic duct stricture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chandrasekhara, K.L.; Iyer, S.K.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>A case of obstructive jaundice due to <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> hepatic duct stricture is reported. The patient received postoperative radiation for left adrenal carcinoma, seven years prior to this admission. The sequelae of hepatobiliary radiation and their management are discussed briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA467803','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA467803"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Immune Modulation in Prostate Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>postulate that <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> TNFR I probably acts as a “ brake ” on immunity. Because of the high risk of the proposed experiment and high...the rest of body shielded. Tumor diameters were measured in three mutually orthogonal dimensions at 2–3 day intervals with a vernier caliper and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptSp.101..623P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptSp.101..623P"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> nonlinear optical response of quartz fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plaksin, O. A.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The intensity of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> luminescence and transient optical losses in KU-1 (Russia) and K-3 (Japan) quartz glass optical tibers irradiated in a fast pulsed fission reactor (a pulse duration of 80 μs and a neutron flux up to 7 × 1016 cm 2 s 2) has been measured in the visible range. The intensity of the fast luminescence component nonlinearly depends on the neutron flux. The luminescence intensity and the transient optical losses depend on the probe light intensity. Suppression of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> luminescence is observed at wavelengths that are longer or shorter than the probe light wavelength. Light probing leads to an increase in transient optical losses and a more rapid recovery of transparency. A model of two photon fluxes is proposed to analyze the relationship of the effects of suppression of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> luminescence and the increase in optical losses upon light probing. The effect of suppression of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> luminescence can be used to control the optical properties of fibers in radiation fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114946"><span>Data acquisition system used in <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> electrical degradation experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>White, D.P.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> electrical degradation (RIED) of ceramic materials has recently been reported and is the topic of much research at the present time. The object of this report is to describe the data acquisition system for an experiment designed to study RIED at the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA457691','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA457691"><span>Prevention of <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Breast Cancer by Amifostine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>acetylcysteine and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ductal...similar to amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA495583','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA495583"><span>Prevention of <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Breast Cancer by Amifostine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>acetylcysteine and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ductal...similar to amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA479391','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA479391"><span>Prevention of <span class="hlt">Radiation-Induced</span> Breast Cancer by Amifostine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>and captopril . 4 Task 2. To determine if post-irradiation amifostine treatment can reduce the frequency of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> ductal dysplasia...amifostine but more suited to oral administration such as WR- 3689, WR151327, N-acetylcysteine and captopril . The first task is to determine if</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24853433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24853433"><span><span class="hlt">Radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induces</span> senescence and a bystander effect through metabolic alterations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liao, E-C; Hsu, Y-T; Chuah, Q-Y; Lee, Y-J; Hu, J-Y; Huang, T-C; Yang, P-M; Chiu, S-J</p> <p>2014-05-22</p> <p>Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest; however, the metabolic processes of senescent cells remain active. Our previous studies have shown that <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induces</span> senescence of human breast cancer cells that display low expression of securin, a protein involved in control of the metaphase-anaphase transition and anaphase onset. In this study, the protein expression profile of senescent cells was resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to investigate associated metabolic alterations. We found that <span class="hlt">radiation</span> <span class="hlt">induced</span> the expression and activation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that has an important role in glycolysis. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase A, which is involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, the release of lactate and the acidification of the extracellular environment, was also induced. Inhibition of glycolysis by dichloroacetate attenuated <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> senescence. In addition, radiation also induced activation of the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways to promote senescence. We also found that radiation increased the expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) that facilitates the export of lactate into the extracellular environment. Inhibition of glycolysis or the AMPK/NF-κB signalling pathways reduced MCT1 expression and rescued the acidification of the extracellular environment. Interestingly, these metabolic-altering signalling pathways were also involved in <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> invasion of the surrounding, non-irradiated breast cancer and normal endothelial cells. Taken together, radiation can induce the senescence of human breast cancer cells through metabolic alterations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C22A..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C22A..08M"><span>Ocean-<span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Interactions in Alaska and Comparison to Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Motyka, R. J.; Truffer, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Meltwater from Alaska's coastal <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and icefields accounts for nearly half of the total freshwater discharged into the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), with 10% coming from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> volume loss associated with rapid thinning and retreat of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (Neal et al, 2010). This <span class="hlt">glacier</span> freshwater discharge contributes to maintaining the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), which eventually reaches the Arctic Ocean (Royer and Grosch, 2006), thereby linking changes of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> along the coast of Alaska to the whole Arctic system. Water column temperatures on the shelf of northern GOA, monitored at buoy GAK1 near Seward, have increased by about 1 deg C since 1970 throughout the 250 m depth and vertical density stratification has also increased. Roughly half of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to ACC is derived from the ~ 50 tidewater <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> (TWG) that drain from Alaska's coastal mountains into the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Fjord systems link these TWGs to the GOA, with fjord circulation patterns driven in part by buoyancy-driven convection of subglacial freshwater discharge at the head of the fjord. Neoglacial shallow sills (< 50 m deep) modulate the influx of warm ocean waters (up to 10 deg C) into these fjords. Convection of these warm waters <span class="hlt">melts</span> icebergs and submerged faces of TWGs. The study of interactions between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, fjords, and the ocean in coastal Alaska has had a long but very sporadic history. We examine this record starting with the "TWG cycle" hypothesis. We next examine recent hydrographic data from several different TWG fjords, representative of advancing and retreating TWGs (Columbia, Yahtse, Hubbard, and LeConte <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span>), evaluate similarities and differences, and estimate the relative contributions of submarine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> and subglacial discharge to fjord circulation. Circulation of warm ocean waters in fjords has also been hypothesized to play an important role in destabilizing and modulating <span class="hlt">glacier</span> discharge from outlet <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Greenland. We therefore compare</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..390H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..390H"><span>Pathways of Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> meltwater, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heuzé, Céline; Wåhlin, Anna; Johnson, Helen; Münchow, Andreas</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Radar and satellite observations suggest that the floating ice shelf of Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> loses up to 80% of its mass through basal <span class="hlt">melting</span>, caused by the intrusion of warm Atlantic Water into the fjord and under the ice shelf. The fate of Petermann's glacial meltwater is still largely unknown. It is investigated here, using hydrographic observations collected during a research cruise on board I/B Oden in August 2015. Two methods are used to detect the meltwater from Petermann: a mathematical one that provides the concentration of ice shelf meltwater, and a geometrical one to distinguish the meltwater from Petermann and the meltwater from other ice shelves. The meltwater from Petermann mostly circulates on the north side of the fjord. At the sill, 0.5 mSv of meltwater leave the fjord, mostly on the northeastern side between 100 and 350 m depth, but also in the central channel, albeit with a lesser concentration. Meltwater from Petermann is found in all the casts in Hall Basin, notably north of the sill by Greenland coast. The geometrical method reveals that the casts closest to the Canadian side mostly contain meltwater from other, unidentified <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. As Atlantic Water warms up, it is key to monitor Greenland <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and track their meltwater to properly assess their impact on the ocean circulation and sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE12A..07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE12A..07H"><span>Pathways of Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>'s Meltwaters, Greenland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heuzé, C.; Wahlin, A.; Johnson, H. L.; Muenchow, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Radar and satellite observations suggest that the floating ice shelf of Petermann <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, north Greenland, loses up to 80% of its mass through basal <span class="hlt">melting</span>, caused by the intrusion of warm Atlantic water into the fjord and under the ice shelf. Although Greenland meltwaters are key to sea level rise projections and can potentially disrupt the whole ocean circulation, the fate of Petermann's glacial meltwater is still largely unknown. It is investigated here, using hydrographic observations collected during a research cruise onboard I/B Oden in August 2015. Two layers are found: one at 200 m (i.e. terminus depth) mostly on the eastern side of the fjord where a calving event occurred this summer, and one around 500 m depth (i.e. the grounding line) on the western side. At the sill, approximately 3 mSv of freshwater leave the fjord around 150 m on the eastern side. On the western side, a more complex circulation occurs as waters intrude in. Outside of the fjord in Hall Basin, only one layer is found, around 300 m, but its oxygen content and T-S properties suggests it is a mixture between Petermann's meltwater, meltwater from the neighbouring <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, surface run-off and sea ice. As Atlantic water warms up, it is key to monitor Greenland <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to properly assess sea level rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10120347','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10120347"><span>Generalized <span class="hlt">melting</span> criterion for amorphization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Devanathan, R. |; Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Meshii, M.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>We present a thermodynamic model of solid-state amorphization based on a generalization of the well-known Lindemann criterion. The original Lindemann criterion proposes that <span class="hlt">melting</span> occurs when the root-mean-square amplitude of thermal displacement exceeds a critical value. This criterion can be generalized to include solid-state amorphization by taking into account the static displacements. In an effort to verify the generalized <span class="hlt">melting</span> criterion, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> amorphization in NiZr, NiZr{sub 2}, NiTi and FeTi using embedded-atom potentials. The average shear elastic constant G was calculated as a function of the total mean-square atomic displacement following random atom-exchanges and introduction of Frenkel pairs. Results provide strong support for the generalized <span class="hlt">melting</span> criterion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...57a2004W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017E%26ES...57a2004W"><span><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> parameter extraction using Landsat 8 images in the eastern Karakorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, H.; Yang, R.; LI, X.; CAO, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Changes in glacial <span class="hlt">melt</span> and river runoff directly impact upon water resources and utilization. <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> area data provide the basis of analysing <span class="hlt">glacier</span> change. In this study, Landsat images from the end of the 2014 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season were analysed using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technology. We compared the band ratio method and Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) method for extracting glacial parameters. The results show that the band ratio method is better for <span class="hlt">glacier</span> boundary extraction. However, for debris covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, textural analysis is needed for area extraction and needed to revise boundary extraction results through the visual interpretation of the remote sensing image Accurate area extraction is particularly important for <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, as these are major contributors to runoff.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.5506D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.5506D"><span>Basal terraces on <span class="hlt">melting</span> ice shelves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Ocean waters <span class="hlt">melt</span> the margins of Antarctic and Greenland <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, and individual <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">melt</span>. The bases of the ice shelves associated with Pine Island <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (West Antarctica) and Petermann <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (Greenland) have similar geometries, including kilometer-wide, hundreds-of-meter high channels oriented along and across the direction of ice flow. The channels are enhanced by, and constrain, oceanic <span class="hlt">melt</span>. New meter-scale observations of basal topography reveal peculiar glaciated landscapes. Channel flanks are not smooth, but are instead stepped, with hundreds-of-meters-wide flat terraces separated by 5-50 m high walls. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> is shown to be modulated by the geometry: constant across each terrace, changing from one terrace to the next, and greatly enhanced on the ~45° inclined walls. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> is therefore fundamentally heterogeneous and likely associated with stratification in the ice-ocean boundary layer, challenging current models of ice shelf-ocean interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5617D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5617D"><span>Sediment yield from a large alpine <span class="hlt">glacier</span> over one season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delaney, Ian; Werder, Mauro; Bauder, Andreas</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Hydropower operators in the Swiss Alps have noted increased reservoir sedimentation rates in the last decade. This material either originates from erodible periglacial areas, no longer stabilized by ice, or from subglacial environments, where it is transported by pressurized <span class="hlt">melt</span>-water. In order to forecast sediment production on subyearly timescales as <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> retreat and hydrological conditions evolve, the processes that transport subglacial sediment must be further described and integrated into numerical models. To determine and model these processes we have examined Gornergletscher in the Valais Alps. By measuring suspended sediment expelled from the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, along with data from sediment traps used by the hydropower company to estimate bedload transport, we have quantified the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s sediment output during the 2016 <span class="hlt">melt</span> season. The highest concentrations of suspended sediment occurred in late May and early June 2016 during drainage of an ice marginal lake. However, sediment evacuated during this two week period is not as high as during other parts of the season, at just above 5% the season total. This indicates that although an undeveloped drainage system can indeed erode considerable amounts sediment, the flux is heavily dependent on discharge and thus much sediment is available for transport below the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. In an effort to apply the observations at Gornergletscher to a broader context, a simple model has been devised and calibrated with the above mentioned data. Using the Darcy-Weisbach equation for pressurized flow through a pipe, we constrain the propensity for subglacial sediment transport. With inputs of hydraulic gradient, discharge and conduit shape, we determine shear stress of water flowing through the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>'s hydraulic system on subglacial sediments. This enables us to reconcile the competing process of decreased (increased) hydraulic gradient (discharge) which decrease (increase) the ability of water to erode sediment as conditions in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e000507.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e000507.jpg.html"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-28</p> <p>The ice of a piedmont <span class="hlt">glacier</span> spills from a steep valley onto a relatively flat plain, where it spreads out unconstrained like pancake batter. Elephant Foot <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> in northeastern Greenland is an excellent example; it is particularly noted for its symmetry. But the largest piedmont <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in North America (and possibly the world) is Malaspina in southeastern Alaska. On September 24, 2014, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired this image of Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. The main source of ice comes from Seward <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, located at the top-center of this image. The Agassiz and Libbey <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are visible on the left side, and the Hayden and Marvine <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are on the right. The brown lines on the ice are moraines—areas where soil, rock, and other debris have been scraped up by the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and deposited at its sides. Where two <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> flow together, the moraines merge to form a medial moraine. <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> that flow at a steady speed tend to have moraines that are relatively straight. But what causes the dizzying pattern of curves, zigzags, and loops of Malaspina’s moraines? <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in this area of Alaska periodically “surge,”meaning they lurch forward quickly for one to several years. As a result of this irregular flow, the moraines at the edges and between <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> can become folded, compressed, and sheared to form the characteristic loops seen on Malaspina. For instance, a surge in 1986 displaced moraines on the east side of Malaspina by as much as 5 kilometers (3 miles). NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Kathryn Hansen. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.545..161B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Natur.545..161B"><span>Hydrology: Asian <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are a reliable water source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolch, Tobias</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The people, economies and agriculture of central Asia and parts of south Asia rely on water from mountains. Modelling suggests that <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span>, in particular, is a key water source during dry periods in some of these regions. See Article p.169</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266318"><span>Distribution and transportation of mercury from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to lake in the Qiangyong <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Basin, southern Tibetan Plateau, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Shiwei; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Li, Chengding; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Sun, Xuejun; Tripathee, Lekhendra</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Tibetan Plateau is home to the largest aggregate of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> outside the Polar Regions and is a source of fresh water to 1.4 billion people. Yet little is known about the transportation and cycling of Hg in high-elevation <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basins on Tibetan Plateau. In this study, surface snow, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melting</span> stream water and lake water samples were collected from the Qiangyong <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Basin. The spatiotemporal distribution and transportation of Hg from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to lake were investigated. Significant diurnal variations of dissolved Hg (DHg) concentrations were observed in the river water, with low concentrations in the morning (8:00am-14:00pm) and high concentrations in the afternoon (16:00pm-20:00pm). The DHg concentrations were exponentially correlated with runoff, which indicated that runoff was the dominant factor affecting DHg concentrations in the river water. Moreover, significant decreases of Hg were observed during transportation from <span class="hlt">glacier</span> to lake. DHg adsorption onto particulates followed by the sedimentation of particulate-bound Hg (PHg) could be possible as an important Hg removal mechanism during the transportation process. Significant decreases in Hg concentrations were observed downstream of Xiao Qiangyong Lake, which indicated that the high-elevation lake system could significantly affect the distribution and transportation of Hg in the Qiangyong <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> Basin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27209188"><span>Risk and survival outcomes of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CNS tumors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jessica W; Wernicke, A Gabriella</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Patients treated with cranial radiation are at risk of developing secondary CNS tumors. Understanding the incidence, treatment, and long-term outcomes of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CNS tumors plays a role in clinical decision-making and patient education. Additionally, as meningiomas and pituitary tumors have been detected at increasing rates across all ages and may potentially be treated with radiation, it is important to know and communicate the risk of secondary tumors in children and adults. After conducting an extensive literature search, we identified publications that report incidence and long-term outcomes of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CNS tumors. We reviewed 14 studies in children, which reported that radiation confers a 7- to 10-fold increase in subsequent CNS tumors, with a 20-year cumulative incidence ranging from 1.03 to 28.9 %. The latency period for secondary tumors ranged from 5.5 to 30 years, with gliomas developing in 5-10 years and meningiomas developing around 15 years after radiation. We also reviewed seven studies in adults, where the two strongest studies showed no increased risk while the remaining studies found a higher risk compared to the general population. The latency period for secondary CNS tumors in adults ranged from 5 to 34 years. Treatment and long-term outcomes of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> CNS tumors have been documented in four case series, which did not conclusively demonstrate that secondary CNS tumors fared worse than primary CNS tumors. <span class="hlt">Radiation-induced</span> CNS tumors remain a rare occurrence that should not by itself impede radiation treatment. Additional investigation is needed on the risk of <span class="hlt">radiation-induced</span> tumors in adults and the long-term outcomes of these tumors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCD.....7.2413Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013TCD.....7.2413Z"><span>Spatial debris-cover effect on the maritime <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of Mount Gongga, south-eastern Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Fujita, K.; Liu, S.; Liu, Q.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The Tibetan Plateau and surroundings contain a large number of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, on which debris cover affects <span class="hlt">glacier</span> response to climate change by altering ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> rates and spatial patterns of mass loss. Insufficient spatial distribution of debris thickness data makes it difficult to analyze regional debris-cover effects. Mount Gongga <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, maritime <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the south-eastern Tibetan Plateau, are characterized by a substantial reduction in <span class="hlt">glacier</span> length and ice mass in recent decades. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal property of the debris layer reveals that 68% of the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have extensive mantles of supraglacial debris in their ablation zones, in which the proportion of debris cover to total <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area varies from 1.74% to 53.0%. Using a surface energy-mass balance model accounting for the debris-cover effect applied at a regional scale, we find that although the presence of supraglacial debris has a significant insulating effect on heavily debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, it accelerates ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> on ~ 10.2% of the total ablation area and produces rapid wastage of ~ 25% of the debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, resulting in the similar mass losses between debris-covered and debris-free <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Widespread debris cover also facilitates the development of active terminus regions. Regional differences in the debris-cover effect are apparent, highlighting the importance of debris cover for understanding <span class="hlt">glacier</span> status and hydrology in both the Tibetan Plateau and other mountain ranges around the world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7444V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7444V"><span>Studying Himalayan <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> to understand atmospheric dynamics and ongoing cryosphere variations. Data and findings from the Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (Nepal, Himalaya)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vuillermoz, Elisa; Senese, Antonella; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; Smiraglia, Claudio; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Bocchiola, Daniele; Pietro Verza, Gian; Bonasoni, Paolo</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Continuous measurements of meteorological data and surface energy fluxes at Chagri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> (Nepal Himalayas) have been carried out since February 2010, further to the installation of a supraglacial Automatic Weather Station at 5,700 m asl on the debris free surface of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Collected data allow to assess three-years of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> energy balance and high resolution analysis of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> albedo. We calculated ice and snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> from AWS energy and meteorological data. Our findings have been validated against data from an ablation stake network located nearby the AWS. Moreover, the impact of atmospheric absorbing aerosol (e.g. black carbon) deposition on snow albedo variability has been analysed. In fact, in this study, the energy data (from the AWS) were coupled with BC concentration (in snow) values, estimated from the BC atmospheric concentration (continuously measured at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid Station, 5050? m asl) thus making possible to investigate the relations between BC deposition in snow and percentage of albedo reduction at Changri Nup <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. Water fluxes from the ablation zone of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> were measured by way of a hydrometric station installed in summer 2012 at the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> debris free snout (5,300 m asl), and are used to preliminary assess hydrological budget of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Our results could improve <span class="hlt">glacier</span> <span class="hlt">melt</span> modelling also considering BC impacts on snow albedo variability and then on snow <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates. The next project step is to consider BC impacts on ice albedo variability and with this specific aim an experimental protocol to measure ice albedo and to measure and describe fine sparse debris and soot has been developed and is currently under test at the Changri <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919373E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919373E"><span>Tracer-based identification of rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> thawing in a <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> Alpine catchment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Michael; Penna, Daniele; Tirler, Werner; Comiti, Francesco</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Current warming in high mountains leads to increased <span class="hlt">melting</span> of snow, <span class="hlt">glacier</span> ice and permafrost. In particular rock <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, as a creeping form of mountain permafrost, may release contaminants such as heavy metals into the stream during intense <span class="hlt">melting</span> periods in summer. This may have strong impacts on both water quantity and quality of fresh water resources but might also harm the aquatic fauna in mountain regions. In this context, the present study used stable isotopes of water and electrical conductivity (EC) combined with trace, major and minor elements to identify the influence of permafrost thawing on the water quality in the <span class="hlt">glacierized</span> Solda catchment (130 km2) in South Tyrol (Italy). We carried out a monthly sampling of two springs fed by an active rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> at about 2600 m a.s.l. from July to October 2015. Furthermore, we took monthly water samples from different stream sections of the Solda River (1110 to m a.s.l.) from March to November 2015. Meteorological data were measured by an Automatic Weather Station at 2825 m a.s.l. of the Hydrographic Office (Autonomous Province of Bozen-Bolzano). First results show that water from the rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> springs and stream water fell along the global meteoric water line. Spring water was slightly more variable in isotopic ratio (δ2H: -91 to - 105 ) and less variable in dissolved solutes (EC: 380 to 611 μS/cm) than stream water (δ2H: -96 to - 107 ‰ and EC: 212 to 927 μS/cm). Both spring water and stream water showed a pronounced drop in EC during July and August, very likely induced by increased <span class="hlt">melt</span> water dilution. In both water types, element concentrations of Ca and Mg were highest (up to 160 and 20 mg/l, respectively). In September, spring water showed higher concentrations in Cu, As, and Pb than stream water, indicating that these elements partly exceeded the concentration limit for drinking water. These observations highlight the important control, which rock <span class="hlt">glacier</span> thawing may have on water quality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0696C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C41D0696C"><span>Hydrological response in catchments whit debris covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the semi-arid Andes, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caro, A.; McPhee, J.; MacDonell, S.; Pellicciotti, F.; Ayala, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glaciers</span> in the semi-arid Andes Cordillera in Chile have shrank rapidly during the 20th century. Negative mass balance contributes to increase the surface area of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Recent research in Chile suggests that contributions from <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> to summer season river flow in dry years is very important, however hydrological processes determining the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution are still poorly understood in the region. This work seeks to determine appropriate parameters for the simulation of <span class="hlt">melt</span> volume in two watersheds dominated by debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, in order to understand its variability in time and space, in the area with the largest population in Chile. The hydrological simulation is performed for the Tapado (30°S) and Pirámide (33ºS) <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, which can be defined as cold and temperate respectively. To simulate the hydrological behaviour we adopt the physically-based TOPographic Kinematic wave APproximation model (TOPKAPI-ETH). The hydrometeorological records necessary model runs have been collected through fieldwork from 2013 to 2015. Regarding the calibration of the model parameters <span class="hlt">melting</span> ETI, its observed that the value for TF in Pirámide is a third of the value for Tapado <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, while SRF is half in Tapado regarding to Pirámide. The runoff in the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, the constant snow and ice storage are higher in Tapado regarding Pirámide. Results show a contribution of glacial outflow to runoff during 2015 of 55% in Tapado and 77% in Pirámide, with maximum contributions between January and March in Tapado and Pirámide between November and March, presenting the relevance of the permanence of snow cover during spring and shelter that provides debris-covered in reducing the <span class="hlt">melting</span> <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. The results have allowed to know the relevance of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> contribution to mountain streams, allowing to know the calibration parameters most relevant in the hydrology balance of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> basins in the Andes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02670.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA02670.html"><span>Patagonia <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-07-21</p> <p>This ASTER image was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change. This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001434','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001434"><span>Ablation of Martian <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moore, Henry J.; Davis, Philip A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Glacier</span> like landforms are observed in the fretted terrain of Mars in the latitude belts near + or - 42 deg. It was suggested that sublimation or accumulation-ablation rates could be estimated for these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> if their shapes were known. To this end, photoclinometric profiles were obtained of a number of these landforms. On the basis of analyses of these profiles, it was concluded that ice is chiefly ablating from these landforms that either are inactive rock-<span class="hlt">glaciers</span> or have materials within them that are moving exceedingly slowly at this time. These conclusions are consistent with other geologic information. The analyses were performed using a two-dimensional model of an isothermal <span class="hlt">glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss024e012995.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-iss024e012995.html"><span><span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> Express Rack Setup</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>ISS024-E-012995 (1 Sept. 2010) --- NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, Expedition 24 flight engineer, works with the General Laboratory Active Cryogenic ISS Experiment Refrigerator (<span class="hlt">GLACIER</span>) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919320L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1919320L"><span>River conferences under temperate valley <span class="hlt">glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lane, Stuart; Egli, Pascal; Irving, James</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Both geophysical measurements (ground penetrating radar) and hydrological inference has shown that subglacial drainage networks are dendritic and that means that they must have confluences. In general, there are very few studies of rivers under <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and almost no consideration at all of confluences, despite the fact that they could be a critical parameter in understanding coupling at the ice-sediment bed interface. Subglacial channels, normally known as conduits, are typically associated with the combined effect of hydraulic pressure driven ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> (which opens them) and ice overburden pressure (which closes them). Inferences from dye break out curves shows that has the efficiency of ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> increases progressively during the summer ablation season, <span class="hlt">melt</span> rates closure rates and a channelized system becomes progressively more effective. Most recently, measurements at the Upper Arolla <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> show that the effects of this growing efficiency is an evolution in the subglacial hydrological system towards higher peak flows and lower base flows later in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season. This increases the probability that late in the <span class="hlt">melt</span> season, sediment transport becomes discontinuous, with overnight deposition and daytime erosion. This would in turn produce the rapid reductions in sediment transport capacity overnight needed to deposit sediment and to block conduits, increase basal water pressure and explain the hydraulic jacking observed in snout marginal zones at a time when it should not be expected. The question that follows is what effects do confluences have on this process? The geometry of subglacial channels is such that when they join they lead to rapid changes in hydraulic geometry. Crucially, these are likely to have a non-linear impact upon sediment transport capacity, which should reduce disproportionally in the conduits downstream of the junction. Thus, it is possible that confluence zones under <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> become sites of very rapid sediment accumulation and blockage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911765M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911765M"><span>170 years of debris covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> surface evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mölg, Nico; Bolch, Tobias; Vieli, Andreas; Bauder, Andreas</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The local effect of debris layer thickness on ice <span class="hlt">melt</span> can be studied considering short time periods and is quite well known to date. How the reduced <span class="hlt">melt</span>, the additional weight of the debris, and the formation of ice cliffs and lakes are linked with the flow behaviour of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> is less well understood and much longer time periods are required for such investigations, typically in the order of the response time of the respective <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, if possible even longer. For this reason we selected to study Zmuttgletscher in the Western Swiss Alps, which today is a heavily debris covered valley <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. We produced a time series of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area, debris cover and surface elevation changes on the basis of 14 old maps and aerial images, 11 orthoimages and additional terrestrial photographs starting at the end of the little ice age (LIA) in 1859. During these 170 years the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> lost a volume of 52.9*106 m3 (mean thickness change of -89 m) at its tongue while its debris covered area increased from about 14 to 20%. Several periods of variable retreat rates can be discerned and spatially varying change patterns become visible. Commonly the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> has been retreating, but we can discern locally different elevation change, and also stable to positive periods in the 1980s become visible on different dynamical section of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span>. Surface features that are commonly linked to debris cover and ice flow have emerged after the end of the LIA. For example, supraglacial thermokarst features become visible in 1880 and are widespread in the lower area of the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> tongue in 1946. Considering big ice cliffs that are typically related to a realtively high, steep elevation difference and a large surface area, their number has increased somewhat from zero in 1859 to about 15 today. However, its the small ice cliffs, lakes and surface water channels that have emerged and also contribute to stronger <span class="hlt">melt</span> through either exposed clean ice or ice in contact with water. Elevation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21509.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA21509.html"><span>New Zealand <span class="hlt">Glaciers</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-03-09</p> <p>New Zealand contains over 3,000 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>, most of which are in the Southern Alps on the South Island. Since 1890, the <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> have been retreating, with short periods of small advances, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. The image cover an area of 39 by 46 km, and are located at 43.7 degrees south, 170 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7080H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7080H"><span>Velocity Variability of a Debris-Covered <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> at Hourly to Annual Timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horgan, Huw; Anderson, Brian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The potential for <span class="hlt">glacier</span>, ice cap, and ice sheet discharge acceleration has been highlighted as a major source of uncertainty in sea level rise predictions and is particularly uncertain in the case of debris-covered <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Changes affecting basal sliding can cause the flow of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> and ice sheets to change at a variety of timescales. Debris-cover influences basal sliding by buffering the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> against short-term <span class="hlt">melt</span> events and changing the overall <span class="hlt">glacier</span> profile. Here we use a long-term GPS deployment to investigate the flow of Tasman <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, a large debris covered <span class="hlt">glacier</span> in the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Tasman <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> demonstrates no detectable diurnal velocity variability, significant seasonal variability, and remarkable acceleration in response to rainfall events. During times of heavy rainfall, Tasman <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> accelerates to speeds of up to 36 times its normal speed (from 0.12 m d-1 to 4.45 m d-1). Peak speeds are maintained for periods of less than 12 hours before rapidly decaying to slightly above background levels. Recording many speed up events allows the relationship between rain-rate and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> speed to be determined enabling us to estimate the effect rainfall events have on annual <span class="hlt">glacier</span> speed and inter-annual variability. Comparing speed up events with bed separation estimates indicates that the initial acceleration is likely a direct result of the growth of basal cavities. Basal sliding theory implies that the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> speed to water input is increased by <span class="hlt">glacier</span> down wasting, which lowers the effective pressure at the bed, indicating that rain induced speed-up events are likely to become increasingly common on Tasman <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27780191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27780191"><span>Rapid submarine ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the grounding zones of ice shelves in West Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Khazendar, Ala; Rignot, Eric; Schroeder, Dustin M; Seroussi, Helene; Schodlok, Michael P; Scheuchl, Bernd; Mouginot, Jeremie; Sutterley, Tyler C; Velicogna, Isabella</p> <p>2016-10-25</p> <p>Enhanced submarine ice-shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span> strongly controls ice loss in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, but its magnitude is not well known in the critical grounding zones of the ASE's major <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Here we directly quantify bottom ice losses along tens of kilometres with airborne radar sounding of the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves, which buttress the rapidly changing Smith, Pope and Kohler <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in the grounding zones is found to be much higher than steady-state levels, removing 300-490 m of solid ice between 2002 and 2009 beneath the retreating Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. The vigorous, unbalanced <span class="hlt">melting</span> supports the hypothesis that a significant increase in ocean heat influx into ASE sub-ice-shelf cavities took place in the mid-2000s. The synchronous but diverse evolutions of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> illustrate how combinations of oceanography and topography modulate rapid submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> to hasten mass loss and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat from West Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713243K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...713243K"><span>Rapid submarine ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the grounding zones of ice shelves in West Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khazendar, Ala; Rignot, Eric; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Seroussi, Helene; Schodlok, Michael P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Mouginot, Jeremie; Sutterley, Tyler C.; Velicogna, Isabella</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Enhanced submarine ice-shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span> strongly controls ice loss in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, but its magnitude is not well known in the critical grounding zones of the ASE's major <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Here we directly quantify bottom ice losses along tens of kilometres with airborne radar sounding of the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves, which buttress the rapidly changing Smith, Pope and Kohler <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in the grounding zones is found to be much higher than steady-state levels, removing 300-490 m of solid ice between 2002 and 2009 beneath the retreating Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. The vigorous, unbalanced <span class="hlt">melting</span> supports the hypothesis that a significant increase in ocean heat influx into ASE sub-ice-shelf cavities took place in the mid-2000s. The synchronous but diverse evolutions of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> illustrate how combinations of oceanography and topography modulate rapid submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> to hasten mass loss and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat from West Antarctica.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5093338','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5093338"><span>Rapid submarine ice <span class="hlt">melting</span> in the grounding zones of ice shelves in West Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Khazendar, Ala; Rignot, Eric; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Seroussi, Helene; Schodlok, Michael P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Mouginot, Jeremie; Sutterley, Tyler C.; Velicogna, Isabella</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Enhanced submarine ice-shelf <span class="hlt">melting</span> strongly controls ice loss in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, but its magnitude is not well known in the critical grounding zones of the ASE's major <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. Here we directly quantify bottom ice losses along tens of kilometres with airborne radar sounding of the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves, which buttress the rapidly changing Smith, Pope and Kohler <span class="hlt">glaciers</span>. <span class="hlt">Melting</span> in the grounding zones is found to be much higher than steady-state levels, removing 300–490 m of solid ice between 2002 and 2009 beneath the retreating Smith <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. The vigorous, unbalanced <span class="hlt">melting</span> supports the hypothesis that a significant increase in ocean heat influx into ASE sub-ice-shelf cavities took place in the mid-2000s. The synchronous but diverse evolutions of these <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> illustrate how combinations of oceanography and topography modulate rapid submarine <span class="hlt">melting</span> to hasten mass loss and <span class="hlt">glacier</span> retreat from West Antarctica. PMID:27780191</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7687T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7687T"><span>Dynamic interactions between <span class="hlt">glacier</span> and glacial lake in the Bhutan Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsutaki, S.; Fujita, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Komori, J.; Takenaka, S.; Tshering, P.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>.9-18.8 m yr-1 at the Thorthormi <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> while -12.0-2.7 m yr-1 at the Lugge <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>. This result suggests that decreasing in flow velocity towards the terminus in the Thorthormi <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> causes compressive flow. It suggests that the compressive flow of the Thorthormi <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> counterbalanced surface <span class="hlt">melting</span>, resulting in inhibition of the surface lowering. In contrast, the extensional flow of the Lugge <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> accelerated the surface lowering. Speed up of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> terminus induced extensional flow regime causes the thinning of ice and increase in basal motion, which will lead to further flow acceleration. Such positive feedbacks have been found over the ice streams in the polar ice sheets. In this study we showed the observational evidences, in which the similar feedbacks make contrast the terminus behaviors of <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the Bhutan Himalaya. If the supraglacial lake on Thorthormi <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> expanded, the surface lowering may be accelerated in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03475.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA03475.html"><span>Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span>, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-02-26</p> <p>This image from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite covers an area of 55 by 40 kilometers (34 by 25 miles) over the southwest part of the Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> and Icy Bay in Alaska. The composite of infrared and visible bands results in the snow and ice appearing light blue, dense vegetation is yellow-orange and green, and less vegetated, gravelly areas are in orange. According to Dr. Dennis Trabant (U.S. Geological Survey, Fairbanks, Alaska), the Malaspina <span class="hlt">Glacier</span> is thinning. Its terminal moraine protects it from contact with the open ocean; without the moraine, or if sea level rises sufficiently to reconnect the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> with the ocean, the <span class="hlt">glacier</span> would start calving and retreat significantly. ASTER data are being used to help monitor the size and movement of some 15,000 tidal and piedmont <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in Alaska. Evidence derived from ASTER and many other satellite and ground-based measurements suggests that only a few dozen Alaskan <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> are advancing. The overwhelming majority of them are retreating. This ASTER image was acquired on June 8, 2001. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next six years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H33E0937T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H33E0937T"><span><span class="hlt">GLACIER</span> VARIABILITY IN WYOMING’S WIND RIVER RANGE AND TETON RANGE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, D.; Bell, J. E.; Edmunds, J.; Tootle, G. A.; Kerr, G.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p> estimated to be 3.2 million cubic meters (MCM) over the 35 year period, which results in an estimated 4 to 10% contribution to warm season (July - September) streamflow. Accompanied with the calculation of <span class="hlt">glacier</span> area loss, the amount of glacial volume lost was also determined for selected <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> in the WRR from 1966 to 1989. A subset of 29 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> throughout two basins were analyzed as part of a paired watershed (glaciated vs. non-glaciated) analysis. Through the use of photogrammetric techniques, volume loss in the 17 <span class="hlt">glaciers</span> of the Uppe