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Sample records for radiation-induced leukemia virus

  1. Biochemical analysis of murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced leukemias of strain BALB/c

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.W.; Hopkins, N.; Fleissner, E.

    1980-02-01

    Murine leukemia viruses isolated from radiation-induced BALB/c leukemias were characterized with respect to viral proteins and RNA. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral structural proteins revealed that for p12, p15, p30, and gp70, three to four electrophoretic variants of each could be detected. There was no correlation found between any of these mobilities and N- or B-tropism of the viruses. Proteins of all xenotropic viral isolates were identical in their gel electrophoretic profiles. The similar phenotypes of multiple viral clones from individual leukemias and of isolates grown in different cells suggest that the polymorphism of ecotropic viruses was generated in vivo rather than during in vitro virus growth. By two-dimensional fingerprinting of RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotides from 70S viral RNA, the previously reported association of N- and B-tropism with two distinct oligonucleotides was confirmed. The presence of two other oligonucleotides was correlated with positive and negative phenotypes of the virus-coded G/sub IX/ cell surface antigen. The RNAs of two B-tropic isolates with distinctive p15 and p12 phenotypes differed from the RNA of a prototype N-tropic virus by the absence of three oligonucleotides mapping in the 5' portion (gag region) of the prototype RNA. In addition, one small-plaque B-tropic virus displayed extensive changes in the RNA sequences associated with the env region of the prototype.

  2. Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. As radiation-induced leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in radiation-induced leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included. PMID:25062865

  3. Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-07-25

    The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically towards incidence reduction and treatment of these cancers. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro testing but also a set of reliable animal models to accurately recreate the complex situations of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. As radiation-induced leukemic progression often involves genomic changes such as rearrangements, deletions, and changes in methylation, the laboratory mouse Mus musculus, with its fully sequenced genome, is a powerful tool in cancer research. This fact, combined with the molecular and physiological similarities it shares with man and its small size and high rate of breeding in captivity, makes it the most relevant model to use in radiation-induced leukemia research. In this work, we review relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models, as well as methods of induction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. Associated molecular pathologies are also included.

  4. Endogenous retrovirus and radiation-induced leukemia in the RMF mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.W.; Boone, L.R.; Lalley, P.; Yang, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The induction of myeloid leukemia in irradiated RFM/Un mice has been associated with retrovirus infection. However, two characteristics of this strain complicate efforts to define the role of the virus. This strain possesses only one inducible host range class of endogenous virus and a unique gene, in addition to the Fv-1/sup n/ locus, which specifically restricts exogenous infection by endogenous viruses. These characteristics possibly account for absence of recombinant viruses in this strain, even though virus is amply expressed during most of the animal's life span. We have examined further the distribution of retrovirus sequences and the chromosomal locus of the inducible virus in this strain. This report describes evidence for additional viral sequences in cells of a radiation-induced myeloid leukemia line and discusses the possible origin of these added copies.

  5. Radiation-induced leukemia: Comparative studies in mouse and man

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.

    1991-01-01

    We now have a clear understanding of the mechanism by which radiation-induced (T-cell) leukemia occurs. In irradiated mice (radiation-induced thymic leukemia) and in man (acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, T-ALL) the mechanism of leukemogenesis is surprisingly similar. Expressed in the most elementary terms, T-cell leukemia occurs when T-cell differentiation is inhibited by a mutation, and pre-T cells attempt but fail to differentiate in the thymus. Instead of leaving the thymus for the periphery as functional T-cells they continue to proliferate in the thymus. The proliferating pre- (pro-) T-cells constitute the (early) acute T-cell leukemia (A-TCL). This model for the mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis accounts for all the properties of both murine and human A-TCL. Important support for the model has recently come from work by Ilan Kirsch and others, who have shown that mutations/deletions in the genes SCL (TAL), SIL, and LCK constitute primary events in the development of T-ALL, by inhibiting differentiation of thymic pre- (pro-) T-cells. This mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis brings several specific questions into focus: How do early A-TCL cells progress to become potently tumorigenic and poorly treatable Is it feasible to genetically suppress early and/or progressed A-TCL cells What is the mechanism by which the differentiation-inhibited (leukemic) pre-T cells proliferate During the first grant year we have worked on aspects of all three questions.

  6. LEUKEMIA-ASSOCIATED TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS RELATED TO MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H.; Boyse, E. A.; Aoki, T.; Iritani, C.; Old, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two BALB radiation leukemias are strongly rejected by hybrids of BALB with certain other mouse strains, although BALB mice themselves exhibit no detectable resistance whatever. Hybrids immunized with progressively increased inocula are resistant to 200 x 106 or more leukemia cells; their serum is cytotoxic for the leukemia cells in vitro and protects BALB mice against challenge with these BALB leukemias. The antigenic system thus identified has been named X.1. In (BALB x B6) hybrids the major determinant of resistance was shown to be a B6 gene in the K region of H-2. This is likely to be the Rgv-1 (Resistance to gross virus) locus of Lilly, which may thus be identified in this case as an Ir (Immune response) allele conferring ability to respond to X.1 antigen on MuLV and leukemia cells, and so responsible for production of X.1 antibody and the rejection of X.1+ leukemia cells by hybrid mice. Immunoelectron microscopy with X.1 antiserum (from immunized hybrids) shows labeling both on the cell surface and on virions produced by the leukemia cells. It is not known whether X.1 comprises only one or more than one antigen. Three radiation-induced BALB leukemias, one A strain radiation-induced leukemia, and 15/15 AKR primary spontaneous leukemias were typed X.1+ by the cytotoxicity test. Several other leukemias, including one induced by passage A Gross virus and one long-transplanted AKR ascites leukemia carried in (B6 x AKR)F1 hybrids, were X.1-. Normal mice of strains with a high incidence of leukemia and one other strain (129) express X.1 antigen, but evidently in amounts too small for certain detection in vitro; by the method of absorption in vivo, however, these strains could be typed X.1+ and other strains X.1-. We ascribe the X.1 antigen system tentatively to a sub-type of MuLV that is not passage A Gross virus and is probably not the dominant sub-type in strains with a high incidence of leukemia. After repeated passage in hybrids, one of the BALB leukemias became

  7. Genetics of susceptibility for radiation-induced leukemia. Mapping of genes involved to chromosomes 1, 2, and 4, and implications for a viral etiology in the disease. [Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Meruelo, D.; Offer, M.; Flieger, N.

    1981-01-01

    Susceptibility to radiation-induced leukemia in (A/J x B10)F2 mice is encoded for by genes in chromosomes 1, 2, and 4. The loci involved in chromosomes 1 and 4 are close to or similar to xenotropic virus inducibility locus on chromosome 1 and a locus-affecting expression of xenotropic MuLV envelope-related cell surface antigens. Radiation-induced leukemia-1 (Ril-1) on chromosome 2 plays an overriding influence in susceptibility to the disease. This locus might encode ecotropic viral-associated genetic information or might contain cellular sequences with oncogenic potential. These findings are of interest in view of the importance of recombinant viruses to leukemogenesis. Furthermore, it is intriguing that Ril-1 is located in a chromosomal site rich in thymus differentiation-specific loci. An explanation for tissue-specific activation of endogenous viruses is that activation of the virus in question is dependent on differentiation-specific steps.

  8. Radiation-Induced Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Ali; Kütük, Tuğçe; Karcı, Ebru; Yaşar, Arzu; Hiçsönmez, Ayşe; Utkan, Güngör

    2016-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an important oncological emergency that is usually observed with hematological malignancies and rarely with solid tumors. It can be induced either by therapy or spontaneously. Radiotherapy-induced TLS has been rarely reported in the literature. Here we present a patient with a diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia complicated with TLS during palliative radiotherapy. PMID:27093891

  9. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  10. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  11. High-dose radiation-induced meningiomas following acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Salvati, M; Cervoni, L; Artico, M

    1996-05-01

    The authors review three personal cases of patients who developed cerebral meningiomas following high-dose radiotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two patients were female and one male. Their ages when the leukemia appeared were between 11 and 15 years. All patients were treated with a course of prophylactic irradiation to the neuraxis for a total dose of 24 Gy. After an average interval of 10.4 years, all three patients presented a meningioma; histologically, one was meningothelial and two were fibrous. All three meningiomas presented atypical features. At follow-up 1, 4, and 4 years respectively after surgery, none of these patients presents neurological deficits or neuroradiological signs of recurrence. Forty-nine cases of high-dose radiation-induced meningioma are also reviewed.

  12. Radiation-induced leukemia: Comparative studies in mouse and man. Annual performance report, June 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, M.

    1991-12-31

    We now have a clear understanding of the mechanism by which radiation-induced (T-cell) leukemia occurs. In irradiated mice (radiation-induced thymic leukemia) and in man (acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, T-ALL) the mechanism of leukemogenesis is surprisingly similar. Expressed in the most elementary terms, T-cell leukemia occurs when T-cell differentiation is inhibited by a mutation, and pre-T cells attempt but fail to differentiate in the thymus. Instead of leaving the thymus for the periphery as functional T-cells they continue to proliferate in the thymus. The proliferating pre- (pro-) T-cells constitute the (early) acute T-cell leukemia (A-TCL). This model for the mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis accounts for all the properties of both murine and human A-TCL. Important support for the model has recently come from work by Ilan Kirsch and others, who have shown that mutations/deletions in the genes SCL (TAL), SIL, and LCK constitute primary events in the development of T-ALL, by inhibiting differentiation of thymic pre- (pro-) T-cells. This mechanism of T-cell leukemogenesis brings several specific questions into focus: How do early A-TCL cells progress to become potently tumorigenic and poorly treatable? Is it feasible to genetically suppress early and/or progressed A-TCL cells? What is the mechanism by which the differentiation-inhibited (leukemic) pre-T cells proliferate? During the first grant year we have worked on aspects of all three questions.

  13. Effects of ceramide inhibition on radiation-induced apoptosis in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eriko; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-03-01

    In the present study, using inhibitors of ceramide synthase (fumonisin B1), ketosphinganine synthetase (L-cycloserine), acid sphingomyelinase (D609 and desipramine) and neutral sphingomyelinase (GW4869), the role of ceramide in X-ray-induced apoptosis was investigated in MOLT-4 cells. The diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) assay showed that the intracellular concentration of ceramide increased time-dependently after X irradiation of cells, and this radiation-induced accumulation of ceramide did not occur prior to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Treatment with D609 significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, but did not inhibit the increase of intracellular ceramide. Treatment with desipramine or GW4869 prevented neither radiation-induced apoptosis nor the induced increase of ceramide. On the other hand, fumonisin B1 and L-cycloserine had no effect on the radiation-induced induction of apoptosis, in spite of significant inhibition of the radiation-induced ceramide. From these results, it was suggested that the increase of the intracellular concentration of ceramide was not essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells.

  14. [Radiation-induced intracranial osteosarcoma after radiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Nishihira, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Saito, Akihiko; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2013-06-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with osteosarcoma of the occipital bone 16 years after 24 Gy of craniospinal irradiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia. The tumor had both intra- and extra-cranial components. However, the affected skull appeared to be normal on imaging because of permeative infiltration by the tumor. Subtotal resection was achieved and the tumor was verified histologically as an osteosarcoma. The residual tumor soon showed remarkable enlargement and disseminated to the spinal cord. Both of the enlarged and disseminated tumor masses were treated by surgical intervention and chemotherapy. However, the patient deteriorated due to the tumor regrowth and died 11 months after the initial diagnosis. This patient had previously developed a leukemia, a colon cancer, a rectal cancer and a hepatocellular carcinoma. His brother also died of leukemia. The patient had a heterozygous TP53 germ-line mutation of codon 248 in the exon 7. In conclusion, we consider the present tumor to be a rare example of radiation-induced skull osteosarcoma in a member of the cancer-prone family with TP53 germ-line mutation which is associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

  15. Radiation-induced meningiomas: a shadow in the success story of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Joanna; Pääkkö, Eija; Harila, Marika; Herva, Riitta; Tuominen, Juho; Koivula, Antero; Lanning, Marjatta; Harila-Saari, Arja

    2009-10-01

    While the prognosis of acute childhood leukemia has improved, long-term survivors are increasingly experiencing late effects of the treatment. Cranially irradiated survivors are predisposed to the development of CNS tumors. Our aim was to describe the incidence of secondary brain tumors and to define the significance of treatment-related risk factors and host characteristics in a cohort of childhood leukemia survivors. Our cohort consisted of 60 consecutive cranially irradiated adult survivors of childhood leukemia treated in Oulu University Hospital (Oulu, Finland); MRI of the brain was performed on 49. The sites of the tumors, their histology, and details of the leukemia treatment were determined. Of the 49 patients, 11 (22%) 1-8 years of age at the time of diagnosis developed meningioma later in life, while no other brain tumors were seen. In this cohort, the development of meningioma seemed to show undisputable linkage with long latency periods (mean, 25 years; range, 14-34 years) and an increasing incidence 20 years after the treatment (47%). Three patients had multiple meningiomas, two had recurrent disease, and one had an atypical meningioma. Age at the time of irradiation, gender, or cumulative doses of chemotherapeutic agents showed no significant association with the development of meningiomas. The high incidence of meningiomas in this study was associated with long follow-up periods. Although the cohort is small, it seems probable that the increasing incidence of meningioma will shadow the future of cranially irradiated leukemia survivors. Systematic brain imaging after the treatment is therefore justifiable.

  16. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R*/22 hour day of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific alpha granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs.

  17. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R/22 hour day of whole-body /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific ..cap alpha.. granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs.

  18. Leukemia Viruses Associated with Mouse Myeloma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J.; Ralph, P.; Sarkar, S.; Cohn, Melvin

    1970-01-01

    Myeloma cells derived from BALB/c and C3H mice show evidence of infection by a murine leumemia virus. The immunoglobulin-producing myelomas secrete an RNA-containing virus with a density of 1.20 to 1.22 gm/cm3. RNA with a sedimentation coefficient of 74 S in 0.1 M sodium sodium chloride has been isolated from secreted virus particles and has a base composition similar to that found for other murine leukemia virus RNA. An intracellular virus particle has been partially purified and has a density of 1.29 to 1.32 gm/cm3. Both extracellular and intracellular virus particles contain the leukemia virus group-specific antigen. Images PMID:4317914

  19. [Oncogenes and the origin of leukemia. Acute avian leukemia viruses].

    PubMed

    Graf, T

    1988-03-01

    Oncogenes have been intimately associated with the genesis of human neoplasms. A particularly useful system to study the mechanism of tumorigenesis is a small group of avian retroviruses that carry two oncogenes. These viruses causes acute leukemias and can transform hematopoietic cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which viral oncogenes affect the growth control and differentiation of their target cells is now understood in fair detail for two of these virus strains. In the avian erythroblastosis virus AEV, the v-erbB oncogene deregulates the growth control of erythroid precursors, while verbA blocks their terminal differentiation into erythrocytes. Based on the findings that v-erbB oncogene corresponds to a mutated growth factor receptor gene and that v-erbA corresponds to a mutated hormone receptor gene, models have been developed that explain the function of these two oncogenes on a molecular basis. The myelomonocytic leukemia virus MH2 acts by a completely different mechanism. In this case, the v-myc oncogene stimulates the proliferation of macrophage-like cells, while the v-mil gene stimulates them to produce their own growth factor, thus leading to autocrine growth. It will be interesting to determine whether the type of mechanisms of oncogene cooperativity elucidated for acute leukemia viruses are also operative during leukemogenesis in humans.

  20. Uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Kim, Okjin

    2011-12-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have been poorly characterized to date. In this study, we describe a uterine adenocarcinoma in a Persian cat with feline leukemia virus infection. At the time of presentation, the cat, a female Persian chinchilla, was 2 years old. The cat underwent surgical ovariohystectomy. A cross-section of the uterine wall revealed a thickened uterine horn. The cat tested positive for feline leukemia virus as detected by polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological examination revealed uterine adenocarcinoma that had metastasized to the omentum, resulting in thickening and the formation of inflammatory lesions. Based on the histopathological findings, this case was diagnosed as a uterine adenocarcinoma with abdominal metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a uterine adenocarcinoma with feline leukemia virus infection.

  1. ANTIGENS OF LEUKEMIAS INDUCED BY NATURALLY OCCURRING MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS: THEIR RELATION TO THE ANTIGENS OF GROSS VIRUS AND OTHER MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Geering, Gayla; Old, Lloyd J.; Boyse, Edward A.

    1966-01-01

    Leukemias can be induced in W/Fu inbred rats by neonatal inoculation of normal thymus cells of C58 mice. These leukemias are not transplantable to C58 mice or to adult W/Fu rats, but they can be kept in passage in W/Fu rats aged 0 to 7 days. Adult W/Fu rats inoculated repeatedly with these isogenic leukemias produce cytotoxic and precipitating antibodies. These antisera are of particular value in the analysis of the antigens of leukemia cells and of leukemia viruses because their mode of preparation precludes the formation of antibody against any normal constituents of the cell. Analysis based on the cytotoxic test indicates the presence of 2 distinct cell surface antigens in leukemias induced by Passage A Gross virus or occurring spontaneously in mice of high-incidence strains. All leukemias and other tissues known to contain G (Gross) leukemia antigen have both determinants, but certain leukemias of low-incidence strains have only 1 of them and so were previously classified G-. Immunoprecipitation with these antisera reveals the presence of a cellular antigen common to G+ cells and absent from G- cells; the same antigen can be demonstrated in ether-treated Gross virus, but not in intact virus. This antigen is present also in ether-treated preparations of the Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher leukemia viruses, but not in Bittner (mammary tumor) virus. Thus it may be regarded as a group-specific antigen of murine leukemia viruses, in contrast to the type-specific cellular antigens demonstrable by the cytotoxic test. Four additional antigens associated with leukemias induced by wild-type Gross virus have been demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, but their relation to viral and cellular antigens has not been determined. PMID:4288480

  2. Pathogenicity of molecularly cloned bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rovnak, J; Boyd, A L; Casey, J W; Gonda, M A; Jensen, W A; Cockerell, G L

    1993-01-01

    To delineate the mechanisms of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) pathogenesis, four full-length BLV clones, 1, 8, 9, and 13, derived from the transformed cell line FLK-BLV and a clone construct, pBLV913, were introduced into bovine spleen cells by microinjection. Microinjected cells exhibited cytopathic effects and produced BLV p24 and gp51 antigens and infectious virus. The construct, pBLV913, was selected for infection of two sheep by inoculation of microinjected cells. After 15 months, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these sheep served as inocula for the transfer of infection to four additional sheep. All six infected sheep seroconverted to BLV and had detectable BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Four of the six sheep developed altered B/T-lymphocyte ratios between 33 and 53 months postinfection. One sheep died of unrelated causes, and one remained hematologically normal. Two of the affected sheep developed B lymphocytosis comparable to that observed in animals inoculated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BLV-infected cattle. This expanded B-lymphocyte population was characterized by elevated expression of B-cell surface markers, spontaneous blastogenesis, virus expression in vitro, and increased, polyclonally integrated provirus. One of these two sheep developed lymphocytic leukemia-lymphoma at 57 months postinfection. Leukemic cells had the same phenotype and harbored a single, monoclonally integrated provirus but produced no virus after in vitro cultivation. The range in clinical response to in vivo infection with cloned BLV suggests an important role for host immune response in the progression of virus replication and pathogenesis. Images PMID:8230433

  3. Apparent posttranscriptional block to anaerobic induction of endogenous leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker-Dowling, P A; Marotti, K R; Anderson, G R

    1979-01-01

    Uninfected Fischer rat cells were induced by anaerobic stress to transcribe high levels of endogenous type C leukemia virus RNA. Complete 35S virus RNA with attached polyadenylic acid sequences was found associated with polysomes, indicating functional mRNA. Since no mature virus was released under these conditions, the presence of a posttranscriptional block to complete virus synthesis is strongly indicated. PMID:232174

  4. In vitro generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes against radiation-and radiation leukemia virus-induced tumors. III. Suppression of anti-tumor immunity in vitro by lymphocytes of mice undergoing radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Yefenof, E.; Meidav, A.; Kedar, E.

    1980-12-01

    Adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to fractionated irradiation or inoculated with the radiation leukemia virus (RadLV), develop high incidence (80 to 100%) of lymphatic leukemias within 3 to 6 months. RadLV-induced lymphomas can elicit cytotoxic responses in vitro in lymphocytes of preimmunized syngeneic mice. As soon as 5 d after RadLV inoculation, and during the entire leukemogenic process, suppressor T cells are detectable in the spleen that are capable of specifically abrogating generation of syngeneic anti-tumor cytotoxic cells in vitro. Mice exposed to fractionated x irradiation do not develop suppressor cells. These findings suggest that although RadLV has been isolated from radiation-induced leukemias, x-ray- and RadLV-induced leukemogenesis do not seem to involve a common viral etilogy, and that induction of suppressor cells during RadLV leukemogenesis may be essential for tumor progression.

  5. A unifying concept for carcinogenic risk assessments: comparison with radiation-induced leukemia in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Jones, T D

    1984-10-01

    This paper presents a new, general mathematical dose-response model which can use human, animal and cell culture data to predict the incidence of leukemia as a result of exposure to ionizing radiations. The model is based on simple considerations of fundamental biological processes of carcinogenic initiation, carcinogenic promotion and competing risk due to other toxic or disease reactions. The model can be used to predict the risk of leukemia for either human or animal populations which have been (or will be) treated with any radiation dose-time treatment protocol of interest. The model is both an extension and an outgrowth of earlier work done for the Oak Ridge dosimetry program in support activities for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (formerly) and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (currently).

  6. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    PubMed

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AKT capture by feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Maki; Umehara, Daigo; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Ngo, Minh Ha; Ohsato, Yoshiharu; Hisasue, Masaharu; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Watanabe, Shinya; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Oncogene-containing retroviruses are generated by recombination events between viral and cellular sequences, a phenomenon called "oncogene capture". The captured cellular genes, referred to as "v-onc" genes, then acquire new oncogenic properties. We report a novel feline leukemia virus (FeLV), designated "FeLV-AKT", that has captured feline c-AKT1 in feline lymphoma. FeLV-AKT contains a gag-AKT fusion gene that encodes the myristoylated Gag matrix protein and the kinase domain of feline c-AKT1, but not its pleckstrin homology domain. Therefore, it differs structurally from the v-Akt gene of murine retrovirus AKT8. AKT may be involved in the mechanisms underlying malignant diseases in cats.

  8. Deletion of chromosome 2 is an early event in the development of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenbrot, L.; Krauthgamer, R.; Resnitzky, P.; Haran-Ghera, N.

    1988-08-01

    In this study we have analyzed the chromosomal changes in the preleukemic phase in SJL/J mice treated with radiation and acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) induced by radiation alone or with additional corticosteroid treatment. SJL/J mice exposed to 300 rad whole body irradiation developed a low incidence of AML (20-25%) that could be markedly increased (to 50-70%) by additional coleukemogenic treatment with corticosteroids. Partial deletion in one chromosome 2 was found in 100% of bone marrow and spleen cells of leukemic animals in both treatment modalities, whereas the age-matched controls exhibited a normal karyotype. Five types of deletion were observed according to site and size, but region D through G was the common missing part in all five types of chromosome 2 deletion. The occurrence of chromosome 2 deletion was also tested among bone marrow cells removed from 17 mice, 4 months after exposure to 300 rad whole body irradiation, long before the time when AML development is expected. About 80% of the mice tested had different levels of deleted chromosome 2 among their bone marrow population. Cytological and histological examination of bone marrow and spleen of most tested animals showed a normal hematologic picture. These results suggest that the marker chromosome is related to the process of radiation-induced initiation of AML in SJL/J mice.

  9. ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release.

    PubMed

    Bartusch, Christina; Prange, Reinhild

    2016-04-18

    The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release. Hence, MLV utilizes only a subset of ESCRT factors, and viral and viral-like particles differ in ESCRT-III factor requirements.

  10. ESCRT Requirements for Murine Leukemia Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Bartusch, Christina; Prange, Reinhild

    2016-01-01

    The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release. Hence, MLV utilizes only a subset of ESCRT factors, and viral and viral-like particles differ in ESCRT-III factor requirements. PMID:27096867

  11. Dose-response relationship of radiation-induced harderian gland tumors and myeloid leukemia of the CBA/Cne mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Di Majo, V.; Coppola, M.; Rebessi, S.; Bassani, B.; Alati, T.; Saran, A.; Bangrazi, C.; Covelli, V.

    1986-05-01

    Transplantation of harderian gland cells from CBA/-Cne mice into the fat pad of isogenic recipients was used for a quantitative in vivo study of cell survival and risk of transformation after x-ray irradiation (1-7 Gy). A survival curve for gland cells was generated in vivo with a D0 of 1.83 Gy and an extrapolation number of 7.23. Subsequently, the dose-response curve for lesions observed in nodules after cell transplantation was compared with that for lesions observed in glands irradiated in situ. A high incidence of epithelial hyperplasias with severe dysplasia was observed in transplantation nodules after x-irradiation. Gland tumors were significantly induced in whole-body irradiated animals; the tumors reached a maximum incidence after doses of 3 Gy. The risk of transformation per surviving cell was estimated both for dysplastic lesions and for tumors. These results approximated a dose-squared relationship in both cases, suggesting a common induction mechanism at the cellular level. Myeloid leukemia was observed at all doses in whole-body irradiated mice, and the maximum tumor incidence was reached at doses around 3 Gy.

  12. Vaccination against δ-retroviruses: the bovine leukemia virus paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-06-20

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related d-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of d-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy.

  13. Feline leukemia virus immunity induced by whole inactivated virus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Andrea N; O'Halloran, Kevin P; Larson, Laurie J; Schultz, Ronald D; Hoover, Edward A

    2010-03-15

    A fraction of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus (FeLV) effectively contain virus and resist persistent antigenemia/viremia. Using real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantitate circulating viral DNA levels, previously we detected persistent FeLV DNA in blood cells of non-antigenemic cats considered to have resisted FeLV challenge. In addition, previously we used RNA qPCR to quantitate circulating viral RNA levels and determined that the vast majority of viral DNA is transcriptionally active, even in the absence of antigenemia. A single comparison of all USDA-licensed commercially available FeLV vaccines using these modern sensitive methods has not been reported. To determine whether FeLV vaccination would prevent nucleic acid persistence, we assayed circulating viral DNA, RNA, antigen, infectious virus, and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody in vaccinated and unvaccinated cats challenged with infectious FeLV. We identified challenged vaccinates with undetectable antigenemia and viremia concomitant with persistent FeLV DNA and/or RNA. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that two whole inactivated virus (WIV) adjuvanted FeLV vaccines (Fort Dodge Animal Health's Fel-O-Vax Lv-K) and Schering-Plough Animal Health's FEVAXYN FeLV) provided effective protection against FeLV challenge. In nearly every recipient of these vaccines, neither viral DNA, RNA, antigen, nor infectious virus could be detected in blood after FeLV challenge. Interestingly, this effective viral containment occurred despite a weak to undetectable VN antibody response. The above findings reinforce the precept of FeLV infection as a unique model of effective retroviral immunity elicited by WIV vaccination, and as such holds valuable insights into retroviral immunoprevention and therapy.

  14. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  15. Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Kristy N; Wright, Zachary

    2010-04-01

    Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline. The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat. Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone), a polyamine analogue, sensitized γ-radiation-induced cell death in HL-60 leukemia cells Sensitizing effect of MGBG on γ-radiation-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Jin; Chung, Hai Won; Choi, Han; Paik, Sang Gi; Kim, In Gyu

    2006-09-01

    Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a polyamine analogue, has been known to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines, which are important in cell proliferation. We showed that MGBG treatment significantly affected γ-radiation-induced cell cycle transition (G(1)/G(0)→S→G(2)/M) and thus γ-radiation-induced cell death. As determined by micronuclei and comet assay, we showed that it sensitized the cytotoxic effect induced by γ-radiation. One of the reasons is that polyamine depletion by MGBG treatment did not effectively protect against the chemical (OH) or physical damage to DNA caused by γ-radiation. Through in vitro experiment, we confirmed that DNA strand breaks induced by γ-radiation was prevented more effectively in the presence of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) than in the absence of polyamines. MGBG also blocks the cell cycle transition caused by γ-radiation (G(2) arrest), which helps protect cells by allowing time for DNA repair before entry into mitosis or apoptosis, via the down regulation of cyclin D1, which mediates the transition from G(1) to S phase of cell cycle, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated, which is involved in the DNA sensing, repair and cell cycle check point. Therefore, the abrogation of G(2) arrest sensitizes cells to the effect of γ-radiation. As a result, γ-radiation-induced cell death increased by about 2.5-3.0-fold in cells treated with MGBG. However, exogenous spermidine supplement partially relieved this γ-radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell death. These findings suggest a potentially therapeutic strategy for increasing the cytotoxic efficacy of γ-radiation.

  17. Moloney murine leukemia virus activates NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Pak, J; Faller, D V

    1996-01-01

    Nonacutely transforming retroviruses, such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), differ from transforming viruses in their mechanisms of tumor induction. While the transforming viruses cause tumors by transduction of oncogenes, the leukemia retroviruses, lacking oncogenes, employ other mechanisms, including promoter insertion and enhancer activation. Although these two mechanisms occur in many tumors induced by leukemia viruses, a substantial proportion of such tumors do not show site-specific proviral insertions. Thus, other, unidentified virus-driven mechanisms may participate in tumorigenesis. In these studies, we show that infection of cells by M-MuLV activates expression of Rel family transcription factors. In murine cells chronically infected with M-MuLV, gel shift analyses with kappaB DNA-binding motifs from the murine immunoglobulin kappa light chain enhancer demonstrated induction of at least two distinct kappaB enhancer-binding complexes. Supershifting and immunoblotting analyses defined p50, p52, RelB, and c-Rel subunits as constituents of these virus-induced protein complexes. Transient transfections performed with kappaB-dependent reporter plasmids showed transcriptional activation in M-MuLV-infected cells relative to uninfected cells. Induction of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor activity by M-MuLV infection may prove relevant to the mechanism of M-MuLV-induced leukemia. PMID:8648762

  18. Development of leukemia in mice transgenic for the tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, W J; Kimata, J T; Wong, F H; Zutter, M; Ley, T J; Ratner, L

    1995-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax protein trans-activates several cellular genes implicated in T-cell replication and activation. To investigate its leukemogenic potential, Tax was targeted to the mature T-lymphocyte compartment in transgenic mice by using the human granzyme B promoter. These mice developed large granular lymphocytic leukemia, demonstrating that expression of Tax in the lymphocyte compartment is sufficient for the development of leukemia. Furthermore, these observations suggest that human T-cell leukemia virus infection may be involved in the development of large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7862633

  19. Proteome analysis of sheep B lymphocytes in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Michal

    2017-07-01

    Presented are the results of a study of the expression pattern of different proteins in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia in experimental sheep and I discuss how the obtained data may be useful in gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, diagnosis, and for the selection of possible therapeutic targets. In cattle, the disease is characterized by life-long persistent lymphocytosis leading to leukemia/lymphoma in about 5% of infected animals. In sheep, as opposed to cattle, the course of the disease is always fatal and clinical symptoms usually occur within a three-year period after infection. For this reason, sheep are an excellent experimental model of retrovirus-induced leukemia. This model can be useful for human pathology, as bovine leukemia virus is closely related to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. The data presented here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of the bovine leukemia virus-induced tumorigenic process and indicate the potential marker proteins both for monitoring progression of the disease and as possible targets of pharmacological intervention. A study of the proteome of B lymphocytes from four leukemic sheep revealed 11 proteins with altered expression. Among them, cytoskeleton and intermediate filament proteins were the most abundant, although proteins belonging to the other functional groups, i.e. enzymes, regulatory proteins, and transcription factors, were also present. It was found that trypsin inhibitor, platelet factor 4, thrombospondin 1, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, fibrinogen alpha chain, zyxin, filamin-A, and vitamin D-binding protein were downregulated, whereas cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5, non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein and small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha were upregulated. Discussed are the possible mechanisms of their altered expression and its significance in the bovine

  20. Eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection in commercial dairy herds using the agar gel immunodiffusion test.

    PubMed Central

    Shettigara, P T; Samagh, B S; Lobinowich, E M

    1986-01-01

    Demands for bovine leukemia virus test negative breeding cattle and for semen from bovine leukemia virus test negative bulls by several countries have encouraged the eradication of bovine leukemia virus infection from selected herds in Canada. This project was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of the agar gel immunodiffusion test, standardized to detect anti-bovine leukemia virus glycoprotein antibodies, for eradication of bovine leukemia virus from commercial dairy herds. Of nine participating herds, the prevalence rate of bovine leukemia virus infection was low (less than 10%) in three, medium (11-30%) in four and high (greater than 30%) in two. The herds were tested by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, reactors were removed and the herds were then retested at regular intervals. The results indicate that it is possible to eliminate bovine leukemia virus infection from the herds after two to three cycles of agar gel immunodiffusion tests and prompt removal of the reactors. PMID:3019498

  1. Association between endogenous feline leukemia virus loads and exogenous feline leukemia virus infection in domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ravi; Cattori, Valentino; Pepin, Andrea C; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; McDonald, Mike; Doherr, Marcus G; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2008-07-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) loads may vary among cats of different populations and that FeLV-infected cats have higher enFeLV loads than uninfected cats. Thus, we hypothesized that enFeLV might influence the pathogenesis and outcome of FeLV infection. No significant difference in the infection outcome (regressive versus progressive infection) was observed between groups of cats with high or low enFeLV loads following FeLV-A challenge. However, cats with high enFeLV loads showed higher viral replication (plasma viral RNA and p27 antigen levels) than cats with low enFeLV loads in the early phase of the infection. The enFeLV transcription level varied at different time points, but no clear-cut pattern was observed. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an association between enFeLV loads and FeLV replication but not outcome of infection. enFeLV should be considered as an important confounder in experimental FeLV infection or vaccination studies.

  2. Gene profiling of Graffi murine leukemia virus-induced lymphoid leukemias: identification of leukemia markers and Fmn2 as a potential oncogene.

    PubMed

    Charfi, Cyndia; Voisin, Véronique; Levros, Louis-Charles; Edouard, Elsy; Rassart, Eric

    2011-02-10

    The Graffi murine leukemia virus induces a large spectrum of leukemias in mice and thus provides a good model to compare the transcriptome of all types of leukemias. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of both T and B leukemias induced by the virus with DNA microarrays. Given that we considered that a 4-fold change in expression level was significant, 388 probe sets were associated to B, to T, or common to both leukemias. Several of them were not yet associated with lymphoid leukemia. We confirmed specific deregulation of Fmn2, Arntl2, Bfsp2, Gfra2, Gpm6a, and Gpm6b in B leukemia, of Nln, Fbln1, and Bmp7 in T leukemias, and of Etv5 in both leukemias. More importantly, we show that the mouse Fmn2 induced an anchorage-independent growth, a drastic modification in cell shape with a concomitant disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, we found that human FMN2 is overexpressed in approximately 95% of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with the highest expression levels in patients with a TEL/AML1 rearrangement. These results, surely related to the role of FMN2 in meiotic spindle maintenance, suggest its important role in leukemogenesis. Finally, we propose a new panel of genes potentially involved in T and/or B leukemias.

  3. No involvement of bovine leukemia virus in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, A.P.; Robison, L.L.; Kashmiri, S.V.; McClain, K.L.; Woods, W.G.; Smithson, W.A.; Heyn, R.; Finlay, J.; Schuman, L.M.; Renier, C.

    1988-05-15

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma. Much speculation continues to be directed at the role of BLV in human leukemia. To test this hypothesis rigorously, a case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted between December 1983 and February 1986. Cases (less than or equal to 16 years at diagnosis) derived from patients diagnosed at the primary institutions and affiliated hospitals were matched (age, sex, and race) with regional population controls. DNA samples from bone marrow or peripheral blood from 157 cases (131 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 26 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and peripheral blood from 136 controls were analyzed by Southern blot technique, under highly stringent conditions, using cloned BLV DNA as a probe. None of the 157 case or 136 control DNA samples hybridized with the probe. The high statistical power and specificity of this study provide the best evidence to date that genomic integration of BLV is not a factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia/non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Choi, K. Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease. PMID:24750974

  5. Bovine leukemia virus DNA in human breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Buehring, Gertrude Case; Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M; Choi, K Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease.

  6. Inhibition of activity of the protease from bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Ménard, A; Leonard, R; Llido, S; Geoffre, S; Picard, P; Berteau, F; Precigoux, G; Hospital, M; Guillemain, B

    1994-06-13

    In view of the close similarity between bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) we investigated the possibility of developing specific inhibitors of the proteases of these retroviruses using the purified enzyme from BLV. We tested the ability of this protease to specifically cleave various short oligopeptide substrates containing cleavage sites of BLV and HTLV-I proteases, as well as a recombinant BLV Gag precursor. The best substrate, a synthetic decapeptide bearing the natural cleavage site between the matrix and the capsid proteins of BLV Gag precursor polyprotein, was used to develop an inhibition assay. We determined the relative inhibitory effect of synthetic Gag precursor-like peptides in which the cleavable site was replaced by a non-hydrolyzable moiety. The encouraging inhibitory effect of these compounds indicates that potent non-peptidic inhibitors for retroviral proteases are not unattainable.

  7. Mechanisms of pathogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus as a model for human T-cell leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Aida, Yoko; Murakami, Hironobu; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) make up a unique retrovirus family. Both viruses induce chronic lymphoproliferative diseases with BLV affecting the B-cell lineage and HTLV-1 affecting the T-cell lineage. The pathologies of BLV- and HTLV-induced infections are notably similar, with an absence of chronic viraemia and a long latency period. These viruses encode at least two regulatory proteins, namely, Tax and Rex, in the pX region located between the env gene and the 3′ long terminal repeat. The Tax protein is a key contributor to the oncogenic potential of the virus, and is also the key protein involved in viral replication. However, BLV infection is not sufficient for leukemogenesis, and additional events such as gene mutations must take place. In this review, we first summarize the similarities between the two viruses in terms of genomic organization, virology, and pathology. We then describe the current knowledge of the BLV model, which may also be relevant for the understanding of leukemogenesis caused by HTLV-1. In addition, we address our improved understanding of Tax functions through the newly identified BLV Tax mutants, which have a substitution between amino acids 240 and 265. PMID:24265629

  8. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination of genetic and environmental factors. How leukemia forms In general, leukemia is thought to occur ... causing the signs and symptoms of leukemia. How leukemia is classified Doctors classify leukemia based on its ...

  9. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ... diagnosed with leukemia are over 50 years old. Leukemia Starts in Bone Marrow Click for more information ...

  10. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-15

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  12. Rectal transmission of bovine leukemia virus in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, E T; Levine, J F; Coggins, L

    1987-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was transmitted by rectal inoculation of BLV-infective whole blood into cattle and sheep. Two cows and 2 sheep each were given 500 ml and 50 ml of blood, respectively, by rectal infusion. Two sheep which served as positive controls each were given 1 ml of the same blood, IV. All animals became seropositive to BLV by postinoculation week 5. Although relatively large volumes of blood were used for rectal inoculation, a base line for infectivity was established for the rectal route.

  13. Radiation-induced World Health Organization grade II meningiomas in young patients following prophylactic cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Oda, Keiko; Sato, Taku; Watanabe, Tadashi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Ito, Eiji; Matsumoto, Yuka; Ando, Hitoshi; Sakuma, Jun; Kikuta, Atsushi; Hojo, Hiroshi; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Current chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to successfully treat many children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but have resulted in an increased risk of late central nervous system tumors, most commonly meningioma, particularly in patients who have received cranial irradiation. We treated 3 young patients with World Health Organization grade II meningiomas who had previously received cranial irradiation for the treatment of childhood ALL: a cerebellopontine angle tumor in a 19-year-old woman, a petroclival tumor in a 28-year-old man, and a frontal parasagittal tumor in a 19-year-old woman. These cases were difficult to treat due to the aggressive and invasive biology of the tumors. Therefore, we recommend systematic cranial imaging and long follow-up periods for leukemia survivors to detect brain tumors before progression.

  14. Genotyping of feline leukemia virus in Mexican housecats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Hugo; Autran, Marcela; García, M Martha; Carmona, M Ángel; Rodríguez, Cecilia; Martínez, H Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus with variable rates of infection globally. DNA was obtained from cats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and proviral DNA of pol and env genes was detected using PCR. Seventy-six percent of cats scored positive for FeLV using env-PCR; and 54 %, by pol-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of both regions identified sequences that correspond to a group that includes endogenous retroviruses. They form an independent branch and, therefore, a new group of endogenous viruses. Cat gender, age, outdoor access, and cohabitation with other cats were found to be significant risk factors associated with the disease. This strongly suggests that these FeLV genotypes are widely distributed in the studied feline population in Mexico.

  15. A Multicenter Blinded Analysis Indicates No Association between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and either Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus or Polytropic Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Harvey J.; Mikovits, Judy A.; Switzer, William M.; Ruscetti, Francis W.; Lo, Shyh-Ching; Klimas, Nancy; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Montoya, Jose G.; Bateman, Lucinda; Levine, Susan; Peterson, Daniel; Levin, Bruce; Hanson, Maureen R.; Genfi, Afia; Bhat, Meera; Zheng, HaoQiang; Wang, Richard; Li, Bingjie; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Lee, Li Ling; Sameroff, Stephen; Heneine, Walid; Coffin, John; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disabling disorder known as chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been linked in two independent studies to infection with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and polytropic murine leukemia virus (pMLV). Although the associations were not confirmed in subsequent studies by other investigators, patients continue to question the consensus of the scientific community in rejecting the validity of the association. Here we report blinded analysis of peripheral blood from a rigorously characterized, geographically diverse population of 147 patients with CFS/ME and 146 healthy subjects by the investigators describing the original association. This analysis reveals no evidence of either XMRV or pMLV infection. PMID:22991430

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia viruses from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Mustafa M; Al-Rukibat, Raida K; Hananeh, Wael M; Nasar, Abdelrahman T; Al-Zghoul, Mohammad B

    2012-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is distributed worldwide. BLV has many effects on the health status and productivity of infected animals and is a potential risk for humans. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of and genotype bovine leukemia viruses on Jordanian dairy farms. Nested PCR coupled with RFLP and direct sequencing of a partial fragment of the env gene were carried out. Two BLV genotypes were found, genotypes 1 and 6. These genotypes were identified by nested PCR-RFLP of 444 bp of the env gene by restriction digestion with HaeIII, Bcl I and Pvu II. However, BLV-Jordan-10 seems to represent an entirely new genotype in our phylogenetic analysis. The nucleotide sequence identity between these two Jordanian BLV genotypes (1 and 6) was 96.2 %. The nucleotide sequence identity between Jordanian BLV genotype 1 and other reference BLV genotype 1 strains ranged from 99 % to 99.5 %. The nucleotide sequence similarity of the Jordanian BLV genotype 6 to other BLV genotypes ranged from 90 % to 96.7 %. A neutralizing motif and CD8(+) T-cell epitope were found in the env protein of both Jordanian isolates. In this study, we documented the presence of two BLV genotypes (1 and 6) on Jordanian dairy farms.

  17. Bovine leukemia virus: purification and characterization of the aspartic protease.

    PubMed

    Menard, A; Mamoun, R Z; Geoffre, S; Castroviejo, M; Raymond, S; Precigoux, G; Hospital, M; Guillemain, B

    1993-04-01

    To develop efficient bovine leukemia virus (BLV) protease (PR) inhibitors, pure enzyme is required. For this, we have developed a two-step chromatographic nondenaturing purification protocol of PR from virions. As expected, the purified protein presents a molecular weight (14 kDa) and a NH2 terminal end fitting with previously reported data. The enzymatic activity of BLV PR was characterized using a synthetic peptide containing a potential cleavage site of the BLV gag-pro polypeptide precursor as substrate. The protease was most active at pH 6, 40 degrees, and high salt concentration (1-2 M NaCl or ammonium sulfate). In contrast, using a natural substrate such as a human T-cell leukemia virus recombinant gag precursor, BLV PR activity was higher at a low salt concentration (0.5 M NaCl). Besides, the use of different potentially cleavable molecules revealed that PR activity may be influenced by the substrate conformational structure around the cleavage site. Replacement of the two amino acids of a synthetic substrate cleavable site by a statin residue completely inhibited the enzymatic activity of the BLV PR.

  18. Friend leukemia virus integration-1 (FLI-1) expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz, Gülşah; Kuzu, Işinsu

    2009-06-01

    Friend leukemia virus integration-1 expression has been shown in a variety of tumors, including vascular tumors, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, Merkel cell carcinoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma, in addition to Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The aim of the current study was to examine Friend leukemia virus integration-1 protein expression in a series of gastrointestinal stromal tumors and also to assess if Friend leukemia virus integration-1 has any role in the disease process. It is the first study analyzing Friend leukemia virus integration-1 expression in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the English literature. A tissue microarray block containing 52 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors was done. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for Friend leukemia virus integration-1 polyclonal antibody. Immunohistochemically, Friend leukemia virus integration-1 was negative in all cases. Friend leukemia virus integration-1 can be expressed in a variety of tumors, and is helpful in making the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor. We think that this protein is not expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and it is not a part of the pathogenesis of this disease.

  19. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential diagnosis of feline leukemia virus subgroups using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Megumi; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Tomoyuki; Baba, Kenji; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.

  1. Targeting TRPM2 Channels Impairs Radiation-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Fosters Cell Death of T Cell Leukemia Cells in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Dominik; Misovic, Milan; Szteyn, Kalina; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Rudner, Justine; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Messenger RNA data of lymphohematopoietic cancer lines suggest a correlation between expression of the cation channel TRPM2 and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The latter is overexpressed in various tumor entities and mediates therapy resistance. Here, we analyzed the crosstalk between Bcl-2 and TRPM2 channels in T cell leukemia cells during oxidative stress as conferred by ionizing radiation (IR). To this end, the effects of TRPM2 inhibition or knock-down on plasma membrane currents, Ca2+ signaling, mitochondrial superoxide anion formation, and cell cycle progression were compared between irradiated (0–10 Gy) Bcl-2-overexpressing and empty vector-transfected Jurkat cells. As a result, IR stimulated a TRPM2-mediated Ca2+-entry, which was higher in Bcl-2-overexpressing than in control cells and which contributed to IR-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. TRPM2 inhibition induced a release from G2/M arrest resulting in cell death. Collectively, this data suggests a pivotal function of TRPM2 in the DNA damage response of T cell leukemia cells. Apoptosis-resistant Bcl-2-overexpressing cells even can afford higher TRPM2 activity without risking a hazardous Ca2+-overload-induced mitochondrial superoxide anion formation. PMID:26839633

  2. Dynein Regulators Are Important for Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Valle-Tenney, Roger; Opazo, Tatiana; Cancino, Jorge; Goff, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the early steps of infection, retroviruses must direct the movement of the viral genome into the nucleus to complete their replication cycle. This process is mediated by cellular proteins that interact first with the reverse transcription complex and later with the preintegration complex (PIC), allowing it to reach and enter the nucleus. For simple retroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), the identities of the cellular proteins involved in trafficking of the PIC in infection are unknown. To identify cellular proteins that interact with the MLV PIC, we developed a replication-competent MLV in which the integrase protein was tagged with a FLAG epitope. Using a combination of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we established that the microtubule motor dynein regulator DCTN2/p50/dynamitin interacts with the MLV preintegration complex early in infection, suggesting a direct interaction between the incoming viral particles and the dynein complex regulators. Further experiments showed that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of either DCTN2/p50/dynamitin or another dynein regulator, NudEL, profoundly reduced the efficiency of infection by ecotropic, but not amphotropic, MLV reporters. We propose that the cytoplasmic dynein regulators are a critical component of the host machinery needed for infection by the retroviruses entering the cell via the ecotropic envelope pathway. IMPORTANCE Retroviruses must access the chromatin of host cells to integrate the viral DNA, but before this crucial event, they must reach the nucleus. The movement through the cytoplasm—a crowded environment where diffusion is slow—is thought to utilize retrograde transport along the microtubule network by the dynein complex. Different viruses use different components of this multisubunit complex. We found that the preintegration complex of murine leukemia virus (MLV) interacts with the dynein complex and that regulators of this complex are essential for

  3. Expression of Bovine Leukemia Virus Genome is Blocked by a Nonimmunoglobulin Protein in Plasma from Infected Cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Ferrer, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma of cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus contains a soluble factor that blocks the expression of the viral genome in cultured lymphocytes. The blocking factor is not present in plasma of bovine leukemia virus-free cattle or of cattle infected with common bovine viruses. Blocking of bovine leukemia virus expression by the plasma factor is reversible, and seems to be mediated by a nonimmunoglobulin protein molecule.

  4. HTLV-1 (Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus 1) Seroconversion Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-17

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB_-GROUP RA 1: IITLV- I .croccnversion;--tpidemiology; Leukemia ; 06 03 Okinawa; texually Transmitted Disease". 06 13 19... Leukemia Virus 1 (HTLV-I) transmission is occurring in active duty forces stationed on Okinawa, Japan. HTLV-I, the first human retrovirus isolated, has been...identified as the etiologic agent for Adult T-Cell Leukemia /Lymphoma (ATLL). In addition, HTLV-I has been linked etioloyically to a subset of patients

  5. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV) > 4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of > 9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of

  6. Genetic diversity in the feline leukemia virus gag gene.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Maki; Watanabe, Shinya; Odahara, Yuka; Nakagawa, So; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2015-06-02

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belongs to the Gammaretrovirus genus and is horizontally transmitted among cats. FeLV is known to undergo recombination with endogenous retroviruses already present in the host during FeLV-subgroup A infection. Such recombinant FeLVs, designated FeLV-subgroup B or FeLV-subgroup D, can be generated by transduced endogenous retroviral env sequences encoding the viral envelope. These recombinant viruses have biologically distinct properties and may mediate different disease outcomes. The generation of such recombinant viruses resulted in structural diversity of the FeLV particle and genetic diversity of the virus itself. FeLV env diversity through mutation and recombination has been studied, while gag diversity and its possible effects are less well understood. In this study, we investigated recombination events in the gag genes of FeLVs isolated from naturally infected cats and reference isolates. Recombination and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the gag genes often contain endogenous FeLV sequences and were occasionally replaced by entire endogenous FeLV gag genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions of FeLV gag sequences allowed for classification into three distinct clusters, similar to those previously established for the env gene. Analysis of the recombination junctions in FeLV gag indicated that these variants have similar recombination patterns within the same genotypes, indicating that the recombinant viruses were horizontally transmitted among cats. It remains to be investigated whether the recombinant sequences affect the molecular mechanism of FeLV transmission. These findings extend our understanding of gammaretrovirus evolutionary patterns in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic characterization of feline leukemia virus from Florida panthers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Cunningham, Mark W; Roca, Alfred L; Troyer, Jennifer L; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. Not associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. Genetic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species transmission from a domestic cat. The FeLV-Pco virus was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from endogenous FeLV. FeLV-Pco sequences were most similar to the well-characterized FeLV-945 strain, which is highly virulent and strongly pathogenic in domestic cats because of unique long terminal repeat and envelope sequences. These unique features may also account for the severity of the outbreak after cross-species transmission to the panther.

  8. Genetic Characterization of Feline Leukemia Virus from Florida Panthers

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith A.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Roca, Alfred L.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Warren E.

    2008-01-01

    From 2002 through 2005, an outbreak of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurred in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). Clinical signs included lymphadenopathy, anemia, septicemia, and weight loss; 5 panthers died. Not associated with FeLV outcome were the genetic heritage of the panthers (pure Florida vs. Texas/Florida crosses) and co-infection with feline immunodeficiency virus. Genetic analysis of panther FeLV, designated FeLV-Pco, determined that the outbreak likely came from 1 cross-species transmission from a domestic cat. The FeLV-Pco virus was closely related to the domestic cat exogenous FeLV-A subgroup in lacking recombinant segments derived from endogenous FeLV. FeLV-Pco sequences were most similar to the well-characterized FeLV-945 strain, which is highly virulent and strongly pathogenic in domestic cats because of unique long terminal repeat and envelope sequences. These unique features may also account for the severity of the outbreak after cross-species transmission to the panther. PMID:18258118

  9. Focus assay on FeLIX-dependent feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Yuki; Shojima, Takayuki; Hoshino, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    T-lymphotropic feline leukemia virus (FeLV-T) induces immunodeficiency in cats. FeLV-T is fusion-defective and requires a cofactor, termed FeLIX, for infection. FeLIX is a truncated envelope glycoprotein of an endogenous FeLV and mediates infection by binding a phosphate transporter Pit-1. In this study, we established a feline sarcoma-positive leukemia-negative cell line expressing FeLIX, named QN/FeLIX cells. Upon infection, FeLV-T induced prominent foci with syncytia in QN/FeLIX cells and could be titrated by the focus assay. In addition, we established a FeLIX-expressing feline fibroblast cell line, named AH/FeLIX cells. FeLV-T productively infected AH/FeLIX cells and induced severe CPE with syncytia. QN/FeLIX and AH/FeLIX cells will be useful for the study of FeLIX-dependent mutants in FeLV-infected cats.

  10. Differential Susceptibility of Spleen Focus-Forming Virus and Murine Leukemia Viruses to Ansamycin Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Horoszewicz, Julius S.; Leong, Susan S.; Carter, William A.

    1977-01-01

    The streptovaricin complex (SvCx) and rifamycin SV derivatives display potent antiviral activity against the polycythemic strain of Friend leukemia virus (FV-P), as measured by a reduction in the number of spleen foci produced in mice. Such reductions may be explained by inactivation of functions of (i) the spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), (ii) its “helper” murine leukemia virus (MuLV), or (iii) both viruses normally present in FV-P. We noted that preincubation of FV-P with fractionation products of SvCx, or derivatives of rifamycin SV, at low concentrations (3 to 5 μg/ml) reduces the number of spleen foci 80 to 97%, whereas titers of MuLV (from the same inoculum) remain unaffected (MuLV titers were measured by XC, S+L−, and “helper activity” assays). Our findings indicate a remarkable biological selectivity of ansamycins, as well as nonansamycin components of SvCx, against the transforming and defective spleen focus-forming virus as compared to MuLV. Thus, the drugs might be useful in distinguishing other types of oncornaviruses. PMID:18986

  11. Suppression of infectious murine leukemia virus in wild mice (Mus musculus) by passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Gardner, M B; Klement, V; Estes, J D; Gilden, R V; Toni, R; Huebner, R J

    1977-06-01

    Passive immunization with heterologous antivirus antiserum beginning at birth successfully suppressed infectious murine leukemia virus expression in Lake Casitas wild mice (Musmusculus) at 5-7 weeks of age.

  12. Sequences responsible for erythroid and lymphoid leukemia in the long terminal repeats of Friend-mink cell focus-forming and Moloney murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Ishimoto, A; Takimoto, M; Adachi, A; Kakuyama, M; Kato, S; Kakimi, K; Fukuoka, K; Ogiu, T; Matsuyama, M

    1987-01-01

    Despite the high degree of homology (91%) between the nucleotide sequences of the Friend-mink cell focus-forming (MCF) and the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) genomic long terminal repeats (LTRs), the pathogenicities determined by the LTR sequences of the two viruses are quite different. Friend-MCF MuLV is an erythroid leukemia virus, and Moloney MuLV is a lymphoid leukemia virus. To map the LTR sequences responsible for the different disease specificities, we constructed nine viruses with LTRs recombinant between the Friend-MCF and Moloney MuLVs. Analysis of the leukemia induced with the recombinant viruses showed that a 195-base-pair nucleotide sequence, including a 75-base-pair nucleotide Moloney enhancer, is responsible for the tissue-specific leukemogenicity of Moloney MuLV. However, not only the enhancer but also its downstream sequences appear to be necessary. The Moloney virus enhancer and its downstream sequence exerted a dominant effect over that of the Friend-MCF virus, but the enhancer sequence alone did not. The results that three of the nine recombinant viruses induced both erythroid and lymphoid leukemias supported the hypothesis that multiple viral genetic determinants control both the ability to cause leukemia and the type of leukemia induced. PMID:3033317

  13. Radiation-induced gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced gliomas represent a relatively rare but well-characterized entity in the neuro-oncologic literature. Extensive retrospective cohort data in pediatric populations after therapeutic intracranial radiation show a clearly increased risk in glioma incidence that is both patient age- and radiation dose/volume-dependent. Data in adults are more limited but show heightened risk in certain groups exposed to radiation. In both populations, there is no evidence linking increased risk associated with routine exposure to diagnostic radiation. At the molecular level, recent studies have found distinct genetic differences between radiation-induced gliomas and their spontaneously-occurring counterparts. Clinically, there is understandable reluctance on the part of clinicians to re-treat patients due to concern for cumulative neurotoxicity. However, available data suggest that aggressive intervention can lead to improved outcomes in patients with radiation-induced gliomas. PMID:19831840

  14. Discovery of drugs that possess activity against feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Greggs, Willie M; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2012-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gammaretrovirus that is a significant cause of neoplastic-related disorders affecting cats worldwide. Treatment options for FeLV are limited, associated with serious side effects, and can be cost-prohibitive. The development of drugs used to treat a related retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has been rapid, leading to the approval of five drug classes. Although structural differences affect the susceptibility of gammaretroviruses to anti-HIV drugs, the similarities in mechanism of replication suggest that some anti-HIV-1 drugs may also inhibit FeLV. This study demonstrates the anti-FeLV activity of four drugs approved by the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) at non-toxic concentrations. Of these, tenofovir and raltegravir are anti-HIV-1 drugs, while decitabine and gemcitabine are approved to treat myelodysplastic syndromes and pancreatic cancer, respectively, but also have anti-HIV-1 activity in cell culture. Our results indicate that these drugs may be useful for FeLV treatment and should be investigated for mechanism of action and suitability for veterinary use.

  15. Amphotropic murine leukemia viruses induce spongiform encephalomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Münk, Carsten; Löhler, Jürgen; Prassolov, Vladimir; Just, Ursula; Stockschläder, Marcus; Stocking, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Recombinants of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) have found widespread use in retroviral vector systems due to their ability to efficiently and stably infect cells of several different species, including human. Previous work has shown that replication-competent recombinants containing the amphotropic env gene, encoding the major SU envelope glycoprotein that determines host tropism, induce lymphomas in vivo. We show here that these viruses also induce a spongiform encephalomyelopathy in mice inoculated perinatally. This fatal central nervous system disease is characterized by noninflammatory spongiform lesions of nerve and glial cells and their processes, and is associated with moderate astro- and microgliosis. The first clinical symptoms are ataxia, tremor, and spasticity, progressing to complete tetraparesis and incontinence, and finally death of the animal. Sequences within the amphotropic env gene are necessary for disease induction. Coinfection of A-MuLV recombinants with nonneuropathogenic ecotropic or polytropic MuLV drastically increases the incidence, degree, and distribution of the neurodegenerative disorder. The consequence of these results in view of the use of A-MuLV recombinants in the clinic is discussed. PMID:9159161

  16. Human APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kremer, Melanie; Schnierle, Barbara S. . E-mail: schba@pei.de

    2005-06-20

    The human APOBEC3G protein exhibits broad antiretroviral activity against a variety of retroviruses. It is packaged into viral particles and executes its antiviral function in the target cell. The packaging of APOBEC3G into different viral particles requires a mechanism that confers this promiscuity. Here, APOBEC3G incorporation into murine leukemia virus (MLV) was studied using retroviral vectors. APOBEC3G uptake did not require either its cytidine deaminase activity or the presence of a retroviral vector genome. Results from immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies of APOBEC3G with a MLV Gag-CFP (cyan fluorescent protein) fusion protein imply an interaction between both proteins. RNase A treatment did not inhibit the co-precipitation of Gag-CFP and APOBEC3G, suggesting that the interaction is RNA independent. Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag, the MLV Gag precursor protein appears to interact with APOBEC3G, indicating that Gag contains conserved structures which are used to encapsidate APOBEC3G into different retroviral particles.

  17. Radiation-induced pneumothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, D.M.; Littman, P.; Gefter, W.B.; Miller, W.T.; Raney, R.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of radiation therapy to the chest. The proposed pathogenesis is radiation-induced fibrosis promoting subpleural bleb formation that ruptures resulting in pneumothorax. We report on two young patients with primary sarcomas without pulmonary metastases who developed spontaneous pneumothorax after irradiation. Neither patient had antecedent radiographic evidence of pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, Win; Lahorte, Philippe

    This chapter is part one of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced bioradicals is discussed. Bioradicals play a pivotal role in the complex chain of processes starting with the absorption of radiation in biological materials and ending with the radiation-induced biological after-effects. The general aspects of the four consecutive stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) are discussed from an interdisciplinary point of view. The close relationship between radiation dose and track structure, induced DNA damage and cell survival or killing is treated in detail. The repair mechanisms that cells employ, to insure DNA stability following irradiation, are described. Because of their great biomedical importance tumour suppressor genes involved in radiation-induced DNA repair and in checkpoint activation will be treated briefly, together with the molecular genetics of radiosensitivity. Part two of this review will deal with modern theoretical methods and experimental instrumentation for quantitative studies in this research field. Also an extensive overview of the applications of radiation-induced bioradicals will be given. A comprehensive list of references allows further exploration of this research field, characterised in the last decade by a substantial advance, both in fundamental knowledge and in range of applications.

  19. Vaccination against δ−Retroviruses: The Bovine Leukemia Virus Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; de Brogniez, Alix; Gillet, Nicolas; Golime, Ramarao; Burny, Arsène; Jaworski, Juan-Pablo; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are closely related δ-retroviruses that induce hematological diseases. HTLV-1 infects about 15 million people worldwide, mainly in subtropical areas. HTLV-1 induces a wide spectrum of diseases (e.g., HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis) and leukemia/lymphoma (adult T-cell leukemia). Bovine leukemia virus is a major pathogen of cattle, causing important economic losses due to a reduction in production, export limitations and lymphoma-associated death. In the absence of satisfactory treatment for these diseases and besides the prevention of transmission, the best option to reduce the prevalence of δ-retroviruses is vaccination. Here, we provide an overview of the different vaccination strategies in the BLV model and outline key parameters required for vaccine efficacy. PMID:24956179

  20. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: Recommendations for testing and management

    PubMed Central

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes. PMID:22294790

  1. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among cats in Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2009-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.

  2. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in Canada: recommendations for testing and management.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan; Bienzle, Dorothee; Carioto, Lisa; Chisholm, Hugh; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Scherk, Margie

    2011-08-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious disease agents of cats in Canada. Seroprevalence data for FeLV and FIV in various populations of Canadian cats are reviewed and recommendations for testing and management of infections by these viruses in cats in Canada are presented. Retrovirus testing in Canada is infrequent in comparison with the United States, and efforts should be focused on reducing physical and other barriers to testing, and on education of veterinarians, veterinary team members, and cat owners regarding the importance of testing. New test methodologies for FeLV and FIV are emerging, and should be independently evaluated in order to provide practitioners with information on test reliability. Finally, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, and to provide information on disease outcomes.

  3. Hexagonal organization of Moloney murine leukemia virus capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Keith; McDermott, Jason; Barklis, Eric

    2002-06-20

    To help elucidate the mechanisms by which retrovirus structural proteins associate to form virus particles, we have examined membrane-bound assemblies of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) capsid (CA) proteins. Electron microscopy and image reconstruction techniques showed that CA dimers appear to function as organizational subunits of the cage-like, membrane-bound protein arrays. However, new three-dimensional (3D) data also were consistent with hexagonal (p6) assembly models. The p6 3D reconstructions of membrane-bound M-MuLV CA proteins gave unit cells of a = b = 80.3 A, c = 110 A, gamma = 120 degrees, in which six dimer units formed a cage lattice. Neighbor cage hole-to-hole distances were 45 A, while distances between hexagonal cage holes corresponded to unit cell lengths (80.3 A). The hexagonal model predicts two types of cage holes (trimer and hexamer holes), uses symmetric head-to-head dimer building blocks, and permits the introduction of lattice curvature by conversion of hexamer to pentamer units. The M-MuLV CA lattice is similar to those formed in helical tubes by HIV CA in that hexamer units surround cage holes of 25-30 A, but differs in that M-MuLV hexamer units appear to be CA dimers, whereas HIV CA units appear to be monomers. These results suggest that while general assembly principles apply to different retroviruses, clear assembly distinctions exist between these virus types. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  4. Increased synthesis and expression of H-2 antigens on thymocytes as a result of radiation leukemia virus infection: a possible mechanism for H-2 linked control of virus-induced neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have mapped resistance and/or susceptibility to radiation-induced leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced neoplasia to the H-2D region. H-2 linked effects on virus replication can be detected subsequent to the initial virus infection, and clear- cut differences in numbers of virus infected thymus cells can be detected as early as 5 wk after RadLV inoculation. Rapid increases in cellular synthesis and cell surface expression of H-2 antigens are detectable immediately after virus inoculation. These changes have been studied by immunofluorescence, absorption, cell surface iodination followed by sodium dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and two dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of internally labeled lymphocyte proteins. Expression of H-2K molecules is significantly increased in cells of susceptible and resistant animals. However, significant increases in expression of H-2D antigens occurs only on thymus cells from resistant strains (H-2Dd). Transformed cells of resistant and susceptible H-2 haplotypes adapted to tissue culture lack detectable H-2 antigens as determined by serological absorption studies. It is argued that altered expression of H-2 antigens plays a very significant role in the mechanism of host defense to virus infection. PMID:75239

  5. Molecular cloning of osteoma-inducing replication-competent murine leukemia viruses from the RFB osteoma virus stock.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, L; Behnisch, W; Schmidt, J; Luz, A; Pedersen, F S; Erfle, V; Strauss, P G

    1992-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning of two replication-competent osteoma-inducing murine leukemia viruses from the RFB osteoma virus stock (M. P. Finkel, C. A. Reilly, Jr., B. O. Biskis, and I. L. Greco, p. 353-366, in C. H. G. Price and F. G. M. Ross, ed., Bone--Certain Aspects of Neoplasia, 1973). Like the original RFB osteoma virus stock, viruses derived from the molecular RFB clones induced multiple osteomas in mice of the CBA/Ca strain. The cloned RFB viruses were indistinguishable by restriction enzyme analysis and by nucleotide sequence analysis of their long-terminal-repeat regions and showed close relatedness to the Akv murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:1326664

  6. Leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  7. [Submicroscopic features of cells in the microenvironment of hematopoietic development of virus-induced Rauscher leukemia].

    PubMed

    Butenko, Z A; Naumenko, O I

    1993-06-01

    The study was made of submicroscopic changes in the cells of bone marrow and splenic microenvironment in mice developing virus-induced Rauscher leukemia. As shown by electron microscopy, ultrastructural cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry, ultrastructure of the complexes from the stromal and hemopoietic cells underwent noticeable alterations as early as the first days after the virus introduction. This suggests that bone marrow is the primary target of the virus in Rauscher leukemia. Affections of the macrophages, dendrite, interdigital and lymphoid cells of the spleen reflect their participation in the body defenses against the virus. Progressive shift of erythropoiesis from the bone marrow into the spleen is related to morphofunctional changes in the microenvironmental cells. The findings may be useful in consideration of cellular pathogenetic aspects of acute leukemia.

  8. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.

  9. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Moss, S D; Rockswold, G L; Chou, S N; Yock, D; Berger, M S

    1988-04-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature.

  10. Molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus from Moldovan dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Aneta; Rola-Łuszczak, Marzena; Kubiś, Piotr; Balov, Svetlana; Moskalik, Roman; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Kuźmak, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), a disease that has worldwide distribution. Whilst it has been eradicated in most of Western Europe and Scandinavia, it remains a problem in other regions, particularly Eastern Europe and South America. For this study, in 2013, 24 cattle from three farms in three regions of Moldova were screened by ELISA and nested PCR. Of these cattle, 14 which were PCR positive, and these were molecularly characterized based on the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the deduced amino acid sequence of the encoded gp51 protein. Our results demonstrated a low level of genetic variability (0-2.9%) among BLV field strains from Moldova, in contrast to that observed for other retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (20-38%) Mason IL (Trudy vologod moloch Inst 146-164, 1970) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (~40%) Willems L et al (AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16(16):1787-1795, 2000), where the envelope gene exhibits high levels of variation Polat M et al (Retrovirology 13(1):4, 2016). Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that BLV genotype 7 (G7) is predominant in Moldova and that the BLV population in Moldovan cattle is a mixture of at least three new sub-genotypes: G7D, G7E and G4C. Neutrality tests revealed that negative selection was the major force operating upon the 51-kDa BLV envelope surface glycoprotein subunit gp51, although one positively selected site within conformational epitope G was detected in the N-terminal part of gp51. Furthermore, two functional domains, linear epitope B and the zinc-binding domain, were found to have an elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous codon differences. Together, these data suggest that the evolutionary constraints on epitopes G and B and the zinc-binding domains of gp51 differ from those on the other domains, with a tendency towards formation of homogenous genetic groups, which is a common concept of

  11. Interactions of Host Proteins with the Murine Leukemia Virus Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Studamire, Barbara; Goff, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Retroviral infections cause a variety of cancers in animals and a number of diverse diseases in humans such as leukemia and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Productive and efficient proviral integration is critical for retroviral function and is the key step in establishing a stable and productive infection, as well as the mechanism by which host genes are activated in leukemogenesis. Host factors are widely anticipated to be involved in all stages of the retroviral life cycle, and the identification of integrase interacting factors has the potential to increase our understanding of mechanisms by which the incoming virus might appropriate cellular proteins to target and capture host DNA sequences. Identification of MoMLV integrase interacting host factors may be key to designing efficient and benign retroviral-based gene therapy vectors; key to understanding the basic mechanism of integration; and key in designing efficient integrase inhibitors. In this review, we discuss current progress in the field of MoMLV integrase interacting proteins and possible roles for these proteins in integration. PMID:21637732

  12. Inhibition by streptovaricins of Rauscher leukemia virus splenomegaly.

    PubMed

    Borden, E C; Carter, W A; Sensenbrenner, L L; Owens, A H; Lichtenstein, J; Gray, G D; Neil, G L; Nichol, F R; Li, L H

    1974-12-15

    Streptovaricins (Sv), ansa macrolide antibiotics, inhibited Rauscher leukemia virus (RLV) splenomegaly by 25-50%. All streptovaricins tested were effective when administered orally either by diet ad lib or by intubation from infection to time of killing. When delivered by intubation, Sv was measurable in plasma for up to 6 h. SvC, at 300 mg/kg/day, reduced mean spleen weight of infected mice from 478 plus or minus 51 (SE) mg to 300 plus or minus 55 (SE) mg. Rifampicin, at 250 mg/kg/day, had no similar activity. Decrease in caloric intake and in body-weight gain also resulted in an inhibition of RLV splenomegaly; although Sv-treated mice gained weight, the increase was usually slightly less than controls. However, mice treated with a Sv diet for a week prior to infection, after an initial period of weight loss, gained at a rate equivalent to control group, and when killed had a marked reduction in splenomegaly. The selectivity of streptovaricins and specificity for viral events was suggested by several observations: (1) Splenomegaly and mortality, induced by L1210 or a non-infective transplantable tumor of RLV origin, was not inhibited. (2) No inhibition of normal hematopoietic spleen colonies was observed. (3) Host immune responses, including cellular and humoral immunity and interferon production and action, were not inhibited. Thus, although the effect of slightly decreased weight and intake could not be unequivocally established, the findings were most compatible with a selective inhibition of RLV splenomegaly by Sv.

  13. Bovine leukemia virus and cow longevity in Michigan dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, P C; Norby, B; Byrem, T M; Parmelee, A; Ledergerber, J T; Erskine, R J

    2013-03-01

    To determine the association between infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and cow longevity, a stratified random sample of 3,849 Holsteins in 112 Michigan dairy herds was followed for an average of 597 d following testing for BLV antibodies with an ELISA milk test. The hazard ratio of 1.23 indicates that BLV-positive cows were 23% more likely than their BLV-negative herd mates to die or be culled during the monitoring period. This result is adjusted for lactation number, which is also positively associated with an increased risk of leaving the herd. Because herd was included in models, the effect of BLV ELISA on cow longevity was a within-herd comparison in which BLV-infected cattle were compared with their uninfected herd mates. The analysis of 4 ELISA optical density (OD) groups demonstrated a dose response such that cows with higher OD values had decreased survival compared with cows with lower OD values. Cows with OD values above 0.5 were at 40% greater risk of dying or being culled than were their uninfected herd mates. These results support the contention that the association of BLV with cow longevity, when added to other economic impacts, may warrant the control of BLV in our US dairy cow population. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abelson murine leukemia virus: structural requirements for transforming gene function.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, A; Dunn, C Y; Yuasa, Y; Devare, S G; Reddy, E P; Aaronson, S A

    1982-01-01

    The integrated Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) genome cloned in bacteriophage lambda gtWES.lambda B was used to localize viral genetic sequences required for transformation. Comparison of the biological activity of cloned A-MuLV genomic and subgenomic fragments showed that subgenomic clones that lacked the 5' long terminal repeat and adjoining sequences (300 base pairs downstream of the repeat) were not biologically active. In contrast, subgenomic clones that lacked the 3' long terminal repeat and as much as 1.3 kilobase pairs of the A-MuLV cell-derived abl gene were as efficient as wild-type viral DNA in transformation. The A-MuLV-encoded polyprotein P120 and its associated protein kinase activity were detected in transformants obtained by transfection with Cla I, BamHI, and HindIII subgenomic clones. In contrast, individual transformants obtained with subgenomic Sal I clones expressed A-MuLV proteins ranging in size from 82,000 to 95,000 daltons. Each demonstrated an associated protein kinase activity. These results provide direct genetic evidence that only the proximal 40% of abl with its associated 5' helper viral sequences is required for fibroblast transformation. Images PMID:6291048

  15. Construction of a recombinant bovine leukemia virus vector for analysis of virus infectivity.

    PubMed

    Derse, D; Martarano, L

    1990-01-01

    A recombinant bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was constructed in which the X region was replaced with the bacterial neomycin resistance gene controlled by the simian virus 40 early promoter. This virus, termed BLV-SVNEO, is a self-packaging, activator-dependent retroviral vector. Introduction of the plasmid pBLV-SVNEO into mammalian cells resulted in constitutive expression of the neo gene, whereas the BLV structural genes, gag, pol, and env, were expressed only in the presence of the two regulatory proteins, Tax and Rex. The production and release of recombinant virus by cells transfected with pBLV-SVNEO were proportional to the number of G418-resistant colonies that developed after susceptible cells were exposed to the filtered culture medium. BLV-SVNEO was able to infect cell lines of human, bovine, canine, feline, and murine origin. BLV-producing cell lines were resistant to superinfection with BLV-SVNEO. This cell-virus system should facilitate molecular genetic studies of BLV and will provide a rapid, quantitative measure of BLV infectivity in a variety of cell types. These studies also demonstrate the feasibility of using activator-dependent retroviral vectors such as BLV-SVNEO to deliver foreign genes into cells and eventually animals.

  16. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery.

  17. A review of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence in cats in Canada.

    PubMed

    Little, Susan

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are common and important infectious diseases of cats in Canada. Prevalence data are necessary to define prophylactic, management, and therapeutic measures for stray, feral and owned cats. Recently, comprehensive data on the seroprevalence of retrovirus infections of cats in Canada have become available and are reviewed. Further investigation into geographic variations in retrovirus seroprevalence within Canada is warranted, and may provide information to improve recommendations for testing and prevention. As well, more information is needed on FIV subtypes in Canada to improve diagnostics and vaccines, as well as to provide information on disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Conditions for Copackaging Rous Sarcoma Virus and Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Proteins during Retroviral Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Robert P.; Wills, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) are examples of distantly related retroviruses that normally do not encounter one another in nature. Their Gag proteins direct particle assembly at the plasma membrane but possess very little sequence similarity. As expected, coexpression of these two Gag proteins did not result in particles that contain both. However, when the N-terminal membrane-binding domain of each molecule was replaced with that of the Src oncoprotein, which is also targeted to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane, efficient copackaging was observed in genetic complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We hypothesize that the RSV and MLV Gag proteins normally use distinct locations on the plasma membrane for particle assembly but otherwise have assembly domains that are sufficiently similar in function (but not sequence) to allow heterologous interactions when these proteins are redirected to a common membrane location. PMID:9971785

  19. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  20. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. )

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Murine Leukemia Viruses with Xenotropic Host Range from Mouse Strain SL

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Akio; Sakai, Koji; Ishimoto, Akinori

    1983-01-01

    A new type of mink cell focus-inducing virus was persistently isolated from the leukemic tissues of SL mice. In contrast to the dual tropic mink cell focus-inducing viruses reported to date, the new virus has the host range of the xenotropic murine leukemia virus. Analysis of RNase T1 fingerprints of genomic RNAs suggested that the mink cell focus-inducing virus with the xenotropic host range isolated from SL mice is a recombinant virus deriving from xenotropic murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:6296452

  4. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a γ retrovirus that has been associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and prostate cancer. The search for viral causes of these syndromes was reignited by the finding that RNase L activity was low in hereditary prostate cancer and some CFS patients. The six strains of XMRV that have been sequenced have greater than 99% identity, indicating a new human infection rather than laboratory contamination. DNA, RNA, and proteins from XMRV have been detected in 50% to 67% of CFS patients and in about 3.7% of healthy controls. XMRV infections could be transmitted to permissive cell lines from CFS plasma, suggesting the potential for communicable and blood-borne spread of the virus and potentially CFS. This troubling concept is currently under intense evaluation. The most important steps now are to independently confirm the initial findings; develop reliable assays of biomarkers; and to move on to investigations of XMRV pathophysiology and treatment in CFS, prostate cancer, and potentially other virus-related syndromes, if they exist. PMID:20425007

  5. Antiretroviral activities of protease inhibitors against murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Black, P L; Downs, M B; Lewis, M G; Ussery, M A; Dreyer, G B; Petteway, S R; Lambert, D M

    1993-01-01

    Rationally designed synthetic inhibitors of retroviral proteases inhibit the processing of viral polyproteins in cultures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected T lymphocytes and, as a result, inhibit the infectivity of HIV-1 for such cultures. The ability of HIV-1 protease inhibitors to suppress replication of the C-type retrovirus Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV) and the HIV-related lentivirus simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was examined in plaque reduction assays and syncytium reduction assays, respectively. Three of seven compounds examined blocked production of infectious R-MuLV, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of < or = 1 microM. Little or no cellular cytotoxicity was detectable at concentrations up to 100 microM. The same compounds which inhibited the infectivity of HIV-1 also produced activity against SIV and R-MuLV. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of many virions with atypical morphologies in cultures treated with the active compounds. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the active compounds reduced the number of membrane-associated virus particles. These results demonstrate that synthetic peptide analog inhibitors of retroviral proteases significantly inhibit proteolytic processing of the gag polyproteins of R-MuLV and SIV and inhibit the replication of these retroviruses. These results are similar to those for inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by these compounds, and thus, R-MuLV and SIV might be suitable models for the in vivo evaluation of the antiretroviral activities of these protease inhibitors.

  6. Antiretroviral activities of protease inhibitors against murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus in tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Black, P L; Downs, M B; Lewis, M G; Ussery, M A; Dreyer, G B; Petteway, S R; Lambert, D M

    1993-01-01

    Rationally designed synthetic inhibitors of retroviral proteases inhibit the processing of viral polyproteins in cultures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected T lymphocytes and, as a result, inhibit the infectivity of HIV-1 for such cultures. The ability of HIV-1 protease inhibitors to suppress replication of the C-type retrovirus Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV) and the HIV-related lentivirus simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was examined in plaque reduction assays and syncytium reduction assays, respectively. Three of seven compounds examined blocked production of infectious R-MuLV, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of < or = 1 microM. Little or no cellular cytotoxicity was detectable at concentrations up to 100 microM. The same compounds which inhibited the infectivity of HIV-1 also produced activity against SIV and R-MuLV. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of many virions with atypical morphologies in cultures treated with the active compounds. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the active compounds reduced the number of membrane-associated virus particles. These results demonstrate that synthetic peptide analog inhibitors of retroviral proteases significantly inhibit proteolytic processing of the gag polyproteins of R-MuLV and SIV and inhibit the replication of these retroviruses. These results are similar to those for inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by these compounds, and thus, R-MuLV and SIV might be suitable models for the in vivo evaluation of the antiretroviral activities of these protease inhibitors. Images PMID:8381640

  7. Bovine leukemia virus integration site selection in cattle that develop leukemia.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hironobu; Yamada, Takahito; Suzuki, Miho; Nakahara, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    It is essential for efficient replication of retroviruses that the viral genome is integrated into the host genome after reverse transcription. Some retroviruses are preferentially integrated into certain genomic regions that may differ depending on the disease. In this study, we analyzed the integration site of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in leukemic cells and 55 integration sites were determined. Although the integration sites were not located in a particular chromosome, the BLV provirus was integrated into transcription units at a frequency of 43.6% (24/55) and the transcriptional direction of the provirus was in accordance with that of the integrated host genes in 62.5% (15/24). The integration sites were located in introns of the host gene, excluding only one site, which was located in downstream from a stop codon. BLV provirus was never found in a protein coding sequence (CDS) in this study. Moreover, the BLV provirus did not favor integration near transcription start sites and CpG islands, or repetitive sequences such as transposons. Therefore, the possibility that the integration of the BLV provirus disrupts the host gene is very low. Although a hot spot was not found in the BLV provirus integration sites, the provirus favored the integration into regions disadvantageous for viral gene expression since no integration site was preferentially located into/near CDS, transcription start site or CpG island. It is suggested that the integration site of the BLV provirus in leukemic cells is related to the suppression of viral gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroimmunological aspects of human T cell leukemia virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mineki

    2014-04-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus etiologically associated with adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only approximately 0.25-4 % of infected individuals develop HAM/TSP; the majority of infected individuals remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers. Recent data suggest that immunological aspects of host-virus interactions might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. This review outlines and discusses the current understanding, ongoing developments, and future perspectives of HAM/TSP research.

  9. Meningitis caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in a patient with leukemia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zein, Naser; Boyce, Thomas G; Correa, Armando G; Rodriguez, Vilmarie

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of 15-year-old girl with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had fever, neutropenia, and severe headache while receiving maintenance chemotherapy. Cerebrospinal fluid testing revealed a lymphocytic pleocytosis and no evidence of relapsed leukemia. Meningitis caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was identified serologically. The patient's course was complicated by hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and by an intracranial hemorrhage. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is a rare cause of aseptic meningitis that should be considered in the symptomatic immunocompromised patient with an appropriate exposure history.

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of the inhibitor complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Matúz, Krisztina; Tözsér, Jozsef; Namwong, Sirilak; Goldfarb, Nathan E.; Dunn, Ben M.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-10-23

    Interactions between the protease (PR) encoded by the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and a number of potential inhibitors have been investigated by biochemical and structural techniques. It was observed that several inhibitors used clinically against HIV PR exhibit nanomolar or even subnanomolar values of K{sub i}, depending on the exact experimental conditions. Both TL-3, a universal inhibitor of retroviral PRs, and some inhibitors originally shown to inhibit plasmepsins were also quite potent, whereas inhibition by pepstatin A was considerably weaker. Crystal structures of the complexes of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus PR with TL-3, amprenavir and pepstatin A were solved at high resolution and compared with the structures of complexes of these inhibitors with other retropepsins. Whereas TL-3 and amprenavir bound in a predictable manner, spanning the substrate-binding site of the enzyme, two molecules of pepstatin A bound simultaneously in an unprecedented manner, leaving the catalytic water molecule in place.

  11. Tissue selectivity of murine leukemia virus infection is determined by long terminal repeat sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, C A; Haseltine, W A; Lenz, J; Ruprecht, R; Cloyd, M W

    1985-01-01

    Here we show that the tissue specificity of murine retrovirus infections is determined by the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an otherwise isogenic set of viruses. The isogenic viruses used for this study contain the coding gag, pol, and env genes of the avirulent Akv virus. Recombinant viruses that contain the LTR of a virus that induces T-cell leukemia lymphoma preferentially infect T lymphocytes. Viruses that carry the LTR of a virus that induces erythroleukemia preferentially infect non-T lymphoblastoid cell lines in the marrow and spleen. The Akv virus itself displays no tissue preference for hematopoietic cells. These experiments suggest that retroviruses that carry appropriate enhancer-promoters can be used to infect selectively specific target cells in animals. PMID:2991605

  12. Biochemical, inhibition and inhibitor resistance studies of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Ndongwe, Tanyaradzwa P.; Adedeji, Adeyemi O.; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Ong, Yee Tsuey; Hachiya, Atsuko; Marchand, Bruno; Ryan, Emily M.; Rai, Devendra K.; Kirby, Karen A.; Whatley, Angela S.; Burke, Donald H.; Johnson, Marc; Ding, Shilei; Zheng, Yi-Min; Liu, Shan-Lu; Kodama, Ei-Ichi; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Parniak, Michael A.; Singh, Kamalendra; Sarafianos, Stefan G.

    2012-01-01

    We report key mechanistic differences between the reverse transcriptases (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a gammaretrovirus that can infect human cells. Steady and pre-steady state kinetics demonstrated that XMRV RT is significantly less efficient in DNA synthesis and in unblocking chain-terminated primers. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that the gammaretroviral enzyme has a remarkably higher dissociation rate (koff) from DNA, which also results in lower processivity than HIV-1 RT. Transient kinetics of mismatch incorporation revealed that XMRV RT has higher fidelity than HIV-1 RT. We identified RNA aptamers that potently inhibit XMRV, but not HIV-1 RT. XMRV RT is highly susceptible to some nucleoside RT inhibitors, including Translocation Deficient RT inhibitors, but not to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors. We demonstrated that XMRV RT mutants K103R and Q190M, which are equivalent to HIV-1 mutants that are resistant to tenofovir (K65R) and AZT (Q151M), are also resistant to the respective drugs, suggesting that XMRV can acquire resistance to these compounds through the decreased incorporation mechanism reported in HIV-1. PMID:21908397

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus: frequency and associated factors in cats in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L C; Silva, A N; Freitas, J S; Cruz, R D S; Said, R A; Munhoz, A D

    2017-05-10

    Our aims were to determine the frequencies of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in owned and stray cats in the northeastern region of Brazil, ascertain the status of FeLV infection, and investigate potential associated factors among the owned cats. Blood samples from 200 asymptomatic owned cats and 30 stray cats were processed using nested PCR and commercial immunochromatographic tests to diagnose infections. To evaluate the factors associated with FIV and/or FeLV in owned cats, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each owner about the animal's environment, and these data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression. The frequencies for owned cats were 6% (12/200) and 3% (6/200) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. No owned cat was positive for both viruses. Stray cats showed frequencies of 6.66% (2/30) and 0% (0/30) for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Contact with other cats and living in peri-urban areas were considered to be risk factors (P < 0.05) for FIV. We did not identify any factors associated with infections with FeLV. Our results confirm the presence of these two retroviruses in the region under study. Our use of different diagnostic techniques allowed us to determine the frequency of retroviruses in the feline population more accurately, particularly with regard to infections by FeLV, which have complex pathogenesis.

  14. Tumorigenic Potential of a Recombinant Retrovirus Containing Sequences from Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus and Feline Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Starkey, C. R.; Lobelle-Rich, P. A.; Granger, S.; Brightman, B. K.; Fan, H.; Levy, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    A recombinant retrovirus, termed MoFe2-MuLV, was constructed in which the U3 region of T-lymphomagenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) was replaced by that of FeLV-945, a provirus of unique long terminal repeat (LTR) structure identified only in non-T-cell, non-B-cell lymphomas of the domestic cat. The LTR of FeLV-945 is unusual in that it contains only a single copy of the transcriptional enhancer followed 25 bp downstream by a 21-bp sequence in triplicate in tandem. Infectivity of MoFe2-MuLV was demonstrated in vitro in SC-1 cells and in vivo in neonatal NIH-Swiss mice. Tumors occurred in MoFe2-MuLV-infected animals following a latency period of 4 to 10 months (average, 6 months). The results of Southern blot analysis of the T-cell receptor beta locus demonstrated that all tumors were lymphomas of T-cell origin. MoFe2-MuLV LTRs were amplified by PCR from tumor DNA and were characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. LTRs from the tumors that occurred with relatively shorter latency predominantly retained the original MoFe2-MuLV sequence intact and unaltered. Tumors that occurred with relatively longer latency contained LTRs that also retained the 21-bp sequence triplication characteristic of the original virus but had acquired various duplications of enhancer sequences. The repeated identification of enhancer duplications in late-appearing tumors suggests that the duplication affords a selective advantage, although apparently not in the efficient induction of T-cell lymphoma. Proto-oncogenes known to be targets of insertional mutagenesis in the majority of Mo-MuLV-induced tumors or in feline non-T-cell, non-B-cell lymphomas were shown not to be rearranged in any tumor examined. Mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) proviral DNA was readily detectable in some, but not all, tumors. The presence or absence of MCF did not correlate with the kinetics of tumor induction. These studies indicate that the single-enhancer, triplication-containing FeLV LTR, typical of

  15. Radiation-Induced Bioradicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahorte, Philippe; Mondelaers, Wim

    This chapter represents the second part of a review in which the production and application of radiation-induced radicals in biological matter are discussed. In part one the general aspects of the four stages (physical, physicochemical, chemical and biological) of interaction of radiation with matter in general and biological matter in particular, were discussed. Here an overview is presented of modem technologies and theoretical methods available for studying these radiation effects. The relevance is highlighted of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations with respect to obtaining structural information on bioradicals, and a survey is given of the research studies in this field. We also discuss some basic aspects of modem accelerator technologies which can be used for creating radicals and we conclude with an overview of applications of radiation processing in biology and related fields such as biomedical and environmental engineering, food technology, medicine and pharmacy.

  16. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  17. Animals Models of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in a minority of infected individuals after long periods of viral persistence. The various stages of HTLV-I infection and leukemia development are studied by using several different animal models: (1) the rabbit (and mouse) model of persistent HTLV-I infection, (2) transgenic mice to model tumorigenesis by HTLV-I specific protein expression, (3) ATL cell transfers into immune-deficient mice, and (4) infection of humanized mice with HTLV-I. After infection, virus replicates without clinical disease in rabbits and to a lesser extent in mice. Transgenic expression of both the transactivator protein (Tax) and the HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ) protein have provided insight into factors important in leukemia/lymphoma development. To investigate factors relating to tumor spread and tissue invasion, a number of immune-deficient mice based on the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or non-obese diabetic/SCID background have been used. Inoculation of adult T cell leukemia cell (lines) leads to lymphoma with osteolytic bone lesions and to a lesser degree to leukemia development. These mice have been used extensively for the testing of anticancer drugs and virotherapy. A recent development is the use of so-called humanized mice, which, upon transfer of CD34+ human umbilical cord stem cells, generate human lymphocytes. Infection with HTLV-I leads to leukemia/lymphoma development, thus providing an opportunity to investigate disease development with the aid of molecularly cloned viruses. However, further improvements of this mouse model, particularly in respect to the development of adaptive immune responses, are necessary. PMID:27034390

  18. Animals Models of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type I Leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in a minority of infected individuals after long periods of viral persistence. The various stages of HTLV-I infection and leukemia development are studied by using several different animal models: (1) the rabbit (and mouse) model of persistent HTLV-I infection, (2) transgenic mice to model tumorigenesis by HTLV-I specific protein expression, (3) ATL cell transfers into immune-deficient mice, and (4) infection of humanized mice with HTLV-I. After infection, virus replicates without clinical disease in rabbits and to a lesser extent in mice. Transgenic expression of both the transactivator protein (Tax) and the HTLV-I bZIP factor (HBZ) protein have provided insight into factors important in leukemia/lymphoma development. To investigate factors relating to tumor spread and tissue invasion, a number of immune-deficient mice based on the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or non-obese diabetic/SCID background have been used. Inoculation of adult T cell leukemia cell (lines) leads to lymphoma with osteolytic bone lesions and to a lesser degree to leukemia development. These mice have been used extensively for the testing of anticancer drugs and virotherapy. A recent development is the use of so-called humanized mice, which, upon transfer of CD34(+)human umbilical cord stem cells, generate human lymphocytes. Infection with HTLV-I leads to leukemia/lymphoma development, thus providing an opportunity to investigate disease development with the aid of molecularly cloned viruses. However, further improvements of this mouse model, particularly in respect to the development of adaptive immune responses, are necessary.

  19. NMR study of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus protease in a complex with amprenavir

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Ayako; Okamura, Hideyasu; Morishita, Ryo; Matsunaga, Satoko; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Ryo, Akihide; Nagata, Takashi; Katahira, Masato

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protease (PR) of XMR virus (XMRV) was successfully synthesized with cell-free system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface of XMRV PR with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), was identified with NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is induced for two PR protomers in the APV:PR = 1:2 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural heterogeneity is transmitted even to distant regions from the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-range transmission of structural change may be utilized for drug discovery. -- Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a virus created through recombination of two murine leukemia proviruses under artificial conditions during the passage of human prostate cancer cells in athymic nude mice. The homodimeric protease (PR) of XMRV plays a critical role in the production of functional viral proteins and is a prerequisite for viral replication. We synthesized XMRV PR using the wheat germ cell-free expression system and carried out structural analysis of XMRV PR in a complex with an inhibitor, amprenavir (APV), by means of NMR. Five different combinatorially {sup 15}N-labeled samples were prepared and backbone resonance assignments were made by applying Otting's method, with which the amino acid types of the [{sup 1}H, {sup 15}N] HSQC resonances were automatically identified using the five samples (Wu et al., 2006) . A titration experiment involving APV revealed that one APV molecule binds to one XMRV PR dimer. For many residues, two distinct resonances were observed, which is thought to be due to the structural heterogeneity between the two protomers in the APV:XMRV PR = 1:2 complex. PR residues at the interface with APV have been identified on the basis of chemical shift perturbation and identification of the intermolecular NOEs by means of filtered NOE experiments. Interestingly, chemical shift heterogeneity between the two protomers of XMRV PR has

  20. Bovine leukemia virus seroprevalence among cattle presented for slaughter in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) results in economic loss due reduced productivity, especially the reduction of milk production and early culling. In the USA.,USA, previous studies in 1996, 1999 and 2007 showed BLV infections widespread, especially in the dairy herds. The goal of this stud...

  1. Bovine leukemia virus infection in a juvenile alpaca with multicentric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura C.; Scarratt, William K.; Buehring, Gertrude C.; Saunders, Geoffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    A 13-month-old alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for mandibular masses and weight loss. Histopathology of biopsy tissue was consistent with lymphoma. The alpaca was euthanized and necropsy revealed lymphoma masses in multiple organs. Immunohistochemistry for T- and B-cell typing was inconclusive. Serology and in-situ polymerase chain reaction hybridization were positive for bovine leukemia virus. PMID:22942445

  2. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-02-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry.

  3. Effect of phenylhydrazine pretreatment on splenectomized Rauscher leukemia virus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Bergson, A; Lobue, J; Gordon, A S; Fredickson, T N

    1978-01-01

    The protective effect of phenylhydrazine pretreatment seen in Rauscher leukemia virus-infected intact mice is not observed when splenectomized mice are used. Such mice succumb to infection even earlier than viral potency controls. Since phenylhydrazine is known to increase both splenic erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell numbers, the results suggest that these two events may be involved in phenylhydrazine prophylaxis.

  4. T-cell lymphoma of the tympanic bulla in a feline leukemia virus-negative cat.

    PubMed

    de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Alexander, Suzanne D; Fan, Timothy M

    2003-12-01

    This report constitutes the first description of a T-cell lymphoma of the tympanic bulla in a cat. This feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-negative cat originally presented with signs referable to middle ear disease; it deteriorated rapidly after definitive diagnosis. Lymphoma of the middle ear is extremely rare in all species.

  5. Milk and fat production in dairy cattle influenced by advanced subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M C; Shanks, R D; Lewin, H A

    1989-01-01

    Genetic potentials (pedigree-estimated breeding value) for milk and for fat were compared in cows grouped according to subclinical stage of bovine leukemia virus infection. Genetic potential for milk production was significantly greater in seropositive cows with persistent lymphocytosis (622 +/- 72 kg) and in seropositive hematologically normal cows (554 +/- 34 34 kg) than in seronegative herdmates (418 +/- 53 kg). When 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent milk production records for the current lactation were adjusted for genetic potential, bovine leukemia virus-infected cows that were hematologically normal had significantly greater milk production than did seronegative herdmates, suggesting that early bovine leukemia virus infection was positively associated with milk yield. Genetic potential for fat production was significantly greater for cows with persistent lymphocytosis (21 +/- 2 kg) than for other seropositive (16 +/- 1 kg) and seronegative herdmates (13 +/- 2 kg); however, 305-day twice-daily-milking mature equivalent fat production for the current lactation was not significantly different between the groups. Thus, cows with persistent lymphocytosis did not produce fat according to their genetic potential. As an apparent consequence of tendencies for greater milk yield and less fat production, milk fat percentage was significantly reduced in cows with persistent lymphocytosis (3.33 +/- 0.09%) and other seropositive cows (3.48 +/- 0.05%) relative to seronegative herdmates (3.67 +/- 0.07%). These results suggest a need to reevaluate the economic impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on the dairy industry. PMID:2536940

  6. Origin of pathogenic determinants of recombinant murine leukemia viruses: analysis of Bxv-1-related xenotropic viruses from CWD mice.

    PubMed Central

    Massey, A C; Coppola, M A; Thomas, C Y

    1990-01-01

    The acquisition of U3 region sequences derived from the endogenous xenotropic provirus Bxv-1 appears to be an important step in the generation of leukemogenic recombinant viruses in AKR, HRS, C58, and some CWD mice. We report here that each of three CWD lymphomas produced infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus related to Bxv-1. In Southern blot experiments, these proviruses hybridized to probes that were specific for the xenotropic envelope and Bxv-1 U3 region sequences. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a cloned CWD xenotropic provirus, CWM-S-5X, revealed that the envelope gene was closely related to but distinct from those of other known xenotropic viruses. In addition, the U3 region of CWM-S-5X contained a viral enhancer sequence that was identical to that found in MCF 247, a recombinant AKR virus that is thought to contain the Bxv-1 enhancer. Finally, restriction enzyme sites in the CWM-S-5X provirus were analogous to those reported within Bxv-1. These results establish that the virus progeny of Bxv-1 have the potential to donate pathogenic enhancer sequences to recombinant polytropic murine leukemia viruses. Interestingly, the three CWD polytropic viruses that were isolated from the same tumor cells that produced the Bxv-1-like viruses had not incorporated Bxv-1 sequences into the U3 region. Images PMID:2170683

  7. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  8. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Keith R.; Diem, Kurt; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Corey, Lawrence; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    A recent report suggested an association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). If confirmed, this would suggest that antiretroviral therapy might benefit patients suffering from CFS. We validated a set of assays for XMRV, and evaluated the prevalence of XMRV in a cohort of monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Stored PBMC were tested with 3 separate PCR assays (one of which was nested) for XMRV DNA, and serum/plasma was tested for XMRV RNA by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. None of the PBMC samples from the twins with CFS or their unaffected co-twins were positive for XMRV, by any of the assays. One plasma sample, from an unaffected co-twin, was reproducibly positive by RT-PCR. However, serum from the same day was negative, as was a followup plasma sample obtained 2 days after the positive specimen. These data do not support an association of XMRV with CFS. PMID:21795004

  9. Evaluation of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus transmembrane peptides for serological diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, J D; Hoover, E A; Elder, J H; Montelaro, R C

    1992-01-01

    The general model for retrovirus transmembrane (TM) proteins proposed by Gallaher et al. (W. R. Gallaher, J. M. Ball, R. F. Garry, M. C. Griffin, and R. C. Montelaro, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 5:431-440, 1989) suggests that all retrovirus TM proteins may contain an immunodominant domain (Imd-TM peptide) located at the apex of the TM polypeptide. Although this Imd-TM peptide has been shown to be immunodominant in a variety of lentivirus infections, there has not been a detailed serological analysis of an oncovirus Imd-TM peptide as a diagnostic agent. We describe here an analysis of the antigenic properties and diagnostic potentials of the predicted Imd-TM peptides of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in serological assays of sera from infected cats. The results of these studies demonstrate that antibodies specific to the FIV Imd-TM peptide are detected within 2 weeks postinfection, are maintained at high levels for extended periods, and are not detectable in uninfected or FeLV-infected cats. In marked contrast, the FeLV Imd-TM peptide displayed only negligible levels of serological reactivity in FeLV-infected cats. These studies indicate that the peptide is a useful reagent for the detection of antibodies to FIV. PMID:1629349

  10. Large-scale purification of gp70 from Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Pyle, S W; Chabot, D J; Miller, T L; Serabyn, S A; Bess, J W; Arthur, L O

    1991-05-01

    The external envelope glycoprotein, gp70, of the Moloney murine leukemia virus was extracted from NIH 3T3 cells utilizing the detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glycopyranoside. The extracted gp70 was sequentially purified utilizing lectin-affinity, anion-exchange, and molecular-exclusion chromatography techniques. Approximately 10 mg of gp70 was purified by this method and shown to be 95% homogeneous, as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The presence of purified gp70 from Moloney murine leukemia virus was confirmed by amino acid analysis, amino-terminal sequencing, and immunoreactivity with a monoclonal antibody raised against gp70. The procedure is rapid, utilizes commercially available media, and can be used to purify large amounts of retroviral envelope glycoprotein from virus.

  11. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Barez, Pierre-Yves; Hamaidia, Malik; Gazon, Hélène; de Brogniez, Alix; Perike, Srikanth; Gillet, Nicolas; Willems, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. PMID:26198240

  12. Bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus and their mixed infection in Iranian Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Brujeni, Gholamreza Nikbakht; Poorbazargani, Taghi Taghi; Nadin-Davis, Susan; Tolooie, Mohammad; Barjesteh, Neda

    2010-10-04

    Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) have worldwide distributions, but their prevalences in Iran are unknown. We investigated the presence of infections in Iranian Holstein cattle and determined changes in hematological values for infected animals. Nested PCR was used on blood samples from 143 animals Holstein cattle to detect proviral BIV and BLV gag sequences. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4, CD8, and CD21 bovine T lymphocyte subsets. Proviral BIV and BLV gag sequences were detected in 20.3% and 17% of the animals, respectively. BIV-BLV confection was also detected in 4.2% of the study population but this was not statistically significant. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both BIV-infected cows and non-infected ones had CD4/CD8 ratios of 2.45 and 1.43, respectively, and this difference was significant. BLV infected and non-infected animals had no significant differences in their CD4/CD8 ratio. In comparison to non-infected cattle, those with both BIV and BLV had a significant decrease in their CD4/CD8 ratios (1.5 % vs. 2.3; P = 0.01). This is the first report of BIV and BLV infections in Iran. We found no evidence that infection with one agent predisposed an animal to infection with the other. BIV infection may have a role in decreasing T CD8 counts, but this may depend on the genetics of the cattle and virus strains involved.

  13. Feline Leukemia Virus Infection Requires a Post-Receptor Binding Envelope-Dependent Cellular Component▿

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Naveen; Thickett, Kelly R.; Na, Hong; Leung, Cherry; Tailor, Chetankumar S.

    2011-01-01

    Gammaretrovirus receptors have been suggested to contain the necessary determinants to mediate virus binding and entry. Here, we show that murine NIH 3T3 and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing receptors for subgroup A, B, and C feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are weakly susceptible (101 to 102 CFU/ml) to FeLV pseudotype viruses containing murine leukemia virus (MLV) core (Gag-Pol) proteins, whereas FeLV receptor-expressing murine Mus dunni tail fibroblast (MDTF) cells are highly susceptible (104 to 106 CFU/ml). However, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the FeLV subgroup B receptor PiT1 are highly susceptible to gibbon ape leukemia virus pseudotype virus, which differs from the FeLV pseudotype viruses only in the envelope protein. FeLV resistance is not caused by a defect in envelope binding, low receptor expression levels, or N-linked glycosylation. Resistance is not alleviated by substitution of the MLV core in the FeLV pseudotype virus with FeLV core proteins. Interestingly, FeLV resistance is alleviated by fusion of receptor-expressing NIH 3T3 and BHK cells with MDTF or human TE671 cells, suggesting the absence of an additional cellular component in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells that is required for FeLV infection. The putative FeLV-specific cellular component is not a secreted factor, as MDTF conditioned medium does not alleviate the block to FeLV infection. Together, our findings suggest that FeLV infection requires an additional envelope-dependent cellular component that is absent in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells but that is present in MDTF and TE671 cells. PMID:21917946

  14. Feline leukemia virus infection requires a post-receptor binding envelope-dependent cellular component.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Naveen; Thickett, Kelly R; Na, Hong; Leung, Cherry; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2011-12-01

    Gammaretrovirus receptors have been suggested to contain the necessary determinants to mediate virus binding and entry. Here, we show that murine NIH 3T3 and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing receptors for subgroup A, B, and C feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) are weakly susceptible (10(1) to 10(2) CFU/ml) to FeLV pseudotype viruses containing murine leukemia virus (MLV) core (Gag-Pol) proteins, whereas FeLV receptor-expressing murine Mus dunni tail fibroblast (MDTF) cells are highly susceptible (10(4) to 10(6) CFU/ml). However, NIH 3T3 cells expressing the FeLV subgroup B receptor PiT1 are highly susceptible to gibbon ape leukemia virus pseudotype virus, which differs from the FeLV pseudotype viruses only in the envelope protein. FeLV resistance is not caused by a defect in envelope binding, low receptor expression levels, or N-linked glycosylation. Resistance is not alleviated by substitution of the MLV core in the FeLV pseudotype virus with FeLV core proteins. Interestingly, FeLV resistance is alleviated by fusion of receptor-expressing NIH 3T3 and BHK cells with MDTF or human TE671 cells, suggesting the absence of an additional cellular component in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells that is required for FeLV infection. The putative FeLV-specific cellular component is not a secreted factor, as MDTF conditioned medium does not alleviate the block to FeLV infection. Together, our findings suggest that FeLV infection requires an additional envelope-dependent cellular component that is absent in NIH 3T3 and BHK cells but that is present in MDTF and TE671 cells.

  15. Chronic hepatitis E virus infection in a patient with leukemia and elevated transaminases: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute hepatitis E virus infection may cause mild, self-limiting hepatitis, either as epidemic outbreaks or sporadic cases, the latter of which have been reported in industrialized countries. Chronic infections are uncommon and have been reported in immunosuppressed patients, patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and patients with hematological malignancies. Case presentation A 46-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the gastroenterology clinic with a history of increasing transaminases, persistent exhaustion, and occasional right-side abdominal pain over the course of a 6-month period. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia had been diagnosed several years earlier, and the patient was treated with rituximab, pentostatin, and cyclophosphamide. A diagnostic workup ruled out autoimmune and metabolic liver disease, hepatitis A-C, and herpes virus infection. A physical examination revealed enlarged axillary lymph nodes. The results of an abdominal ultrasound examination were otherwise unremarkable. Hepatitis E virus infection was diagnosed by detection of hepatitis E virus-specific antibodies. Blood samples were positive for hepatitis E virus ribonucleic acid with high viral loads for at least 8 months, demonstrating a rare chronic hepatitis E virus infection. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed hepatitis E virus genotype 3c with homologies to other European isolates from humans and swine, indicating an autochthonous infection. Conclusions Usually, hepatitis E virus infection appears as an acute infection; rare chronic infections have been reported for transplant patients, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and patients with hematological malignancies. The chronic nature of hepatitis E infection in our patient was most likely induced by the immunosuppressive B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatment. The differential diagnosis in patients with unexplained hepatitis should include hepatitis E virus infection, and

  16. A new look at the origins of gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    McKee, J; Clark, N; Shapter, F; Simmons, G

    2017-04-01

    Is the origin of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) human after all? When GALV was discovered and found to cause neoplastic disease in gibbons, it stimulated a great deal of research including investigations into the origins of this virus. A number of publications have suggested that the GALV progenitor was a retrovirus present in one of several species of South East Asian rodents that had close contact with captive gibbons. However, there are no published retroviral sequences from any South East Asian species to support this view. Here we present an alternative hypothesis that the origin of GALV is a virus closely related to Melomys burtoni retrovirus, and that this virus infected human patients in Papua New Guinea from whom biological material was obtained or in some way contaminated these samples. This material we propose contained infectious MbRV-related virus that was then unwittingly introduced into gibbons which subsequently developed GALV infections.

  17. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. T-cell lymphoma induction by radiation leukemia virus in athymic nude mice

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    We report the development of extrathymic lymphoblastic lymphomas in RadLV-inoculated congenitally athymic nude mice. Thus, a leukemogenic virus which appears to require the presence of a thymus for its replication in normothymic mice can infect and transform target cells in the absence of this organ in the athymic host. The cells of one of these lymphomas have been established in vitro as a permanent cell line, BALB/Nu1. This cell line as well as a lymphoma induced in NIH/Swiss nude mice exhibit several T-cell markers, including terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity, Thy-1.2, and Ly-2.2, but not Ly- 1.2 nor TL. Ig determinants were not detected. The characteristics of the tumor cells support the view that cells with T-cell markers may normally exist in nude mice and undergo neoplastic transformation and clonal expansion after infection with a leukemogenic virus. The alternative possibility that virus-induced differentiation of prothymocytes may lead to the expression of Thy-1.2 and Ly-2.2 antigens is also considered. BALB/Nu1 cells release large numbers of type C viral particles. The virus, designated radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)/Nu1, has RTase activity and the protein profile characteristic of murine leukemia virus (MuLV). In radioimmunoassays, it cross-reacts completely with RadLV/VL3, a virus obtained from RadLV-induced C57BL/Ka thymic lymphoma cells in culture, and slightly with a xenotropic virus (BALB:virus-2) and with AKR MuLV. On inoculation into C57BL/Ka mice it has thymotropic and leukemogenic activity. In vitro it is B-tropic, poorly fibrotropic, and has limited xenotropic activity. Thus, RadLV/Nu1 appears to be biologically and serologically similar or identical to its parent virus, RadLV. PMID:214507

  19. Mouse models for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael J; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Potential ionising radiation exposure scenarios are varied, but all bring risks beyond the simple issues of short-term survival. Whether accidentally exposed to a single, whole-body dose in an act of terrorism or purposefully exposed to fractionated doses as part of a therapeutic regimen, radiation exposure carries the consequence of elevated cancer risk. The long-term impact of both intentional and unintentional exposure could potentially be mitigated by treatments specifically developed to limit the mutations and precancerous replication that ensue in the wake of irradiation The development of such agents would undoubtedly require a substantial degree of in vitro testing, but in order to accurately recapitulate the complex process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, well-understood animal models are necessary. Inbred strains of the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, present the most logical choice due to the high number of molecular and physiological similarities they share with humans. Their small size, high rate of breeding and fully sequenced genome further increase its value for use in cancer research. This chapter will review relevant m. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animals of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast and lung cancers. Method of cancer induction and associated molecular pathologies will also be described for each model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Analysis of Bovine Leukemia Virus Gag Membrane Targeting and Late Domain Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huating; Norris, Kendra M.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of retrovirus-like particles only requires the expression of the Gag polyprotein precursor. We have exploited this in the development of a model system for studying the virus particle assembly pathway for bovine leukemia virus (BLV). BLV is closely related to the human T-cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs), and all are members of the Deltaretrovirus genus of the Retroviridae family. Overexpression of a BLV Gag polyprotein containing a carboxy-terminal influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) epitope tag in mammalian cells led to the robust production of virus-like particles (VLPs). Site-directed mutations were introduced into HA-tagged Gag to test the usefulness of this model system for studying certain aspects of the virus assembly pathway. First, mutations that disrupted the amino-terminal glycine residue that is important for Gag myristylation led to a drastic reduction in VLP production. Predictably, the nature of the VLP production defect was correlated to Gag membrane localization. Second, mutation of the PPPY motif (located in the MA domain) greatly reduced VLP production in the absence of the viral protease. This reduction in VLP production was more severe in the presence of an active viral protease. Examination of particles by electron microscopy revealed an abundance of particles that began to pinch off from the plasma membrane but were not completely released from the cell surface, indicating that the PPPY motif functions as a late domain (L domain). PMID:12134053

  1. Animal models of bovine leukemia virus and human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1: insights in transmission and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lairmore, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) are related retroviruses associated with persistent and lifelong infections and a low incidence of lymphomas within their hosts. Both viruses can be spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to offspring through breast milk. Each of these complex retroviruses contains typical gag, pol, and env genes but also unique, nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the pathogenesis of each virus. Comparisons of BLV and HTLV-1 provide insights into mechanisms of spread and tumor formation, as well as potential approaches to therapeutic intervention against the infections.

  2. Inhibition of Feline leukemia virus replication by the integrase inhibitor Raltegravir.

    PubMed

    Cattori, Valentino; Weibel, Beatrice; Lutz, Hans

    2011-08-26

    The oncogenic gammaretrovirus Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) has been the leading cause of death among domestic cats until the introduction of efficient diagnostics and vaccines in the late 1980s. So far, no efficient treatment for viremic animals is available. Hence, use of the FeLV model to evaluate antiretroviral therapies applied to HIV is a timely task. The efficacy of the integrase inhibitor Raltegravir, which is widely used for the treatment of HIV in humans, has been assessed in vitro for the FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 strain. EC(50) values for FeLV-A inhibition in feline cell lines are in the range of that observed for HIV and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus. Therefore, Raltegravir may be a potential therapeutical agent for felids with progressive FeLV infection.

  3. Immunotherapy of murine leukemia. Efficacy of passive serum therapy of Friend leukemia virus-induced disease in immunocompromised mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genovesi, E.V.; Livnat, D.; Collins, J.J.

    1983-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the passive therapy of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced disease with chimpanzee anti-F-MuLV serum is accompanied by the development of host antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, the latter measurable in adoptive transfer protocols and by the ability of serum-protected mice to resist virus rechallenge. The present study was designed to further examine the contribution of various compartments of the host immune system to serum therapy itself, as well as to the acquired antiviral immunity that develops in serum-protected mice, through the use of naturally immunocompromised animals (e.g., nude athymic mice and natural killer (NK)-deficient beige mutant mice) or mice treated with immunoabrogating agents such as sublethal irradiation, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan (Cy)), cortisone, and /sup 89/Sr. The studies in nude mice indicate that while mature T-cells are not needed for effective serum therapy, they do appear to be necessary for the long-term resistance of serum-protected mice to virus rechallenge and for the generation of the cell population(s) responsible for adoptive transfer of antiviral immunity. Furthermore, this acquired resistance is not due to virus neutralization by serum antibodies since antibody-negative, Cy-treated, serum-protected mice still reject the secondary virus infection. Lastly, while the immunocompromise systems examined did effect various host antiviral immune responses, none of them, including the NK-deficient beige mutation, significantly diminished the efficacy of the passive serum therapy of F-MuLV-induced disease.

  4. Murine leukemia virus infects early bone marrow progenitors in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Tumas-Brundage, K M; Garret, W; Blank, K; Prystowsky, M B

    1996-10-15

    Chronic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) are retroviruses which induce leukemias/lymphomas after long latency periods. The induction of leukemia by MuLVs is complex, requiring multiple steps beginning with infection of an appropriate target cell. A number of investigators have proposed a bone marrow-thymus axis in the development of retrovirus induced T-cell lymphoma in which cells are initially infected in the bone marrow. These bone marrow cells or their progeny migrate to the thymus during the disease process. In our system using adult, immunocompetent BALB.K mice infected with E-55(+) MuLV, a similar pattern is seen; integrated virus is initially detectable in the bone marrow and spleen and only later in the thymus. In order to better understand the leukemic process, we analyzed the bone marrow from adult, immunocompetent BALB.K mice infected with the E-55(+) MuLV in bone marrow colony assays. The results from these assays demonstrate that either a pluripotent progenitor cell or an early progenitor cell is a target in the bone marrow for the virus.

  5. Cell Surface Antigen Induced by Friend Murine Leukemia Virus Is also in the Virion

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Maureen; Lilly, Frank; Nathenson, Stanley G.

    1974-01-01

    Intact particles of Friend leukemia virus derived from infectious mouse serum absorb only trace amounts of cytotoxic anti-FMR antibodies, but physical disruption of the virions by freezing and thawing, by ether extraction or by detergent treatment releases large amounts of FMR antigenic activity. Thus this antigen, previously considered to occur mainly as a neo-antigen on the surfaces of virus-infected cells and as a soluble substance in the serum of infected mice, may be primarily a virion component. PMID:4431079

  6. Detection of bovine leukemia virus and identification of its genotype in Mongolian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Nishimori, Asami; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is globally distributed. However, no information regarding the disease and genetic diversity of the virus in the cattle of Mongolia is currently available. In this study, the prevalence of BLV was assessed using PCR, and the genetic diversity was analyzed through DNA sequencing. Of the 517 samples tested, 20 positives were identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that six, one, and four isolates were classified into genotype 4, 7, and 1, respectively. Most isolates were clustered with isolates from Eastern Europe and Russia. This study is the first to investigate the BLV genotype in Mongolia.

  7. Novel Feline Leukemia Virus Interference Group Based on the env Gene

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Ariko; Watanabe, Shinya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Ngo, Minh Ha; Makundi, Isaac; Kawasaki, Junna; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subgroups have emerged in infected cats via the mutation or recombination of the env gene of subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A), the primary virus. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel env gene, TG35-2, and report that the TG35-2 pseudotype can be categorized as a novel FeLV subgroup. The TG35-2 envelope protein displays strong sequence identity to FeLV-A Env, suggesting that selection pressure in cats causes novel FeLV subgroups to emerge. PMID:26889025

  8. Novel Feline Leukemia Virus Interference Group Based on the env Gene.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ariko; Watanabe, Shinya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Ngo, Minh Ha; Makundi, Isaac; Kawasaki, Junna; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) subgroups have emerged in infected cats via the mutation or recombination of the env gene of subgroup A FeLV (FeLV-A), the primary virus. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel env gene, TG35-2, and report that the TG35-2 pseudotype can be categorized as a novel FeLV subgroup. The TG35-2 envelope protein displays strong sequence identity to FeLV-A Env, suggesting that selection pressure in cats causes novel FeLV subgroups to emerge. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Structural diversity and nuclear protein binding sites in the long terminal repeats of feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, R; Plumb, M; Shield, L; Neil, J C

    1990-01-01

    The long terminal repeat U3 sequences were determined for multiple feline leukemia virus proviruses isolated from naturally occurring T-cell tumors. Heterogeneity was evident, even among proviruses cloned from individual tumors. Proviruses with one, two, or three repeats of the long terminal repeat enhancer sequences coexisted in one tumor, while two proviruses with distinct direct repeats were found in another. The enhancer repeats are characteristic of retrovirus variants with accelerated leukemogenic potential and occur between -155 and -244 base pairs relative to the RNA cap site. The termini of the repeats occur at or near sequence features which have been recognized at other retrovirus recombinational junctions. In vitro footprint analysis of the feline leukemia virus enhancer revealed three major nuclear protein binding sites, located at consensus sequences for the simian virus 40 core enhancer, the nuclear factor 1 binding site, and an indirect repeat which is homologous to the PEA2 binding site in the polyomavirus enhancer. Only the simian virus 40 core enhancer sequence is present in all of the enhancer repeats. Cell type differences in binding activities to the three motifs may underlie the selective process which leads to outgrowth of viruses with specific sequence duplications. Images PMID:2157050

  10. Genetic heterogeneity among bovine leukemia viruses in Japan and their relationship to leukemogenicity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Maekawa, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Kenta; Nobuta, Miwako; Hirata, Moe; Minagawa, Airi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2011-07-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes persistent lymphocytosis, and a few percent of infected animals develop lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). In this study, a 440-bp fragment of the env gene was amplified from 204 tumor samples collected from different regions of Japan and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the association of BLV with EBL. Of the seven RFLP types defined, types I, II, and III were dominant and found in 12.7, 75.0, and 8.3% of tumor samples, respectively. Cattle harboring type III virus were significantly older than other animals at the time of diagnosis of EBL. Type III viruses were found in approximately 33% and 5.5% of Japanese Black and Holstein cattle, respectively, with EBL. These findings indicate that genetically distinct BLV was associated with EBL in Japan and that the genetic profile may influence the leukemogenicity of the virus.

  11. In Vivo Analysis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcription Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Mansky, Louis M.

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that the genetic diversity of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a virus associated with adult T-cell leukemia, is significantly lower than that of other retroviruses, including that of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To test whether HTLV-1 variation is lower than other retroviruses, a tractable vector system has been developed to measure reverse transcription accuracy in one round of HTLV-1 replication. This system consists of a HTLV-1 vector that contains a cassette with the neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene, a bacterial origin of DNA replication, and the lacZα peptide gene region (the mutational target). The vector was replicated by trans-complementation with helper plasmids. The in vivo mutation rate for HTLV-1 was determined to be 7 × 10−6 mutations per target base pair per replication cycle. The majority of the mutations identified were base substitution mutations, namely, G-to-A and C-to-T transitions, frameshift mutations, and deletion mutations. Mutation of the methionine residue in the conserved YMDD motif of the HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase to either alanine or valine (i.e., M188A or M188V) led to a factor of two increase in the rate of mutation, indicating the role of this motif in enzyme accuracy. The HTLV-1 in vivo mutation rate is comparable to that of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the HTLV/BLV genus of retroviruses, and is about fourfold lower than that of HIV-1. These observations indicate that while the mutation rate of HTLV-1 is significantly lower than HIV-1, this lower rate alone would not explain the low diversity in HTLV-1 isolates, supporting the hypothesis that HTLV-1 replicates primarily as a provirus during cellular DNA replication rather than as a virus via reverse transcription. PMID:11000222

  12. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV)-based Coronavirus Spike-pseudotyped Particle Production and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Viral pseudotyped particles (pp) are enveloped virus particles, typically derived from retroviruses or rhabdoviruses, that harbor heterologous envelope glycoproteins on their surface and a genome lacking essential genes. These synthetic viral particles are safer surrogates of native viruses and acquire the tropism and host entry pathway characteristics governed by the heterologous envelope glycoprotein used. They have proven to be very useful tools used in research with many applications, such as enabling the study of entry pathways of enveloped viruses and to generate effective gene-delivery vectors. The basis for their generation lies in the capacity of some viruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), to incorporate envelope glycoproteins of other viruses into a pseudotyped virus particle. These can be engineered to contain reporter genes such as luciferase, enabling quantification of virus entry events upon pseudotyped particle infection with susceptible cells. Here, we detail a protocol enabling generation of MLV-based pseudotyped particles, using the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike (S) as an example of a heterologous envelope glycoprotein to be incorporated. We also describe how these particles are used to infect susceptible cells and to perform a quantitative infectivity readout by a luciferase assay. PMID:28018942

  13. Resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia: non-participation of splenic natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    St.-Pierre, Y.; Hugo, P.; Lemieux, S.; Lussier, G.; Potworowski, E.F.

    1988-08-01

    The phenotypic expression of genetically determined resistance to radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced leukemia in mice has been shown to reside in the bone marrow. Because the bone marrow contains precursors of natural killer (NK) cells, known to play a role in retrovirally induced infections, and because these cells have been suggested as participating in resistance to radiation-induced leukemia, it was pertinent to establish whether their levels differed in strains of mice susceptible and resistant to leukemia. We therefore tested splenic NK cell levels in C57BL/Ka (susceptible) and B10.A(5R) (resistant) mice before viral inoculation, immediately after viral inoculation, and throughout the preleukemic period and showed that they were not different. This indicates that splenic NK cell levels have no bearing on the resistance to RadLV-induced leukemia and that other immune or non-immune mechanisms must be sought.

  14. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  15. Seroprevalence of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Blood was drawn from 1530 dairy cows in 51 herds. For antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum, 37.4%, 2.7%, and 5.6% of cows were test positive, respectively, while 29.2% of herds had unvaccinated animals with ≥ 1:64 for bovine viral diarrhea virus. PMID:15759829

  16. Effects of murine leukemia viruses on the function of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gabrilovich, D I; Roberts, M S; Harvey, J J; Botcherby, M; Bedford, P A; Knight, S C

    1993-11-01

    In asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection T cells respond normally to allogeneic dendritic cells (DC), but DC show reduced stimulatory capacity. By contrast in HTLV-1 infection no significant changes in allogeneic stimulation were seen but DC-stimulated activity of autologous T cells. In seeking animal models relevant to these diseases the effects of two murine leukemia retroviruses, Rauscher leukemia virus (RLV) and Moloney leukemia virus (MLV) on the function of dendritic cells and T cells in a primary mixed leucocyte reaction have been tested. Treatment by RLV in vitro suppressed the ability of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells from healthy animals. MLV at the same concentration did not significantly affect the ability of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells, but provoked considerable enhancement of the low level stimulation by DC in the syngeneic system. Similar results were obtained following in vivo exposure to viruses. Two pieces of evidence suggested that these effects were due to impairment of DC function and were not operating through infection of T cells. Firstly, exposure of T cells directly to virus in vitro and in vivo before stimulation with untreated allogeneic DC caused no significant alteration in T cell activity. Secondly, the impact of murine leukemia virus on DC function was not abrogated when infected DC were added to normal T cells and cultured in the presence of zidovudine. Treatment of DC by RLV caused a decrease of cluster formation with allogeneic T cells. No statistically significant influence of MLV was observed on cluster formation after 3-h of incubation in the allogeneic system. However, after 18-h incubation MLV-treated DC formed fewer clusters with T cells than untreated DC. At the same time a stimulatory effect of MLV on DC cluster formation with syngeneic T cells was found. Considerable decrease was found in major histocompatibility complex class II antigen and LFA-1 receptor expression on the DC surface in mice

  17. Androgen-independent proliferation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells infected by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Kakoki, Katsura; Kamiyama, Haruka; Izumida, Mai; Yashima, Yuka; Hayashi, Hideki; Yamamoto, Naoki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • XMRV infection induces androgen-independent growth in LNCaP cells. • XMRV infection reduces expression of androgen receptor. • XMRV promotes appearance of androgen blocker-resistant prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel gammaretrovirus that was originally isolated from human prostate cancer. It is now believed that XMRV is not the etiologic agent of prostate cancer. An analysis of murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection in various human cell lines revealed that prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected by XMRV, and this suggested that XMRV infection may confer some sort of growth advantage to prostate cancer cell lines. To examine this hypothesis, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells were infected with XMRV and tested for changes in certain cell growth properties. We found that XMRV-infected LNCaP cells can proliferate in the absence of the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, androgen receptor expression is significantly reduced in XMRV-infected LNCaP cells. Such alterations were not observed in uninfected and amphotropic MLV-infected LNCaP cells. This finding explains why prostate cancer cell lines are preferentially infected with XMRV.

  18. Expression analysis of Foxp3 in T cells from bovine leukemia virus infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Saori; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Shirai, Tatsuya; Sunden, Yuji; Mingala, Claro N; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we monitored Foxp3(+) T cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. By flow cytometric analysis, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells from persistent lymphocytotic cattle was significantly increased compared to control and AL cattle. Interestingly, the proportion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) cells correlated positively with the increased number of lymphocytes, virus titer and virus load, whereas it inversely correlated with IFN-γ mRNA expression, suggesting that Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells in cattle have a potentially immunosuppressive function. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the detailed mechanism behind the increased Treg during BLV infection. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Sensitivity to. gamma. rays of avian sarcoma and murine leukemia viruses. [/sup 60/Co, uv

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoshima, K.; Niwa, O.; Yutsudo, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Tahara, S.; Sugahara, T.

    1980-09-01

    The direct inactivation of avian and murine oncoviruses by ..gamma.. rays was examined using /sup 60/Co as a ..gamma..-ray source. The inactivation of murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) followed single-hit kinetics while the subgroup D Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus (SR-RSV D) showed multihit inactivation kinetics with an extrapolation number of 5. The two viruses showed similar uv-inactivation kinetics. The genomic RNA of the SR-RSV D strain was degraded by ..gamma.. irradiation faster than its infectivity, but viral clones isolated from the foci formed after ..gamma.. irradiation had a complete genome. These results suggest that SR-RSV D has a strong repair function, possibly connected with reverse transcriptase activity.

  20. Preventive and Therapeutic Strategies for Bovine Leukemia Virus: Lessons for HTLV

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina M.; Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; de Brogniez, Alix; Sánchez-Alcaraz, María Teresa; Boxus, Mathieu; Boulanger, Fanny; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Trono, Karina; Alvarez, Irene; Vagnoni, Lucas; Willems, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus closely related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). BLV is a major animal health problem worldwide causing important economic losses. A series of attempts were developed to reduce prevalence, chiefly by eradication of infected cattle, segregation of BLV-free animals and vaccination. Although having been instrumental in regions such as the EU, these strategies were unsuccessful elsewhere mainly due to economic costs, management restrictions and lack of an efficient vaccine. This review, which summarizes the different attempts previously developed to decrease seroprevalence of BLV, may be informative for management of HTLV-1 infection. We also propose a new approach based on competitive infection with virus deletants aiming at reducing proviral loads. PMID:21994777

  1. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  2. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  3. Light and electron microscopic evaluation of thymuses from feline leukemia virus-infected kittens.

    PubMed

    Pack, F D; Chapman, W L

    1980-01-01

    Light microscopic and electron microscopic findings in thymuses from 4-week old feline leukemia virus-infected and 4- and 9-week old noninfected kittens were evaluated and found to be morphologically similar to each other. Thymuses from 9-week old feline leukemia virusinfected kittens were markedly atrophied and individual lobules within each thymus varied in the severity of atrophy. Loubules having the least severe atrophy had a moderate thinning of the cortex and a heterogeneous thymuses included intense eosinopoiesis at the corticomedullary junction, increased prominence of vasculature, and enlarged Hassal's corpuscles. In addition to these changes lobules of thymus having the most severe atrophy had a marked cortical thymocyte depletion, lobule collapse, and increased numbers of mast cells. Degeneration of epithelial cells in most lobules was indicated by electronlucency of the cytoplasmic matrix and often greatly dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  4. Even Attenuated Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviruses Can Be Pathogenic in Sheep▿

    PubMed Central

    Florins, Arnaud; Gillet, Nicolas; Boxus, Mathieu; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Based on a reverse genetics approach, we previously reported that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) mutants harboring deletions in the accessory R3 and G4 genes persist at very low proviral loads and are unable to induce leukemia or lymphoma in sheep, indicating that these R3 and G4 gene sequences are required for pathogenesis. We now show that lymphoma can occur, albeit infrequently (1 case of 20) and after extended periods of latency (7 years). Direct sequencing and reinfection experiments demonstrated that lymphomagenesis was not due to the reversion of the mutant to the wild type. Similar observations with another type of attenuated mutant impaired in the transmembrane protein (TM) YXXL signaling motifs were made. We conclude that the R3 and G4 genes and the TM YXXL motifs are not strictly required for pathogenesis but that their integrity contributes to disease frequency and latency. PMID:17626096

  5. [Serological survey of feline leukemia virus infection and the outcome of antibody-positive cats].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, T; Tajima, M; Ishiguro, T; Tamura, H; Maejima, K

    1988-04-01

    A serological survey was carried out to examine the presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) in 208 cat sera collected at Teikyo University School of Medicine. Seven cats (3.4%) were positive for FeLV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay whereas no cat was positive for FOCMA antibody by indirect membrane immunofluorescent test. Anemia, leukemia and/or lymphoma formation were not observed in these FeLV antibody-positive cats. But among these seven cats, three were positive for toxoplasma antibodies. One of them was also positive for Chlamydia psittaci antibody and it died in pneumonia. Among the four toxoplasma antibody negative cats, one was died in eosinophilic granuloma. Furthermore, two of three cats, which were used for experiments, had cold and took therapy.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of defective human T-cell leukemia virus type I proviral genomes in leukemic cells of patients with adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Korber, B; Okayama, A; Donnelly, R; Tachibana, N; Essex, M

    1991-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, and the clonally derived leukemic cells all contain proviral genomes. Polymerase chain reaction with a variety of primers which span the HTLV-I genome was used to determine that a significant fraction of patients (at least 32%) carry deleted viral genomes in their leukemic cells. The pX region of the HTLV-I genome encoding the regulatory genes tax and rex was preferentially retained. The fact that the tax coding region was retained provides supporting evidence that the tax protein contributes to leukemogenesis in vivo. The reasonably high fraction of patients with adult T-cell leukemia carrying deleted genomes in their tumor cells suggests that the deletions have a role in leukemogenesis. Images PMID:1895396

  7. Effect of polymerase mutations on packaging of primer tRNAPro during murine leukemia virus assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, J G; Seidman, J G

    1981-01-01

    The role of reverse transcriptase in selective encapsidation of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) tRNA primer, tRNAPro, was investigated by examining the tRNA composition of several nonconditional pol mutants. One mutant, clone 23, which contains an altered polymerase about 40% smaller than the wild-type enzyme (B. I. Gerwin et al., J. Virol. 31:741-751, 1979) had a typical viral tRNA pattern, including normal levels of tRNAPro in free and 70S-associated 4S RNA. Another class of mutants, produced by Moloney murine leukemia virus-infected cell clone M13 and subclone M13/1, does not contain any detectable polymerase protein (A. Shields et al., Cell 14:601-609, 1978) and was found to have reduced amounts of tRNAPro in free 4S RNA. However, the level of tRNAPro associated with the genome was normal in the mutant virions. These results suggest that the reverse transcriptase protein is involved in the initial selection of tRNA primer during virus assembly, but not in the subsequent association of this tRNA with genomic RNA. Images PMID:6165833

  8. Viral genome RNA serves as messenger early in the infectious cycle of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shurtz, R; Dolev, S; Aboud, M; Salzberg, S

    1979-01-01

    When NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts were infected with the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus, part of the viral genome RNA molecules were detected in polyribosomes of the infected cells early in the infectious cycle. The binding appears to be specific, since we could demonstrate the release of viral RNA from polyribosomes with EDTA. Moreover, when infection occurred in the presence of cycloheximide, most viral RNA molecules were detected in the free cytoplasm. Size analysis on polyribosomal viral RNA molecules indicated that two size class molecules, 38S and 23S, are present in polyribosomes at 3 h after infection. Analysis of the polyriboadenylate [poly(rA)] content of viral RNA extracted from infected polyribosomes demonstrated that such molecules bind with greatest abundance at 3 h after infection, as has been detected with total viral RNA. No molecules lacking poly(rA) stretches could be detected in polyribosomes. Furthermore, when a similar analysis was performed on unbound molecules present in the free cytoplasm, identical results were obtained. We conclude that no selection towards poly(rA)-containing viral molecules is evident on binding to polyribosomes. These findings suggest that the incoming viral genome of the Moloney strain of murine leukemia virus may serve as a messenger for the synthesis of one or more virus-specific proteins early after infection of mouse fibroblasts. PMID:117118

  9. Protection against Friend retrovirus-induced leukemia by recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the gag gene.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazawa, M; Nishio, J; Chesebro, B

    1992-01-01

    High sequence variability in the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus has provoked interest in nonenvelope antigens as potential immunogens against retrovirus infection. However, the role of core protein antigens encoded by the gag gene in protective immunity against retroviruses is unclear. By using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the Friend murine leukemia helper virus (F-MuLV) gag gene, we could prime CD4+ T-helper cells and protectively immunize susceptible strains of mice against Friend retrovirus infection. Recovery from leukemic splenomegaly developed more slowly after immunization with vaccinia virus-F-MuLV gag than with vaccinia virus-F-MuLV env; however, genetic nonresponders to the envelope protein could be partially protected with Gag vaccines. Class switching of F-MuLV-neutralizing antibodies from immunoglobulin M to immunoglobulin G after challenge with Friend virus complex was facilitated in mice immunized with the Gag antigen. Sequential deletion of the gag gene revealed that the major protective epitope was located on the N-terminal hydrophobic protein p15. Images PMID:1534853

  10. Murine leukemia virus uses NXF1 for nuclear export of spliced and unspliced viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Toshie; Davila, Jaime I; Malcolm, Jessica A; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Tonne, Jason M; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    Intron-containing mRNAs are subject to restricted nuclear export in higher eukaryotes. Retroviral replication requires the nucleocytoplasmic transport of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts, and RNA export mechanisms of gammaretroviruses are poorly characterized. Here, we report the involvement of the nuclear export receptor NXF1/TAP in the nuclear export of gammaretroviral RNA transcripts. We identified a conserved cis-acting element in the pol gene of gammaretroviruses, including murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), named the CAE (cytoplasmic accumulation element). The CAE enhanced the cytoplasmic accumulation of viral RNA transcripts and the expression of viral proteins without significantly affecting the stability, splicing, or translation efficiency of the transcripts. Insertion of the CAE sequence also facilitated Rev-independent HIV Gag expression. We found that the CAE sequence interacted with NXF1, whereas disruption of NXF1 ablated CAE function. Thus, the CAE sequence mediates the cytoplasmic accumulation of gammaretroviral transcripts in an NXF1-dependent manner. Disruption of NXF1 expression impaired cytoplasmic accumulations of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts of XMRV and MLV, resulting in their nuclear retention or degradation. Thus, our results demonstrate that gammaretroviruses use NXF1 for the cytoplasmic accumulation of both spliced and nonspliced viral RNA transcripts. Murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been studied as one of the classic models of retrovirology. Although unspliced host messenger RNAs are rarely exported from the nucleus, MLV actively exports unspliced viral RNAs to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive studies, how MLV achieves this difficult task has remained a mystery. Here, we have studied the RNA export mechanism of MLV and found that (i) the genome contains a sequence which supports the efficient nuclear export of viral RNAs, (ii) the cellular factor NXF1 is involved in the

  11. Treatment of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, K; Block, A; Ferk, G; Beer, B; Vollmar, A; Lutz, H

    1999-09-01

    FeLV infection is still considered to account for most disease-related deaths in pet cats. Different treatment attempts with various drugs were performed in the past but none resulted in healing or complete virus elimination. Therefore, it caused a sensation when Horber and Mayr [Horber, D., Mayr, B., 1991. Prax. 19, 311-314; Horber, D., Schnabl, W., Mayr, B., 1992. Tierarztl. Umschau 47, 556-560; Mayr, B., Horber, D., 1992. Kleintierprax. 37, 515-518] published that they were able to cure 80 to 100% FeLV-infected cats from viremia by using an immunomodulating compound. Articles in cat breeder and cat owner journals appeared assuming that obviously there is a rescue for FeLV-infected cats suffering from this deadly infection. The immunomodulator [Buttner, M., 1993. Comp. Immun. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18, 1-10] used in those studies was the so-called 'paramunity inducer' PIND-ORF (Baypamun, Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) consisting of inactivated parapox ovis virus. Since that time, Baypamun is the most commonly used drug for treatment of FeLV infection in Germany and other European countries. Four placebo-controlled double-blind trials were performed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of Baypamun and other compounds in naturally FeLV-infected cats under controlled conditions.

  12. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  13. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  14. Bovine leukemia virus becomes established in dairy herds before the first lactation.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Ramiro; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Jaworski, Juan Pablo; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario; Willems, Luc; Trono, Karina

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we studied seven groups of pregnant heifers from a consortium of dairy farms heavily infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). ELISA testing showed that the seroprevalence ranges of BLV in heifers between 36.1 and 66.5 %. No significant differences in proviral load were found when comparing heifers with adult cattle. Before their first delivery, more than 9.8 % of heifers show a high proviral load. Because BLV infection can occur during the first two years of life, the rationale of any strategy should be to take action as early as possible after birth.

  15. Characterisation of env and gag gene fragments of bovine leukemia viruses (BLVs) from cattle in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Feray; Oğuzoğlu, Tuba Çiğdem; Timurkan, Mehmet Ozkan; Karapınar, Zeynep

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular characteristics of bovine leukemia viruses (BLVs) in Turkey. The variability of env and gag fragments of BLVs was examined using DNA from blood samples obtained for sequence analysis of BLVs in four cattle herds from three different geographical areas in Turkey. The env gene sequences were highly similar to those of Brasilian, Argentine, and Japanese BLV strains, while gag genes from Turkish BLV isolates showed greatest similarity to those of Iranian isolates. This paper is the first report on the partial characterisation of env and gag genetic fragments of BLVs from Turkey.

  16. Prevalence of feline leukemia virus infection in domestic cats in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Nadia R; Danelli, Maria G M; da Silva, Lucia H P; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Mazur, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Peripheral blood smears of 1094 domestic cats were collected and tested by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay for p27 antigen in cells to study the prevalence and risk factors for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Sex, age, breed, outdoor access, neutering status, type of habitation (household, shelter, veterinary clinics and other places), number of household cats and clinical signs were registered on a form. Among the tested samples, 11.52% were positive. Risk factors for FeLV infection included outdoor access, age range between 1 and 5 years old, and cohabitation with numerous cats.

  17. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  18. Comparative Analysis of HIV-1 and Murine Leukemia Virus Three-Dimensional Nuclear Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Quercioli, Valentina; Di Primio, Cristina; Casini, Antonio; Mulder, Lubbertus C. F.; Vranckx, Lenard S.; Borrenberghs, Doortje; Gijsbers, Rik; Debyser, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy allow three-dimensional analysis of HIV-1 preintegration complexes in the nuclei of infected cells. To extend this investigation to gammaretroviruses, we engineered a fluorescent Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) system consisting of MLV-integrase fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (MLV-IN-EGFP). A comparative analysis of lentiviral (HIV-1) and gammaretroviral (MLV) fluorescent complexes in the nuclei of infected cells revealed their different spatial distributions. This research tool has the potential to achieve new insight into the nuclear biology of these retroviruses. PMID:26962222

  19. A Novel Subgenomic Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Transcript Results from Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Déjardin, Jérôme; Bompard-Maréchal, Guillaume; Audit, Muriel; Hope, Thomas J.; Sitbon, Marc; Mougel, Marylène

    2000-01-01

    Here we show the existence of a novel subgenomic 4.4-kb RNA in cells infected with the prototypic replication-competent Friend or Moloney murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). This RNA derives by splicing from an alternative donor site (SD′) within the capsid-coding region to the canonical envelope splice acceptor site. The position and the sequence of SD′ was highly conserved among mammalian type C and D oncoviruses. Point mutations used to inactivate SD′ without changing the capsid-coding ability affected viral RNA splicing and reduced viral replication in infected cells. PMID:10729146

  20. Substitution of Feline Leukemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Sequences into Murine Leukemia Virus Alters the Pattern of Insertional Activation and Identifies New Common Insertion Sites

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chassidy; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia A.; Puetter, Adriane; Levy, Laura S.

    2005-01-01

    The recombinant retrovirus, MoFe2-MuLV (MoFe2), was constructed by replacing the U3 region of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) with homologous sequences from the FeLV-945 LTR. NIH/Swiss mice neonatally inoculated with MoFe2 developed T-cell lymphomas of immature thymocyte surface phenotype. MoFe2 integrated infrequently (0 to 9%) near common insertion sites (CISs) previously identified for either parent virus. Using three different strategies, CISs in MoFe2-induced tumors were identified at six loci, none of which had been previously reported as CISs in tumors induced by either parent virus in wild-type animals. Two of the newly identified CISs had not previously been implicated in lymphoma in any retrovirus model. One of these, designated 3-19, encodes the p101 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-gamma. The other, designated Rw1, is predicted to encode a protein that functions in the immune response to virus infection. Thus, substitution of FeLV-945 U3 sequences into the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) did not alter the target tissue for M-MuLV transformation but significantly altered the pattern of CIS utilization in the induction of T-cell lymphoma. These observations support a growing body of evidence that the distinctive sequence and/or structure of the retroviral LTR determines its pattern of insertional activation. The findings also demonstrate the oligoclonal nature of retrovirus-induced lymphomas by demonstrating proviral insertions at CISs in subdominant populations in the tumor mass. Finally, the findings demonstrate the utility of novel recombinant retroviruses such as MoFe2 to contribute new genes potentially relevant to the induction of lymphoid malignancy. PMID:15596801

  1. Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas; Florins, Arnaud; Boxus, Mathieu; Burteau, Catherine; Nigro, Annamaria; Vandermeers, Fabian; Balon, Hervé; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Defoiche, Julien; Burny, Arsène; Reichert, Michal; Kettmann, Richard; Willems, Luc

    2007-01-01

    In 1871, the observation of yellowish nodules in the enlarged spleen of a cow was considered to be the first reported case of bovine leukemia. The etiological agent of this lymphoproliferative disease, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), belongs to the deltaretrovirus genus which also includes the related human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This review summarizes current knowledge of this viral system, which is important as a model for leukemogenesis. Recently, the BLV model has also cast light onto novel prospects for therapies of HTLV induced diseases, for which no satisfactory treatment exists so far. PMID:17362524

  2. Correlation between detection of herpes simplex virus in oral secretions by PCR and susceptibility to experimental UV radiation-induced herpes labialis.

    PubMed Central

    Kriesel, J D; Pisani, P L; McKeough, M B; Baringer, J R; Spruance, S L

    1994-01-01

    We examined the oral secretions of 25 patients for herpes simplex virus (HSV) at the time of and following experimental UV radiation (UVR). HSV was detected in one or more oral secretion specimens in 5 of 12 (42%) cases by cell culture and in 8 of 12 (67%) cases by PCR. On the day of UVR, HSV was detected in 1 of 12 (8%) patients who developed a lip lesion and 2 of 16 (13%) patients who did not (the difference is not significant). We conclude that PCR is more sensitive than culture in the detection of HSV and that HSV is not shed with increased frequency from the oral cavity before the development of UVR-induced herpes labialis. PMID:7883911

  3. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  4. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  5. Detection of Feline leukemia virus in the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Inés; Doménech, Ana; García-Montijano, Marino; Collado, Victorio M; Sánchez, Celia; Tejerizo, J German; Galka, Margarita; Fernández, Pilar; Gómez-Lucía, Esperanza

    2008-05-01

    Feline retroviruses are rarely reported in lynx species. Twenty-one Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) blood and tissue samples collected from Doñana National Park and Los Villares (Sierra Morena) in southern Spain during 1993-2003 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to amplify nucleic acids from feline retroviruses. Six samples were positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), but no samples tested positive for Feline immunodeficiency virus. The BLAST analysis indicated that 5 of the 6 sequences were closely related to FeLV strain Rickard subgroup A, whereas 1 sequence was identical to FeLV. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of FeLV in the endangered Iberian lynx.

  6. Multiple steps are required for the induction of tumors by Abelson murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Green, P L; Kaehler, D A; Bennett, L M; Risser, R

    1989-01-01

    Helper virus-free Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) was used to induce monoclonal pre-B-cell tumors in mice. The clonality, patterns of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement, tumorigenicity, and v-abl oncogene expression in individual preleukemic and leukemic colonies were compared. Our results indicate that A-MuLV preleukemic cells with low or undetectable tumorigenic potential give rise to leukemic cells with high tumorigenic potential by a process of subclone selection. The levels of v-abl oncogene product in preleukemic and leukemic cell populations were not significantly different. These results suggest that an additional event(s) unrelated to the level of the v-abl protein product is required for A-MuLV-transformed cells to become fully malignant. Images PMID:2539498

  7. Re-examination of feline leukemia virus: host relationships using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Torres, Andrea N; Mathiason, Candace K; Hoover, Edward A

    2005-02-05

    The mechanisms responsible for effective vs. ineffective viral containment are central to immunoprevention and therapies of retroviral infections. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is unique as a naturally occurring, diametric example of effective vs. ineffective retroviral containment by the host. We developed a sensitive quantitative real-time DNA PCR assay specific for exogenous FeLV to further explore the FeLV-host relationship. By assaying p27 capsid antigen in blood and FeLV DNA in blood and tissues of successfully vaccinated, unsuccessfully vaccinated, and unvaccinated pathogen-free cats, we defined four statistically separable classes of FeLV infection, provisionally designated as abortive, regressive, latent, and progressive. These host-virus relationships were established by 8 weeks post-challenge and could be maintained for years. Real-time PCR methods offer promise in gaining deeper insight into the mechanisms of FeLV infection and immunity.

  8. Effect of freezing treatment on colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Toru; Ishihara, Ryoko; Hatama, Shinichi; Oue, Yasuhiro; Edamatsu, Hiroki; Konno, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Satoshi; Murakami, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Here, we used a sheep bioassay to determine the effect of freezing colostrum to prevent the transmission of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) among neonatal calves. Leukocytes were isolated from the colostrum of a BLV-infected Holstein cow and were then either left untreated (control) or freeze-thawed. A sheep inoculated intraperitoneally with the untreated leukocytes was infected with BLV at 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the sheep inoculated with treated leukocytes did not become infected. The uninfected sheep was inoculated again with leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another BLV-infected Holstein cow after freezing treatment, and again it did not become infected with BLV. Finally, this sheep was inoculated with the leukocytes isolated from the colostrum of another virus-infected cow without freezing treatment, and it became infected with BLV at 4 weeks after inoculation. The results indicate that colostrum should be frozen as a useful means of inactivating the infectivity of BLV-infected lymphocytes.

  9. Removal of xenotropic murine leukemia virus by nanocellulose based filter paper.

    PubMed

    Asper, M; Hanrieder, T; Quellmalz, A; Mihranyan, A

    2015-11-01

    The removal of xenotrpic murine leukemia virus (xMuLV) by size-exclusion filter paper composed of 100% naturally derived cellulose was validated. The filter paper was produced using cellulose nanofibers derived from Cladophora sp. algae. The filter paper was characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, helium pycnometry, and model tracer (100 nm latex beads and 50 nm gold nanoparticles) retention tests. Following the filtration of xMuLV spiked solutions, LRV ≥5.25 log10 TCID50 was observed, as limited by the virus titre in the feed solution and sensitivity of the tissue infectivity test. The results of the validation study suggest that the nanocellulose filter paper is useful for removal of endogenous rodent retroviruses and retrovirus-like particles during the production of recombinant proteins.

  10. [Typing of cattle leukemia virus circulating in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Limanskiĭ, A P; Geue, L; Limanskaia, O Iu; Beier, D

    2004-01-01

    Bovine leucosis virus (BLV), circulating in the Ukrainian territory, was characterized through the definition of its subspecies affiliation. The pro-viral BLV DNA was isolated from peripheral-blood lymphocytes of naturally-HIV-infected black-variegate animals taken from leucosis-affected farms in the Kharkov Region. The env-gene fragment of pro-viral DNA was amplified, sequenced and analyzed after the amplicon had been treated by three restriction enzymes, i.e. BamH I, Bcl I and Pvu II. According to the analysis of restriction-fragments' length polymorphism, the Ukrainian BLV isolate can be classified as belonging to the Australian subspecies, i.e. to one of the 3 known subspecies. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the env-gene fragment of BLV isolates from the EMBL database showed that evolutionally the Ukrainian isolate is distantly located from the isolates' clusters of the Belgian, Japanese and Australian subspecie and has the biggest quantity (4) of non-coinciding nucleotides for the analyzed highly conservative locus of the BLV env-gene with a length of 444 pair of nucleotides.

  11. Second site mutation in the virus envelope expands the host range of a cytopathic variant of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Ferrarone, John; Knoper, Ryan C; Li, Randolph; Kozak, Christine A

    2012-11-10

    Spl574 MLV (murine leukemia virus) is a variant of Moloney ecotropic MLV (MoMLV) that is cytopathic in Mus dunni cells and restricted by other mouse cells. Its host range and cytopathicity are due to a mutation, S82F, at a site critical for binding to the CAT-1 receptor. To identify residues that affect affinity for receptor variants, virus with S82F was passed in restrictive cells. The env genes of the adapted viruses contained 18 novel mutations, including one, E114G, present in 6 of 30 sequenced envs. MoMLV-E114G efficiently infected all mouse cells as well as ecotropic MLV resistant Chinese hamster cells. Virus with E114G and S82F induced large multinucleated syncytia in NIH 3T3 and SC-1 cells as well as M. dunni cells. Inoculation of Mo-S82F,E114G into mice produced lymphomas typical of MoMLV. Residues at env position 114 are thus important determinants of host range, and E114G suppresses host range restriction due to S82F, but does not affect S82F-governed cytopathicity.

  12. Human T-cell leukemia viruses are highly unstable over a wide range of temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Masahiko; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Roy, Bibhuti Bhusan; Shimizu, Akira; Hoque, Sk Ariful; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2012-03-01

    The biological properties of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and HTLV type II (HTLV-II) are not well elucidated as cell-free viruses. We established new assay systems to detect the infectivity of cell-free HTLVs and examined the stability of cell-free HTLVs at different temperatures. HTLVs lost infectivity more rapidly than did bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is genetically related to HTLVs. The half-lives of three HTLV-I strains (two cosmopolitan strains and one Melanesian strain) at 37 °C were approximately 0.6 h, whereas the half-life of a BLV strain was 8.5 h. HTLV-I rapidly lost infectivity unexpectedly at 0 and 4 °C. We examined the stability of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes with HTLV-I, HTLV-II or BLV Env proteins, and the Env proteins of HTLVs were found to be more unstable at 4 and 25 °C than the Env proteins of the BLV. Over the course of the viral life cycle, heat treatment inhibited HTLV-I infection at the phase of attachment to the host cells, and inhibition was more marked upon entry into the cells. The HTLV-I Env surface (SU) protein (gp46) was easily released from virions during incubation at 37 °C. However, this release was inhibited by pre-treatment of the virions with N-ethylmaleimide, suggesting that the inter-subunit bond between gp46 SU and gp21 transmembrane (TM) proteins is rearranged by disulfide bond isomerization. HTLVs are highly unstable over a wide range of temperatures because the disulfide bonds between the SU and TM proteins are labile.

  13. Episodic Diversifying Selection Shaped the Genomes of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus and Related Gammaretroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Niccolò; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Roca, Alfred L.; Xu, Wenqin; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are part of a larger group of pathogenic gammaretroviruses present across phylogenetically diverse host species of Australasian mammals. Despite the biomedical utility of GALVs as viral vectors and in cancer gene therapy, full genome sequences have not been determined for all of the five identified GALV strains, nor has a comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed. We therefore generated complete genomic sequences for each GALV strain using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing. The four strains of GALV isolated from gibbons formed a monophyletic clade that was closely related to the woolly monkey virus (WMV), which is a GALV strain that likely originated in a gibbon host. The GALV-WMV clade in turn formed a sister group to the koala retroviruses (KoRVs). Genomic signatures of episodic diversifying selection were detected among the gammaretroviruses with concentration in the env gene across the GALV strains that were particularly oncogenic and KoRV strains that were potentially exogenous, likely reflecting their adaptation to the host immune system. In vitro studies involving vectors chimeric between GALV and KoRV-B established that variable regions A and B of the surface unit of the envelope determine which receptor is used by a viral strain to enter host cells. IMPORTANCE The gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are among the most medically relevant retroviruses due to their use as viral vectors for gene transfer and in cancer gene therapy. Despite their importance, full genome sequences have not been determined for the majority of primate isolates, nor has comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed, despite evidence that the viruses are facing complex selective pressures associated with cross-species transmission. Using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, we report here the full genome sequences of all the GALV strains and demonstrate that diversifying selection is

  14. Chemoresistance to Valproate Treatment of Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected Sheep; Identification of Improved HDAC Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vandermeers, Fabian; de Brogniez, Alix; Florins, Arnaud; Nigro, Annamaria; François, Carole; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Verlaeten, Olivier; Stern, Eric; Lambert, Didier M.; Wouters, Johan; Willems, Luc

    2012-01-01

    We previously proved that a histone deacetylase inhibitor (valproate, VPA) decreases the number of leukemic cells in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. Here, we characterize the mechanisms initiated upon interruption of treatment. We observed that VPA treatment is followed by a decrease of the B cell counts and proviral loads (copies per blood volume). However, all sheep eventually relapsed after different periods of time and became refractory to further VPA treatment. Sheep remained persistently infected with BLV. B lymphocytes isolated throughout treatment and relapse were responsive to VPA-induced apoptosis in cell culture. B cell proliferation is only marginally affected by VPA ex vivo. Interestingly, in four out of five sheep, ex vivo viral expression was nearly undetectable at the time of relapse. In two sheep, a new tumoral clone arose, most likely revealing a selection process exerted by VPA in vivo. We conclude that the interruption of VPA treatment leads to the resurgence of the leukemia in BLV-infected sheep and hypothesize that resistance to further treatment might be due to the failure of viral expression induction. The development of more potent HDAC inhibitors and/or the combination with other compounds can overcome chemoresistance. These observations in the BLV model may be important for therapies against the related Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. PMID:25436765

  15. Cutaneous manifestations of human T cell leukemia virus type I infection in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R M; Leno, M; Hubbard, B S; Kindt, T J

    1996-03-01

    Skin diseases ranging from infective dermatitis to cutaneous lymphoma have been associated with human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type I. A generalized exfoliative papillated dermatopathy occurred in a rabbit 20 months into a course of chronic HTLV-I infection. Biopsies revealed epidermotropic T cell infiltrates, including Sezary-like cells, that resulted in a pattern mimicking cutaneous T cell lymphoma. HTLV-I was isolated from affected skin, and virus expression was detected in cutaneous cultures. Sezary-like cells also occurred in circulation. Interleukin-2-independent lymphocyte cultures, established from blood exhibiting elevated CD8 T cell levels and CD25 expression, had polyclonal integration of provirus. The findings are similar to those in evolving adult T cell leukemia lymphoma and may represent a prelymphomatous change. The cutaneous lymphoproliferative lesion resulted from HTLV-I infection and further establishes the New Zealand White rabbit inoculated with the RH/K34 cell line as a suitable model for investigation of HTLV-I pathogenesis.

  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A. ); Gaynor, R.B. Wadsworth Veterans Hospital, Los Angeles, CA )

    1988-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses.

  17. Retargeting Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus to Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Dillon; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Barber, Glen N

    2015-12-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive cancer of CD4/CD25(+) T lymphocytes, the etiological agent of which is human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL is highly refractory to current therapies, making the development of new treatments a high priority. Oncolytic viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are being considered as anticancer agents since they readily infect transformed cells compared to normal cells, the former appearing to exhibit defective innate immune responses. Here, we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of a recombinant VSV that has been retargeted to specifically infect and replicate in transformed CD4(+) cells. This was achieved by replacing the single VSV glycoprotein (G) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 to create a hybrid fusion protein, gp160G. The resultant virus, VSV-gp160G, was found to only target cells expressing CD4 and retained robust oncolytic activity against HTLV-1 actuated ATL cells. VSV-gp160G was further noted to be highly attenuated and did not replicate efficiently in or induce significant cell death of primary CD4(+) T cells. Accordingly, VSV-gp160G did not elicit any evidence of neurotoxicity even in severely immunocompromised animals such as NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ-c-null (NSG) mice. Importantly, VSV-gp160G effectively exerted potent oncolytic activity in patient-derived ATL transplanted into NSG mice and facilitated a significant survival benefit. Our data indicate that VSV-gp160G exerts potent oncolytic efficacy against CD4(+) malignant cells and either alone or in conjunction with established therapies may provide an effective treatment in patients displaying ATL. Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is a serious form of cancer with a high mortality rate. HTLV-1 infection is the etiological agent of ATL and, unfortunately, most patients succumb to the disease within a few years. Current treatment options have failed to significantly improve survival rate. In this study, we

  18. Retargeting Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus to Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Adult T-Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Dillon; Ramos, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive cancer of CD4/CD25+ T lymphocytes, the etiological agent of which is human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL is highly refractory to current therapies, making the development of new treatments a high priority. Oncolytic viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are being considered as anticancer agents since they readily infect transformed cells compared to normal cells, the former appearing to exhibit defective innate immune responses. Here, we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of a recombinant VSV that has been retargeted to specifically infect and replicate in transformed CD4+ cells. This was achieved by replacing the single VSV glycoprotein (G) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 to create a hybrid fusion protein, gp160G. The resultant virus, VSV-gp160G, was found to only target cells expressing CD4 and retained robust oncolytic activity against HTLV-1 actuated ATL cells. VSV-gp160G was further noted to be highly attenuated and did not replicate efficiently in or induce significant cell death of primary CD4+ T cells. Accordingly, VSV-gp160G did not elicit any evidence of neurotoxicity even in severely immunocompromised animals such as NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ-c-null (NSG) mice. Importantly, VSV-gp160G effectively exerted potent oncolytic activity in patient-derived ATL transplanted into NSG mice and facilitated a significant survival benefit. Our data indicate that VSV-gp160G exerts potent oncolytic efficacy against CD4+ malignant cells and either alone or in conjunction with established therapies may provide an effective treatment in patients displaying ATL. IMPORTANCE Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is a serious form of cancer with a high mortality rate. HTLV-1 infection is the etiological agent of ATL and, unfortunately, most patients succumb to the disease within a few years. Current treatment options have failed to significantly improve survival rate. In

  19. Two base changes restore infectivity to a noninfectious molecular clone of Moloney murine Leukemia virus (pMLV-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.D.; Verma, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a molecular clone of Moloney murine leukemia virus (pMLV-1) has previously been reported. However, pMLV-1 does not generate infectious virus after transfection into cells. The lesion in pMLV-1 has been localized by determining the biological activity of recombinants containing DNA from kilobase pair region which spans the gag-pol junction of pMLV-1 with the corresponding DNA fragment from the infectious clone (pMLV-48) and pMLV-1 reveals two single base pair changes. The mutation in the pol gene does not affect the production of infectious virus but renders them XC negative, whereas the mutation in the gag gene appears to be lethal. The complete nucleotide sequence of an infectious clone of Moloney murine leukemia virus can now be deduced.

  20. Inoculation of newborn SWR/J females with an ecotropic murine leukemia virus can produce transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Panthier, J J; Condamine, H; Jacob, F

    1988-02-01

    Endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia proviruses that were not present in the parental stock are acquired by the progeny of some SWR/J X RF/J hybrid females. We have made a stock of an ecotropic murine leukemia virus produced by such a hybrid female and inoculated newborn SWR/J females with it. We show that upon crossing of the inoculated females to SWR/J males, some of their progeny acquire ecotropic proviruses. Although most of these proviruses appear to be distributed in somatic tissues in a mosaic way, some are transmitted through the germ line. Thus an exogenous infection is able to mimic the phenomenon observed in SWR/J X RF/J hybrid mice. Available evidence suggests that this infection occurs during oogenesis in the recipient female. Our results document the conversion of an exogenous infectious ecotropic murine leukemia virus to an endogenous provirus without any manipulation of either eggs or embryos.

  1. Purification of core-binding factor, a protein that binds the conserved core site in murine leukemia virus enhancers.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S W; Speck, N A

    1992-01-01

    The Moloney murine leukemia virus causes thymic leukemias when injected into newborn mice. A major genetic determinant of the thymic disease specificity of the Moloney virus genetically maps to two protein binding sites in the Moloney virus enhancer, the leukemia virus factor b site and the adjacent core site. Point mutations introduced into either of these sites significantly shifts the disease specificity of the Moloney virus from thymic leukemia to erythroleukemia (N. A. Speck, B. Renjifo, E. Golemis, T. Frederickson, J. Hartley, and N. Hopkins, Genes Dev. 4:233-242, 1990). We have purified several polypeptides that bind to the core site in the Moloney virus enhancer. These proteins were purified from calf thymus nuclear extracts by selective pH denaturation, followed by chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, nonspecific double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and core oligonucleotide-coupled affinity columns. We have achieved greater than 13,000-fold purification of the core-binding factors (CBFs), with an overall yield of approximately 19%. Analysis of purified protein fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveals more than 10 polypeptides. Each of the polypeptides was recovered from an SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and those in the molecular size range of 19 to 35 kDa were demonstrated to have core-binding activity. The purified CBFs were shown by DNase I footprint analyses to bind the core site in the Moloney virus enhancer specifically, and also to core motifs in the enhancers from a simian immunodeficiency virus, the immunoglobulin mu chain, and T-cell receptor gamma-chain genes. Images PMID:1309596

  2. [Serological and molecular-biological study of T-cell leukemia virus in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Stepina, V N; Seniuta, N B; Bakieva, N B; Pavlish, O A; Syrtsev, A V; Budnikova, L V; Susova, O Iu; Shtutman, M S; Shcherbak, L N; Gurtsevich, V E

    1996-01-01

    Seroepidemiological and molecular-biological screening of 1510 donor blood samples, collected from the residents of the town of Ashgabat (Turkmenistan), for lymphotropic virus of human T-cellular leukemia (HTLV) virus revealed one donor with a high level of immune response to a wide spectrum of viral proteins. Three donors were serologically assessed as dubious, for their sera contained antibodies to gag gene protein but no antibodies to env gene protein. Screening of family members of the donor infected with HTLV-1 revealed four more highly reactive carriers of HTLV-1 virus. The presence of proviral sequences of HTLV-1 in the lymphocyte DNA of infected donor and her relatives was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern-blot hybridization of specific amplification products. Proviral sequences of gag, pol, and LTR genes were detected in all the cases. Short-term culturing of peripheral blood lymphocytes of all seropositive subjects was associated with expression of HTLV-1 structural proteins. Analysis of the possible routes of transmission of HTLV-1 isolated in Turkmenistan permits us to hypothesize an Iranian origin of the isolated virus strain.

  3. Effect of internal genomic sequences of the Moloney murine leukemia virus on replication

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, I.K.; Lobanova, A.B.; Voitenok, N.N.

    1995-11-01

    Construction and use of retrovirus vectors derived from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) are described. These vectors, designated minimal vectors, contain the left and right long terminal repeats (LTRs), a binding site for proline tRNA, a polypurine tract (PPT), and a dominant marker for selective introduction of vectors into a packaging cell line, but lack the internal sequences of the virus genome. The experiments showed that the minimal vectors can be replicated and that their titer was approximately 1500-fold lower than that of wild-type vectors. The minimal vectors were shown to contain all the cis-acting sequences necessary for correct reverse transcription. One infectious virion, like wild-type viruses, produced only one provirus. Unlike the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), {Psi}{sup +} and {Psi}{sup {minus}} genomes of MoMuLV did not compete for virion proteins in the {Psi}2 packaging cell line. When an insert was introduced into a central part of the LTR U5 region, the titer of the minimal vector remained the same, while the titer of the wild-type vector decreased approximately 40-fold. 28 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Intracerebral hemorrhages and syncytium formation induced by endothelial cell infection with a murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Park, B H; Lavi, E; Blank, K J; Gaulton, G N

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of endothelial cell damage that lead to cerebral hemorrhage are not completely understood. In this study, a cloned murine retrovirus, TR1.3, that uniformly induced stroke in neonatal BALB/c mice is described. Restriction digest mapping suggests that TR1.3 is part of the Friend murine leukemia virus (FMuLV) family. However, unlike mice exposed to other FMuLVs, mice infected with TR1.3 virus developed tremors and seizures within 8 to 18 days postinoculation. This was uniformly followed by paralysis and death within 1 to 2 days. Postmortem examination of TR1.3-inoculated mice revealed edematous brain tissue with large areas of intracerebral hemorrhage. Histologic analysis revealed prominent small vessel pathology including syncytium formation of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of frozen brain sections using double fluorescence staining demonstrated that TR1.3 virus specifically infected small vessel endothelial cells. Although infection of vessel endothelial cells was detected in several organs, only brain endothelial cells displayed viral infection associated with hemorrhage. The primary determinant of TR1.3-induced neuropathogenicity was found to reside within a 3.0-kb fragment containing the 3' end of the pol gene, the env gene, and the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. The restricted tropism and acute pathogenicity of this cloned murine retrovirus provide a model for studying virus-induced stroke and for elucidating the mechanisms involved in syncytium formation by retroviruses in vivo. Images PMID:8396666

  5. Complete genome sequences of two feline leukemia virus subgroup B isolates with novel recombination sites.

    PubMed

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that all primary isolates of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) contain a subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) that is essential for transmission. In contrast, FeLV-B is thought to arise de novo in the infected animal through RNA recombination events with endogenous FeLV transcripts, presumably through copackaging of RNA from endogenous FeLV and exogenous FeLV-A. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two novel strains of FeLV-B (FeLV-2518 and FeLV-4314) that were isolated in the absence of FeLV-A. The env genes of these isolates have been characterized previously, and the 3' recombination sites have been identified. We describe herein the 5' recombination breakpoints of each virus. These breakpoints were found to be within the signal peptide of the env gene and the reverse transcriptase-coding region, respectively. This is the first report of a recombination site within the pol gene of an FeLV-B genome and the first genetic characterization of multiple independently arising FeLV-B isolates that have been identified without a functional FeLV-A ancestral virus.

  6. Effects of preactivated MC540 in the treatment of lymphocytic plasmacytic stomatitis in feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus positive cats.

    PubMed

    Wiggs, R B; Lobprise, H B; Matthews, J L; Gulliya, K S

    1993-03-01

    Photoactive compounds and drugs are used therapeutically as antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor agents. This report examines the use of a photoactive compound, preactivated merocyanine 540 (pMC540), in the treatment of stomatitis in two cats that are both feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) positive. One of the cats was also feline leukemia virus (FeLV) positive. Dramatic short term improvement is reported with the dosage regimen and complications.

  7. A patient with progressive myelopathy and antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia, D M; Saxton, E H; Koga, H; Diagne, A; Rosenblatt, J D

    1990-04-01

    A 52-year-old human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive bisexual black man was evaluated at UCLA because of the recent onset of progressive lower-extremity weakness. Initial neurologic examination showed that the patient's distal weakness was greater than his proximal weakness, with bilateral foot drop and electrophysiologic evidence of denervation in the distal lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord disclosed no abnormalities. Subsequent neurologic evaluation 8 months later showed a myelopathy, with progression of lower-extremity weakness, spasticity, and flexor spasms, and urinary incontinence, as well as the peripheral neuropathy noted previously. A second magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed patchy foci of increased signal intensity in white matter and cortex, with mild generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and no lesions in the spinal cord. Specimens of the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid contained antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Additionally, specimens of his serum and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I by Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation, and found to be positive for human T-cell leukemia virus type I gag, env, and tax antibodies. The primary cause of severe myelopathy in this patient may be infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type I rather than with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Treatment with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the lower-extremity weakness, reduction in flexor spasms, and slower but significant improvement in urinary symptoms. Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and have unusual motor findings should be tested for concomitant human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection.

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Michiki; Miyamura, Takako; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kajihara, Ryosuke; Adachi, Souichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Tomizawa, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of <24 months during anti-tumor therapy from April 2006 to March 2009 were investigated by sending a questionnaire to all member institutions of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG). Twelve patients with acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

  9. Endogenous Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Identified in a Rodent (Melomys burtoni subsp.) from Wallacea (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Alfano, Niccolò; Michaux, Johan; Morand, Serge; Aplin, Ken; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Löber, Ulrike; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fitriana, Yuli; Semiadi, Gono; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M; Roca, Alfred L; Eiden, Maribeth V; Greenwood, Alex D

    2016-09-15

    Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV) most likely originated from a cross-species transmission of an ancestral retrovirus into koalas and gibbons via one or more intermediate as-yet-unknown hosts. A virus highly similar to GALV has been identified in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni) after extensive screening of Australian wildlife. GALV-like viruses have also been discovered in several Southeast Asian species, although screening has not been extensive and viruses discovered to date are only distantly related to GALV. We therefore screened 26 Southeast Asian rodent species for KoRV- and GALV-like sequences, using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, in the attempt to identify potential GALV and KoRV hosts. Only the individuals belonging to a newly discovered subspecies of Melomys burtoni from Indonesia were positive, yielding an endogenous provirus very closely related to a strain of GALV. The sequence of the critical receptor domain for GALV infection in the Indonesian M. burtoni subsp. was consistent with the susceptibility of the species to GALV infection. The second record of a GALV in M. burtoni provides further evidence that M. burtoni, and potentially other lineages within the widespread subfamily Murinae, may play a role in the spread of GALV-like viruses. The discovery of a GALV in the most western part of the Australo-Papuan distribution of M. burtoni, specifically in a transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Wallacea), may be relevant to the cross-species transmission to gibbons in Southeast Asia and broadens the known distribution of GALVs in wild rodents. Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and the koala retrovirus (KoRV) are very closely related, yet their hosts neither are closely related nor overlap geographically. Direct cross-species infection between koalas and gibbons is unlikely. Therefore, GALV and KoRV may have arisen via a cross-species transfer from an intermediate host whose range

  10. Endogenous Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Identified in a Rodent (Melomys burtoni subsp.) from Wallacea (Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Niccolò; Michaux, Johan; Morand, Serge; Aplin, Ken; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Löber, Ulrike; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fitriana, Yuli; Semiadi, Gono; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV) most likely originated from a cross-species transmission of an ancestral retrovirus into koalas and gibbons via one or more intermediate as-yet-unknown hosts. A virus highly similar to GALV has been identified in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni) after extensive screening of Australian wildlife. GALV-like viruses have also been discovered in several Southeast Asian species, although screening has not been extensive and viruses discovered to date are only distantly related to GALV. We therefore screened 26 Southeast Asian rodent species for KoRV- and GALV-like sequences, using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, in the attempt to identify potential GALV and KoRV hosts. Only the individuals belonging to a newly discovered subspecies of Melomys burtoni from Indonesia were positive, yielding an endogenous provirus very closely related to a strain of GALV. The sequence of the critical receptor domain for GALV infection in the Indonesian M. burtoni subsp. was consistent with the susceptibility of the species to GALV infection. The second record of a GALV in M. burtoni provides further evidence that M. burtoni, and potentially other lineages within the widespread subfamily Murinae, may play a role in the spread of GALV-like viruses. The discovery of a GALV in the most western part of the Australo-Papuan distribution of M. burtoni, specifically in a transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Wallacea), may be relevant to the cross-species transmission to gibbons in Southeast Asia and broadens the known distribution of GALVs in wild rodents. IMPORTANCE Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and the koala retrovirus (KoRV) are very closely related, yet their hosts neither are closely related nor overlap geographically. Direct cross-species infection between koalas and gibbons is unlikely. Therefore, GALV and KoRV may have arisen via a cross-species transfer from an intermediate

  11. Fv-1 determinants in xenotropic murine leukemia viruses studied with biological assay systems: Isolation of xenotropic virus with N-tropic Fv-1 activity in the cryptic form.

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, K; Narita, H; Adachi, A; Tsuruta, S; Yorifuji, T; Ishimoto, A

    1982-01-01

    By a biological assay system using phenotypically mixed ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses, we investigated whether in the virions of a xenotropic virus there is N- or B-tropic Fv-1 determinant in active form. The existence of N-tropic Fv-1 determinant was demonstrated in SL-XT-1 xenotropic virus isolated from the spleen of a 3-month-old SL mouse, and the N-tropic Fv-1 tropism was confirmed by analysis of the phenotypically mixed viruses harvested from clonal SC-1 cells doubly infected with the SL-XT-1 and B-tropic ecotropic viruses. However, neither N- nor B-tropic Fv-1 determinant was demonstrated in any xenotropic viruses isolated from embryo cells of BALB/c, NZB, or DBA/2 mice, or Cas E #1-IU, and xenotropic-like virus isolated from a wild mouse. PMID:6283153

  12. Cellular pathways involved in the ex vivo expression of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhofs, P; Adam, E; Droogmans, L; Portetelle, D; Mammerickx, M; Burny, A; Kettmann, R; Willems, L

    1996-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiologic agent of enzootic bovine leukosis. The virus adopts a strategy based on the lack of viral expression in vivo; only very rare BLV-infected B lymphocytes express viral information. When the cells are isolated from animals in persistent lymphocytosis and cultivated ex vivo, a tremendous increase in viral expression occurs. To gain insight into this mechanism, we employed a general approach using chemicals that interfere specifically with cellular pathways involved in signal transduction from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Our data demonstrate that BLV expression is not correlated with the activity of protein kinase A (PKA) and is even inhibited by cyclic AMP (cAMP). The cAMP/PKA pathway is thus apparently not involved in ex vivo viral expression. In contrast, PKC appears to play a key role in this process. Phorbol myristate acetate can directly activate viral expression in B cells (in the absence of T cells). Furthermore, calphostin C, a highly specific inhibitor of PKC, partly decreases ex vivo BLV expression. Our data further demonstrate that calmodulin and calcineurin, a calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, play a key role in the induction of viral expression. The involvement of this calmodulin-dependent pathway could explain the induction of expression that cannot be assigned to PKC. Furthermore, it appears that the activation of viral expression requires a calmodulin but not a PKA-dependent pathway. These data highlight major differences between transient transfection and ex vivo experiments. Finally, despite their homologies, BLV and human T-cell leukemia virus appear to use different signal transduction pathways to induce viral expression. PMID:8642639

  13. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone.

    PubMed

    Qualley, Dominic F; Sokolove, Victoria L; Ross, James L

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bovine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein is an efficient nucleic acid chaperone

    SciTech Connect

    Qualley, Dominic F. Sokolove, Victoria L.; Ross, James L.

    2015-03-13

    Nucleocapsid proteins (NCs) direct the rearrangement of nucleic acids to form the most thermodynamically stable structure, and facilitate many steps throughout the life cycle of retroviruses. NCs bind strongly to nucleic acids (NAs) and promote NA aggregation by virtue of their cationic nature; they also destabilize the NA duplex via highly structured zinc-binding motifs. Thus, they are considered to be NA chaperones. While most retroviral NCs are structurally similar, differences are observed both within and between retroviral genera. In this work, we compare the NA binding and chaperone activity of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) NC to that of two other retroviral NCs: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC, which is structurally similar to BLV NC but from a different retrovirus genus, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) NC, which possesses several key structural differences from BLV NC but is from the same genus. Our data show that BLV and HIV-1 NCs bind to NAs with stronger affinity in relation to HTLV-1 NC, and that they also accelerate the annealing of complementary stem-loop structures to a greater extent. Analysis of kinetic parameters derived from the annealing data suggests that while all three NCs stimulate annealing by a two-step mechanism as previously reported, the relative contributions of each step to the overall annealing equilibrium are conserved between BLV and HIV-1 NCs but are different for HTLV-1 NC. It is concluded that while BLV and HTLV-1 belong to the same genus of retroviruses, processes that rely on NC may not be directly comparable. - Highlights: • BLV NC binds strongly to DNA and RNA. • BLV NC promotes mini-TAR annealing as well as HIV-1 NC. • Annealing kinetics suggest a low degree of similarity between BLV NC and HTLV-1 NC.

  15. Characterization of producer cell-dependent restriction of murine leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Serhan, Fatima; Jourdan, Nathalie; Saleun, Sylvie; Moullier, Philippe; Duisit, Ghislaine

    2002-07-01

    We previously reported that the human bronchocarcinoma cell line A549 produces poorly infectious gibbon ape leukemia virus-pseudotyped Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). In contrast, similar amounts of virions recovered from human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells result in 10-fold-higher transduction rates (G. Duisit, A. Salvetti, P. Moullier, and F. Cosset, Hum. Gene Ther. 10:189-200, 1999). We have now extended this initial observation to other type-C envelope (Env) pseudotypes and analyzed the mechanism involved. Structural and morphological analysis showed that viral particles recovered from A549 (A549-MLV) and HT1080 (HT1080-MLV) cells were normal and indistinguishable from each other. They expressed equivalent levels of mature Env proteins and bound similarly to the target cells. Furthermore, incoming particles reached the cytosol and directed the synthesis of linear viral DNA equally efficiently. However, almost no detectable circular DNAs could be detected in A549-MLV-infected cells, indicating that the block of infection resulted from defective nuclear translocation of the preintegration complex. Interestingly, pseudotyping of A549-MLV with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G restored the amount of circular DNA forms as well as the transduction rates to HT1080-MLV levels, suggesting that the postentry blockage could be overcome by endocytic delivery of the core particles downstream of the restriction point. Thus, in contrast to the previously described target cell-dependent Fv-1 (or Fv1-like) restriction in mammalian cells (P. Pryciak and H. E. Varmus, J. Virol. 66:5959-5966, 1992; G. Towers, M. Bock, S. Martin, Y. Takeuchi, J. P. Stoye, and O. Danos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:12295-12299, 2000), we report here a new restriction of MLV replication that relies only on the producer cell type.

  16. Sequences in gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope that confer sensitivity to HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu.

    PubMed

    Janaka, Sanath Kumar; Lucas, Tiffany M; Johnson, Marc C

    2011-11-01

    HIV-1 efficiently forms pseudotyped particles with many gammaretrovirus glycoproteins, such as Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) Env, but not with the related gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) Env or with a chimeric F-MLV Env with a GaLV cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). This incompatibility is modulated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Because the GaLV Env CTD does not resemble tetherin or CD4, the well-studied targets of Vpu, we sought to characterize the modular sequence in the GaLV Env CTD required for this restriction in the presence of Vpu. Using a systematic mutagenesis scan, we determined that the motif that makes GaLV Env sensitive to Vpu is INxxIxxVKxxVxRxK. This region in the CTD of GaLV Env is predicted to form a helix. Mutations in the CTD that would break this helix abolish sensitivity to Vpu. Although many of these positions can be replaced with amino acids with similar biophysical properties without disrupting the Vpu sensitivity, the final lysine residue is required. This Vpu sensitivity sequence appears to be modular, as the unrelated Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Env can be made Vpu sensitive by replacing its CTD with the GaLV Env CTD. In addition, F-MLV Env can be made Vpu sensitive by mutating two amino acids in its cytoplasmic tail to make it resemble more closely the Vpu sensitivity motif. Surprisingly, the core components of this Vpu sensitivity sequence are also present in the host surface protein CD4, which is also targeted by Vpu through its CTD.

  17. Pseudotyping incompatibility between HIV-1 and gibbon ape leukemia virus Env is modulated by Vpu.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Tiffany M; Lyddon, Terri D; Cannon, Paula M; Johnson, Marc C

    2010-03-01

    The Env protein from gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) has been shown to be incompatible with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the production of infectious pseudotyped particles. This incompatibility has been mapped to the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of GaLV Env. Surprisingly, we found that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu modulates this incompatibility. The infectivity of HIV-1 pseudotyped with murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env was not affected by Vpu. However, the infectivity of HIV-1 pseudotyped with an MLV Env with the cytoplasmic tail from GaLV Env (MLV/GaLV Env) was restricted 50- to 100-fold by Vpu. A Vpu mutant containing a scrambled membrane-spanning domain, Vpu(RD), was still able to restrict MLV/GaLV Env, but mutation of the serine residues at positions 52 and 56 completely alleviated the restriction. Loss of infectivity appeared to be caused by reduced MLV/GaLV Env incorporation into viral particles. The mechanism of this downmodulation appears to be distinct from Vpu-mediated CD4 downmodulation because Vpu-expressing cells that failed to produce infectious HIV-1 particles nonetheless continued to display robust surface MLV/GaLV Env expression. In addition, if MLV and HIV-1 were simultaneously introduced into the same cells, only the HIV-1 particle infectivity was restricted by Vpu. Collectively, these data suggest that Vpu modulates the cellular distribution of MLV/GaLV Env, preventing its recruitment to HIV-1 budding sites.

  18. Genetic rearrangements occurring during a single cycle of murine leukemia virus vector replication: characterization and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathi, S; Varela-Echavarría, A; Ron, Y; Preston, B D; Dougherty, J P

    1995-01-01

    Retroviruses evolve at rapid rates, which is presumably advantageous for responding to selective pressures. Understanding the basic mutational processes involved during retroviral replication is important for comprehending the ability of retroviruses to escape immunosurveillance and antiviral drug treatment. Moreover, since retroviral vectors are important vehicles for somatic cell gene therapy, knowledge of the mechanism of retroviral variation is critical for anticipating untoward mutational events occurring during retrovirus-medicated gene transfer. The focus of this report is to examine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements arising during a single cycle of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) vector virus replication. An MoMLV vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene was constructed. MoMLV vector virus was produced in packaging lines, and target cells were infected. From a total of 224 mutant proviruses analyzed, 114 had gross rearrangements readily detectable by Southern blotting. The remaining proviruses were of parental size. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of 73 of the grossly rearranged mutant proviruses indicated they resulted from deletions, combined with insertions, duplications, and complex mutations that were a result of multiple genomic alterations in the same provirus. Complex hypermutations distinct from those previously described for spleen necrosis virus and human immunodeficiency virus were detected. There was a correlation between the mutation breakpoints and single-stranded regions in the predicted viral RNA secondary structure. The results also confirmed that the tk gene is inactivated at an average rate of about 8.8% per cycle of retroviral replication, which corresponds to a rate of mutation of 3%/kbp. PMID:7494312

  19. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The nucleotide sequence of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) retrovirus: a novel type C endogenous virus related to Gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Hanger, J J; Bromham, L D; McKee, J J; O'Brien, T M; Robinson, W F

    2000-05-01

    A novel retrovirus, morphologically consistent with mammalian C-type retroviruses, was detected by electron microscopy in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from 163 koalas and in lymphoma tissue from 3 koalas. PCR amplified provirus from the blood and tissues of 17 wild and captive koalas, and reverse transcriptase-PCR demonstrated viral mRNA, viral genomic RNA, and reverse transcriptase activity in koala serum and cell culture supernatants. Comparison of viral sequences derived from genomic DNA and mRNA showed identity indicative of a single retroviral species-here designated koala retrovirus (KoRV). Southern blot analysis of koala tissue genomic DNA using labelled KoRV probes demonstrated banding consistent with an endogenous retrovirus. Complete and apparently truncated proviruses were detected in DNA of both clinically normal koalas and those with hematopoietic disease. KoRV-related viruses were not detected in other marsupials, and phylogenetic analysis showed that KoRV paradoxically clusters with gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV). The strong similarity between GALV and KoRV suggests that these viruses are closely related and that recent cross-host transmission has occurred. The complete proviral DNA sequence of KoRV is reported.

  1. Prevention of Contamination by Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Susceptibility to Alcohol-Based Disinfectants and Environmental Stability

    PubMed Central

    Palesch, David; Khalid, Mohammad; Stürzel, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) represents a novel γ-retrovirus that is capable of infecting human cells and has been classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) organism. Hence, XMRV represents a potential risk for personnel in laboratories worldwide. Here, we measured the stability of XMRV and its susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants. To this end, we exposed an infectious XMRV reporter virus encoding a secretable luciferase to different temperatures, pH values, and disinfectants and infected XMRV-permissive Raji B cells to measure residual viral infectivity. We found that 1 min treatment of XMRV particles at 60°C is sufficient to reduce infectivity by 99.9%. XMRV infectivity was maximal at a neutral pH but was reduced by 86% at pH 4 and 99.9% at pH 10. The common hand and surface disinfectants ethanol and isopropanol as well as the cell fixation reagent paraformaldehyde abrogated XMRV infectivity entirely, as indicated by a reduction of infectivity exceeding 99.99%. Our findings provide evidence of specific means to inactivate XMRV. Their application will help to prevent unintended XMRV contamination of cell cultures in laboratories and minimize the risk for laboratory personnel and health care workers to become infected with this biosafety level 2 organism. PMID:24532072

  2. Prevention of contamination by xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus: susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants and environmental stability.

    PubMed

    Palesch, David; Khalid, Mohammad; Stürzel, Christina M; Münch, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) represents a novel γ-retrovirus that is capable of infecting human cells and has been classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) organism. Hence, XMRV represents a potential risk for personnel in laboratories worldwide. Here, we measured the stability of XMRV and its susceptibility to alcohol-based disinfectants. To this end, we exposed an infectious XMRV reporter virus encoding a secretable luciferase to different temperatures, pH values, and disinfectants and infected XMRV-permissive Raji B cells to measure residual viral infectivity. We found that 1 min treatment of XMRV particles at 60°C is sufficient to reduce infectivity by 99.9%. XMRV infectivity was maximal at a neutral pH but was reduced by 86% at pH 4 and 99.9% at pH 10. The common hand and surface disinfectants ethanol and isopropanol as well as the cell fixation reagent paraformaldehyde abrogated XMRV infectivity entirely, as indicated by a reduction of infectivity exceeding 99.99%. Our findings provide evidence of specific means to inactivate XMRV. Their application will help to prevent unintended XMRV contamination of cell cultures in laboratories and minimize the risk for laboratory personnel and health care workers to become infected with this biosafety level 2 organism.

  3. [Radiation-induced and therapy-related AML/MDS].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Toshiya

    2009-10-01

    Radiation induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was recognized a century ago, soon after mankind found radiation. Atomic bomb survivors developed de novo AML with relatively short latency with very high frequency. By contrast, excess occurrence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) as well as solid tumors was found decades late. This difference may be due to etiology that many de novo AML patients harbor chimeric leukemogenic genes caused by chromosomal translocations, while MDS patients rarely carry chimeras. In addition, epigenetic change would play important roles. Therapy related leukemia is mainly caused by topoisomerase II inhibitors that cause de novo AML with an 11q23 translocation or by alkyrating agents that induce MDS/AML with an AML1 point mutation and monosomy 7.

  4. Barriers to Infection of Human Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus: Insights into Resistance to Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Anne; Kilbey, Anna; Naseer, Asif; Levy, Laura S.; Ahmad, Shamim; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Cameron, Ewan; Wilson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human genome displays a rich fossil record of past gammaretrovirus infections, yet no current epidemic is evident, despite environmental exposure to viruses that infect human cells in vitro. Feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) rank high on this list, but neither domestic nor workplace exposure has been associated with detectable serological responses. Nonspecific inactivation of gammaretroviruses by serum factors appears insufficient to explain these observations. To investigate further, we explored the susceptibilities of primary and established human cell lines to FeLV-B, the most likely zoonotic variant. Fully permissive infection was common in cancer-derived cell lines but was also a feature of nontransformed keratinocytes and lung fibroblasts. Cells of hematopoietic origin were generally less permissive and formed discrete groups on the basis of high or low intracellular protein expression and virion release. Potent repression was observed in primary human blood mononuclear cells and a subset of leukemia cell lines. However, the early steps of reverse transcription and integration appear to be unimpaired in nonpermissive cells. FeLV-B was subject to G→A hypermutation with a predominant APOBEC3G signature in partially permissive cells but was not mutated in permissive cells or in nonpermissive cells that block secondary viral spread. Distinct cellular barriers that protect primary human blood cells are likely to be important in protection against zoonotic infection with FeLV. IMPORTANCE Domestic exposure to gammaretroviruses such as feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) occurs worldwide, but the basis of human resistance to infection remains incompletely understood. The potential threat is evident from the human genome sequence, which reveals many past epidemics of gammaretrovirus infection, and from recent cross-species jumps of gammaretroviruses from rodents to primates and marsupials. This study examined resistance to infection at the cellular level

  5. Murine Leukemia Virus Uses NXF1 for Nuclear Export of Spliced and Unspliced Viral Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Toshie; Davila, Jaime I.; Malcolm, Jessica A.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.; Tonne, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intron-containing mRNAs are subject to restricted nuclear export in higher eukaryotes. Retroviral replication requires the nucleocytoplasmic transport of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts, and RNA export mechanisms of gammaretroviruses are poorly characterized. Here, we report the involvement of the nuclear export receptor NXF1/TAP in the nuclear export of gammaretroviral RNA transcripts. We identified a conserved cis-acting element in the pol gene of gammaretroviruses, including murine leukemia virus (MLV) and xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMRV), named the CAE (cytoplasmic accumulation element). The CAE enhanced the cytoplasmic accumulation of viral RNA transcripts and the expression of viral proteins without significantly affecting the stability, splicing, or translation efficiency of the transcripts. Insertion of the CAE sequence also facilitated Rev-independent HIV Gag expression. We found that the CAE sequence interacted with NXF1, whereas disruption of NXF1 ablated CAE function. Thus, the CAE sequence mediates the cytoplasmic accumulation of gammaretroviral transcripts in an NXF1-dependent manner. Disruption of NXF1 expression impaired cytoplasmic accumulations of both spliced and unspliced RNA transcripts of XMRV and MLV, resulting in their nuclear retention or degradation. Thus, our results demonstrate that gammaretroviruses use NXF1 for the cytoplasmic accumulation of both spliced and nonspliced viral RNA transcripts. IMPORTANCE Murine leukemia virus (MLV) has been studied as one of the classic models of retrovirology. Although unspliced host messenger RNAs are rarely exported from the nucleus, MLV actively exports unspliced viral RNAs to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive studies, how MLV achieves this difficult task has remained a mystery. Here, we have studied the RNA export mechanism of MLV and found that (i) the genome contains a sequence which supports the efficient nuclear export of viral RNAs, (ii) the cellular factor NXF1 is

  6. Barriers to Infection of Human Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus: Insights into Resistance to Zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne; Kilbey, Anna; Naseer, Asif; Levy, Laura S; Ahmad, Shamim; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Cameron, Ewan; Wilson, Sam; Neil, James C

    2017-03-01

    The human genome displays a rich fossil record of past gammaretrovirus infections, yet no current epidemic is evident, despite environmental exposure to viruses that infect human cells in vitro Feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) rank high on this list, but neither domestic nor workplace exposure has been associated with detectable serological responses. Nonspecific inactivation of gammaretroviruses by serum factors appears insufficient to explain these observations. To investigate further, we explored the susceptibilities of primary and established human cell lines to FeLV-B, the most likely zoonotic variant. Fully permissive infection was common in cancer-derived cell lines but was also a feature of nontransformed keratinocytes and lung fibroblasts. Cells of hematopoietic origin were generally less permissive and formed discrete groups on the basis of high or low intracellular protein expression and virion release. Potent repression was observed in primary human blood mononuclear cells and a subset of leukemia cell lines. However, the early steps of reverse transcription and integration appear to be unimpaired in nonpermissive cells. FeLV-B was subject to G→A hypermutation with a predominant APOBEC3G signature in partially permissive cells but was not mutated in permissive cells or in nonpermissive cells that block secondary viral spread. Distinct cellular barriers that protect primary human blood cells are likely to be important in protection against zoonotic infection with FeLV.IMPORTANCE Domestic exposure to gammaretroviruses such as feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) occurs worldwide, but the basis of human resistance to infection remains incompletely understood. The potential threat is evident from the human genome sequence, which reveals many past epidemics of gammaretrovirus infection, and from recent cross-species jumps of gammaretroviruses from rodents to primates and marsupials. This study examined resistance to infection at the cellular level with the most

  7. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  8. Organization, distribution, and stability of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA sequences in chromosomes of Mus musculus.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Taylor, B A; Lee, B K

    1982-01-01

    The endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA content and integration sites were characterized for 54 inbred strains and substrains of mice by restriction enzyme digestion, Southern blotting, and hybridization with an ecotropic murine leukemia virus DNA-specific probe. More than 75% of these strains carried endogenous ecotropic proviruses which were located in at least 29 distinct integration sites in chromosomes of Mus musculus. Fourteen of these proviruses have been assigned specific locus designations. Most, but not all, of the endogenous ecotropic proviruses were structurally indistinguishable by this analysis from the prototype AKR ecotropic virus, and the distribution of these proviruses followed known relationships among the inbred strains and substrains of mice. These results suggest that, in general, viral DNA integration preceded the establishment of inbred mouse strains and that these integrations are relatively stable. Images PMID:6287001

  9. Six distinct nuclear factors interact with the 75-base-pair repeat of the Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Speck, N A; Baltimore, D

    1987-01-01

    Binding sites for six distinct nuclear factors on the 75-base-pair repeat of the Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer have been identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay combined with methylation interference. Three of these factors, found in WEHI 231 nuclear extracts, which we have named LVa, LVb, and LVc (for leukemia virus factors a, b, and c) have not been previously identified. Nuclear factors that bind to the conserved simian virus 40 corelike motif, the NF-1 motif, and the glucocorticoid response element were also detected. Testing of multiple cell lines showed that most factors appeared ubiquitous, except that the NF-1 binding factor was found neither in nuclear extracts from MEL cells nor in the embryonal carcinoma cell lines PCC4 and F9, and core-binding factor was relatively depleted from MEL and F9 nuclear extracts. Images PMID:3561410

  10. Envelope determinants for dual-receptor specificity in feline leukemia virus subgroup A and T variants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heather H; Anderson, Maria M; Hankenson, F Claire; Johnston, Lily; Kotwaliwale, Chitra V; Overbaugh, Julie

    2006-02-01

    Gammaretroviruses, including the subgroups A, B, and C of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), use a multiple-membrane-spanning transport protein as a receptor. In some cases, such as FeLV-T, a nonclassical receptor that includes both a transport protein (Pit1) and a soluble cofactor (FeLIX) is required for entry. To define which regions confer specificity to classical versus nonclassical receptor pathways, we engineered mutations found in either FeLV-A/T or FeLV-T, individually and in combination, into the backbone of the transmissible form of the virus, FeLV-A. The receptor specificities of these viruses were tested by measuring infection and binding to cells expressing the FeLV-A receptor or the FeLV-T receptors. FeLV-A receptor specificity was maintained when changes at amino acid position 6, 7, or 8 of the mature envelope glycoprotein were introduced, although differences in infection efficiency were observed. When these N-terminal mutations were introduced together with a C-terminal 4-amino-acid insertion and an adjacent amino acid change, the resulting viruses acquired FeLV-T receptor specificity. Additionally, a W-->L change at amino acid position 378, although not required, enhanced infectivity for some viruses. Thus, we have found that determinants in the N and C termini of the envelope surface unit can direct entry via the nonclassical FeLV-T receptor pathway. The region that has been defined as the receptor binding domain of gammaretroviral envelope proteins determined entry via the FeLV-A receptor independently of the presence of the N- and C-terminal FeLV-T receptor determinants.

  11. Effect of Friend Leukemia Virus and Rowson-Parr Virus on Immunological Maturation of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of neonatal infection with Friend virus (FV) and Rowson-Parr virus (RPV) on the maturation of the capacity to respond to sheep red cells, as measured by the numbers of hemolytic plaque-forming cells in the spleen, was investigated in BALB/c mice. Both viruses affected immunological maturation but there were significant differences between their effects. The development with age of the ability to produce plaque-forming cells in response to antigen was virtually abolished by FV and only slightly impaired by RPV. Furthermore, FV also suppressed the development of background plaque-forming cells, whereas RPV did not. PMID:4343401

  12. Resistance to Virus Infection Conferred by the Interferon-Induced Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K.; Quignon, Frédérique; Pelicano, Luis; Koken, Marcel H. M.; de Thé, Hugues

    1998-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-induced promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is specifically associated with nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are yet unknown. Two of the NB-associated proteins, PML and Sp100, are induced by IFN. Here we show that overexpression of PML and not Sp100 induces resistance to infections by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (a rhabdovirus) and influenza A virus (an orthomyxovirus) but not by encephalomyocarditis virus (a picornavirus). Inhibition of viral multiplication was dependent on both the level of PML expression and the multiplicity of infection and reached 100-fold. PML was shown to interfere with VSV mRNA and protein synthesis. Compared to the IFN mediator MxA protein, PML had less powerful antiviral activity. While nuclear body localization of PML did not seem to be required for the antiviral effect, deletion of the PML coiled-coil domain completely abolished it. Taken together, these results suggest that PML can contribute to the antiviral state induced in IFN-treated cells. PMID:9444998

  13. Distinct Morphology of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, José O.; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Mansky, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The Gag polyprotein is the main retroviral structural protein and is essential for the assembly and release of virus particles. In this study, we have analyzed the morphology and Gag stoichiometry of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-like particles and authentic, mature HTLV-1 particles by using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). HTLV-1-like particles mimicked the morphology of immature authentic HTLV-1 virions. Importantly, we have observed for the first time that the morphology of these virus-like particles (VLPs) has the unique local feature of a flat Gag lattice that does not follow the curvature of the viral membrane, resulting in an enlarged distance between the Gag lattice and the viral membrane. Other morphological features that have been previously observed with other retroviruses include: (1) a Gag lattice with multiple discontinuities; (2) membrane regions associated with the Gag lattice that exhibited a string of bead-like densities at the inner leaflet; and (3) an arrangement of the Gag lattice resembling a railroad track. Measurement of the average size and mass of VLPs and authentic HTLV-1 particles suggested a consistent range of size and Gag copy numbers in these two groups of particles. The unique local flat Gag lattice morphological feature observed suggests that HTLV-1 Gag could be arranged in a lattice structure that is distinct from that of other retroviruses characterized to date. PMID:27187442

  14. Antiretroviral activities of hypericin and rose bengal: photodynamic effects on Friend leukemia virus infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, N R; Lenard, J

    1993-06-01

    The ability of hypericin to protect mice from splenomegaly resulting from infection with Friend leukemia virus (FLV) was re-examined in light of recent evidence showing that light is absolutely required for this drug's antiviral activity. FLV-induced splenomegaly was not prevented or ameliorated in mice injected with 100 micrograms hypericin, either mixed with the FLV inoculum or administered 1 day p.i., either under normal laboratory light or in the dark. These results contradict previous findings. Both hypericin and rose bengal, however, inactivated the FLV inoculum at low doses (< 11 micrograms), provided that the mixture was illuminated for 1 h under a normal fluorescent desk lamp. This procedure protected mice completely from FLV-induced splenomegaly, and provided a possible explanation for the discrepancy between our results and those reported previously. We conclude that for FLV, as for other enveloped viruses studied previously, illumination of hypericin with the virus is absolutely required for hypericin's antiviral (virucidal) effects, thus limiting its potential usefulness as an antiretroviral agent.

  15. Transcriptional Silencing of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus in Human Embryonic Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gary Z; Goff, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells are malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells and serve as useful models for investigating cellular differentiation and human embryogenesis. Though the susceptibility of murine EC cells to retroviral infection has been extensively analyzed, few studies of retrovirus infection of human EC cells have been performed. We tested the susceptibility of human EC cells to transduction by retroviral vectors derived from three different retroviral genera. We show that human EC cells efficiently express reporter genes delivered by vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) but not Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). In human EC cells, MLV integration occurs normally, but no viral gene expression is observed. The block to MLV expression of MLV genomes is relieved upon cellular differentiation. The lack of gene expression is correlated with transcriptional silencing of the MLV promoter through the deposition of repressive histone marks as well as DNA methylation. Moreover, depletion of SETDB1, a histone methyltransferase, resulted in a loss of transcriptional silencing and upregulation of MLV gene expression. Finally, we provide evidence showing that the lack of MLV gene expression may be attributed in part to the lack of MLV enhancer function in human EC cells.

  16. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review. PMID:20610824

  17. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    PubMed

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  18. Bovine leukemia virus: a major silent threat to proper immune responses in cattle.

    PubMed

    Frie, Meredith C; Coussens, Paul M

    2015-02-15

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread in the US dairy industry and the majority of producers do not actively try to manage or reduce BLV incidence within their herds. However, BLV is estimated to cost the dairy industry hundreds of millions of dollars annually and this is likely a conservative estimate. BLV is not thought to cause animal distress or serious pathology unless infection progresses to leukemia or lymphoma. However, a wealth of research supports the notion that BLV infection causes widespread abnormal immune function. BLV infection can impact cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system and alter proper functioning of uninfected cells. Despite strong evidence of abnormal immune signaling and functioning, little research has investigated the large-scale effects of BLV infection on host immunity and resistance to other infectious diseases. This review focuses on mechanisms of immune suppression associated with BLV infection, specifically aberrant signaling, proliferation and apoptosis, and the implications of switching from BLV latency to activation. In addition, this review will highlight underdeveloped areas of research relating to BLV infection and how it causes immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection drives spontaneous proliferation of natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirschkorn, Dale F; DeVita, Deborah A; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Murphy, Eedward L

    2010-01-01

    Most human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected subjects remain asymptomatic throughout their lives, with a few individuals developing HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukemia. Lymphocytes from about half of HTLV-1 infected subjects spontaneously proliferate in vitro, and how this phenomenon relates to symptomatic disease outcome and viral burden is poorly understood. Spontaneous proliferation was measured in lymphocyte subsets, and these findings were correlated with HTLV-1 proviral load and Tax expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that in addition to previously described vigorous CD8+ T cell spontaneous proliferation, natural killer (NK) cells spontaneously proliferated to a similar high level, resulting in expansion of CD56-expressing NK cells. Spontaneous NK cell proliferation positively correlated with HTLV-1 proviral load but not with Tax expression or the presence of HAM/TSP. The strongest correlate with clinical outcome in this cohort was the ability of cells to express Tax, while HTLV-1 proviral load was more closely related to spontaneous NK cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that spontaneous proliferation, Tax expression, and proviral load are inter-related but not equivalent, and that spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation is not restricted to T cells, the targets of HTLV-1 infection. PMID:20640055

  20. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax oncoprotein regulates G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Twizere, Jean-Claude; Springael, Jean-Yves; Boxus, Mathieu; Burny, Arsène; Dequiedt, Franck; Dewulf, Jean-François; Duchateau, Julie; Portetelle, Daniel; Urbain, Patrice; Van Lint, Carine; Green, Patrick L; Mahieux, Renaud; Parmentier, Marc; Willems, Luc; Kettmann, Richard

    2007-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and neurological syndromes. HTLV-1 encodes the oncoprotein Tax-1, which modulates viral and cellular gene expression leading to T-cell transformation. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins known and are involved in the regulation of most biological functions. Here, we report an interaction between HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein and the G-protein beta subunit. Interestingly, though the G-protein beta subunit inhibits Tax-mediated viral transcription, Tax-1 perturbs G-protein beta subcellular localization. Functional evidence for these observations was obtained using conditional Tax-1-expressing transformed T-lymphocytes, where Tax expression correlated with activation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our data indicated that HTLV-1 developed a strategy based on the activation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the infected cell; this could have tremendous implications for new therapeutic strategies.

  1. Akt Pathway Activation by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Mathew A; Baydoun, Hicham H; Al-Saleem, Jacob; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Green, Patrick; Ratner, Lee

    2015-10-23

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1, the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, expresses the viral oncoprotein Tax1. In contrast, HTLV-2, which expresses Tax2, is non-leukemogenic. One difference between these homologous proteins is the presence of a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, previously reported to be important for non-canonical NFκB activation. In contrast, this study finds no defect in non-canonical NFκB activity by deletion of the Tax1 PBM. Instead, Tax1 PBM was found to be important for Akt activation. Tax1 attenuates the effects of negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and PHLPP. Tax1 competes with PTEN for binding to DLG-1, unlike a PBM deletion mutant of Tax1. Forced membrane expression of PTEN or PHLPP overcame the effects of Tax1, as measured by levels of Akt phosphorylation, and rates of Akt dephosphorylation. The current findings suggest that Akt activation may explain the differences in transforming activity of HTLV-1 and -2.

  2. Molecular pathogenesis of feline leukemia virus-induced malignancies: insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-05-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which is subclassified into three subgroups of A, B and C, is a pathogenic retrovirus in cats. FeLV-A is minimally pathogenic, FeLV-C can cause pure red cell aplasia, and FeLV-B is associated with a variety of pathogenic properties such as lymphoma, leukemia and anemia. FeLV-induced neoplasms are caused, at least in part, by somatically acquired insertional mutagenesis in which the integrated provirus may activate a proto-oncogene or disrupt a tumor suppressor gene. The common integration sites for FeLV have been identified in six loci with feline lymphomas: c-myc, flvi-1, flvi-2 (contains bmi-1), fit-1, pim-1 and flit-1. Oncogenic association of the loci includes that c-myc is known as a proto-oncogene, bmi-1 and pim-1 have been recognized as myc-collaborators, fit-1 appears to be closely linked to myb, and flit-1 insertion is shown to be associated with over-expression of a cellular gene, e.g. ACVRL1. Thus, identification of common integration sites for FeLV is a tenable model to clarify oncogenesis. Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have developed to rapidly detect numbers of retroviral integration sites by genome-wide large-scale analyses. Especially, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategies and chromosome analyses with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) will be applicable for studies on FeLV.

  3. Seroprevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoxing; Swanson, Priscilla; Tang, Ning; Leckie, Gregor W; Devare, Sushil G; Schochetman, Gerald; Hackett, John

    2012-02-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although results have been conflicting, the potential of XMRV as an infectious human retrovirus has raised concerns about transfusion safety. To address this issue, normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors were screened for evidence of XMRV infection. Plasma from 1000 US, 100 human immunodeficiency virus Type 1-infected Cameroonian, and 642 human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I)-infected or uninfected Japanese blood donors as well as 311 sexually transmitted disease diagnostic specimens were screened for antibodies to XMRV gp70 and p15E using chemiluminescent immunoassays (CMIAs). CMIA-reactive samples were evaluated by p30 CMIA, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. XMRV seroreactivity was low (0%-0.6%) with the exception of the HTLV-I-infected donors (4.9%). Antibody was detected against only a single XMRV protein (p15E or gp70); none of the seroreactive samples had detectable XMRV pol or env sequences. The elevated seroreactivity in HTLV-I-infected donors was due to an increased p15E seroreactive rate (4.1%). Inspection of XMRV and HTLV sequences revealed a high level of conservation within the immunodominant region (IDR) of the transmembrane protein. In some cases, HTLV IDR peptide competitively reduced the XMRV p15E signal. Based on the low prevalence of seroreactivity, detection of antibody to only a single XMRV protein and the absence of XMRV sequences, this study finds no compelling evidence of XMRV in normal or retrovirus-infected blood donors. The increased p15E seroreactivity observed in HTLV infection is likely due to cross-reactive antibodies. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. Localization of actin in Moloney murine leukemia virus by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nermut, M V; Wallengren, K; Pager, J

    1999-07-20

    Immunoelectron microscopy was used to detect actin in wild-type (wt) Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMuLV) and in virus-like particles (VLP) produced by recombinant Semliki Forest virus expressing only the MoMuLV gag polyprotein. Gold immunolabeling revealed the presence of actin on the surface of delipidized VLP and delipidized wt virus particles. Statistical evaluation of the number of colloidal gold particles per VLP revealed a large range of values and a prevalence of VLP with small numbers of gold particles. Labeling for actin was lost after prolonged treatment of VLP with 1% Nonidet-P40, high-pH buffer, or gelsolin. Gold immunolabeling with antibodies to gag proteins p15 (MA) and p12 and p30 (CA) was abundant and was not affected by treatment of VLP or wt virus with 1% Nonidet or gelsolin. VLP treated with a mixture of detergent and aldehyde fixatives showed more uniform and consistent labeling for actin than without fixatives. Negative staining or heavy metal shadowing revealed a globular surface of delipidized VLP. Stereomicrographs of gold-immunolabeled VLP showed that p15gag and p12gag were associated with the globular projections. Delipidized VLP were also well labeled with antibody to p30gag, which indicated that the gag shell permitted access of antibodies to p30gag and was therefore not a closely packed structure. Labeling for actin-binding proteins moesin and ezrin was negative in both the wt virus and the VLP. The absence of Gaussian distribution of actin in the sample of VLP suggests that actin is not a structural protein and its presence in MuLV virus particles may be fortuitous. This, however, does not rule out any possible role of actin in transport, assembly, budding, or release of virus particles, events which take place in the cytoplasm or at the plasma membrane. The site of actin in VLP is discussed in relation to the present knowledge of the molecular organization of the MuLV gag shell.

  5. Targeting of a Nuclease to Murine Leukemia Virus Capsids Inhibits Viral Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsoulis, Georges; Seshaiah, Partha; Federspiel, Mark J.; Rein, Alan; Hughes, Stephen H.; Boeke, Jef D.

    1995-01-01

    Capsid-targeted viral inactivation is an antiviral strategy in which toxic fusion proteins are targeted to virions, where they inhibit viral multiplication by destroying viral components. These fusion proteins consist of a virion structural protein moiety and an enzymatic moiety such as a nuclease. Such fusion proteins can severely inhibit transposition of yeast retrotransposon Ty1, an element whose transposition mechanistically resembles retroviral multiplication. We demonstrate that expression of a murine retrovirus capsid-staphylococcal nuclease fusion protein inhibits multiplication of the corresponding murine leukemia virus by 30- to 100-fold. Staphylococcal nuclease is apparently inactive intracellularly and hence nontoxic to the host cell, but it is active extracellularly because of its requirement for high concentrations of Ca2+ ions. Virions assembled in and shed from cells expressing the fusion protein contain very small amounts of intact viral RNA, as would be predicted for nuclease-mediated inhibition of viral multiplication.

  6. Partial molecular characterization of different proviral strains of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Lendez, Pamela A; Gutierrez, Silvina E; Forletti, Agustina; Rensetti, Daniel E; Ceriani, Maria Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle were classified by their proviral load into low and high proviral load profiles (LPL and HPL, respectively). Blood from these animals was used to infect sheep to obtain multiple identical copies of integrated provirus. An env fragment of BLV was amplified from all infected sheep and sequenced. The sequences that were obtained were compared to already published BLV genome sequence, resulting in three clusters. Mutations could not be attributed to the passage of provirus from cattle to sheep and subsequent amplification and sequencing. The description of two different proviral load profiles, the association of the BoLA-DRB3.2 0902 allele with the LPL profile, the availability of complete BLV sequences, and the comparison of a variable region of the env gene from carefully characterized cattle are still not enough to explain the presence of animals in every herd that are resistant to BLV dissemination.

  7. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-03-24

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis.

  8. The role of neighboring infected cattle in bovine leukemia virus transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Sota; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmission to uninfected cattle by adjacent infected cattle in 6 dairy farms. Animals were initially tested in 2010-2011 using a commercial ELISA kit. Uninfected cattle were repeatedly tested every 4 to 6 months until fall of 2012. The Cox proportional hazard model with frailty showed that uninfected cattle neighboring to infected cattle (n=53) had a significant higher risk of seroconversion than those without any infected neighbors (n=81) (hazard ratio: 12.4, P=0.001), implying that neighboring infected cattle were a significant risk factor for BLV transmission. This finding provides scientific support for animal health authorities and farmers to segregate infected cattle on farms to prevent spread of BLV.

  9. The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related retrovirus debate continues at first international workshop.

    PubMed

    Stoye, Jonathan P; Silverman, Robert H; Boucher, Charles A; Le Grice, Stuart F J

    2010-12-22

    The 1st International Workshop on Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Retrovirus (XMRV), co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, The Department of Health and Human Services and Abbott Diagnostics, was convened on September 7/8, 2010 on the NIH campus, Bethesda, MD. Attracting an international audience of over 200 participants, the 2-day event combined a series of plenary talks with updates on different aspects of XMRV research, addressing basic gammaretrovirus biology, host response, association of XMRV with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, assay development and epidemiology. The current status of XMRV research, concerns among the scientific community and suggestions for future actions are summarized in this meeting report.

  10. Notch2 transduction by feline leukemia virus in a naturally infected cat.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Kuse, Kyohei; Ochi, Haruyo; Anai, Yukari; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) induces neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases in cats. The transduction of cellular genes by FeLV is sometimes observed and associated with neoplastic diseases including lymphoma and sarcoma. Here, we report the first natural case of feline Notch2 transduction by FeLV in an infected cat with multicentric lymphoma and hypercalcemia. We cloned recombinant FeLVs harboring Notch2 in the env gene. Notch2 was able to activate expression of a reporter gene, similar to what was previously reported in cats with experimental FeLV-induced thymic lymphoma. Our findings suggest that the transduction of Notch2 strongly correlates with FeLV-induced lymphoma.

  11. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic.

  12. Determination of the minimal fusion peptide of bovine leukemia virus gp30

    SciTech Connect

    Lorin, Aurelien; Lins, Laurence; Stroobant, Vincent; Brasseur, Robert . E-mail: brasseur.r@fsagx.ac.be; Charloteaux, Benoit

    2007-04-13

    In this study, we determined the minimal N-terminal fusion peptide of the gp30 of the bovine leukemia virus on the basis of the tilted peptide theory. We first used molecular modelling to predict that the gp30 minimal fusion peptide corresponds to the 15 first residues. Liposome lipid-mixing and leakage assays confirmed that the 15-residue long peptide induces fusion in vitro and that it is the shortest peptide inducing optimal fusion since longer peptides destabilize liposomes to the same extent but not shorter ones. The 15-residue long peptide can thus be considered as the minimal fusion peptide. The effect of mutations reported in the literature was also investigated. Interestingly, mutations related to glycoproteins unable to induce syncytia in cell-cell fusion assays correspond to peptides predicted as non-tilted. The relationship between obliquity and fusogenicity was also confirmed in vitro for one tilted and one non-tilted mutant peptide.

  13. Modulation of innate immune responses during human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olière, Stéphanie; Douville, Renée; Sze, Alexandre; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Hiscott, John

    2011-08-01

    Infection with the Human T-cell Leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) retrovirus results in a number of diverse pathologies, including the aggressive, fatal T-cell malignancy adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and the chronic, progressive neurologic disorder termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Worldwide, it is estimated there are 15-20 million HTLV-1-infected individuals; although the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic carriers (AC) during their lifetime, 2-5% of AC develops either ATL or HAM/TSP, but never both. Regardless of asymptomatic status or clinical outcome, HTLV-1 carriers are at high risk of opportunistic infection. The progression to pathological HTLV-1 disease is in part attributed to the failure of the innate and adaptive immune system to control virus spread. The innate immune response against retroviral infection requires recognition of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) dependent pathways, leading to the induction of host antiviral and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have begun to characterize the interplay between HTLV-1 infection and the innate immune response and have identified distinct gene expression profiles in patients with ATL or HAM/TSP--upregulation of growth regulatory pathways in ATL and constitutive activation of antiviral and inflammatory pathways in HAM/STP. In this review, we provide an overview of the replicative lifecycle of HTLV-1 and the distinct pathologies associated with HTLV-1 infection. We also explore the innate immune mechanisms that respond to HTLV-1 infection, the strategies used by HTLV-1 to subvert these defenses and their contribution to HTLV-1-associated diseases.

  14. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Targeting by Myxoma Virus In Vivo Depends on Cell Binding But Not Permissiveness to Infection In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Madlambayan, Gerard J.; Bartee, Eric; Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Meacham, Amy; Scott, Edward W.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Some oncolytic viruses, such as myxoma virus (MYXV), can selectively target malignant hematopoietic cells, while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. This capacity for discrimination creates an opportunity to use oncolytic viruses as ex vivo purging agents of autologous hematopoietic cell grafts in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses select malignant hematopoietic cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how MYXV specifically targets human AML cells. MYXV prevented chloroma formation and bone marrow engraftment of two human AML cell lines, KG-1 and THP-1. The reduction in human leukemia engraftment after ex vivo MYXV treatment was dose-dependent and required a minimum MOI of 3. Both AML cell lines demonstrated MYXV binding to leukemia cell membranes following co-incubation: however, evidence of productive MYXV infection was observed only in THP-1 cells. This observation, that KG-1 can be targeted in vivo even in the absence of in vitro permissive viral infection, contrasts with the current understanding of oncolytic virotherapy, which assumes that virus infection and productive replication is a requirement. Preventing MYXV binding to AML cells with heparin abrogated the purging capacity of MYXV, indicating that binding of infectious virus particles is a necessary step for effective viral oncolysis. Our results challenge the current dogma of oncolytic virotherapy and show that in vitro permissiveness to an oncolytic virus is not necessarily an accurate predictor of oncolytic potency in vivo. PMID:22341701

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia targeting by myxoma virus in vivo depends on cell binding but not permissiveness to infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Madlambayan, Gerard J; Bartee, Eric; Kim, Manbok; Rahman, Masmudur M; Meacham, Amy; Scott, Edward W; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R

    2012-05-01

    Some oncolytic viruses, such as myxoma virus (MYXV), can selectively target malignant hematopoietic cells, while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. This capacity for discrimination creates an opportunity to use oncolytic viruses as ex vivo purging agents of autologous hematopoietic cell grafts in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses select malignant hematopoietic cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how MYXV specifically targets human AML cells. MYXV prevented chloroma formation and bone marrow engraftment of two human AML cell lines, KG-1 and THP-1. The reduction in human leukemia engraftment after ex vivo MYXV treatment was dose-dependent and required a minimum MOI of 3. Both AML cell lines demonstrated MYXV binding to leukemia cell membranes following co-incubation: however, evidence of productive MYXV infection was observed only in THP-1 cells. This observation, that KG-1 can be targeted in vivo even in the absence of in vitro permissive viral infection, contrasts with the current understanding of oncolytic virotherapy, which assumes that virus infection and productive replication is a requirement. Preventing MYXV binding to AML cells with heparin abrogated the purging capacity of MYXV, indicating that binding of infectious virus particles is a necessary step for effective viral oncolysis. Our results challenge the current dogma of oncolytic virotherapy and show that in vitro permissiveness to an oncolytic virus is not necessarily an accurate predictor of oncolytic potency in vivo.

  16. Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus Infection of Glial Progenitors Interferes with Oligodendrocyte Differentiation: Implications for Neurovirulence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Dunphy, Jaclyn M.; Pedraza, Carlos E.; Lynch, Connor R.; Cardona, Sandra M.; Macklin, Wendy B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Certain murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are capable of inducing fatal progressive spongiform motor neuron disease in mice that is largely mediated by viral Env glycoprotein expression within central nervous system (CNS) glia. While the etiologic mechanisms and the glial subtypes involved remain unresolved, infection of NG2 glia was recently observed to correlate spatially and temporally with altered neuronal physiology and spongiogenesis. Since one role of NG2 cells is to serve as oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells (OPCs), we examined here whether their infection by neurovirulent (FrCasE) or nonneurovirulent (Fr57E) ecotropic MLVs influenced their viability and/or differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that OPCs, but not OLs, are major CNS targets of both FrCasE and Fr57E. We also show that MLV infection of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture did not affect survival, proliferation, or OPC progenitor marker expression but suppressed certain glial differentiation markers. Assessment of glial differentiation in vivo using transplanted transgenic NPCs showed that, while MLVs did not affect cellular engraftment or survival, they did inhibit OL differentiation, irrespective of MLV neurovirulence. In addition, in chimeric brains, where FrCasE-infected NPC transplants caused neurodegeneration, the transplanted NPCs proliferated. These results suggest that MLV infection is not directly cytotoxic to OPCs but rather acts to interfere with OL differentiation. Since both FrCasE and Fr57E viruses restrict OL differentiation but only FrCasE induces overt neurodegeneration, restriction of OL maturation alone cannot account for neuropathogenesis. Instead neurodegeneration may involve a two-hit scenario where interference with OPC differentiation combined with glial Env-induced neuronal hyperexcitability precipitates disease. IMPORTANCE A variety of human and animal retroviruses are capable of causing central nervous system (CNS) neurodegeneration manifested as motor

  17. Episodic Diversifying Selection Shaped the Genomes of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus and Related Gammaretroviruses.

    PubMed

    Alfano, Niccolò; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Roca, Alfred L; Xu, Wenqin; Eiden, Maribeth V; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-12-04

    Gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are part of a larger group of pathogenic gammaretroviruses present across phylogenetically diverse host species of Australasian mammals. Despite the biomedical utility of GALVs as viral vectors and in cancer gene therapy, full genome sequences have not been determined for all of the five identified GALV strains, nor has a comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed. We therefore generated complete genomic sequences for each GALV strain using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing. The four strains of GALV isolated from gibbons formed a monophyletic clade that was closely related to the woolly monkey virus (WMV), which is a GALV strain that likely originated in a gibbon host. The GALV-WMV clade in turn formed a sister group to the koala retroviruses (KoRVs). Genomic signatures of episodic diversifying selection were detected among the gammaretroviruses with concentration in the env gene across the GALV strains that were particularly oncogenic and KoRV strains that were potentially exogenous, likely reflecting their adaptation to the host immune system. In vitro studies involving vectors chimeric between GALV and KoRV-B established that variable regions A and B of the surface unit of the envelope determine which receptor is used by a viral strain to enter host cells. The gibbon ape leukemia viruses (GALVs) are among the most medically relevant retroviruses due to their use as viral vectors for gene transfer and in cancer gene therapy. Despite their importance, full genome sequences have not been determined for the majority of primate isolates, nor has comprehensive evolutionary analysis been performed, despite evidence that the viruses are facing complex selective pressures associated with cross-species transmission. Using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, we report here the full genome sequences of all the GALV strains and demonstrate that diversifying selection is acting on them

  18. Radiation-induced bladder carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Uyama, T.; Nakamura, S.; Moriwaki, S.

    1981-01-01

    Two cases are presented of radiation-induced bladder carcinoma which followed prior irradiation for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. One was a sixty-eight-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma fourteen years after irradiation (total dose of 4,500 rad) for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. The other was a sixty-four-year-old woman with bladder carcinoma twenty-five years after irradiation with 150-K volt apparatus for cervical carcinoma of the uterus. From the late radiation change of the skin, it was estimated that the total dose of prior radiation might be 4,000 rad or more. Both had high-grade, high-stage transitional cell bladder carcinoma, and the former was with marked mucus-forming adenomatous metaplasia.

  19. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. PMID:28589080

  20. Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis.

    PubMed

    Maria, Osama Muhammad; Eliopoulos, Nicoletta; Muanza, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (RIOM) is a major dose-limiting toxicity in head and neck cancer patients. It is a normal tissue injury caused by radiation/radiotherapy (RT), which has marked adverse effects on patient quality of life and cancer therapy continuity. It is a challenge for radiation oncologists since it leads to cancer therapy interruption, poor local tumor control, and changes in dose fractionation. RIOM occurs in 100% of altered fractionation radiotherapy head and neck cancer patients. In the United Sates, its economic cost was estimated to reach 17,000.00 USD per patient with head and neck cancers. This review will discuss RIOM definition, epidemiology, impact and side effects, pathogenesis, scoring scales, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  1. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  2. Relevance of feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus and Bartonella henselae in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Belgard, Sylvia; Truyen, Uwe; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Despite its common occurrence, the aetiology of chronic gingivostomatitis in cats remains uncertain. Aetiology is likely multifactorial, and several infectious agents may be associated with chronic gingivostomatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and in an age-matched control group. In addition, other factors, e. g., environmental conditions were investigated. In 52 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 50 healthy age-matched control cats, the presence of FCV ribonucleic acid (RNA), and FHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] from oropharyngeal swabs), and B. henselae DNA (PCR from oropharyngeal swabs and blood), as well as FeLV antigen (serum), and antibodies against FCV, B. henselae, and FIV (serum) were examined. FCV RNA was significantly more common in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (53.8%, p < 0.001) than in controls (14.0%); a significant difference was also found in the prevalence of antibodies to FCV between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (78.8%, p = 0.023) and controls (58.0%). Of the other infectious agents investigated, there was no significant difference in the prevalence between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and the controls. The results of this study allow the conclusion that FCV, but no other infectious agents, is commonly associated with chronic gingivostomatitis in cats.

  3. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Colin-Flores, Rafael F; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2014-06-01

    Several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. Blood samples from 227 owned cats in Merida, Mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody. Serological detection of FeLV and D immitis antigens, and FIV antibodies was performed using the commercial kit SNAP Feline Triple Test. The prevalence was found to be 7.5% for FeLV, 2.5% for FIV and 0% for D immitis. Adult cats were at a higher risk of coming into contact with FeLV (P <0.01) than younger cats. Owing to its low prevalence, a risk factor analysis was not performed for FIV. The prevalence of retroviral infections found in this study was low, but within the limits reported in the different geographical areas of the world. Cases of filariosis in the domestic cats of Merida, Mexico, may be absent or very low; however, the low sample size may have influenced these results. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  4. Fidelity of Target Site Duplication and Sequence Preference during Integration of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanggu; Rusmevichientong, Alice; Dong, Beihua; Remenyi, Roland; Silverman, Robert H.; Chow, Samson A.

    2010-01-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) is a new human retrovirus associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. The causal relationship of XMRV infection to human disease and the mechanism of pathogenicity have not been established. During retrovirus replication, integration of the cDNA copy of the viral RNA genome into the host cell chromosome is an essential step and involves coordinated joining of the two ends of the linear viral DNA into staggered sites on target DNA. Correct integration produces proviruses that are flanked by a short direct repeat, which varies from 4 to 6 bp among the retroviruses but is invariant for each particular retrovirus. Uncoordinated joining of the two viral DNA ends into target DNA can cause insertions, deletions, or other genomic alterations at the integration site. To determine the fidelity of XMRV integration, cells infected with XMRV were clonally expanded and DNA sequences at the viral-host DNA junctions were determined and analyzed. We found that a majority of the provirus ends were correctly processed and flanked by a 4-bp direct repeat of host DNA. A weak consensus sequence was also detected at the XMRV integration sites. We conclude that integration of XMRV DNA involves a coordinated joining of two viral DNA ends that are spaced 4 bp apart on the target DNA and proceeds with high fidelity. PMID:20421928

  5. Viral diagnostic criteria for Feline immunodeficiency virus and Feline leukemia virus infections in domestic cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Galdo Novo, Sabrina; Bucafusco, Danilo; Diaz, Leandro M; Bratanich, Ana Cristina

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on cats attending the Small Animal Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Blood samples from 255 cats with symptoms compatible with FIV or FeLV infection, collected between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed by serology (immunochromatography, IA) and by hemi-nested PCR (n-PCR). The IA and n-PCR assays showed similar percentages of positivity for FIV while the n-PCR test was more sensitive for FeLV. Differences between the diagnostic tests and their choice according to the age of the animal are discussed. The clinical histories of ninety of the 255 cats showed blood profiles similar to others previously reported and revealed a higher risk of infection in male adult cats with outdoor access. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Bartonella species in stray cats on St Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick J; Moura, Lenita; Miller, Tanya; Thurk, Jaime; Perreault, Nicole; Weil, Adriana; Maggio, Ricardo; Lucas, Helene; Breitschwerdt, Edward

    2010-06-01

    Stray cats trapped in various areas of Basseterre, the capital of St Kitts in the West Indies, were tested for infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) using commercial kits. Of 99 (51 male and 48 female) cats trapped in 2006/7, 15% (12 males and three females) were positive for FIV while none were positive for FeLV. Of 72 (41 males and 31 females) cats trapped in 2009, 14% (nine males and one female) were positive for FIV while none were positive for FeLV. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed DNA of Bartonella species in whole blood collected from 60/95 (63%) cats trapped in 2006/7. Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a convenience sample of nine amplicons and the 11 isolates made from 43 blood samples which were cultured using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment medium revealed B henselae (14) and B clarridgeiae (six).

  7. Genome-wide association study for host response to bovine leukemia virus in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Brym, P; Bojarojć-Nosowicz, B; Oleński, K; Hering, D M; Ruść, A; Kaczmarczyk, E; Kamiński, S

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and the processes underlying the phenomenon of differential host response to BLV infection still remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to screen the entire cattle genome to identify markers and candidate genes that might be involved in host response to bovine leukemia virus infection. A genome-wide association study was performed using Holstein cows naturally infected by BLV. A data set included 43 cows (BLV positive) and 30 cows (BLV negative) genotyped for 54,609 SNP markers (Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip). The BLV status of cows was determined by serum ELISA, nested-PCR and hematological counts. Linear Regression Analysis with a False Discovery Rate and kinship matrix (computed on the autosomal SNPs) was calculated to find out which SNP markers significantly differentiate BLV-positive and BLV-negative cows. Nine markers reached genome-wide significance. The most significant SNPs were located on chromosomes 23 (rs41583098), 3 (rs109405425, rs110785500) and 8 (rs43564499) in close vicinity of a patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1); adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit (AP4B1); tripartite motif-containing 45 (TRIM45) and cell division cycle associated 2 (CDCA2) genes, respectively. Furthermore, a list of 41 candidate genes was composed based on their proximity to significant markers (within a distance of ca. 1 Mb) and functional involvement in processes potentially underlying BLV-induced pathogenesis. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that host response to BLV infection involves nine sub-regions of the cattle genome (represented by 9 SNP markers), containing many genes which, based on the literature, could be involved to enzootic bovine leukemia progression. New group of promising candidate genes associated with the host response to BLV infection were identified and could therefore be a target for future studies. The functions of candidate genes

  8. Mouse models of radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Schiestl, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) secondary cancers were not a major clinical concern even as little as 15 years ago. However, advances in cancer diagnostics, therapy, and supportive care have saved numerous lives and many former cancer patients are now living for 5, 10, 20, and more years beyond their initial diagnosis. The majority of these patients have received radiotherapy as a part of their treatment regimen and are now beginning to develop secondary cancers arising from normal tissue exposure to damaging effects of ionizing radiation. Because historically patients rarely survived past the extended latency periods inherent to these RI cancers, very little effort was channeled towards the research leading to the development of therapeutic agents intended to prevent or ameliorate oncogenic effects of normal tissue exposure to radiation. The number of RI cancers is expected to increase very rapidly in the near future, but the field of cancer biology might not be prepared to address important issues related to this phenomena. One such issue is the ability to accurately differentiate between primary tumors and de novo arising secondary tumors in the same patient. Another issue is the lack of therapeutic agents intended to reduce such cancers in the future. To address these issues, large-scale epidemiological studies must be supplemented with appropriate animal modeling studies. This work reviews relevant mouse (Mus musculus) models of inbred and F1 animals and methodologies of induction of most relevant radiation-associated cancers: leukemia, lymphoma, and lung and breast cancers. Where available, underlying molecular pathologies are included. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular RNA homologous to the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene: expression and relationship to the viral sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J Y; Baltimore, D

    1983-01-01

    To examine the expression of the cellular homolog of the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene (the v-abl sequence), a DNA probe representing the v-abl sequence was prepared. The probe detected two cytoplasmic polyadenylic acid-containing c-abl RNAs of about 6.5 and 5.5 kilobases in a variety of rodent cells, and slightly larger RNAs were detected in human cells. These two RNA species were found in all normal tissues or cell lines examined, but at differing concentrations: liver cells had the least, fibroblastic cell lines had the most. By using a probe able to detect the cellular but not the viral gene, the two RNAs were shown to be present in Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cells at levels found either in their untransformed counterparts or in similar cell types transformed by other means. The target cells of the virus have a somewhat elevated level of the two RNAs although expression of the c-abl gene is not restricted to these cells. The v-abl sequence lacks 0.35 and 0.85 kilobases of the c-abl RNA on the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. Thus, the Abelson murine leukemia virus transforming gene is an internal fragment of the transcript of a normal cellular gene. Images PMID:6306446

  10. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of receptor-specific murine leukemia virus binding to cells by immunofluorescence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Kadan, M J; Sturm, S; Anderson, W F; Eglitis, M A

    1992-01-01

    Four classes of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) which display distinct cellular tropisms and bind to different retrovirus receptors to initiate virus infection have been described. In the present study, we describe a rapid, sensitive immunofluorescence assay useful for characterizing the initial binding of MuLV to cells. By using the rat monoclonal antibody 83A25 (L. H. Evans, R. P. Morrison, F. G. Malik, J. Portis, and W. J. Britt, J. Virol. 64:6176-6183, 1990), which recognizes an epitope of the envelope gp70 molecule common to the different classes of MuLV, it is possible to analyse the binding of ecotropic, amphotropic, or xenotropic MuLV by using only a single combination of primary and secondary antibodies. The MuLV binding detected by this assay is envelope receptor specific and matches the susceptibility to infection determined for cells from a variety of species. The binding of amphotropic MuLV to NIH 3T3 cells was shown to be rapid, saturable, and temperature dependent. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells normally lack the ability to bind ecotropic virus and are not infectible by ecotropic vectors. Expression of the cloned ecotropic retrovirus receptor gene (Rec) in CHO-K1 cells confers high levels of ecotropic virus-specific binding and confers susceptibility to infection. Characterization of MuLV binding to primary cells may provide insight into the infectibility of cells by retroviruses and aid in the selection of appropriate vectors for gene transfer experiments. PMID:1312632

  12. Frequent detection of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMLV) in human cultures established from mouse xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-An; Maitra, Anirban; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Rudin, Charles M; Peacock, Craig D; Karikari, Collins; Brekken, Rolf A; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Girard, Luc; Wistuba, Ignacio; Frenkel, Eugene; Minna, John D

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the frequency of xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) presence in human cell lines established from mouse xenografts and to search for the evidence of horizontal viral spread to other cell lines. Results Six of 23 (26%) mouse DNA free xenograft cultures were strongly positive for MLV and their sequences had greater than 99% homology to known MLV strains. Four of five available supernatant fluids from these viral positive cultures were strongly positive for RT activity. Three of these supernatant fluids were studied to confirm the infectivity of the released virions for other human culture cells. Of the 78 non-xenograft derived cell lines maintained in the xenograft culture-containing facilities, 13 (17%) were positive for MLV, including XMRV, a virus strain first identified in human tissues. By contrast, all 50 cultures maintained in a xenograft culture-free facility were negative for viral sequences. Methodology We examined xenograft tumor cell lines from seven independent laboratories and 128 non-xenografted tumor cell lines. Cell line DNA was examined for mouse DNA contamination, and by 3 Taqman qPCR assays targeting the gag, env or pol regions of MLV. Sequencing was used for viral strain identification. Supernatant fluids were tested for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Conclusions Human cultures derived after mouse xenografting frequently contain and release highly infectious xenotropic MLV viruses. Laboratories working with xenograft-derived human cultures should be aware of the risk of contamination with potentially biohazardous human-tropic mouse viruses and their horizontal spread to other cultures. PMID:21750403

  13. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  14. Expression of IMP1 enhances production of murine leukemia virus vector by facilitating viral genomic RNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Mai, Yun; Gao, Guangxia

    2010-12-29

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based retroviral vector is widely used for gene transfer. Efficient packaging of the genomic RNA is critical for production of high-titer virus. Here, we report that expression of the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA binding protein 1 (IMP1) enhanced the production of infectious MLV vector. Overexpression of IMP1 increased the stability of viral genomic RNA in virus producer cells and packaging of the RNA into progeny virus in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of IMP1 in virus producer cells resulted in reduced production of the retroviral vector. These results indicate that IMP1 plays a role in regulating the packaging of MLV genomic RNA and can be used for improving production of retroviral vectors.

  15. A locus that enhances the induction of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia viruses is distinct from genome-length ecotropic proviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, J M; Risser, R

    1982-01-01

    The segregation of genes that enhance the induction of ecotropic murine leukemia viruses (In loci) has been compared with the segregation of ecotropic-specific nucleotide sequences in 12 low-leukemic mouse strains and 18 recombinant inbred strains. Endogenous ecotropic viruses of these strains are of genome length and structurally similar to AKR ecotropic proviruses. Low-leukemic strains of related pedigree contain ecotropic proviruses at common integration sites. Loci previously identified which enhance induction of ecotropic viruses (In genes) were correlated with the inheritance of ecotropic viral sequences in inbred low-leukemic mouse strains and in CXB recombinant inbred mouse strains. However, four BXH recombinant inbred strains were observed to possess an In gene(s) yet lack the probed envelope gene region for the corresponding endogenous ecotropic virus. These observations indicate that at least one gene that enhances ecotropic virus expression in vitro is encoded by DNA sequences outside ecotropic proviruses or by subgenomic viral sequences. Images PMID:6294342

  16. Simian sarcoma virus-encoded gag-related protein: in vitro cleavage by Friend leukemia virus-associated proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Hafenrichter, R; Thiel, H J

    1985-05-01

    The simian sarcoma virus (SSV) encodes a gag-related 65,000-Da protein (SSV p65) which is not processed in SSV nonproducer cells (SSV-NP cells) (H.-J. Thiel, T. J. Matthews, E. M. Broughton, K. J. Weinhold, D. P. Bolognesi, T. Graf, and H. Beug (1981a), Virology 114, 124-131). In order to cleave SSV p65, retroviral particles containing this antigen were incubated with extracts from the heterologous helper virus Friend leukemia virus (FLV). Superinfection of SSV-NP cells by FLV has been previously shown to result in processing of SSV p65 in vivo (H.-J. Thiel, F. Weiland, R. Hafenrichter, T. J. Matthews, and K. J. Weinhold (1982), Virology 123, 229-234). In vitro cleavage was most efficient in the presence of a nonionic detergent (greater than 0.1% Nonidet-P40) and a reducing agent (greater than 5 mM dithiothreitol) at a pH of 7.0. The products, termed SSV p55 (p15, p12, p30), SSV p30, SSV p25 (p15, p12), and SSV p10, were characterized by (1) molecular weight, (2) kinetics experiments, (3) incorporation of different radiolabeled amino acids, and (4) comparison with SSAV structural proteins. Kinetics experiments with two amino acids ([3H]leucine, [35S]cysteine) revealed that initial processing of SSV p65 produced SSV p55 and SSV p10, with subsequent processing of SSV p55 occurring thereafter. In contrast to the Moloney system, the major intermediate p40 (p30, p10) could not be clearly demonstrated. A direct comparison of SSAV p10 and the cleavage product SSV p10 by SDS-PAGE suggests that SSAV pr65gag and SSV p65 differ slightly by molecular weight.

  17. Identification of a gag-encoded cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope from FBL-3 leukemia shared by Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher murine leukemia virus-induced tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Qin, H; Chesebro, B; Cheever, M A

    1996-01-01

    FBL-3 is a highly immunogenic murine leukemia of C57BL/6 origin induced by Friend murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with FBL-3 readily elicits CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) capable of lysing FBL-3 as well as syngeneic leukemias induced by Moloney and Rauscher MuLV. The aim of this current study was to identify the immunogenic epitope(s) recognized by the FBL-3-specific CD8+ CTL. A series of FBL-3-specific CD8+ CTL clones were generated from C57BL/6 mice immunized to FBL-3. The majority of CTL clones (32 of 38) were specific for F-MuLV gag-encoded antigen. By using a series of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length and truncated F-MuLV gag genes, the antigenic epitope recognized by the FBL-3 gag-specific CTL clones, as well as by bulk-cultured CTL from spleens of mice immune to FBL-3, was localized to the leader sequence of gPr80gag protein. The precise amino acid sequence of the CTL epitope in the leader sequence was identified as CCLCLTVFL (positions 85-93) by examining lysis of targets incubated with a series of synthetic leader sequence peptides. No evidence of other CTL epitopes in the gPr80gag or Pr65gag core virion structural polyproteins was found. The identity of CCLCLTVFL as the target peptide was validated by showing that immunization with the peptide elicited CTL that lysed FBL-3. The CTL elicited by the Gag peptide also specifically lysed syngeneic leukemia cells induced by Moloney and Rauscher MuLV (MBL-2 and RBL-5). The transmembrane peptide was shown to be the major gag-encoded antigenic epitope recognized by bulk-cultured CTL derived from C57BL/6 mice immunized to MBL-2 or RBL-5. Thus, the CTL epitope of FBL-3 is localized to the transmembrane anchor domain of the nonstructural Gag polyprotein and is shared by leukemia/lymphoma cell lines induced by Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher MuLV. PMID:8892898

  18. Determination of proviral load in bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with and without lymphocytosis.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, Marcela A; Gutierrez, Silvina E; Ceriani, Carolina

    2007-11-01

    To determine proviral load in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle with and without persistent lymphocytosis to assess the potential of transmitting the virus. Cattle in 6 dairy herds. Blood samples from infected cows were evaluated 3 times at 6-month intervals for determination of proviral load via PCR assay, serologic results via ELISA, and hematologic status via differential cell counts. Infected cattle were classified into lymphocytotic and nonlymphocytotic groups. Lymphocytotic cattle consistently had > 100,000 copies of integrated provirus/mug of DNA (ie, high proviral load) in peripheral blood leukocytes. Titers of antibodies against BLVgp51 and BLVp24 indicated a strong immune response. Nonlymphocytotic cattle comprised 2 subgroups: a group with high proviral load and strong immune response, and a group with a weaker immune response, mostly against BLVp24, and a proviral load of < 100 copies/microg of DNA (ie, low proviral load). Results emphasized the importance of characterizing nonlymphocytotic BLV-infected cattle during eradication programs. The risk of transmitting BLV infection from nonlymphocytotic cattle may differ depending on the proviral load. Nonlymphocytotic cattle with high proviral load could be efficient transmitters (as efficient as lymphocytotic cattle), whereas nonlymphocytotic cattle with low proviral load could be inefficient transmitters under standard husbandry conditions. Because most cattle with low proviral load do not develop anti-BLVp24 antibodies, it appears that lack of an anti-BLVp24 antibody response may be a good marker of this condition.

  19. Greying with age in mice: relation to expression of murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Morse, H C; Yetter, R A; Stimpfling, J H; Pitts, O M; Fredrickson, T N; Hartley, J W

    1985-06-01

    Some strains of C57BL/10 H-2-congenic mice were found to exhibit greying with age, whereas others did not. Two patterns of greying were observed, diffuse greying beginning at 4 to 6 months of age and patterned greying beginning at 4 to 6 weeks. Strains exhibiting either greying pattern expressed high levels of infectious ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) in tests of thymus and spleen and in cultures from skin or tail biopsies, whereas nongreying strains expressed little virus until late in life. Electron microscopy demonstrated large accumulations of MuLV in grey, but not in black areas, of skin from a mouse with patterned greying. Infectious MuLV was produced spontaneously by embryos of greying, but not of nongreying, mice and pups of nongreying strains fostered on greying mothers turned grey after 3 months. These results suggest that greying with age results from melanocyte dysfunction that occurs subsequent to pre- or early postnatal infection with MuLV.

  20. EPIZOOTIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF FELINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS IN THE FLORIDA PUMA

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Mark W.; Brown, Meredith A.; Shindle, David B.; Terrell, Scott P.; Hayes, Kathleen A.; Ferree, Bambi C.; McBride, R. T.; Blankenship, Emmett L.; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B.; Roelke, Melody E.; Kiltie, Richard A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002–2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains. PMID:18689639

  1. Epizootiology and management of feline leukemia virus in the Florida puma.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark W; Brown, Meredith A; Shindle, David B; Terrell, Scott P; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ferree, Bambi C; McBride, R T; Blankenship, Emmett L; Jansen, Deborah; Citino, Scott B; Roelke, Melody E; Kiltie, Richard A; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-07-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) was not detected in Florida pumas (Puma concolor coryi) in almost 20 yr of surveillance; however, the finding of two FeLV antigen-positive pumas during the 2002-2003 capture season led to an investigation of FeLV in the population. Between January 1990 and April 2007, the proportion of pumas testing FeLV antibody positive increased, with antibody-positive pumas concentrated in the northern portion of puma range. Five of 131 (4%) pumas sampled between July 2000 and April 2007 were viremic, with all cases clustered in Okaloacoochee Slough (OKS). Clinical signs and clinical pathology at capture were absent or included lymphadenopathy, moderate-to-severe anemia, and lymphopenia. All viremic pumas died; causes of death were septicemia (n=2), intraspecific aggression (n=2), and anemia/dehydration (n=1). Outcome after FeLV exposure in pumas was similar to that in domestic cats, with evidence of regressive, latent, and persistent infections. Management of the epizootic included vaccination, and as of April 2007, 52 free-ranging pumas had received one or more inoculations. Vaccinations were concentrated in OKS and in a band between OKS and the remainder of the puma population. There have been no new cases since July 2004; however, the potential for reintroduction of the virus remains.

  2. Functional Characterization of the N Termini of Murine Leukemia Virus Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chi-Wei; Roth, Monica J.

    2001-01-01

    The function of the N terminus of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) surface (SU) protein was examined. A series of five chimeric envelope proteins (Env) were generated in which the N terminus of amphotropic 4070A was replaced by equivalent sequences from ecotropic Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV). Viral titers of these chimeras indicate that exchange with homologous sequences could be tolerated, up to V17eco/T15ampho (crossover III). Constructs encoding the first 28 amino acids (aa) of ecotropic M-MuLV resulted in Env expression and binding to the receptor; however, the virus titer was reduced 5- to 45-fold, indicating a postbinding block. Additional exchange beyond the first 28 aa of ecotropic MuLV Env resulted in defective protein expression. These N-terminal chimeras were also introduced into the AE4 chimeric Env backbone containing the amphotropic receptor binding domain joined at the hinge region to the ecotropic SU C terminus. In this backbone, introduction of the first 17 aa of the ecotropic Env protein significantly increased the titer compared to that of its parental chimera AE4, implying a functional coordination between the N terminus of SU and the C terminus of the SU and/or transmembrane proteins. These data functionally dissect the N-terminal sequence of the MuLV Env protein and identify differential effects on receptor-mediated entry. PMID:11287584

  3. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA.

    PubMed

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA.

  4. Insights into the nuclear export of murine leukemia virus intron-containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Pessel-Vivares, Lucie; Houzet, Laurent; Lainé, Sébastien; Mougel, Marylène

    2015-01-01

    The retroviral genome consists of an intron-containing transcript that has essential cytoplasmic functions in the infected cell. This viral transcript can escape splicing, circumvent the nuclear checkpoint mechanisms and be transported to the cytoplasm by hijacking the host machinery. Once in the cytoplasm, viral unspliced RNA acts as mRNA to be translated and as genomic RNA to be packaged into nascent viruses. The murine leukemia virus (MLV) is among the first retroviruses discovered and is classified as simple Retroviridae due to its minimal encoding capacity. The oncogenic and transduction abilities of MLV are extensively studied, whereas surprisingly the crucial step of its nuclear export has remained unsolved until 2014. Recent work has revealed the recruitment by MLV of the cellular NXF1/Tap-dependent pathway for export. Unconventionally, MLV uses of Tap to export both spliced and unspliced viral RNAs. Unlike other retroviruses, MLV does not harbor a unique RNA signal for export. Indeed, multiple sequences throughout the MLV genome appear to promote export of the unspliced MLV RNA. We review here the current understanding of the export mechanism and highlight the determinants that influence MLV export. As the molecular mechanism of MLV export is elucidated, we will gain insight into the contribution of the export pathway to the cytoplasmic fate of the viral RNA. PMID:26158194

  5. Evidence of horizontal transmission of feline leukemia virus by the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis).

    PubMed

    Vobis, M; D'Haese, J; Mehlhorn, H; Mencke, N

    2003-12-01

    The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a naturally occurring and widespread retrovirus among domestic cats. The virus is mainly transmitted horizontally through saliva, blood and other body fluids by close contact between cats. Vectors other than cats, e.g. blood-sucking parasites, have not been reported. This study tested the vector potential of the cat flea ( Ctenocephalides felis) for FeLV. In a first feeding, fleas were fed for 24 h with blood from a FeLV-infected cat with persistent viremia. FeLV could be detected in the fleas, as well as in their feces. Fleas were then divided in two populations and fed in a second feeding for 5 h or 24 h with non-infected non-viremic blood. FeLV was again detected in the fleas and their feces. In addition, the two resulting blood samples of the second feeding were subsequently tested for FeLV and both samples were positive for FeLV RNA. The cat flea transmitted the FeLV from one blood sample to another. In a third feeding, the same populations of fleas were fed again with non-infected blood for 5 h or 24 h. This time FeLV was not detected in the fleas, or in the feces or blood samples. Results show that cat fleas are potential vectors for FeLV RNA in vitro and probably also in vivo.

  6. Short communication: Relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibody and provirus in blood and milk of cows from a naturally infected herd.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Juan P; Porta, Natalia G; Gutierrez, Geronimo; Politzki, Romina P; Álvarez, Irene; Galarza, Roxana; Abdala, Alejandro; Calvinho, Luis; Trono, Karina G

    2016-07-01

    We explored the relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibodies and provirus load during natural infection. For that purpose, a set of 50 blood and milk paired samples were analyzed for the presence of bovine leukemia virus provirus and antibodies. Additionally, provirus load and antibody titers were measured and the relationship between these variables was investigated. Bovine leukemia provirus was detected in 59% of milk samples and a negative correlation was observed between the level of milk provirus load and milk antibody titers. By the consumption of raw milk, calves might be exposed to bovine leukemia virus favoring the perinatal transmission of this disease. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic control of radiation leukemia virus-induced tumorigenesis. I. Role of the major murine histocompatibility complex, H-2

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Resistance to radiation leukemia virus-induced leukemogenesis is associated with the H-2D region of the H-2 complex, or with closely linked loci. The H-2Dd allele confers resistance ot the disease, while the H-2D-Q and H-2Ds alleles are associated with susceptibility. It is not clear whether Ir genes, or an alternative mechanism are responsible for the observed H-2-linked resistance to the disease. PMID:197195

  8. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Efficacy of siRNA on feline leukemia virus replication in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Melanie; Weber, Karin; Rauch, Gisep; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Hosie, Margaret J; Meli, Marina L; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) can lead to severe clinical signs in cats. Until now, there is no effective therapy for FeLV-infected cats. RNA interference-based antiviral therapy is a new concept. Specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) are designed complementary to the mRNA of a target region, and thus inhibit replication. Several studies have proven efficacy of siRNAs in inhibiting virus replication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of siRNAs against FeLV replication in vitro. siRNAs against the FeLV env gene and the host cell surface receptor (feTHTR1) which is used by FeLV-A for entry as well as siRNA that were not complementary to the FeLV or cat genome, were tested. Crandell feline kidney cells (CrFK cells) were transfected with FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. On day 13, infected cells were transfected with siRNAs. As control, cells were mock-transfected or treated with azidothymidine (AZT) (5 μg/ml). Culture supernatants were analyzed for FeLV RNA using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and for FeLV p27 by ELISA every 24 hours for five days. All siRNAs significantly reduced viral RNA and p27 production, starting after 48 hours. The fact that non-complementary siRNAs also inhibited virus replication may lead to the conclusion that unspecific mechanisms rather than specific binding lead to inhibition.

  10. Abelson murine leukemia virus transformation-defective mutants with impaired P120-associated protein kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, F H; Van de Ven, W J; Stephenson, J R

    1980-01-01

    Several transformation-defective (td) mutants of Abelson murine leukemia virus (AbLV) are described. Cells nonproductively infected with such mutants exhibited a high degree of growth contact inhibition, failed to form colonies in soft agar, lacked rescuable transforming virus, and were as susceptible as uninfected control cells to transformation by wild-type (wt) AbLV pseudotype virus. In addition, each of several td AbLV nonproductively infected cell clones analyzed was found to be nontumorigenic in vivo. Biochemical analysis of td mutant AbLV-infected clones revealed levels of expression of the major AbLV translational product, P120, and a highly related 80,000-Mr AbLV-encoded protein, P80, at concentrations analogous to those in wt AbLV-transformed cells. Although the AbLV-specific 120,000-Mr polyproteins expressed in td mutant AbLV-infected clones were indistinguishable from those in wt AbLV-transformed lines with respect to molecular weight and [35S]methionine tryptic peptide composition, they each differed from wt AbLV P120 in their patterns of post-translational phosphorylation. A previously described AbLV-associated protein kinase activity is shown to recognize as substrate a major tyrosine-specific acceptor site(s) contained within a single well-resolved tryptic peptide common to both AbLV P120 and P80. In vitro [gamma-32P]ATP-mediated labeling of this phosphorylation site was reduced to below detectable levels in td mutant nonproductively infected cell clones. These findings establish that the AbLV-encoded polyprotein P120 and its associated protein kinase activity are involved in AbLV tumorigenesis. Images PMID:6253663

  11. A putative thiamine transport protein is a receptor for feline leukemia virus subgroup A.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramon; Anderson, Maria M; Overbaugh, Julie

    2006-04-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a horizontally transmitted virus that causes a variety of proliferative and immunosuppressive diseases in cats. There are four subgroups of FeLV, A, B, C, and T, each of which has a distinct receptor requirement. The receptors for all but the FeLV-A subgroup have been defined previously. Here, we report the identification of the cellular receptor for FeLV-A, which is the most transmissible form of FeLV. The receptor cDNA was isolated using a gene transfer approach, which involved introducing sequences from a feline cell line permissive to FeLV-A into a murine cell line that was not permissive. The feline cDNA identified by this method was approximately 3.5 kb, and included an open reading frame predicted to encode a protein of 490 amino acids. This feline cDNA conferred susceptibility to FeLV-A when reintroduced into nonpermissive cells, but it did not render these cells permissive to any other FeLV subgroup. Moreover, these cells specifically bound FeLV-A-pseudotyped virus particles, indicating that the cDNA encodes a binding receptor for FeLV-A. The feline cDNA shares approximately 93% amino acid sequence identity with the human thiamine transport protein 1 (THTR1). The human THTR1 receptor was also functional as a receptor for FeLV-A, albeit with reduced efficiency compared to the feline orthologue. On the basis of these data, which strongly suggest the feline protein is the orthologue of human THTR1, we have named the feline receptor feTHTR1. Identification of this receptor will allow more detailed studies of the early events in FeLV transmission and may provide insights into FeLV pathogenesis.

  12. Mink Cell Focus-Forming Murine Leukemia Virus Killing of Mink Cells Involves Apoptosis and Superinfection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Fayth K.; Wang, Tao; Nanua, Suparna

    2001-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis by different types of pathogenic retroviruses is an important step in disease development. We have observed that infection of thymic lymphocytes by the mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus (MCF MLV) during the preleukemic period resulted in an enhancement of apoptosis of these cells. To further study the ability of MCF MLVs to induce apoptosis and the role of this process in viral pathogenesis, we have developed an in vitro system of virus-induced apoptosis. MCF13 MLV infection of mink epithelial cells resulted in the production of cytopathic foci. In contrast, infection of mink cells with the 4070A amphotropic MLV did not produce any cytopathic effects. Staining of MCF13 MLV-infected cells with propidium iodide and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate indicated that virus-induced cell death was due to apoptosis. At 6 days postinfection, the percentage of apoptotic MCF13 MLV-infected cells was 27% compared with 2 to 3% for mock- or amphotropic MLV-infected cells, representing a 9- to 14-fold difference. Assays for caspase-3 activation confirmed the detection by flow cytometry of apoptosis of MCF13 MLV-infected cells. Large amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA were detectable by Southern blot analysis during the acute phase of infection, which indicated that MCF13 MLV is able to superinfect mink cells. Unintegrated viral DNA of only the linear form was detectable in thymic lymphocytes isolated from MCF13 MLV-inoculated mice during the preleukemic period. These results indicated that the ability of MCF13 MLV to induce apoptosis is correlated with its ability to superinfect cells and that this occurs as an early step in thymic lymphoma development. PMID:11390602

  13. The role of ITCH protein in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 release.

    PubMed

    Dorjbal, Batsukh; Derse, David; Lloyd, Patricia; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Heidecker, Gisela

    2011-09-09

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has two late domain (LD) motifs, PPPY and PTAP, which are important for viral budding. Mutations in the PPPY motif are more deleterious for viral release than changes in the PTAP motif. Several reports have shown that the interaction of PPPY with the WW domains of a Nedd4 (neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated-4) family ubiquitin ligase (UL) is a critical event in virus release. We tested nine members of the Nedd4 family ULs and found that ITCH is the main contributor to HTLV-1 budding. ITCH overexpression strongly inhibited release and infectivity of wild-type (wt) HTLV-1, but rescued the release of infectious virions with certain mutations in the PPPY motif. Electron microscopy showed either fewer or misshapen virus particles when wt HTLV-1 was produced in the presence of overexpressed ITCH, whereas mutants with changes in the PPPY motif yielded normal looking particles at wt level. The other ULs had significantly weaker or no effects on HTLV-1 release and infectivity except for SMURF-1, which caused enhanced release of wt and all PPPY(-) mutant particles. These particles were poorly infectious and showed abnormal morphology by electron microscopy. Budding and infectivity defects due to overexpression of ITCH and SMURF-1 were correlated with higher than normal ubiquitination of Gag. Only silencing of ITCH, but not of WWP1, WWP2, and Nedd4, resulted in a reduction of HTLV-1 budding from 293T cells. The binding efficiencies between the HTLV-1 LD and WW domains of different ULs as measured by mammalian two-hybrid interaction did not correlate with the strength of their effect on HTLV-1 budding.

  14. Suspected myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm in a feline leukemia virus-negative cat.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Amy L; Taylor, Kyle R; Terrell, Scott P; Gallagher, Alexander E; Wamsley, Heather L

    2016-12-01

    A 10-year-old castrated Domestic Short-Haired cat was presented to a primary care veterinarian for a wellness examination and laboratory examination for monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The CBC revealed marked thrombocytosis, leukopenia and macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The cat tested negative for FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus, but was positive for Mycoplasma haemominutum by PCR. Hematologic abnormalities were not responsive to therapy, so a repeat CBC and a bone marrow aspiration for cytology were performed. Additional blood smear findings included anisocytosis with megaloblastic erythroid precursors, large platelets, eosinophilic myelocytes and metamyelocytes, and rare unidentified blasts. The bone marrow smear was highly cellular, and the cytologic pattern was consistent with myelodysplastic syndrome with an erythroid predominance. At that time, 15% blasts were present. The cat was treated with a vitamin K2 analog, doxycycline, and prednisolone, but without a clinical response. Within 3 months, euthanasia was elected due to declining quality of life, and a necropsy was performed. Postmortem bone marrow smears were highly cellular and dominated by monomorphic blasts of unknown line of origin (52%), persistent marked erythroid and megakaryocytic dysplasia, and ineffective erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis. Immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, and cytochemical stains resulted in a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia of unclassified type. Additional histologic findings included mixed hepatitis with trematode infestation and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with fibrosis. The marked thrombocytosis with myelodysplastic syndrome and the FeLV-negative status of this cat were unusual. The difficulty in classifying the myelodysplasia and subsequent leukemia highlights a need for further reporting and characterization of these types of disease.

  15. Lethal cutaneous disease in transgenic mice conditionally expressing type I human T cell leukemia virus Tax.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hakju; Ogle, Louise; Benitez, Bobby; Bohuslav, Jan; Montano, Mauricio; Felsher, Dean W; Greene, Warner C

    2005-10-21

    Type I human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) is etiologically linked with adult T cell leukemia, an aggressive and usually fatal expansion of activated CD4+ T lymphocytes that frequently traffic to skin. T cell transformation induced by HTLV-I involves the action of the 40-kDa viral Tax transactivator protein. Tax both stimulates the HTLV-I long terminal repeat and deregulates the expression of select cellular genes by altering the activity of specific host transcription factors, including cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor, NF-kappaB/Rel, and serum response factor. To study initiating events involved in HTLV-I Tax-induced T cell transformation, we generated "Tet-off" transgenic mice conditionally expressing in a lymphocyte-restricted manner (EmuSR alpha promoter-enhancer) either wild-type Tax or mutant forms of Tax that selectively compromise the NF-kappaB (M22) or CREB/activating transcription factor (M47) activation pathways. Wild-type Tax and M47 Tax-expressing mice, but not M22-Tax expressing mice, developed progressive alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and skin lesions containing profuse activated CD4 T cell infiltrates with evidence of deregulated inflammatory cytokine production. In addition, these animals displayed systemic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. These findings suggest that Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB plays a key role in the development of this aggressive skin disease that shares several features in common with the skin disease occurring during the preleukemic stage in HTLV-I-infected patients. Of note, this skin disease completely resolved when Tax transgene expression was suppressed by administration of doxycycline, emphasizing the key role played by this viral oncoprotein in the observed pathology.

  16. Secretion of the human T cell leukemia virus type I transactivator protein tax.

    PubMed

    Alefantis, Timothy; Mostoller, Kate; Jain, Pooja; Harhaj, Edward; Grant, Christian; Wigdahl, Brian

    2005-04-29

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-I protein Tax is well known as a transcriptional transactivator and inducer of cellular transformation. However, it is also known that extracellular Tax induces the production and release of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, which have adverse effects on cells of the central nervous system. The cellular process by which Tax exits the cell into the extracellular environment is currently unknown. In most cell types, Tax has been shown to localize primarily to the nucleus. However, Tax has also been found to accumulate in the cytoplasm. The results contained herein begin to characterize the process of Tax secretion from the cell. Specifically, cytoplasmic Tax was demonstrated to localize to organelles associated with the cellular secretory process including the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Additionally, it was demonstrated that full-length Tax was secreted from both baby hamster kidney cells and a human kidney tumor cell line, suggesting that Tax enters the secretory pathway in a leaderless manner. Tax secretion was partially inhibited by brefeldin A, suggesting that Tax migrated from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. In addition, combined treatment of Tax-transfected BHK-21 cells with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin resulted in a small increase in the amount of Tax secreted, suggesting that a fraction of cytoplasmic Tax was present in the regulated secretory pathway. These studies begin to provide a link between Tax localization to the cytoplasm, the detection of Tax in the extracellular environment, its possible role as an extracellular effector molecule, and a potential role in neurodegenerative disease associated with HTLV-I infection.

  17. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  18. Protection against feline leukemia virus infection by use of an inactivated virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hoover, E A; Perigo, N A; Quackenbush, S L; Mathiason-DuBard, C K; Overbaugh, J M; Kloetzer, W S; Elder, J H; Mullins, J I

    1991-11-15

    The protective immunity induced by 3 experimental FeLV vaccines were evaluated: Prototype inactivated FeLV vaccine developed from a molecularly cloned FeLV isolate (FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A); a mixture of immunodominant synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the FeLV-Gardner-Arnstein-B (FeLV-GA-B) envelope proteins; and an adjuvant-disrupted but non-activated virus prepared from a non-cloned FeLV field isolate comprised of subgroup A and B viruses (FeLV-05821-AB). Included as controls were parallel groups of cats inoculated with adjuvants alone or with an established commercial FeLV vaccine. After each inoculation and after virulent virus challenge exposure, sera from all cats were assayed for ELISA-reactive antibody against purified FeLV, FeLV neutralizing (VN) antibody, and FeLV antigenemia/viremia--viral p27 antigen in serum and within circulating leukocytes. Immunity was challenged by oral/nasal exposure of vaccinated and control cats with FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A or FeLV-05821-AB, an infective, noncloned, tissue-origin, FeLV field isolate containing subgroup-A and -B viruses. Vaccine-induced immunity was assessed by comparing the postchallenge-exposure incidence of persistent viremia and the pre- and postchallenge exposure titers of VN and ELISA antibody in cats of the control and vaccine groups. The percentage of cats, that resisted development of persistent viremia after FeLV challenge exposure and the preventable fraction (PF) for the vaccine groups (which adjusts for the severity of the challenge and the degree of innate resistance in the controls) were as follows: adjuvant controls, 26%; FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A inactivated virus vaccine, 95% (PF = 93.2%); FeLV-GA-B peptide vaccine, 5% (-28.4%); FeLV-05821-AB noninactivated vaccine, 67% (55.4%); and commercial FeLV vaccine, 35% (12.2%). The prechallenge exposure mean VN antibody titer for each group was: less than 1:8 in the adjuvant controls; 1:43 in the FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A-vaccinated cats; less than 1:8 in the peptide

  19. Evaluation of a new in-clinic test system to detect feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sand, Christina; Englert, Theresa; Egberink, Herman; Lutz, Hans; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    Many in-house tests for the diagnosis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection are licensed for use in veterinary practice. A new test with unknown performance has recently appeared on the market. The aims of this study were to define the efficacy of a new in-clinic test system, the Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test, and to compare it with the current leading in-clinic test, the SNAP Kombi Plus FeLV Antigen/FIB Antibody Test. Three-hundred serum samples from randomly selected healthy and diseased cats presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University were tested using both the Anigen Rapid Test and the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both tests using Western blot as the gold standard for verification of FIV infection and PCR as the gold standard for FeLV infection. The presence of antibodies against FIV was confirmed by Western blot in 9/300 samples (prevalence 3%). FeLV DNA was detected by PCR in 15/300 samples (prevalence 5%). For FIV infection the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 99.7%, positive predictive value of 88.9%, and negative predictive value of 99.7%. For FeLV infection, the Anigen Rapid Test had a sensitivity of 40.0%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 96.9%. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to that of the SNAP Kombi Plus Test. The new Anigen Rapid FIV Ab/FeLV Ag Test performed very well and can be recommended for use in veterinary practice.

  20. Comparative kinetic analyses of interaction of inhibitors with Rauscher murine leukemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, J M; Fuller, M D; Mulato, A S; Allen, S J; Kunder, S C; Ussery, M A; Lesnikowski, Z; Schinazi, R F; Sommadossi, J P; Chen, M S

    1996-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of several nucleoside triphosphate analogs on Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RMuLV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptases (RTs) were studied. With RNA as the template, the apparent K(m) and apparent K(i) values of HIV RT toward its substrates and inhibitors are 12 to 500 times lower than the corresponding values for RMuLV RT. However, the k(i)/k(m) ratios (inhibition efficiencies) for HIV and RMuLV RTs'are similar for AZTTP (zidovudine triphosphate), d4TTP [3'-deoxythymidine-2'-ene-(3'-deoxy-2',3'-didehydrothymidine) triphosphate], PMEADP [9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine diphosphate], FIAUTP [1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouracil triphosphate], and HPMPCDP [(S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphylmethoxypropyl) cytosine diphosphate]. With DNA as the template, the K(m) values are similar for HIV and RMuLV RTs. However, the K(i)/K(m) values of HIV and RMuLV RTs are significantly different for ddCTP, ddATP, and 3TCTP (2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine). The RTs of RMuLV and HIV are sufficiently different from one another that the kinetic inhibition constants for a particular antiviral compounds should be determined to indicate whether anti-RMuLV activity is likely to be predictive for the anti-HIV activity of the compound. This information, in conjunction with species-specific drug metabolism differences and tissue culture antiviral activity, is important in determining the suitability of a particular animal model. PMID:8723481

  1. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenotypes of murine leukemia virus-induced tumors: influence of 3' viral coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, D E; Keller, J; Sill, K; Rein, A

    1992-01-01

    Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) induce leukemias and lymphomas in mice. We have used fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis to determine the hematopoietic phenotypes of tumor cells induced by a number of MuLVs. Tumor cells induced by ecotropic Moloney, amphotropic 4070A, and 10A1 MuLVs and by two chimeric MuLVs, Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1), were examined with antibodies to 13 lineage-specific cell surface markers found on myeloid cell, T-cell, and B-cell lineages. The chimeric Mo(4070A) and Mo(10A1) MuLVs, consisting of Moloney MuLV with the carboxy half of the Pol region and nearly all of the Env region of 4070A and 10A1, respectively, were constructed to examine the possible influence of these sequences on Moloney MuLV-induced tumor cell phenotypes. In some instances, these phenotypic analyses were supplemented by Southern blot analysis for lymphoid cell-specific genomic DNA rearrangements at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain, the T-cell receptor gamma, and the T-cell receptor beta loci. The results of our analysis showed that Moloney MuLV, 4070A, Mo(4070A), and Mo(10A1) induced mostly T-cell tumors. Moloney MuLV and Mo(4070A) induced a wide variety of T-cell phenotypes, ranging from immature to mature phenotypes, while 4070A induced mostly prothymocyte and double-negative (CD4- CD8-) T-cell tumors. The tumor phenotypes obtained with 10A1 and Mo(10A1) were each less variable than those obtained with the other MuLVs tested. 10A1 uniformly induced a tumor consisting of lineage marker-negative cells that lack lymphoid cell-specific DNA rearrangements and histologically appear to be early undifferentiated erythroid cell-like precursors. The Mo(10A1) chimera consistently induced an intermediate T-cell tumor. The chimeric constructions demonstrated that while 4070A 3' pol and env sequences apparently did not influence the observed tumor cell phenotypes, the 10A1 half of pol and env had a strong effect on the phenotypes induced by Mo(10A1) that resulted in a phenotypic

  3. Decreased expression of endogenous feline leukemia virus in cat lymphomas: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Krunic, Milica; Ertl, Reinhard; Hagen, Benedikt; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Klein, Dieter

    2015-04-10

    Cats infected with exogenous feline leukemia virus (exFeLV) have a higher chance of lymphoma development than uninfected cats. Furthermore, an increased exFeLV transcription has been detected in lymphomas compared to non-malignant tissues. The possible mechanisms of lymphoma development by exFeLV are insertional mutagenesis or persistent stimulation of host immune cells by viral antigens, bringing them at risk for malignant transformation. Vaccination of cats against exFeLV has in recent years decreased the overall infection rate in most countries. Nevertheless, an increasing number of lymphomas have been diagnosed among exFeLV-negative cats. Endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV) is another retrovirus for which transcription has been observed in cat lymphomas. EnFeLV provirus elements are present in the germline of various cat species and share a high sequence similarity with exFeLV but, due to mutations, are incapable of producing infectious viral particles. However, recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV could produce infectious particles. We examined the FeLV expression in cats that have developed malignant lymphomas and discussed the possible mechanisms that could have induced malignant transformation. For expression analysis we used next-generation RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and for validation reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). First, we showed that there was no expression of exFeLV in all samples, which eliminates the possibility of recombination between exFeLV and enFeLV. Next, we analyzed the difference in expression of three enFeLV genes between control and lymphoma samples. Our analysis showed an average of 3.40-fold decreased viral expression for the three genes in lymphoma compared to control samples. The results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. There is a decreased expression of enFeLV genes in lymphomas versus control samples, which contradicts previous observations for the exFeLV. Our results suggest that a persistent stimulation of host

  4. SIRT1 Suppresses Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Gao, Wei-Wei; Chan, Chi-Ping; Cheng, Yun; Deng, Jian-Jun; Yuen, Kit-San; Iha, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated diseases are poorly treatable, and HTLV-1 vaccines are not available. High proviral load is one major risk factor for disease development. HTLV-1 encodes Tax oncoprotein, which activates transcription from viral long terminal repeats (LTR) and various types of cellular promoters. Counteracting Tax function might have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits. In this work, we report on the suppression of Tax activation of HTLV-1 LTR by SIRT1 deacetylase. The transcriptional activity of Tax on the LTR was largely ablated when SIRT1 was overexpressed, but Tax activation of NF-κB was unaffected. On the contrary, the activation of the LTR by Tax was boosted when SIRT1 was depleted. Treatment of cells with resveratrol shunted Tax activity in a SIRT1-dependent manner. The activation of SIRT1 in HTLV-1-transformed T cells by resveratrol potently inhibited HTLV-1 proviral transcription and Tax expression, whereas compromising SIRT1 by specific inhibitors augmented HTLV-1 mRNA expression. The administration of resveratrol also decreased the production of cell-free HTLV-1 virions from MT2 cells and the transmission of HTLV-1 from MT2 cells to uninfected Jurkat cells in coculture. SIRT1 associated with Tax in HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Treatment with resveratrol prevented the interaction of Tax with CREB and the recruitment of CREB, CRTC1, and p300 to Tax-responsive elements in the LTR. Our work demonstrates the negative regulatory function of SIRT1 in Tax activation of HTLV-1 transcription. Small-molecule activators of SIRT1 such as resveratrol might be considered new prophylactic and therapeutic agents in HTLV-1-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes a highly lethal blood cancer or a chronic debilitating disease of the spinal cord. Treatments are unsatisfactory, and vaccines are not available. Disease progression is associated with robust expression of HTLV-1 genes

  5. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Hannah J.; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S.; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

  6. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus establishes an efficient spreading infection and exhibits enhanced transcriptional activity in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason J; Goff, Stephen P

    2010-03-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a novel human gammaretrovirus discovered in association with human prostate tumors. XMRV was first identified in prostate stromal cells surrounding the tumors of patients carrying a mutation in the HPC1 gene locus. To determine the tropism of XMRV in cell culture, we tested the ability of XMRV to spread and replicate in various prostate and nonprostate cell lines. We found that although the expression of XMRV viral proteins and the spread of infectious virus were minimal in a variety of cell lines, XMRV displayed robust expression and infection in LNCaP prostate tumor cells. The transcriptional activity of the XMRV long terminal repeat (LTR) was found to be higher than the Moloney murine leukemia virus LTRs in both LNCaP and WPMY-1 (simian virus 40-transformed prostate stromal cells). The U3 promoter of XMRV and a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) within the U3 were required for the transcriptional activity in LNCaP cells. Coexpression of the androgen receptor and stimulation with dihydrotestosterone stimulated XMRV-LTR-dependent transcription in 293T cells, and the GRE was required for this activity. These data suggest that XMRV may replicate more efficiently in LNCaP cells in part due to the transcriptional environment in LNCaP cells.

  7. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence.

  8. Treatment of Radiation-Induced Urethral Strictures.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Matthias D; Liu, Joceline S; Morey, Allen F

    2017-02-01

    Radiation therapy may result in urethral strictures from vascular damage. Most radiation-induced urethral strictures occur in the bulbomembranous junction, and urinary incontinence may result as a consequence of treatment. Radiation therapy may compromise reconstruction due to poor tissue healing and radionecrosis. Excision and primary anastomosis is the preferred urethroplasty technique for radiation-induced urethral stricture. Principles of posterior urethroplasty for trauma may be applied to the treatment of radiation-induced urethral strictures. Chronic management with suprapubic tube is an option based on patient comorbidities and preference.

  9. Construction and characterization of the recombinant Moloney murine leukemia viruses bearing the mouse Fv-4 env gene.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, M; Yoshikura, H

    1990-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence of the mouse Fv-4 env gene was completed. Structural comparison revealed a close relationship of Fv-4 to the ecotropic Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus isolated from a wild mouse in southern California. Various portions of the env gene of Moloney murine leukemia virus were replaced by the corresponding Fv-4 env sequence to construct recombinant murine leukemia virus clones. Infectivity of these recombinants was checked by the S+L- cell focus induction assay and the XC cell syncytium formation assay. Recombinants bearing the following Fv-4 env sequence retained ecotropic infectivity; the AccI-BamHI and BamHI-BalI regions coding for the N- and C-terminal halves of Fv-4 gp70SU, respectively; and the BalI-NcoI region encoding the cleavage site between gp70SU and p15(E)TM of the Fv-4 env. However, when the Fv-4 sequence was substituted for the p15(E)TM-coding NcoI-EcoRV region or the AccI-EcoRV region covering almost the entire env gene, infectivity was undetectable in our assays. The recombinant clone containing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region, i.e., almost the entire Fv-4 env sequence, was introduced with pSV2neo into NIH 3T3 cells, and a G418r cell line named NIH(Fv4)-2 was isolated. The NIH(Fv4)-2 cell released viral particles that contained reverse transcriptase, Fv-4 env molecules as well as the other viral proteins, and viral genomic RNA. However, proviral DNA synthesis was not detected upon inoculation of this virus in NIH 3T3 cells. The loss of infectivity of the recombinant virus bearing the Fv-4 AccI-EcoRV region appeared to be caused by failure in an early step of replication. Images PMID:2304138

  10. Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Snehal S.; Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Mai, Wei Y.; Teh, Bin S.

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: The moyamoya syndrome is an uncommon late complication after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language articles, with radiation, radiotherapy, and moyamoya syndrome used as search key words, yielded 33 articles from 1967 to 2002. Results: The series included 54 patients with a median age at initial RT of 3.8 years (range, 0.4 to 47). Age at RT was less than 5 years in 56.3%, 5 to 10 years in 22.9%, 11 to 20 years in 8.3%, 21 to 30 years in 6.3%, 31 to 40 years in 2.1%, and 41 to 50 years in 4.2%. Fourteen of 54 patients (25.9%) were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The most common tumor treated with RT was low-grade glioma in 37 tumors (68.5%) of which 29 were optic-pathway glioma. The average RT dose was 46.5 Gy (range, 22-120 Gy). For NF-1-positive patients, the average RT dose was 46.5 Gy, and for NF-1-negative patients, it was 58.1 Gy. The median latent period for development of moyamoya syndrome was 40 months after RT (range, 4-240). Radiation-induced moyamoya syndrome occurred in 27.7% of patients by 2 years, 53.2% of patients by 4 years, 74.5% of patients by 6 years, and 95.7% of patients by 12 years after RT. Conclusions: Patients who received RT to the parasellar region at a young age (<5 years) are the most susceptible to moyamoya syndrome. The incidence for moyamoya syndrome continues to increase with time, with half of cases occurring within 4 years of RT and 95% of cases occurring within 12 years. Patients with NF-1 have a lower radiation-dose threshold for development of moyamoya syndrome.

  11. Quantification and molecular characterization of the feline leukemia virus A receptor.

    PubMed

    Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A; Cattori, Valentino; Bachler, Barbara; Hartnack, Sonja; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2011-12-01

    Virus receptors and their expression patterns on the cell surface determine the cell tropism of the virus, host susceptibility and the pathogenesis of the infection. Feline thiamine transport protein 1 (fTHTR1) has been identified as the receptor for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) A. The goal of the present study was to develop a quantitative, TaqMan real-time PCR assay to investigate fTHTR1 mRNA expression in tissues of uninfected and FeLV-infected cats, cats of different ages, in tumor tissues and leukocyte subsets. Moreover, the receptor was molecularly characterized in different feline species. fTHTR1 mRNA expression was detected in all 30 feline tissues investigated, oral mucosa scrapings and blood. Importantly, identification of significant differences in fTHTR1 expression relied on normalization with an appropriate reference gene. The lowest levels were found in the blood, whereas high levels were measured in the oral mucosa, salivary glands and the musculature. In the blood, T lymphocytes showed significantly higher fTHTR1 mRNA expression levels than neutrophil granulocytes. In vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with concanavalin A alone or followed by interleukin-2 led to a transient increase of fTHTR1 mRNA expression. In the blood, but not in the examined tissues, FeLV-infected cats tended to have lower fTHTR1 mRNA levels than uninfected cats. The fTHTR1 mRNA levels were not significantly different between tissues with lymphomas and the corresponding non-neoplastic tissues. fTHTR1 was highly conserved among different feline species (Iberian lynx, Asiatic and Indian lion, European wildcat, jaguarundi, domestic cat). In conclusion, while ubiquitous fTHTR1 mRNA expression corresponded to the broad target tissue range of FeLV, particularly high fTHTR1 levels were found at sites of virus entry and shedding. The differential susceptibility of different species to FeLV could not be attributed to variations in the fTHTR1 sequence.

  12. Disruption of Thiamine Uptake and Growth of Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus Subgroup A

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Ramon; Miller, A. Dusty

    2013-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic cats and some wild cats despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines against the virus. FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) is transmitted in natural infections, and FeLV subgroups B, C, and T can evolve directly from FeLV-A by mutation and/or recombination with endogenous retroviruses in domestic cats, resulting in a variety of pathogenic outcomes. The cell surface entry receptor for FeLV-A is a putative thiamine transporter (THTR1). Here, we have addressed whether FeLV-A infection might disrupt thiamine uptake into cells and, because thiamine is an essential nutrient, whether this disruption might have pathological consequences. First, we cloned the cat ortholog of the other of the two known thiamine transporters in mammals, THTR2, and we show that feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) and feTHTR2 both mediate thiamine uptake, but feTHTR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-A. We found that feTHTR1 is widely expressed in cat tissues and in cell lines, while expression of feTHTR2 is restricted. Thiamine uptake mediated by feTHTR1 was indeed blocked by FeLV-A infection, and in feline fibroblasts that naturally express feTHTR1 and not feTHTR2, this blockade resulted in a growth arrest at physiological concentrations of extracellular thiamine. The growth arrest was reversed at high extracellular concentrations of thiamine. Our results show that FeLV-A infection can indeed disrupt thiamine uptake with pathological consequences. A prediction of these experiments is that raising the plasma levels of thiamine in FeLV-infected cats may ameliorate the pathogenic effects of infection. PMID:23269813

  13. Shedding of feline leukemia virus RNA in saliva is a consistent feature in viremic cats.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Keller, M A; Tandon, R; Gönczi, E; Meli, M L; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H

    2006-01-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the shedding pattern of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) RNA in saliva, and to correlate it with the proviral load in whole blood, viral load in plasma, levels of p27 in saliva and plasma, the isolation of infectious FeLV from saliva, and the titers of FeLV-specific antibodies of the IgG and IgA isotypes. We evaluated 24 experimentally FeLV-infected cats for these parameters using real-time RT-PCR and PCR, cell culture assay and sandwich ELISA. We observed that shedding of viral RNA in saliva was a consistent feature in viremic cats. Latently FeLV-infected cats, displaying a very low proviral load, did not shed infectious virus in saliva, but occasionally shed viral RNA. Consequently, salivary shedding of FeLV RNA may not necessarily indicate a transmission potential for susceptible cats. This study also confirmed previous results from our laboratory, showing that a negative result for p27 in plasma, or for viral RNA in plasma or saliva does not exclude FeLV infection, considering that blood cells from those cats contained provirus. We also showed that FeLV RNA and DNA were stable for more than 64 days in saliva samples stored at room temperature. We conclude that the detection of FeLV RNA in saliva may be a useful indicator of viremia, and that the detection of salivary viral RNA by RT-PCR could become a reliable tool for the diagnosis of FeLV infection, which is facilitated by the low invasive method of collection of the samples.

  14. Bovine leukemia virus structural gene vectors are immunogenic and lack pathogenicity in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, L; Altanerova, V; Altaner, C; Boris-Lawrie, K

    1999-10-01

    Infection with a replication-competent bovine leukemia virus structural gene vector (BLV SGV) is an innovative vaccination approach to prevent disease by complex retroviruses. Previously we developed BLV SGV that constitutively expresses BLV gag, pol, and env and related cis-acting sequences but lacks tax, rex, RIII, and GIV and most of the BLV long terminal repeat sequences, including the cis-acting Tax and Rex response elements. The novel SGV virus is replication competent and replicates a selectable vector to a titer similar to that of the parental BLV in cell culture. The overall goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that infection with BLV SGV is nonpathogenic in rabbits. BLV infection of rabbits by inoculation of cell-free BLV or cell-associated BLV typically causes an immunodeficiency-like syndrome and death by 1 year postinfection. We sought to evaluate whether in vivo transfection of BLV provirus recapitulates pathogenic BLV infection and to compare BLV and BLV SGV with respect to infection, immunogenicity, and clinical outcome. Three groups of rabbits were subjected to in vivo transfection with BLV, BLV SGV, or negative control DNA. The results of our 20-month study indicate that in vivo transfection of rabbits with BLV recapitulates the fatal BLV infection produced by cell-free or cell-associated BLV. The BLV-infected rabbits exhibited sudden onset of clinical decline and immunodeficiency-like symptoms that culminated in death. BLV and BLV SGV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced similar levels of seroconversion to BLV structural proteins. However, BLV SGV exhibited a reduced proviral load and did not trigger the immunodeficiency-like syndrome. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BLV SGV is infectious and immunogenic and lacks BLV pathogenicity in rabbits, and they support the use of this modified proviral vector delivery system for vaccines against complex retroviruses like BLV.

  15. Bovine Leukemia Virus Structural Gene Vectors Are Immunogenic and Lack Pathogenicity in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Kucerova, Lucia; Altanerova, Veronika; Altaner, Cestmir; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Infection with a replication-competent bovine leukemia virus structural gene vector (BLV SGV) is an innovative vaccination approach to prevent disease by complex retroviruses. Previously we developed BLV SGV that constitutively expresses BLV gag, pol, and env and related cis-acting sequences but lacks tax, rex, RIII, and GIV and most of the BLV long terminal repeat sequences, including the cis-acting Tax and Rex response elements. The novel SGV virus is replication competent and replicates a selectable vector to a titer similar to that of the parental BLV in cell culture. The overall goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that infection with BLV SGV is nonpathogenic in rabbits. BLV infection of rabbits by inoculation of cell-free BLV or cell-associated BLV typically causes an immunodeficiency-like syndrome and death by 1 year postinfection. We sought to evaluate whether in vivo transfection of BLV provirus recapitulates pathogenic BLV infection and to compare BLV and BLV SGV with respect to infection, immunogenicity, and clinical outcome. Three groups of rabbits were subjected to in vivo transfection with BLV, BLV SGV, or negative control DNA. The results of our 20-month study indicate that in vivo transfection of rabbits with BLV recapitulates the fatal BLV infection produced by cell-free or cell-associated BLV. The BLV-infected rabbits exhibited sudden onset of clinical decline and immunodeficiency-like symptoms that culminated in death. BLV and BLV SGV infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells and induced similar levels of seroconversion to BLV structural proteins. However, BLV SGV exhibited a reduced proviral load and did not trigger the immunodeficiency-like syndrome. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BLV SGV is infectious and immunogenic and lacks BLV pathogenicity in rabbits, and they support the use of this modified proviral vector delivery system for vaccines against complex retroviruses like BLV. PMID:10482566

  16. mRNA Molecules Containing Murine Leukemia Virus Packaging Signals Are Encapsidated as Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Hibbert, Catherine S.; Mirro, Jane; Rein, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Prior work by others has shown that insertion of ψ (i.e., leader) sequences from the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) genome into the 3′ untranslated region of a nonviral mRNA leads to the specific encapsidation of this RNA in MLV particles. We now report that these RNAs are, like genomic RNAs, encapsidated as dimers. These dimers have the same thermostability as MLV genomic RNA dimers; like them, these dimers are more stable if isolated from mature virions than from immature virions. We characterized encapsidated mRNAs containing deletions or truncations of MLV ψ or with ψ sequences from MLV-related acute transforming viruses. The results indicate that the dimeric linkage in genomic RNA can be completely attributed to the ψ region of the genome. While this conclusion agrees with earlier electron microscopic studies on mature MLV dimers, it is the first evidence as to the site of the linkage in immature dimers for any retrovirus. Since the Ψ+ mRNA is not encapsidated as well as genomic RNA, it is only present in a minority of virions. The fact that it is nevertheless dimeric argues strongly that two of these molecules are packaged into particles together. We also found that the kissing loop is unnecessary for this coencapsidation or for the stability of mature dimers but makes a major contribution to the stability of immature dimers. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the packaging signal involves a dimeric structure in which the RNAs are joined by intermolecular interactions between GACG loops. PMID:15452213

  17. Disruption of thiamine uptake and growth of cells by feline leukemia virus subgroup A.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramon; Miller, A Dusty; Overbaugh, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic cats and some wild cats despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines against the virus. FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) is transmitted in natural infections, and FeLV subgroups B, C, and T can evolve directly from FeLV-A by mutation and/or recombination with endogenous retroviruses in domestic cats, resulting in a variety of pathogenic outcomes. The cell surface entry receptor for FeLV-A is a putative thiamine transporter (THTR1). Here, we have addressed whether FeLV-A infection might disrupt thiamine uptake into cells and, because thiamine is an essential nutrient, whether this disruption might have pathological consequences. First, we cloned the cat ortholog of the other of the two known thiamine transporters in mammals, THTR2, and we show that feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) and feTHTR2 both mediate thiamine uptake, but feTHTR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-A. We found that feTHTR1 is widely expressed in cat tissues and in cell lines, while expression of feTHTR2 is restricted. Thiamine uptake mediated by feTHTR1 was indeed blocked by FeLV-A infection, and in feline fibroblasts that naturally express feTHTR1 and not feTHTR2, this blockade resulted in a growth arrest at physiological concentrations of extracellular thiamine. The growth arrest was reversed at high extracellular concentrations of thiamine. Our results show that FeLV-A infection can indeed disrupt thiamine uptake with pathological consequences. A prediction of these experiments is that raising the plasma levels of thiamine in FeLV-infected cats may ameliorate the pathogenic effects of infection.

  18. Inhibition of radiation-induced skin fibrosis with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn E; Sowers, Anastasia; Thetford, Angela; White, Ayla O; Mitchell, James B; Citrin, Deborah E

    2013-03-01

    Dermal fibrosis is a disabling late toxicity of radiotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that overactive signaling via the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) and V-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (cAbl) may be etiologic factors in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a clinically available inhibitor of PDGFR-β, Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit) and cAbl, would reduce the severity of dermal fibrosis in a murine model. The right hind legs of female C3H/HeN mice were exposed to 35 Gy of X-rays. Cohorts of mice were maintained on chow formulated with imatinib 0.5 mg/g or control chow for the duration of the experiment. Bilateral hind limb extension was measured serially to assess fibrotic contracture. Immunohistochemistry and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the levels of collagen and cytokines implicated in radiation-induced fibrosis. Imatinib treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture and dermal thickness after irradiation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a substantial reduction in PDGFR-β phosphorylation. We also observed reduced Transforming Growth factor-β (TGF-β) and collagen expression in irradiated skin of imatinib-treated mice, suggesting that imatinib may suppress the fibrotic process by interrupting cross-talk between these pathways. Taken together, these results support that imatinib may be a useful agent in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced dermal fibrosis.

  19. Radiation-induced accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.

    1986-07-01

    There is a paucity of information on radiation-induced coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.

  20. Both the PPPY and PTAP motifs are involved in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 particle release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huating; Machesky, Nicholas J; Mansky, Louis M

    2004-02-01

    In retroviruses, the late (L) domain has been defined as a conserved motif in the Gag polyprotein precursor that, when mutated, leads to the emergence of virus particles that fail to pinch off from the plasma membrane. These domains have been observed to contain the PPXY, PTAP, or YXXL motifs. The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2, have a conserved PPPY motif in the C-terminal region of the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, while HTLV-1 also encodes a PTAP motif in MA. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the PPPY and PTAP motifs in the C terminus of MA in HTLV-1 particle release. Mutation of either motif (i.e., PPPY changed to APPY or PTAP changed to PTRP) reduced budding efficiencies. Particle buds and electron-dense regions of plasma membrane were observed by electron microscopy. When the locations of PPPY and PTAP were switched, particle release was eliminated. Intriguingly, the replacement of the PTAP motif with either the PPPY or YPDL motifs did not influence the release of virus particles, but the replacement of the PPPY motif with either PTAP or YPDL eliminated particle production. This indicates that the role that PPPY plays in HTLV-1 budding cannot be replaced with either PTAP or YPDL. A similar observation was made with the BLV PPPY motif. Finally, HTLV-1 particle release was found to be sensitive to proteasome inhibitors, implicating a role for ubiquitin in HTLV-1 budding. In summary, our observations indicate that (i) the PPPY motif plays a crucial role in virus budding and (ii) the PTAP motif plays a more subtle role in HTLV-1 particle release. Each of these motifs may play an important role in virus release from specific cell types and therefore be important in efficient virus spread and transmission.

  1. Both the PPPY and PTAP Motifs Are Involved in Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Particle Release

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huating; Machesky, Nicholas J.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2004-01-01

    In retroviruses, the late (L) domain has been defined as a conserved motif in the Gag polyprotein precursor that, when mutated, leads to the emergence of virus particles that fail to pinch off from the plasma membrane. These domains have been observed to contain the PPXY, PTAP, or YXXL motifs. The deltaretroviruses, which include bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2, have a conserved PPPY motif in the C-terminal region of the matrix (MA) domain of Gag, while HTLV-1 also encodes a PTAP motif in MA. In this study, we analyzed the roles of the PPPY and PTAP motifs in the C terminus of MA in HTLV-1 particle release. Mutation of either motif (i.e., PPPY changed to APPY or PTAP changed to PTRP) reduced budding efficiencies. Particle buds and electron-dense regions of plasma membrane were observed by electron microscopy. When the locations of PPPY and PTAP were switched, particle release was eliminated. Intriguingly, the replacement of the PTAP motif with either the PPPY or YPDL motifs did not influence the release of virus particles, but the replacement of the PPPY motif with either PTAP or YPDL eliminated particle production. This indicates that the role that PPPY plays in HTLV-1 budding cannot be replaced with either PTAP or YPDL. A similar observation was made with the BLV PPPY motif. Finally, HTLV-1 particle release was found to be sensitive to proteasome inhibitors, implicating a role for ubiquitin in HTLV-1 budding. In summary, our observations indicate that (i) the PPPY motif plays a crucial role in virus budding and (ii) the PTAP motif plays a more subtle role in HTLV-1 particle release. Each of these motifs may play an important role in virus release from specific cell types and therefore be important in efficient virus spread and transmission. PMID:14722305

  2. Solution structure of the capsid protein from the human T-cell leukemia virus type-I.

    PubMed

    Khorasanizadeh, S; Campos-Olivas, R; Summers, M F

    1999-08-13

    The solution structure of the capsid protein (CA) from the human T-cell leukemia virus type one (HTLV-I), a retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy in humans, has been determined by NMR methods. The protein consists of independent N and C-terminal domains connected by a flexible linker. The domains are structurally similar to the N-terminal "core" and C-terminal "dimerization" domains, respectively, of the human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) capsid proteins, although several important differences exist. In particular, hydrophobic residues near the major homology region are partially buried in HTLV-I CA, which is monomeric in solution, whereas analogous residues in HIV-1 and EIAV CA project from the C-terminal domain and promote dimerization. These differences in the structure and oligomerization state of the proteins appear to be related to, and possibly controlled by, the oxidation state of conserved cysteine residues, which are reduced in HTLV-I CA but form a disulfide bond in the HIV-1 and EIAV CA crystal structures. The results are consistent with an oxidative capsid assembly mechanism, in which CA oligomerization or maturation is triggered by disulfide bo nd formation as the budding virus enters the oxidizing environment of the bloodstream. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-06-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag-Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins.

  4. Efficient N-tailing of blunt DNA ends by Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV-RT) is a widely used enzyme for cDNA synthesis. Here we show that MMLV-RT has a strong template-independent polymerase activity using blunt DNA ends as substrate that generates 3′ overhangs of A, C, G, or T. Nucleotides were appended efficiently in the order A > G > T > C, and tail lengths varied from 4 to 5, 2 to 7, 2 to 4, and 2 to 3 for A, C, G, and T, respectively. The activity was so strong that nearly all our test DNA ends were appended with at least one A, C, G, or T. The N-tailing activity of MMLV-RT was enhanced in the presence of Mn2+, and the G-, C-, and T-tailing activities were further enhanced by dCMP, dGMP, and dAMP, respectively. This is the first report of an enzymatic activity that almost thoroughly appends two or more As, or one or more Cs, Gs, or Ts to the 3′ end of double-stranded DNA, which would enable exhaustive analysis of DNA samples. The N-tailing activity of MMLV-RT is potentially useful in many biotechnological applications. PMID:28150748

  5. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-08

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV.

  6. A detailed molecular analysis of complete bovine leukemia virus genomes isolated from B-cell lymphosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Moratorio, Gonzalo; Fischer, Sabrina; Bianchi, Sergio; Tomé, Lorena; Rama, Gonzalo; Obal, Gonzalo; Carrión, Federico; Pritsch, Otto; Cristina, Juan

    2013-03-18

    It is widely accepted that the majority of cancers result from multiple cellular events leading to malignancy after a prolonged period of clinical latency, and that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of cancer progression. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic member of the Retroviridae family. Complete genomic sequences of BLV strains isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle have been previously reported. However, a detailed characterization of the complete genome of BLV strains directly isolated from bovine tumors is much needed in order to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by BLV in cattle. In this study, we performed a molecular characterization of BLV complete genomes from bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma isolates. A nucleotide substitution was found in the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) site of the 5' long terminal repeat (5'LTR) of the BLV isolates. All amino acid substitutions in Tax previously found to be related to stimulate high transcriptional activity of 5'LTR were not found in these studies. Amino acid substitutions were found in the nucleocapsid, gp51 and G4 proteins. Premature stop-codons in R3 were observed. Few mutations or amino acid substitutions may be needed to allow BLV provirus to achieve silencing. Substitutions that favor suppression of viral expression in malignant B cells might be a strategy to circumvent effective immune attack.

  7. Impact of bovine leukemia virus infection on neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Cheryl L; Erskine, Ronald J; Bartlett, Paul C

    2013-07-01

    To determine the effect of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations in healthy lactating Holstein dairy cattle. Observational cross-sectional survey. 311 healthy lactating Holstein dairy cattle from herds in Michigan (n = 2), Wisconsin (1), Iowa (1), and Pennsylvania (1). Whole and anticoagulated (EDTA) blood samples were collected. Serum samples were tested for antibody against BLV by use of an ELISA. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte concentrations were measured in EDTA blood samples with an automated hematology analyzer and manual differential cell counts. 208 cows tested positive and 103 cows tested negative for anti-BLV antibodies. Neutrophil concentration was not significantly different between BLV-positive versus BLV-negative cattle. The distribution of lymphocyte concentration was positively skewed for the entire cow population (n = 311) and the BLV-positive subset (208). In contrast, lymphocyte concentration distribution was approximately normal for BLV-negative cows (n = 103). Consequently, the presence or absence of BLV infection strongly influenced the calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte concentration ratio. Results indicated that absolute lymphocyte concentration is significantly affected by BLV infection in dairy cattle. Accordingly, hematologic reference intervals should be derived from healthy animals that are not infected with BLV and patient BLV status must be considered for meaningful interpretation of lymphocyte concentration. We recommend that the calculated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio be abandoned because it does not provide more information than direct comparison of patient absolute leukocyte concentration with updated reference intervals from healthy BLV-negative cattle.

  8. Effect of infection with bovine leukemia virus on milk production in Michigan dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Norby, B; Bartlett, P C; Byrem, T M; Erskine, R J

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between individual cow-level milk production and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection as measured by milk BLV-ELISA. Dairy Herd Improvement technicians collected milk samples from 10 cows from each of first, second, third, and 4+ parity cows in 105 Holstein herds with ≥ 120 milking cows. Milk samples were tested for the presence of anti-BLV antibodies by ELISA. Additional data regarding the cows and the herds were collected by farm survey and Dairy Herd Improvement records. A set of mixed-effect models using all cows and only 2+ parity cows were used to investigate the association between BLV ELISA-corrected optical density and 305-d mature equivalents of individual cows. The BLV milk positivity was associated with decreased 305-d mature-equivalent yields, especially among the older cows. Additionally, increasing milk ELISA-corrected optical density was associated with increasing loss of milk production at the cow level. In summary, our results provide evidence that BLV infection is associated with decreased milk production in Michigan dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Options for the control of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Paul C; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Byrem, Todd M; Norby, Bo; Grooms, Daniel L; Swenson, Cheryl L; Zalucha, Jessica; Erskine, Ronald J

    2014-04-15

    The subclinical impact of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) on the sustainability of the US dairy industry is only now being fully recognized. Findings of recent longitudinal studies conducted in Michigan dairy herds were consistent with the results of previous studies in showing that within-herd prevalence of BLV-infected cattle was negatively associated with milk production and cow longevity. Risk factors relating to routes of hematogenous transmission such as the use of shared hypodermic needles, shared reproductive examination sleeves, and natural breeding were associated with BLV within-herd prevalence. Few US dairy producers know the prevalence of BLV-infected cattle in their herds or are aware of the insidious economic impact of BLV or the options for BLV control. As an increasing number of countries eradicate BLV from their cattle populations, restrictions on the movement of US cattle and cattle products will likely increase. Veterinarians should be aware of recent developments for screening serum and milk samples for antibodies against BLV and the results of research regarding the economic impact of BLV so they can advise their dairy clients of available alternatives for monitoring and controlling BLV infection.

  10. First Molecular Characterization of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infections in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Kelly, Patrick John; Bai, Jianfa; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leucosis. To investigate the presence and genetic variability of BLV in the Caribbean for the first time, we preformed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR for the pol of BLV on DNA from whole blood of cattle from Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts. Standard PCRs with primers for the env were used for phylogenetic analysis of BLV in positive animals. We found FRET-PCR positive cattle (12.6%, 41/325) on Dominica (5.2%; 4/77) and St. Kitts (19.2%; 37/193) but not on Montserrat (0%, 0/12) or Nevis (0%, 0/43). Positive animals were cows on farms where animals were raised intensively. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method on partial and full-length env sequences obtained for strains from Dominica (n = 2) and St. Kitts (n = 5) and those available in GenBank (n = 90) (genotypes 1-10) revealed the Caribbean strains belonged to genotype 1 (98-100% sequence homology). Ours is the first molecular characterization of BLV infections in the Caribbean and the first description of genotype 1 in the region.

  11. Determinants of the Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Involved in Infectivity, Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Brogniez, Alix; Mast, Jan; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of viral envelope proteins with host cell membranes has been extensively investigated in a number of systems. However, the biological relevance of these interactions in vivo has been hampered by the absence of adequate animal models. Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential determinants of infection. Although cell fusion directed by the aminoterminal end of TM is postulated to be essential, some proviruses expressing fusion-deficient envelope proteins unexpectedly replicate at wild-type levels. Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. PMID:27023592

  12. The molecular epidemiological study of bovine leukemia virus infection in Myanmar cattle.

    PubMed

    Polat, Meripet; Moe, Hla Hla; Shimogiri, Takeshi; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide and affects both health status and productivity. However, no studies have examined the distribution of BLV in Myanmar, and the genetic characteristics of Myanmar BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infection in Myanmar and examine genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 66 cattle from different farms in four townships of the Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory of central Myanmar. BLV provirus was detected by nested PCR and real-time PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Results were confirmed by nested PCR targeting the BLV env-gp51 gene and real-time PCR targeting the BLV tax gene. Out of 66 samples, six (9.1 %) were positive for BLV provirus. A phylogenetic tree, constructed using five distinct partial and complete env-gp51 sequences from BLV strains isolated from three different townships, indicated that Myanmar strains were genotype-10. A phylogenetic tree constructed from whole genome sequences obtained by sequencing cloned, overlapping PCR products from two Myanmar strains confirmed the existence of genotype-10 in Myanmar. Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences identified genotype-10-specific amino acid substitutions in both structural and non-structural genes, thereby distinguishing genotype-10 strains from other known genotypes. This study provides information regarding BLV infection levels in Myanmar and confirms that genotype-10 is circulating in Myanmar.

  13. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  14. Using PCR for early diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection in some native cattle.

    PubMed

    Mohammadabadi, M R; Soflaei, M; Mostafavi, H; Honarmand, M

    2011-10-27

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, is an exogenous, B lymphotropic retrovirus belonging to the Retroviridae family that induces persistent lymphocytosis in cattle and sheep. PCR has proven to be particularly suitable for investigating herds of cattle with a very low incidence of BLV infection and for clarifying doubtful serological results obtained by immunodiffusion or ELISA. The native Iranian and Russian cattle have a series of valuable traits that discriminate them as unique breeds that are well able to compete with western analogues. However, their gene pools have not been analyzed with molecular markers, including detection of BLV by PCR. Two pairs of primers were used: gag1 and gag2, and pol1 and pol2, which encompass 347- and 599-bp fragments of the BLV gene, respectively. Sixty-five Iranian Sistani, 120 Yaroslavl, 50 Mongolian, and 35 Black Pied cows were investigated. Among these 270 animals, we obtained 42 positive and 15 doubtful results in the first PCR. The second PCR was very effective in increasing BLV test reliability data to support detection of BLV.

  15. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Horizontal transmission and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia virus in two districts of Miyazaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Konnai, Satoru; Kirino, Yumi; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal transmission is recognized as a major infection route for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and cattle with high viral loads are considered to be a major infectious source in a herd. However, a correlation between viral loads and the risk of infection has been insufficient to use as a foundation for BLV control strategies. In this report, we examined the epidemiology of BLV infection and the infectious source in a local area. In 2013-2014, BLV infection was investigated in 1,823 cattle from 117 farms in two adjacent districts, Miyazaki, Japan. Seropositive samples for BLV were detected with 88 cattle and in 14 farms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 94% of the isolates clustered into genotype I and the remaining isolate into genotype III. Among genotype I, genetically distinct strains were spread at each farm, and cattle infected with less than 3 copies/100 cells did not transmit BLV to other cattle for more than thirty months. This is the first report of concrete data of viral load in relation to viral horizontal transmission under the field condition. The data facilitate farmers and veterinarians understanding the status of BLV infected cattle. This research contributes to BLV infection control and the development of effective BLV eradication programs.

  17. Horizontal transmission and phylogenetic analysis of bovine leukemia virus in two districts of Miyazaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MEKATA, Hirohisa; SEKIGUCHI, Satoshi; KONNAI, Satoru; KIRINO, Yumi; HORII, Yoichiro; NORIMINE, Junzo

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal transmission is recognized as a major infection route for bovine leukemia virus (BLV), and cattle with high viral loads are considered to be a major infectious source in a herd. However, a correlation between viral loads and the risk of infection has been insufficient to use as a foundation for BLV control strategies. In this report, we examined the epidemiology of BLV infection and the infectious source in a local area. In 2013–2014, BLV infection was investigated in 1,823 cattle from 117 farms in two adjacent districts, Miyazaki, Japan. Seropositive samples for BLV were detected with 88 cattle and in 14 farms. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 94% of the isolates clustered into genotype I and the remaining isolate into genotype III. Among genotype I, genetically distinct strains were spread at each farm, and cattle infected with less than 3 copies/100 cells did not transmit BLV to other cattle for more than thirty months. This is the first report of concrete data of viral load in relation to viral horizontal transmission under the field condition. The data facilitate farmers and veterinarians understanding the status of BLV infected cattle. This research contributes to BLV infection control and the development of effective BLV eradication programs. PMID:25892699

  18. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  19. First Report of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Yaks (Bos mutus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Hu, Gui-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is a chronic lymphosarcoma disease of cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). No information is available concerning the epidemiology of BLV infection in yaks (Bos mutus). One thousand five hundred and eighty-four serum samples from 610 black yaks and 974 white yaks from Gansu province, northwest China, were collected between April 2013 and March 2014 and tested for BLV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall BLV seroprevalence in yaks was 21.09% (334/1584), with 24.26% (148/610) black yaks and 19.10% (186/974) white yaks yielding positive results. Risk factor analysis indicated that with the exception of breed (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06-1.73, P < 0.05), the age, region, gender, farm, and the numbers of pregnancies were not considered as risk factors for the presence of BLV in yaks included in this study. This is the first report of BLV infection in yaks in China, which provides information for controlling BLV infection in yaks.

  20. Solution Properties of Murine Leukemia Virus Gag Protein: Differences from HIV-1 Gag

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Siddhartha A.K.; Zuo, Xiaobing; Clark, Patrick K.; Campbell, Stephen J.; Wang, Yun-Xing; Rein, Alan

    2012-05-09

    Immature retrovirus particles are assembled from the multidomain Gag protein. In these particles, the Gag proteins are arranged radially as elongated rods. We have previously characterized the properties of HIV-1 Gag in solution. In the absence of nucleic acid, HIV-1 Gag displays moderately weak interprotein interactions, existing in monomer-dimer equilibrium. Neutron scattering and hydrodynamic studies suggest that the protein is compact, and biochemical studies indicate that the two ends can approach close in three-dimensional space, implying the need for a significant conformational change during assembly. We now describe the properties of the Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV), a gammaretrovirus. We found that this protein is very different from HIV-1 Gag: it has much weaker protein-protein interaction and is predominantly monomeric in solution. This has allowed us to study the protein by small-angle X-ray scattering and to build a low-resolution molecular envelope for the protein. We found that MLV Gag is extended in solution, with an axial ratio of {approx}7, comparable to its dimensions in immature particles. Mutational analysis suggests that runs of prolines in its matrix and p12 domains and the highly charged stretch at the C terminus of its capsid domain all contribute to this extended conformation. These differences between MLV Gag and HIV-1 Gag and their implications for retroviral assembly are discussed.

  1. Effects of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Takemoto, L. J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    F5b Tumor cells were incubated with concentrated culture supernatants taken from cells resistant (F5m) or sensitive (F5b) to contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity. Macrophage cell line B6MP102 and murine peritoneal macrophages killed targets incubated with supernatants taken from sensitive cells but poorly killed cells incubated in supernatants isolated from resistant cells. Membranes from cells resistant to macrophage killing, F5m, were fused into F5b cells. The fused F5b cells were killed significantly less than F5b cells fused with F5b cell membranes or untreated F5b cells. The decreased killing of F5b cells corresponded to increased concentrations of gp70(a) molecules on F5b cells. Affinity purified gp70(a) was added to cytotoxicity assays but failed to inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. P15E molecules were detectable on both F5b and F5m cells. In addition, a synthetic peptide found to exhibit the inhibitory properties of p15E was added to cytotoxicity assays. P15E synthetic peptide also did not inhibit macrophage cytotoxicity. Therefore, env gene proteins of murine leukemia virus do not appear responsible for inducing tumor cell resistance to activated macrophage contact-dependent cytotoxicity.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L.; Rosensteel, Bryan B.; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-09-30

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  3. Imbalance of tumor necrosis factor receptors during progression in bovine leukemia virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Konnai, Satoru . E-mail: konnai@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ikeda, Manabu; Kohara, Junko; Hirata, Toh-ichi; Okada, Kosuke; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; Onuma, Misao

    2005-09-01

    Previously, we found an up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-{alpha} and an imbalance of TNF receptors in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV). In order to investigate the different TNF-{alpha}-induced responses, in this study we examined the TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferative response and the expression levels of two distinct TNF receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from BLV-uninfected cattle and BLV-infected cattle that were aleukemic (AL) or had persistent lymphocytosis (PL). The proliferative response of PBMC isolated from those cattle with PL in the presence of recombinant bovine TNF-{alpha} (rTNF-{alpha}) was significantly higher than those from AL cattle and uninfected cattle and the cells from PL cattle expressed significantly higher mRNA levels of TNF receptor type II (TNF-RII) than those from AL and BLV-uninfected cattle. No difference was found in TNF-RI mRNA levels. Most cells expressing TNF-RII in PL cattle were CD5{sup +} or sIgM{sup +} cells and these cells showed resistance to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between the changes in provirus load and TNF-RII mRNA levels, and TNF-{alpha}-induced proliferation and TNF-RII mRNA levels. These data suggest that imbalance in the expression of TNF receptors could at least in part contribute to the progression of lymphocytosis in BLV infection.

  4. Broadening the use of antiretroviral therapy: the case for feline leukemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Greggs, Willie M; Clouser, Christine L; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have saved and extended the lives of millions of individuals infected with HIV. The major classes of anti-HIV drugs include reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, and entry/fusion inhibitors. While antiretroviral drug regimens are not commonly used to treat other types of retroviral infections, there are instances where there is a perceived need for re-evaluation of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. One case in point is that of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), an infection of companion felines. While vaccines exist to prevent FeLV infection and spread, they have not eliminated FeLV infection. For FeLV-infected felines and their human companions, antiretroviral therapy would be desirable and of practical importance if good options were available. Here, we discuss FeLV biology and current treatment options, and propose that there is a need for antiretroviral treatment options for FeLV infection. The comparative use and analysis of antiretroviral therapy can provide new insights into the mechanism of antiretroviral drug action. PMID:21479142

  5. Efficient N-tailing of blunt DNA ends by Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka

    2017-02-02

    Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV-RT) is a widely used enzyme for cDNA synthesis. Here we show that MMLV-RT has a strong template-independent polymerase activity using blunt DNA ends as substrate that generates 3' overhangs of A, C, G, or T. Nucleotides were appended efficiently in the order A > G > T > C, and tail lengths varied from 4 to 5, 2 to 7, 2 to 4, and 2 to 3 for A, C, G, and T, respectively. The activity was so strong that nearly all our test DNA ends were appended with at least one A, C, G, or T. The N-tailing activity of MMLV-RT was enhanced in the presence of Mn(2+), and the G-, C-, and T-tailing activities were further enhanced by dCMP, dGMP, and dAMP, respectively. This is the first report of an enzymatic activity that almost thoroughly appends two or more As, or one or more Cs, Gs, or Ts to the 3' end of double-stranded DNA, which would enable exhaustive analysis of DNA samples. The N-tailing activity of MMLV-RT is potentially useful in many biotechnological applications.

  6. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  7. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Young-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 10⁸ and 0.86 × 10⁸, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 10⁴ IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats.

  8. Naturally occurring feline leukemia virus subgroup A and B infections in urban domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fabiana Magalhães; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; de Andrade Caxito, Fabíola; Ribeiro, Natália Almeida; Luppi, Marcela Miranda; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães; Resende, Mauricio

    2008-11-01

    A nested-PCR (n-PCR) was used to detect feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA in blood samples from 464 sick and 608 healthy domestic cats (Felis catus) selected by convenience, and a significantly high prevalence of FeLV infection was observed. n-PCR results revealed the presence of FeLV proviral DNA in 47.2 % of sick cats and 47.4 % of healthy cats. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FeLV samples from healthy or sick cats were grouped into separate clades. We determined FeLV subgroups by an n-PCR based on the envelope (env) gene. The partial env gene of FeLV Minas Gerais (MG) samples were compared to various exogenous FeLV isolates and endogenous (enFeLV) provirus from the same region. FeLV-B MG samples were more similar to endogenous sequences and to natural FeLV-B isolates than to either FeLV-A or FeLV-C. The results revealed the circulation of FeLV-B in large populations of urban domestic cats in Brazil.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of endogenous feline leukemia virus proliferation among species of the domestic cat lineage.

    PubMed

    Polani, Sagi; Roca, Alfred L; Rosensteel, Bryan B; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila

    2010-09-30

    Endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) occur in the germ lines of the domestic cat and related wild species (genus Felis). We sequenced the long terminal repeats and part of the env region of enFeLVs in domestic cats and five wild species. A total of 305 enFeLV sequences were generated across 17 individuals, demonstrating considerable diversity within two major clades. Distinct proliferations of enFeLVs occurred before and after the black-footed cat diverged from the other species. Diversity of enFeLVs was limited for the sand cat and jungle cat suggesting that proliferation of enFeLVs occurred within these species after they diverged. Relationships among enFeLVs were congruent with host species relationships except for the jungle cat, which carried only enFeLVs from a lineage that recently invaded the germline (enFeLV-AGTT). Comparison of wildcat and domestic cat enFeLVs indicated that a distinctive germ line invasion of enFeLVs has not occurred since the cat was domesticated.

  10. Murine leukemia virus uses TREX components for efficient nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Toshie; Tonne, Jason M; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-10

    Previously we reported that nuclear export of both unspliced and spliced murine leukemia virus (MLV) transcripts depends on the nuclear export factor (NXF1) pathway. Although the mRNA export complex TREX, which contains Aly/REF, UAP56, and the THO complex, is involved in the NXF1-mediated nuclear export of cellular mRNAs, its contribution to the export of MLV mRNA transcripts remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the involvement of TREX components in the export of MLV transcripts. Depletion of UAP56, but not Aly/REF, reduced the level of both unspliced and spliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Interestingly, depletion of THO components, including THOC5 and THOC7, affected only unspliced viral transcripts in the cytoplasm. Moreover, the RNA immunoprecipitation assay showed that only the unspliced viral transcript interacted with THOC5. These results imply that MLV requires UAP56, THOC5 and THOC7, in addition to NXF1, for nuclear export of viral transcripts. Given that naturally intronless mRNAs, but not bulk mRNAs, require THOC5 for nuclear export, it is plausible that THOC5 plays a key role in the export of unspliced MLV transcripts.

  11. Characterization of a p30 fraction from Rauscher leukemia virus which has an associated ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Meric, A L; Purtell, M J; Levy, C C

    1984-10-25

    The p30 antigen from Rauscher leukemia virus (R-MuLV) was separated into two fractions by chromatography on either phosphocellulose or DEAE-cellulose. The p30-I and p30-II were indistinguishable immunologically or by isoelectrofocusing and gel electrophoresis. An ATPase activity was tightly associated with p30-II that could not be separated by ion-exchange chromatography, isoelectrofocusing, or glycerol velocity gradient sedimentation. The ATPase hydrolyzed the gamma phosphate from only ATP or dATP. Immunoglobulin directed against R-MuLV p30 completely inhibited the p30-II associated ATPase. Glycerol velocity gradient analysis showed that p30-I sedimented as a 30-kDa species while the p30-II and its associated ATPase sedimented as a 60-kDa species. The p30-II was converted entirely to a 30-kDa form by treatment with 0.2% (w/v) lithium dodecyl sulfate, suggesting that it represented a complexed species of p30. Finally, p30-II was found to stimulate the activity of R-MuLV reverse transcriptase, but p30-I had no effect on the activity of the enzyme. These results suggested the existence of at least two different forms of p30 in R-MuLV.

  12. A detailed molecular analysis of complete Bovine Leukemia Virus genomes isolated from B-cell lymphosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the majority of cancers result from multiple cellular events leading to malignancy after a prolonged period of clinical latency, and that the immune system plays a critical role in the control of cancer progression. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic member of the Retroviridae family. Complete genomic sequences of BLV strains isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from cattle have been previously reported. However, a detailed characterization of the complete genome of BLV strains directly isolated from bovine tumors is much needed in order to contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by BLV in cattle. In this study, we performed a molecular characterization of BLV complete genomes from bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma isolates. A nucleotide substitution was found in the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) site of the 5' long terminal repeat (5'LTR) of the BLV isolates. All amino acid substitutions in Tax previously found to be related to stimulate high transcriptional activity of 5'LTR were not found in these studies. Amino acid substitutions were found in the nucleocapsid, gp51 and G4 proteins. Premature stop-codons in R3 were observed. Few mutations or amino acid substitutions may be needed to allow BLV provirus to achieve silencing. Substitutions that favor suppression of viral expression in malignant B cells might be a strategy to circumvent effective immune attack. PMID:23506507

  13. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Induces Bovine Leukemia Virus Expression In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Merezak, C.; Reichert, M.; Van Lint, C.; Kerkhofs, P.; Portetelle, D.; Willems, L.; Kettmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    Packaging into nucleosomes results in a global transcriptional repression as a consequence of exclusion of sequence-specific factors. This inhibition can be relieved by using inhibitors of histone deacetylases, acetylation being a major characteristic of transcriptionally active chromatin. Paradoxically, the expression of only ∼2% of the total cellular genes is modulated by histone hyperacetylation. To unravel the potential role of this transcriptional control on BLV expression, we tested the effect of two highly specific inhibitors of deacetylases, trichostatin A (TSA) and trapoxin (TPX). Our results demonstrate that treatment with TSA efficiently enhanced long terminal repeat-directed gene expression of integrated reporter constructs in heterologous D17 stable cell lines. To further examine the biological relevance of these observations made in vitro, we analyzed ex vivo-isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. TSA deacetylase inhibitor induced a drastic increase in viral expression at levels comparable to those induced by treatment with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, the most efficient activators of BLV expression known to date. TSA acted directly on BLV-infected B lymphocytes to increase viral expression and does not seem to require T-cell cooperation. Inhibition of deacetylation after treatment with TSA or TPX also significantly increased viral expression in PBMCs from cattle, the natural host for BLV. Together, our results show that BLV gene expression is, like that of a very small fraction of cellular genes, also regulated by deacetylation. PMID:11967319

  14. Mutational analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 Tax.

    PubMed

    Ross, T M; Minella, A C; Fang, Z Y; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1997-11-01

    A mutational analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) Tax (Tax-2) was performed to identify regions within Tax-2 important for activation of promoters through the CREB/ATF or NF-kappaB/Rel signaling pathway. Tax-2 mutations within the putative zinc-binding region as well as mutations at the carboxy terminus disrupted CREB/ATF transactivation. A single mutation within the central proline-rich region of Tax-2 disrupted the transactivation of the NF-kappaB/Rel pathway. Surprisingly, this mutation, which is thought to be in a separate activation domain, was suppressed by mutations within or around the putative zinc-binding region, suggesting an interaction between these two regions. These analyses indicate that the functional regions or domains important for transactivation through the CREB/ATF or NF-kappaB/Rel signaling pathway are similar, but not identical, in Tax-1 and Tax-2. Identification of these distinct Tax-2 mutants should facilitate comparative biological studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 and ultimately lead to the determination of the functional importance of Tax trans-acting capacities in T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV.

  15. Structural basis of suppression of host translation termination by Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuhua; Zhu, Yiping; Baker, Stacey L.; Bowler, Matthew W.; Chen, Benjamin Jieming; Chen, Chen; Hogg, J. Robert; Goff, Stephen P.; Song, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is expressed in the form of a large Gag–Pol precursor protein by suppression of translational termination in which the maximal efficiency of stop codon read-through depends on the interaction between MoMLV RT and peptidyl release factor 1 (eRF1). Here, we report the crystal structure of MoMLV RT in complex with eRF1. The MoMLV RT interacts with the C-terminal domain of eRF1 via its RNase H domain to sterically occlude the binding of peptidyl release factor 3 (eRF3) to eRF1. Promotion of read-through by MoMLV RNase H prevents nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) of mRNAs. Comparison of our structure with that of HIV RT explains why HIV RT cannot interact with eRF1. Our results provide a mechanistic view of how MoMLV manipulates the host translation termination machinery for the synthesis of its own proteins. PMID:27329342

  16. First Molecular Characterization of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infections in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Kelly, Patrick John; Bai, Jianfa; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leucosis. To investigate the presence and genetic variability of BLV in the Caribbean for the first time, we preformed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR for the pol of BLV on DNA from whole blood of cattle from Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts. Standard PCRs with primers for the env were used for phylogenetic analysis of BLV in positive animals. We found FRET-PCR positive cattle (12.6%, 41/325) on Dominica (5.2%; 4/77) and St. Kitts (19.2%; 37/193) but not on Montserrat (0%, 0/12) or Nevis (0%, 0/43). Positive animals were cows on farms where animals were raised intensively. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method on partial and full-length env sequences obtained for strains from Dominica (n = 2) and St. Kitts (n = 5) and those available in GenBank (n = 90) (genotypes 1–10) revealed the Caribbean strains belonged to genotype 1 (98–100% sequence homology). Ours is the first molecular characterization of BLV infections in the Caribbean and the first description of genotype 1 in the region. PMID:27977761

  17. Small synthetic ligands for the enrichment of viral particles pseudotyped with amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Castro, Rute; Coroadinha, Ana Sofia; Roque, A Cecília A

    2016-03-18

    Retroviral vectors gained popularity toward other viral vectors as they integrate their genome into hosts' genome, a characteristic required for the modification of stem cells. However, the production of viable particles for gene therapy is hampered by the low ratio of infectious to non-infectious viral particles after purification, low titers and limited number of competent viral receptors. We have developed de novo two fully synthetic triazine-based ligands that can selectively bind retroviral particles pseudotyped with amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope (AMPHO4070A). A 78-membered library of triazine-based ligands was designed in silico and was virtually screened against the modeled structure of the AMPHO4070A protein. Ligands displaying the highest energy of binding were synthesized on cross-linked agarose and experimentally tested. Adsorbents containing ligands A5A10 and A10A11 showed selectivity toward viral particles containing the target protein (VLP-AMPHO), binding 19 ± 5 μg/g support and 47 ± 13 μg/g support, respectively. The elution conditions for both ligands were mild and with high recovery yields (80-100%), in comparison with common purification practices. These results were based on a lab-scale experimental setting with VLP integrity being confirmed through TEM. In particular, the elution buffer containing 12 mM imidazole allowed the recovery of intact amphotropic viral particles.

  18. Characterization of neutrophil extracellular traps in cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Wardini, Amanda B; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B; Nascimento, Michelle T C; Nadaes, Natalia R; Danelli, Maria G M; Mazur, Carlos; Benjamim, Claudia F; Saraiva, Elvira M; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia H

    2010-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a common, naturally occurring gammaretrovirus in domestic cats, is associated with degenerative diseases of the haematopoietic system, immunodeficiency and neoplasia. FeLV infection causes an important suppression of neutrophil function, leading to opportunistic infections. Recently, a new microbicidal mechanism named NETosis was described in human, bovine and fish neutrophils, as well as in chicken heterophils. The purpose of the present study was to characterize NETosis in feline neutrophils, as well as to evaluate neutrophil function in FeLV naturally infected symptomatic and asymptomatic cats through the phagocytosis process, release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The results showed that feline neutrophils stimulated with protozoa parasites released structures comprising DNA and histones, which were characterized as NETs by immunofluorescence. Quantification of NETs after neutrophil stimulation showed a significant increase in NET release by neutrophils from FeLV(-) and FeLV(+) asymptomatic cats compared with FeLV(+) symptomatic cats. Moreover, the number of released NETs and MPO activity in unstimulated neutrophils of FeLV(+) symptomatic cats were higher than those in unstimulated neutrophils from FeLV(-) and FeLV(+) asymptomatic cats. This study reports, for the first time, NET release by feline neutrophils, along with the fact that NET induction may be modulated by a viral infection. The results indicate that the NET mechanism appears to be overactivated in FeLV(+) cats and that this feature could be considered a marker of disease progression in FeLV infection.

  19. Survey of the feline leukemia virus infection status of cats in Southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Englert, Theresa; Lutz, Hans; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-06-01

    Most studies that investigate the prevalence of infections with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are based on the detection of p27 antigen in blood, but they do not detect proviral DNA to identify the prevalence of regressive FeLV infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and status of FeLV infection in cats in Southern Germany. P27 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), anti-p45 antibody ELISA, DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood and RNA PCR of saliva were performed. Nine out of 495 cats were progressively (persistently) infected (1.8%) and six were regressively (latently) infected (1.2%). Cats with regressive infections are defined as cats that have been able to overcome antigenemia but provirus can be detected by PCR. Twenty-two unvaccinated cats likely had abortive infections (regressor cats), testing FeLV antigen- and provirus-negative but anti-p45 antibody-positive. Most of the FeLV-vaccinated cats did not have anti-FeLV antibodies. Both progressive, as well as regressive infections seem to be rare in Germany today.

  20. Coinfection of a cow with Bovine leukemia virus and Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Sledge, Dodd G; Maes, Roger; Wise, Annabel; Kiupel, Matti

    2009-11-01

    Bovine leukosis associated with infection with the delta retrovirus Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is endemic in many cattle herds in the United States. Infection has been associated with immunosuppression and decreased productivity. Cases of tuberculosis in cows due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis reemerged in Michigan in 1998, and despite intensive eradication attempts, new cases of bovine tuberculosis are sporadically identified. The present report details a coinfection with BLV and M. bovis in a Holstein cow from Michigan that presented as part of a bovine tuberculosis screening program. Peripheral and visceral lymph nodes of this animal were markedly enlarged, homogeneously pale white, and bulged on the cut surface. The submandibular, mesenteric, and caudal mediastinal lymph nodes contained multifocal to coalescing caseogranulomas that ranged from 1 to 5 cm in diameter. Histologically, dense sheets of monomorphic populations of neoplastic lymphocytes obliterated the normal architecture of all lymph nodes. Caseogranulomas were characterized by central pools of amorphous degenerate eosinophilic and occasionally mineralized granular debris surrounded by thick rims of epithelioid macrophages, occasional Langhan's type giant cells, and fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction assay was positive for BLV. Cultures of affected lymph nodes yielded growth of M. bovis.

  1. Fungal phosphate transporter serves as a receptor backbone for gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L; van Zeijl, M; Johann, S V; O'Hara, B

    1997-10-01

    Pit1, the receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), is proposed to be an integral membrane protein with five extracellular loops. Chimeras made between Pit1 homologs differing in permissivity for infection and between Pit1 and the related protein Pit2 have shown that the fourth extracellular loop plays a critical role in infection. However, further elucidation of the roles of the extracellular loops in infection is hampered by the high level of sequence similarity among these proteins. The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, Pho-4, from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is distantly related to Pit1 and -2, showing an amino acid identity of only 35% to Pit1 in the putative extracellular loops. We show here that Pho-4 itself does not function as a receptor for GALV. Introduction of 12 Pit1-specific amino acid residues in the putative fourth extracellular loop of Pho-4 resulted in a functional GALV receptor. Therefore, the presence of a Pit1 loop 4-specific sequence is sufficient to confer receptor function for the mammalian retrovirus GALV on the fungal phosphate transporter Pho-4.

  2. Radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Griem, K.L.; Robb, P.K.; Caldarelli, D.D.; Templeton, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    A 23-year-old white man presented with a thyroid mass 12 years after receiving high-dose radiotherapy for a T2 and N1 lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx. Following subtotal thyroidectomy, a histopathologic examination revealed liposarcoma of the thyroid gland. The relationship between sarcomas and irradiation is described and Cahan and colleagues' criteria for radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed. To our knowledge, we are presenting the first such case of a radiation-induced sarcoma of the thyroid gland.

  3. Antibodies to bovine leukemia virus in a leukosis dairy herd and suggestions for control of the infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, G A; Langston, A; Ruppanner, R; Drlica, S; Theilen, G H; Behymer, D E

    1979-01-01

    A closed herd of 765 Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle with a history of multiple cases of leukosis was tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus by the bovine leukemia-glycoprotein immunodiffusion test. A total of 355 animals (46.4%) were antibody positive. Prevalence was 60% in the 373 milking cows and 100% in the breeding bulls. Antibodies were present in 59% of newborn calves. Prevalence of antibodies was higher in older animals and cows in second lactation had a higher prevalence than cows in first lactation (72% vs 43%). Proposed control measures in this herd aim at preventing infection of calves, heifers and lactating cows by: 1) separating them into groups negative and positive for bovine leukemia virus antibodies, 2) not allowing calves to receive colstrum or milk from infected cows and 3) by using seronegative bulls for natural breeding tested at three month intervals. Calves should be tested after six months of age. Before this time calves of positive mothers should be treated as being positive. PMID:227552

  4. New structural arrangement of the extracellular regions of the phosphate transporter SLC20A1, the receptor for gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Karen B; Tusnady, Gabor E; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2009-10-23

    Infection of a host cell by a retrovirus requires an initial interaction with a cellular receptor. For numerous gammaretroviruses, such as the gibbon ape leukemia virus, woolly monkey virus, feline leukemia virus subgroup B, feline leukemia virus subgroup T, and 10A1 murine leukemia virus, this receptor is the human type III sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter, SLC20A1, formerly known as PiT1. Understanding the critical receptor functionalities and interactions with the virus that lead to successful infection requires that we first know the surface structure of the cellular receptor. Previous molecular modeling from the protein sequence, and limited empirical data, predicted a protein with 10 transmembrane helices. Here we undertake the biochemical approach of substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to resolve the topology of this receptor in live cells. We discover that there are segments of the protein that are unexpectedly exposed to the outside milieu. By using information determined by substituted cysteine accessibility mutagenesis to set constraints in HMMTOP, a hidden Markov model-based transmembrane topology prediction method, we now propose a comprehensive topological model for SLC20A1, a transmembrane protein with 12 transmembrane helices and 7 extracellular regions, that varies from previous models and should permit approaches that define both virus interaction and transport function.

  5. Reversal of gamma-radiation-induced leukemogenesis in mice by immunomodulation with thiabendazole and dinitrofluorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Elgebaly, S.A.; Barton, R.; Forouhar, F.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of thiabendazole (TBZ) and dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) on radiation-induced leukemogenesis was investigated in the C57BL/6 mouse model. Administration of TBZ-DNFB during, post, or during and post irradiation successfully blocked leukemogenesis, as indicated by the absence of leukemia blast cells in thymus and peripheral blood, as well as prevented thymic lymphoma. TBZ-DNFB treatment prevented the development of leukemia when studies were terminated both after 7 months of last irradiation (disease fully developed) and after 5 months of last irradiation (disease in the process of development). This TBZ-DNFB treatment also resulted in a significant increase in survival.

  6. Fusion-defective gibbon ape leukemia virus vectors can be rescued by homologous but not heterologous soluble envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Karen B; Ting, Yuan-Tsang; Eiden, Maribeth V

    2002-05-01

    Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-derived envelope proteins containing alterations in or adjacent to the highly conserved PHQ motif present at the N terminus of the envelope surface subunit (SU) are incorporated into vector particles but are not infectious due to a postbinding block to viral entry. These mutants can be rendered infectious by the addition of soluble receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins in the culture medium. The RBD proteins that rescue the infectivity of these defective MLV vectors can be derived from the same MLV or from other MLVs that use distinct receptors to mediate entry. We have now constructed functional immunologically reactive gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) envelope proteins, tagged with a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-derived epitope tag, which are efficiently incorporated into infectious particles. Tagged GALV envelope proteins bind specifically to cells expressing the phosphate transporter protein Pit1, demonstrating for the first time that Pit1 is the binding receptor for GALV and not a coreceptor or another type of GALV entry factor. We have also determined that GALV particles bearing SU proteins with an insertion C-terminal to the PHQ motif (GALV I(10)) bind Pit1 but fail to infect cells. Incubation with soluble GALV RBD renders GALV I(10) particles infectious, whereas incubation with soluble RBDs from MLV or FeLV-B does not. This finding is consistent with the results obtained by Lauring et al. using FeLV-T, a virus that employs Pit1 as a receptor but requires soluble FeLV RBD for entry. MLV and GALV RBDs are not able to render FeLV-T infectious (A. S. Lauring, M. M. Anderson, and J. Overbaugh, J. Virol. 75:8888-8898, 2001). Together, these results suggest that fusion-defective FeLV-T and GALV are restricted to homologous RBD rescue of infectivity.

  7. Analysis of the pX region of bovine leukemia virus in different clinical stages of Enzootic Bovine Leukemia in Argentine Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Serena, María Soledad; Metz, Germán Ernesto; Bravi, María Emilia; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle causes Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL). About 30% of infected cattle develop persistent lymphocytosis (PL), a 0.1-5% develops tumors, and a 70% remains asymptomatic in an aleukemic stage (AL). Regulatory genes of BLV (Tax, Rex, R3 and G4) are located in a region known as pX(BLV). The variability of those genes had been postulated with the progression of the disease. The aim of this work was to compare the wild-type proviral pX(BLV) region at different stages of BLV natural infected cattle from Argentine Holstein. Pairs of primers were designed to amplify the proviral pX region of 12 cattle by PCR, and products were then sequenced, aligned and compared both with each other and with the reference sequence. Results show a divergence percentage from 0 to 6.1 for the Tax gene, from 0 to 9.4% for the Rex gene, from 0 to 12.1% for the R3 gene and finally from 0 to 6.5% for the G4 gene. Results obtained with hierarchical clustering showed two clusters well differentiated, where the members of each cluster are cattle that had tumor, PL and AL, not allowing differentiate those two cluster by clinical stage. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Genetic resistance in Japanese wild mice (Mus musculus molossinus) to an NB-tropic Friend murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Odaka, T; Ikeda, H; Moriwaki, K; Matsuzawa, A; Mizuno, M; Kondo, K

    1978-11-01

    Wild mice (Sk, Hz-Vl, Hz-IV Om, Mol.A, Fu, Te, and Sn) trapped in various areas of Japan were crossed with mice of inbred strains (C57BL/6, C57L, BALB/c, and C57BL/10), and their progeny were infected with NB-tropic Friend nurine leukemia virus. Ten days after infection, the spleens were weighed, examined for macroscopic focal lesions, and assayed for infectious virus by the XC test. Genetic analysis indicated that 4 of 8 mice tested had a dominant gene that suppresses the virus replication; the gene resembles the Fv-4' allele. No mice with the Fv-2' allele were found.

  9. Quantification of endogenous and exogenous feline leukemia virus sequences by real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ravi; Cattori, Valentino; Willi, Barbara; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2008-05-15

    Endogenous retroviruses are integrated in the genome of most vertebrates. They represent footprints of ancient retroviral infection and are vertically transmitted from parents to their offspring. In the genome of all domestic cats, sequences closely related to exogenous FeLV known as endogenous feline leukemia virus (enFeLV), are present. enFeLV are incapable of giving rise to infectious virus particles. However, transcription and translation of enFeLV have been demonstrated in tissues of healthy cats and in feline cell lines. The presence of enFeLV-env has been shown in specific embryonic tissues and adult thymic cells. In addition, the enFeLV-env region recombines with FeLV subgroup A giving rise to an infectious FeLV-B virus. enFeLV envelope protein, FeLIX (FeLV infectivity X-essory protein) is also involved in mediating FeLV-T infection. In order to test the hypothesis that the enFeLV loads play a role in exogenous FeLV-A infection and pathogenesis, quantitative real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays were developed. An assay, specific to U3 region of all different subtypes of exogenous FeLV, was designed and applied to quantify exogenous FeLV proviral or viral load in cats, while three real-time PCR assays were designed to quantify U3 and env enFeLV loads (two within U3 amplifying different sequences; one within env). enFeLV loads were investigated in blood samples derived from Swiss privately owned domestic cats, specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats and European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris). Significant differences in enFeLV loads were observed between privately owned cats and SPF cats as well as among SPF cats originating from different catteries and among domestic cats of different breeds. When privately owned cats were compared, FeLV-infected cats had higher loads than uninfected cats. In addition, wildcats had higher enFeLV loads than domestic cats. In conclusion, the quantitative real-time PCR assays described herein are important prerequisites to

  10. Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia in cats infected with feline leukemia virus clone33 containing a unique long terminal repeat.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Masaharu; Nagashima, Naho; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Fukuzawa, Isao; Ura, Shigeyoshi; Katae, Hiromi; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2009-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) clone33 was obtained from a domestic cat with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The long terminal repeat (LTR) of this virus, like the LTRs present in FeLV from other cats with AML, differs from the LTRs of other known FeLV in that it has 3 tandem direct 47-bp repeats in the upstream region of the enhancer (URE). Here, we injected cats with FeLV clone33 and found 41% developed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias and dysplastic changes in the bone marrow. Some of the cats with MDS eventually developed AML. The bone marrow of the majority of cats with FeLV clone33 induced MDS produced fewer erythroid and myeloid colonies upon being cultured with erythropoietin or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-SCF) than bone marrow from normal control cats. Furthermore, the bone marrow of some of the cats expressed high-levels of the apoptosis-related genes TNF-alpha and survivin. Analysis of the proviral sequences obtained from 13 cats with naturally occurring MDS reveal they also bear the characteristic URE repeats seen in the LTR of FeLV clone33 and other proviruses from cats with AML. Deletions and mutations within the enhancer elements are frequently observed in naturally occurring MDS as well as AML. These results suggest that FeLV variants that bear URE repeats in their LTR strongly associate with the induction of both MDS and AML in cats.

  11. Acute leukemia viruses E26 and avian myeloblastosis virus have related transformation-specific RNA sequences but different genetic structures, gene products, and oncogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Bister, Klaus; Nunn, Michael; Moscovici, Carlo; Perbal, Bernard; Baluda, Marcel A.; Duesberg, Peter H.

    1982-01-01

    Replication-defective acute leukemia viruses E26 and myeloblastosis virus (AMV) cause distinct leukemias although they belong to the same subgroup of oncogenic avian tumor viruses based on shared transformation-specific (onc) RNA sequences. E26 causes predominantly erythroblastosis in chicken and in quail, whereas AMV induces a myeloid leukemia. However, upon cultivation in vitro for >1 month, a majority of surviving hemopoietic cells of E26-infected animals bear myeloid markers similar to those of AMV-transformed cells. We have analyzed the genetic structure and gene products of E26 virus for a comparison with those of AMV. An E26/helper virus complex was found to contain two RNA species: a 5.7-kilobase (kb) RNA that hybridizes with cloned AMV-specific proviral DNA and hence is probably the E26 genome; and an 8.5-kb RNA that is unrelated to AMV and represents helper virus RNA. Thus, E26 RNA is smaller than 7.5-kb AMV RNA. Hybridization of size-selected poly(A)-terminating E26 RNA fragments with AMV-specific DNA indicated that the shared specific sequences are located in the 5′ half of the E26 genome as opposed to a 3′ location in AMV RNA. In nonproducer cells transformed in vitro by E26, a gag-related nonstructural 135,000-dalton protein (p135) was found. No gag(Pr76) or gag-pol (Pr180) precursors of essential virion proteins, which are present in AMV nonproducer cells, were observed. p135 was also found in cultured E26 virus producing cells of several leukemic chickens, and its intracellular concentration relative to that of the essential virion proteins encoded by the helper virus correlates with the ratio of E26 to helper RNA in virions released by these cells. p135 is phosphorylated but not glycosylated; antigenically it is not related to the pol or env gene products. It appears to be coded for by a partial gag gene and by E26-specific RNA sequences, presumably including those shared with AMV. Hence, AMV and E26 appear to use different strategies for the

  12. Friend Leukemia Virus Infection Enhances DNA Damage-Induced Apoptosis of Hematopoietic Cells, Causing Lethal Anemia in C3H Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Maki; Tanaka, Kaoru; Sado, Toshihiko; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Aizawa, Shiro

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic progenitors to gamma irradiation induces p53-dependent apoptosis. However, host responses to DNA damage are not uniform and can be modified by various factors. Here, we report that a split low-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) (1.5 Gy twice) to the host causes prominent apoptosis in bone marrow cells of Friend leukemia virus (FLV)-infected C3H mice but not in those of FLV-infected DBA mice. In C3H mice, the apoptosis occurs rapidly and progressively in erythroid cells, leading to lethal host anemia, although treatment with FLV alone or TBI alone induced minimal apoptosis in bone marrow cells. A marked accumulation of P53 protein was demonstrated in bone marrow cells from FLV-infected C3H mice 12 h after treatment with TBI. Although a similar accumulation of P53 was also observed in bone marrow cells from FLV-infected DBA mice treated with TBI, the amount appeared to be parallel to that of mice treated with TBI alone and was much lower than that of FLV- plus TBI-treated C3H mice. To determine the association of p53 with the prominent enhancement of apoptosis in FLV- plus TBI-treated C3H mice, p53 knockout mice of the C3H background (C3H p53−/−) were infected with FLV and treated with TBI. As expected, p53 knockout mice exhibited a very low frequency of apoptosis in the bone marrow after treatment with FLV plus TBI. Further, C3H p53−/− → C3H p53+/+ bone marrow chimeric mice treated with FLV plus TBI survived even longer than the chimeras treated with FLV alone. These findings indicate that infection with FLV strongly enhances radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of hematopoietic cells in host animals and that the apoptosis occurs through a p53-associated signaling pathway, although the response was not uniform in different host strains. PMID:12097591

  13. Envelope proteins of spleen necrosis virus form infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotype vector particles, but fail to incorporate upon substitution of the cytoplasmic domain with that of Gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Stitz, Jörn; Wolfrum, Nina; Buchholz, Christian J; Cichutek, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    The wild-type (wt) envelope (Env) proteins of spleen necrosis virus (SNV), together with the transmembrane (TM) protein fused to antibody domains (scFv), have been used for the generation of stable packaging cell lines releasing pseudotyped cell targeting vectors derived from SNV and Murine leukemia virus (MLV). As a first step towards assessing whether HIV-1(SNV/TM-scFv) packaging cells could be established for the production of lentiviral cell targeting vectors, it is reported here that infectious HIV-1-derived particles pseudotyped with wt SNV Env proteins could be generated. Using novel chimeric SNV-derived Env proteins encompassing wt and engineered cytoplasmic domains (C-tail) of the Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) TM protein, it was further shown that the wt C-tail not only excludes the GaLV TM protein from incorporation into HIV-1 particles, but confers this phenotype to other retroviral envelopes upon C-terminal fusion.

  14. Gene expression profiling of microglia infected by a highly neurovirulent murine leukemia virus: implications for neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dimcheff, Derek E; Volkert, L Gwenn; Li, Ying; DeLucia, Angelo L; Lynch, William P

    2006-01-01

    Background Certain murine leukemia viruses (MLVs) are capable of inducing progressive spongiform motor neuron disease in susceptible mice upon infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The major CNS parenchymal target of these neurovirulent retroviruses (NVs) are the microglia, whose infection is largely coincident with neuropathological changes. Despite this close association, the role of microglial infection in disease induction is still unknown. In this paper, we investigate the interaction of the highly virulent MLV, FrCasE, with microglia ex vivo to evaluate whether infection induces specific changes that could account for neurodegeneration. Specifically, we compared microglia infected with FrCasE, a related non-neurovirulent virus (NN) F43/Fr57E, or mock-infected, both at a basic virological level, and at the level of cellular gene expression using quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Afffymetrix 430A mouse gene chips. Results Basic virological comparison of NN, NV, and mock-infected microglia in culture did not reveal differences in virus expression that provided insight into neuropathogenesis. Therefore, microglial analysis was extended to ER stress gene induction based on previous experiments demonstrating ER stress induction in NV-infected mouse brains and cultured fibroblasts. Analysis of message levels for the ER stress genes BiP (grp78), CHOP (Gadd153), calreticulin, and grp58 in cultured microglia, and BiP and CHOP in microglia enriched fractions from infected mouse brains, indicated that FrCasE infection did not induce these ER stress genes either in vitro or in vivo. To broadly identify physiological changes resulting from NV infection of microglia in vitro, we undertook a gene array screen of more than 14,000 well-characterized murine genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). This analysis revealed only a small set of gene expression changes between infected and uninfected cells (<18). Remarkably, gene array comparison of NN- and NV

  15. Molecular cloning of circular unintegrated DNA of two types of the SEATO strain of gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Gelmann, E P; Trainor, C D; Wong-Staal, F; Reitz, M S

    1982-01-01

    Closed circular unintegrated DNA of the SEATO strain of gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV-S) was isolated from canine thymus fibroblasts after cocultivation with chronically infected bat lung fibroblasts. Restriction endonuclease HindIII cleaves GaLV-S DNA once, thus allowing isolation and cloning of HindIII-digested unintegrated DNA in a permitted form. Two clones isolated in the vector, Charon 21A, were nearly identical by restriction enzyme mapping to each of the two types of GaLV-S previously observed. These two types differ at a single SalI site. Unlike previous maps of GaLV-S proviral DNA, however, both clones lack SstI sites in the long-terminal-repeat units. Both the GaLV-S clones and the major species of GaLV-S proviral DNA contain an EcoRI site in the long-terminal-repeat units. The presence of this EcoRI site and the absence of an SstI site in the GaLV-S long-terminal-repeat units differentiate it from all other known GaLV strains and from the closely related nononcogenic simian sarcoma-associated virus. Heteroduplex comparisons of each of the two clones to clones of simian sarcoma-associated virus show no obvious deletion or substitution loops. This suggests that the ability of GaLV-S to induce myeloid leukemia in gibbon apes in not due to an acquired onc gene. Images PMID:6292490

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of bovine leukemia virus in Philippine cattle.

    PubMed

    Polat, Meripet; Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Kim, Jiyun; Kikuya, Mari; Matsumoto, Yuki; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infects cattle worldwide, imposing a severe economic impact on the dairy cattle industry. However, there are no comprehensive studies on the distribution of BLV in the Philippines, and the genetic characteristics of Philippine BLV strains are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect BLV infections in the Philippines and determined their genetic variability. Blood samples were obtained from 1116 cattle from different farms on five Philippine islands, and BLV provirus was detected by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats. Out of 1116 samples, 108 (9.7 %) and 54 (4.8 %) were positive for BLV provirus, as determined by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and nested PCR, respectively. Of the five islands, Luzon Island showed the highest prevalence of BLV infection (23.1 %). Partial env gp51 genes from 43 samples, which were positive for BLV provirus by both methods, were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 423-bp fragment of the env gene revealed that Philippine BLV strains clustered into either genotype 1 or genotype 6. Substitutions were mainly found in antigenic determinants, such as the CD4(+) T-cell epitope, the CD8(+) T-cell epitope, the second neutralizing domain, B and E epitopes, and these substitutions varied according to genotype. This study provides comprehensive information regarding BLV infection levels in the Philippines and documents the presence of two BLV genotypes, genotypes 1 and 6, in this population.

  17. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gp51 gene from Korean bovine leukemia virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Joung, Ha-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Song, Jae-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-04-15

    Bovine Leukemia virus (BLV) infection of cattle has been reported in Korea for more than three decades. However, to date, there have been few studies regarding Korean BLV since 1980s. Thus, the purpose of this study is to perform a diagnosis and molecular characterization of BLV strains circulating in Korea and to estimate genetic diversity of different genotypes of BLV. To investigate the distribution of BLV variants in the world and assess the evolutionary history of Korean BLV isolates, a comprehensive molecular analysis of the BLV env gp51 gene was conducted using recent worldwide BLV isolates. The isolates included 50 samples obtained from two cattle farms in southeastern Korea in 2014. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of partial 444-nt fragment sequences and complete gp51 sequences of BLV revealed eight distinct genotypes of BLV showing geographic distribution of the world. Most Korean BLV isolates were found to belong to genotype 1 which is a major genotype prevailed throughout the world, and only four isolates from one farm were classified as genotype 3 related to the US and Japan isolates. Analysis of amino acids of Korean BLV isolates showed several sequence substitutions in the leader peptide, conformational epitope, and neutralizing domain regions. The observations suggest the possibility of affecting on viral infectivity and formation. Korean BLV isolates showed the close relationship to genotype 1 and 3. Further study to identify the diversity of BLV circulating in Korea is necessary with samples collected nationwide because this study is the first report of BLV genotype 3 being in circulation in Korea.

  18. The recent prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among Japanese cattle.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2011-02-24

    A seroepidemiological survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted in Japan in 2007 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. A total of 5420 cattle (dairy, 3966; breeding beef, 797; fattening beef, 657) from 209 farms in seven prefectures in Japan were tested. The overall prevalence of BLV infection was 28.6%. The prevalence of BLV infection in dairy cattle (34.7%) was higher than for both fattening beef cattle (7.9%) and breeding beef cattle (16.3%). Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age in all types of cattle and was notably different between dairy and beef cattle under 1 year of age. Among 207 farms, 141 herds (68.1%) had one or more positive animals. The proportion of these positive farms was significantly higher among dairy farms (79.1%) than among beef breeding farms (39.5%) and beef fattening farms (51.9%) (P<0.001). Dairy farms (40.5%) also showed a significantly higher within-herd prevalence than beef breeding (27.4%) and fattening (14.9%) farms (P=0.001). This study indicated that BLV is more widely spread in dairy cattle than in beef breeding cattle in Japan. Given the prevalence of BLV infection in dairy and beef cattle was 8- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively, than rates previously found in 1980-1982, BLV appears to be spreading particularly among the dairy cattle population during the last two decades. Further investigation is required to determine the risk factors necessary to control BLV infection that take into account the different farming practices that exist between dairy and beef sectors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural progression of Bovine Leukemia Virus infection in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Alvarez, Irene; Politzki, Romina; Lomónaco, Marina; Dus Santos, María José; Rondelli, Flavia; Fondevila, Norberto; Trono, Karina

    2011-08-05

    We describe the progression of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) infection from birth until the first lactation in 61 animals from a typical large dairy herd of Argentina, with more than 85% of prevalence. The purpose was to identify potential points to effectively break the BLV cycle of transmission in our dairy productive system. We detected early infection in 11.47% of newborn calves by nested PCR. From birth to 12 months, no evidence of new infections was observed. After 12 months of age, the detection of new reactors increased slowly with time, from 15.09% at 15 months to 24% at 27 months. After that, the number of reactors increased rapidly up to 40% and 60.76% at 30 and 36 months, respectively. This last 9-month period coincided with parturition and the entry into the milking herd. Real-time PCR showed that more than 75% of adult animals had low peripheral-blood proviral load. Complementary, all infected animals showed low levels of provirus in milk and colostrum. The most important finding was that even when management procedures to prevent BLV iatrogenic transmission were followed, no significant change was observed in the prevalence after three years, strongly suggesting that other way/s of transmission play a key role under natural conditions. This study showed an interesting baseline to draw an alternative approach based on selective segregation according to the peripheral-blood proviral load as a potential indicator of risk transmission, and as an alternative to classical control measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Okagawa, Tomohiro; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Suzuki, Saori; Shirai, Tatsuya; Sunden, Yuji; Onuma, Misao; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-23

    The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection.

  1. Identification of a subdomain in the Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope protein involved in receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    MacKrell, A J; Soong, N W; Curtis, C M; Anderson, W F

    1996-01-01

    We have mutated amino acids within the receptor-binding domain of Moloney murine leukemia virus envelope in order to identify residues involved in receptor binding. Analysis of mutations in the region of amino acids 81 to 88 indicates that this region is important for specific envelope-receptor interactions. None of the aspartate 84 (D-84) mutants studied bind measurably, although they are efficiently incorporated into particles. D-84 mutants have titers that correspond to the severity of the substitution. This observation suggests that D-84 may provide a direct receptor contact. Mutations in the other charged amino acids in this domain (R-83, E-86, and E-87) yield titers similar to those of wild-type envelope, but the affinity of the mutant envelope in the binding assay is decreased by nonconservative substitutions in parallel to the severity of the change. These other amino acids may either provide secondary receptor contacts or assist in maintaining a structure in the domain that favors efficient binding. We also studied other regions of high hydrophilicity. Our initial characterization indicates that amino acids 106 to 111 and 170 to 188 do not play a major role in receptor binding. Measurements of relative binding affinity and titer indicate that most mutations in the region of amino acids 120 to 131 did not significantly affect receptor binding. However, SU encoded by mutants H123V, R124L, and C131A as well as C81A could not be detected in particles and therefore did not bind measurably. Therefore, the region encompassed by amino acids 81 to 88 appears to be directly involved in receptor binding. PMID:8627699

  2. No benefit of therapeutic vaccination in clinically healthy cats persistently infected with feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Spiri, Andrea M; Riond, Barbara; Grest, Paula; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-03-24

    Therapeutic vaccinations have a potential application in infections where no curative treatment is available. In contrast to HIV, efficacious vaccines for a cat retrovirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), are commercially available. However, the infection is still prevalent, and no effective treatment of the infection is known. By vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats and presenting FeLV antigens to the immune system of the host, e.g., in the form of recombinant and/or adjuvanted antigens, we intended to shift the balance toward an advantage of the host so that persistent infection could be overcome by the infected cat. Two commercially available FeLV vaccines efficacious in protecting naïve cats from FeLV infection were tested in six experimentally and persistently FeLV-infected cats: first, a canarypox-vectored vaccine, and second, an adjuvanted, recombinant envelope vaccine was repeatedly administered with the aim to stimulate the immune system. No beneficial effects on p27 antigen and plasma viral RNA loads, anti-FeLV antibodies, or life expectancy of the cats were detected. The cats were unable to overcome or decrease viremia. Some cats developed antibodies to FeLV antigens although not protective. Thus, we cannot recommend vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats as a means of improving their FeLV status, quality of life or life expectancy. We suggest testing of all cats for FeLV infection prior to FeLV vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of feline leukemia virus insertions in cat lymphoid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Satoh, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to map the acquired proviral insertions in the chromosomal genome of feline lymphoid tumors induced by feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Chromosome specimens of the lymphoid tumor-derived cell lines and normal cat lymphocytes were subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization and tyramide signal amplification, using an exogenous FeLV-A genome as a probe. Specific hybridization signals were detected only on the metaphase chromosomes of the tumor cells. Poisson's distribution-based statistics indicated that 6 chromosomal loci in each cell line showed FeLV integration. In the examination of metaphase chromosomes of FL-74, FT-1 and KO-1 cells, significant signals were detected on B2p15-p14, B2q11, D1p14, E1p14-p13, E1q12 and F2q16; A2p23-p22, B2p15-p14, B4p15-p14, D4q23-q24, E1p14-p13 and E2p13-p12; and A2p22, A3q22, B1p13, B1q13, D1p13 and D3p15-p14, respectively. Consistently, Southern blot hybridization using an FeLV LTR-U3 probe specific for exogenous FeLV revealed the presence of at least 6 copies of exogenous FeLV proviruses at different integration sites in each cell line. These results indicate that there may be common FeLV integration sites at least in A2p22 and B2p15-p14. The cytogenetic analysis used in this study can promptly screen FeLV insertions and provide tags for identifying the novel common integration site.

  4. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes

    PubMed Central

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR), 5′ leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3′ LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5′ LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3′ LTR. There is a 5′ splice site in the 5′ leader sequence and a 3′ splice site at the 3′ end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  5. Phylogenetic and structural diversity in the feline leukemia virus env gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Anai, Yukari; Ochi, Haruyo; Nakagawa, So; Endo, Yasuyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belongs to the genus Gammaretrovirus, and causes a variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases in cats. Alteration of viral env sequences is thought to be associated with disease specificity, but the way in which genetic diversity of FeLV contributes to the generation of such variants in nature is poorly understood. We isolated FeLV env genes from naturally infected cats in Japan and analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of these genes. Phylogenetic reconstructions separated our FeLV samples into three distinct genetic clusters, termed Genotypes I, II, and III. Genotype I is a major genetic cluster and can be further classified into Clades 1-7 in Japan. Genotypes were correlated with geographical distribution; Genotypes I and II were distributed within Japan, whilst FeLV samples from outside Japan belonged to Genotype III. These results may be due to geographical isolation of FeLVs in Japan. The observed structural diversity of the FeLV env gene appears to be caused primarily by mutation, deletion, insertion and recombination, and these variants may be generated de novo in individual cats. FeLV interference assay revealed that FeLV genotypes did not correlate with known FeLV receptor subgroups. We have identified the genotypes which we consider to be reliable for evaluating phylogenetic relationships of FeLV, which embrace the high structural diversity observed in our sample. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of Gammaretrovirus evolutionary patterns in the field, and may provide a useful basis for assessing the emergence of novel strains and understanding the molecular mechanisms of FeLV transmission in cats.

  6. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on production and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Pollari, F L; Wangsuphachart, V L; DiGiacomo, R F; Evermann, J F

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on production, reproduction and longevity in dairy cattle. The study population was a commercial Holstein dairy herd of approximately 400 milking cows. Cattle were tested for antibodies to BLV at least annually for three years and when culled. Four groups of culled cows were compared: seronegative cows (n = 79), seropositive cows without lymphocytosis (n = 176), seropositive cows with lymphocytosis (> or = 9,000 lymphocytes/microliter) (n = 74), and seropositive cows with lymphosarcoma (n = 29). Seropositive groups of cows were bred more times and had longer calving intervals than seronegative cows. The seropositive groups had greater 305-day ME (mature equivalent) FCM (3.5% fat-corrected milk) per lactation and were older when culled than seronegative cows. However, the percent fat per lactation was greater in seronegative cows. In the last complete lactation, differences in 305-day ME FCM, days open and cull age between groups were reduced and none were significant (p > 0.05). In the cull lactation, only cows with lymphocytosis had reduced milk production relative to seronegative cows, although this difference was not significant. After adjustment for initial production and reproductive values, only seropositive nonlymphocytotic cows were culled at a significantly older age than seronegative cattle. Lymphocytotic cows were culled four months younger on average than nonlymphocytotic seropositive cows. Hence, BLV infected cows had greater milk production on average than uninfected cows. Adverse effects of BLV infection were primarily limited to lymphocytotic cows which were culled earlier and had reduced milk production in the cull lactation. PMID:1477797

  7. Evidence that a downstream pseudoknot is required for translational read-through of the Moloney murine leukemia virus gag stop codon.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, N M; Gesteland, R F; Atkins, J F

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the ribosomes translating the gag gene of murine leukemia viruses read through the UAG terminator and translate the in-frame pol gene to produce the gag-pol fusion polyprotein, the sole source of the pol gene products. We show that a pseudoknot located eight nucleotides 3' of the UAG codon in the Moloney murine leukemia virus is required for read-through. This requirement is markedly different from that known to be involved in other cases of read-through but surprisingly similar to some stimulatory sequences known to promote ribosomal frameshifting. Images PMID:1871115

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1∶5 in 9, 1∶10 in 9, 1∶20 in 3, 1∶40 in 5, 1∶80 in 5, 1∶160 in 15, 1∶320 in 22, and 1∶640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1∶64 in 45, 1∶128 in 39, 1∶256 in 13, 1∶512 in 3, 1∶1,024 in 4, and 1∶2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt.

  9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Mofya, S; Chikweto, A; Baffa, A; Doherty, D; Shakeri, J; Macpherson, C N L; Sharma, R N

    2009-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus, and human leukemia virus, respectively; all of these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondi, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv antigen were determined in sera from 75 domestic and 101 feral cats (Felis catus) from the Caribbean island of Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 23 (30.6%) of the 75 pet cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 3, 1:400 in 4, 1:500 in 12, 1:800 in 2, and 1:1,600 in 1, and 28 (27.7%) of 101 feral cats with titers of 1:25 in 4, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 1, 1:500 in 3, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 in 4. Overall, in both pet and feral cats, the seroprevalence increased with age. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 38 (50.6%) of the 75 pet cats and 52.4% of 101 feral cats. Antibodies to FIV were found in 6 domestic and 22 feral cats. None of the 176 cats was positive for FeLv antigen. There was no correlation among T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV seropositivity.

  10. Radiation-induced vaginal stenosis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lucinda; Do, Viet; Chard, Jennifer; Brand, Alison H

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of gynecological cancer commonly involves pelvic radiation therapy (RT) and/or brachytherapy. A commonly observed side effect of such treatment is radiation-induced vaginal stenosis (VS). This review analyzed the incidence, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation(s) and assessment and grading of radiation-induced VS. In addition, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and follow-up schedules are also discussed. The limited available literature on many of these aspects suggests that additional studies are required to more precisely determine the best management strategy of this prevalent group after RT. PMID:28496367

  11. Radiation-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, N. Q.; Sabochick, M. J.; Okamoto, P. R.

    1994-06-01

    In the present paper, important results of our recent computer simulation of radiation-induced amorphization in the ordered compounds CuTi and Cu4Ti3 are summarized. The energetic, structural, thermodynamic and mechanical responses of these intermetallics during chemical disordering, point-defect production and heating were simulated, using molecular dynamics and embedded-atom potentials. From the atomistic details obtained, the critical role of radiation-induced structural disorder in driving the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation is discussed.

  12. Carbohydrate side chains of Rauscher leukemia virus envelope glycoproteins are not required to elicit a neutralizing antibody response.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J H; McGee, J S; Alexander, S

    1986-01-01

    Antisera raised against Rauscher leukemia virus (R-MuLV) contain a preponderance of antibodies against glycoprotein gp70 that are dependent on the presence of carbohydrate side chains for reactivity, as judged by immunoprecipitation or Western blotting. However, the majority of neutralizing antibodies were not dependent on the presence of carbohydrate, as indicated by (i) the ability of deglycosylated R-MuLV to adsorb neutralizing antibody from sera as efficiently as glycosylated R-MuLV and (ii) the ability of deglycosylated R-MuLV to induce neutralizing antibody responses when injected into rabbits. Moreover, a faster response was obtained with deglycosylated R-MuLV than with untreated control virus in the latter experiments. The results indicate that the neutralizing antibodies are a discrete subpopulation of the total antibody response. Furthermore, the carbohydrate moieties appear to afford protection to the virion during infection, rather than serve as a target for neutralization. PMID:2416953

  13. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, M A; Poli, M; Ceriani, C; Sala, L; Rodríguez, E; Gutierrez, S; Dolcini, G; Odeon, A; Esteban, E N

    2009-01-01

    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. In Argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 gene associated with BLV-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. A potential risk in expanding or segregating BoLA selected populations of cattle is that it might increase susceptibility to other common viruses. Special concern raises the strong association found between low proviral load and low antibody titer against major BLV structural proteins. This phenomenon might depend on host genetic factors influencing other viruses requiring, unlike BLV, strong and long-lasting humoral immune response to prevent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no association among neutralizing antibody titers against foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1 and polymorphism of the BoLA DRB3.2 gene. Conversely, there is strong association between BoLA DRB3.2*0902 and low antibody titers against 2 BLV structural proteins--env gp51 and gag p24--to date, the best BLV resistance marker. There is also significant association between low antibody titers against gp51 and p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1701 and low antibody titers against p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1101 or 02. Our data suggest that increasing BoLA-selected BLV-resistant cattle or segregating BoLA-associated alleles to BLV susceptibility would not affect the resistance or the predisposition to bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, or foot and mouth disease virus infection.

  14. Mutation of a Single Envelope N-Linked Glycosylation Site Enhances the Pathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bouzar, Amel Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock; Cosse, Jean-Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; Callebaut, Isabelle; Reichert, Michal

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses have coevolved with their host to ensure efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) system in which lymphoproliferative disorders develop in ruminants after latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly but fortunately, such a hyperpathogenic BLV strain was never observed in the field or designed in vitro. In this study, we sought to understand the role of envelope N-linked glycosylation with the hypothesis that this posttranslational modification could either favor BLV infection by allowing viral entry or allow immune escape by using glycans as a shield. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site (N230) that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Indeed, mutation N230E unexpectedly leads to enhanced fusogenicity and protein stability. IMPORTANCE Infection by retroviruses requires the interaction of the viral envelope protein (SU) with a membrane-associated receptor allowing fusion and release of the viral genomic RNA into the cell. We show that N-linked glycosylation of the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) SU protein is, as expected, essential for cell infection in vitro. Consistently, mutation of all glycosylation sites of a BLV provirus destroys infectivity in vivo. However, single mutations do not significantly modify replication in vivo. Instead, a particular mutation at SU codon 230 increases replication and accelerates pathogenesis. This unexpected observation has important consequences in terms of disease control and managing. PMID:26085161

  15. Determinants of Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag-Pol and genomic RNA proportions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Silas F; Collins, John T; D'Souza, Victoria M; Telesnitsky, Alice

    2014-07-01

    The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) ribonucleoprotein complex is composed of an approximately 20:1 mixture of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins plus a single genomic RNA (gRNA) dimer. The mechanisms that regulate these proportions are unknown. Here, we examined whether virion proportions of Gag, Gag-Pol, and gRNA were determined by sampling (that is, if they reflected expression ratios or intracellular concentrations) or more specific recruitment. To this end, MoMLV Gag, Gag-Pol, and gRNA were expressed separately or together in various ratios. Varying the expression ratios of Gag and Gag-Pol revealed that Gag-Pol incorporation was stochastic and that the conserved 20:1 Gag/Gag-Pol ratio coincided with maximal particle production. When skewed expression ratios resulted in excess Gag-Pol, the released virions maintained the intracellular Gag/Gag-Pol ratios and the infectivity per virion was largely maintained, but virion production decreased sharply with high levels of Gag-Pol. The determinants of gRNA proportions were addressed by manipulating the amounts and contexts of functional nucleocapsid (NC) and the ratios of Gag to gRNA. The results showed that the NC domain of either Gag or Gag-Pol could provide gRNA packaging functions equally well. Unlike Gag-Pol, gRNA incorporation was saturable. An upper limit of gRNA incorporation was observed, and particle production was not disrupted by excess gRNA expression. These results indicate that the determinants of Gag/Gag-Pol proportions differ from those for Gag/gRNA. On the basis of the assumption that MoMLV evolved to produce virion components in optimal proportions, these data provide a means of estimating the proportion of unspliced MoMLV RNA that serves as genomic RNA. Viruses assemble their progeny from within the cells that they parasitize, where they must sort through a rich milieu of host proteins and nucleic acids to gather together their own building blocks, which are also proteins and nucleic acids. The

  16. Distribution and characteristics of bovine leukemia virus integration sites in the host genome at three different clinical stages of infection.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, T; Oguma, K; Sentsui, H

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus closely related to human T-cell lymphotropic virus. BLV-infected cattle are categorized as asymptomatic carriers or as having persistent lymphocytosis or enzootic bovine leukemia, depending on the clinical stage. We investigated the BLV integration site distribution at three BLV clinical stages and examined genome sequence features around the integration sites. In all, 264 BLV integration sites, at various locations on each chromosome, were identified in 28 cattle by inverse PCR and BLAST searches. Approximately one-third of BLV proviruses were independently integrated within transcriptional units, and approximately 10 % were integrated near transcription start sites. Moreover, less than 7 % of BLV integration sites were located near CpG islands. BLV did not preferentially integrate into transcriptionally active regions during any of the clinical stages. At the nucleotide level, regions around BLV integration points were significantly A/T rich with weak sequence consensus. BLV preferentially integrated within long interspersed nuclear repeat elements. Although BLV integration sites may not be associated with disease progression, integration is selective at the nucleotide level.

  17. Multicentric T-cell lymphoma associated with feline leukemia virus infection in a captive namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Marker, Laurie; Munson, Linda; Basson, Peter A; Quackenbush, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    This case report describes a multicentric lymphoma in a 4 yr old female wildborn captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia after being housed in an enclosure adjacent to a feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infected cheetah that had previously been in contact with domestic cats. The year prior to the onset of clinical signs, the wild-born cheetah was FeLV antigen negative. The cheetah subsequently developed lymphoma, was found to be infected with FeLV, and then rapidly deteriorated and died. At necropsy, the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and multiple other organs were extensively infiltrated with neoplastic T-lymphocytes. Feline leukemia virus DNA was identified in neoplastic lymphocytes from multiple organs by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Although the outcome of infection in this cheetah resembles that of FeLV infections in domestic cats, the transmission across an enclosure fence was unusual and may indicate a heightened susceptibility to infection in cheetahs. Caution should be exercised in holding and translocating cheetahs where contact could be made with FeLV-infected domestic, feral, or wild felids.

  18. Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mineki; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention. PMID:23198155

  19. RNA-binding properties of the matrix protein (p19gag) of avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Steeg, C M; Vogt, V M

    1990-01-01

    We have reinvestigated the ability of the matrix protein (MA) (p19gag) of avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses to interact with RNA. Previous reports claimed on the one hand that MA can bind tightly and with a high degree of specificity to avian sarcoma and leukemia virus RNA in vitro and on the other that it cannot bind to RNA at all. We found that MA purified by any of several methods does bind to RNA, as measured by its ability to cause retention of radioactive RNA on nitrocellulose membranes in a filtration assay. However, this interaction is weak and lacks specificity. The interaction of MA with RNA was barely detectable by classical sedimentation analysis, and from this observation we estimate that the intrinsic MA-RNA association constant is ca. 10(3) M-1, at least 3 orders of magnitude smaller than the constant describing the interaction of the viral nucleocapsid protein (NC) (p12gag) with RNA, ca. 10(6) M-1. Separately purified phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated MA species bound RNA equally. We also found that MA can bind to DNA with an affinity similar to that for RNA. The large quantitative discrepancy between our results and earlier published reports can be traced in part to methods of data analysis. Images PMID:2153248

  20. Highly efficient tumor transduction and antitumor efficacy in experimental human malignant mesothelioma using replicating gibbon ape leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kubo, S; Takagi-Kimura, M; Logg, C R; Kasahara, N

    2013-12-01

    Retroviral replicating vectors (RRVs) have been shown to achieve efficient tumor transduction and enhanced therapeutic benefit in a wide variety of cancer models. Here we evaluated two different RRVs derived from amphotropic murine leukemia virus (AMLV) and gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), in human malignant mesothelioma cells. In vitro, both RRVs expressing the green fluorescent protein gene efficiently replicated in most mesothelioma cell lines tested, but not in normal mesothelial cells. Notably, in ACC-MESO-1 mesothelioma cells that were not permissive for AMLV-RRV, the GALV-RRV could spread efficiently in culture and in mice with subcutaneous xenografts by in vivo fluorescence imaging. Next, GALV-RRV expressing the cytosine deaminase prodrug activator gene showed efficient killing of ACC-MESO-1 cells in a prodrug 5-fluorocytosine dose-dependent manner, compared with AMLV-RRV. GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy achieved significant inhibition of subcutaneous ACC-MESO-1 tumor growth in nude mice. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that ACC-MESO-1 cells express higher PiT-1 (GALV receptor) and lower PiT-2 (AMLV receptor) compared with normal mesothelial cells and other mesothelioma cells, presumably accounting for the distinctive finding that GALV-RRV replicates much more robustly than AMLV-RRV in these cells. These data indicate the potential utility of GALV-RRV-mediated prodrug activator gene therapy in the treatment of mesothelioma.

  1. Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Elston, Thomas; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Miller, Arianne; Lappin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    Gingivostomatitis (GS) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. Several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of GS, but a causal relationship is unclear. The cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live FVRCP product. There were nine cats with active GS and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. Serum was tested for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay). PCR assays for Bartonella species and FHV-1 and a reverse transcriptase PCR assay for FCV were performed on blood and throat swabs. All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied.

  2. Dominance of highly divergent feline leukemia virus A progeny variants in a cat with recurrent viremia and fatal lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Cattori, Valentino; Boretti, Felicitas S; Ossent, Pete; Grest, Paula; Reinacher, Manfred; Henrich, Manfred; Bauer, Eva; Bauer-Pham, Kim; Niederer, Eva; Holznagel, Edgar; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-02-19

    In a cat that had ostensibly recovered from feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection, we observed the reappearance of the virus and the development of fatal lymphoma 8.5 years after the initial experimental exposure to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The goals of the present study were to investigate this FeLV reoccurrence and molecularly characterize the progeny viruses. The FeLV reoccurrence was detected by the presence of FeLV antigen and RNA in the blood and saliva. The cat was feline immunodeficiency virus positive and showed CD4+ T-cell depletion, severe leukopenia, anemia and a multicentric monoclonal B-cell lymphoma. FeLV-A, but not -B or -C, was detectable. Sequencing of the envelope gene revealed three FeLV variants that were highly divergent from the virus that was originally inoculated (89-91% identity to FeLV-A/Glasgow-1). In the long terminal repeat 31 point mutations, some previously described in cats with lymphomas, were detected. The FeLV variant tissue provirus and viral RNA loads were significantly higher than the FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 loads. Moreover, the variant loads were significantly higher in lymphoma positive compared to lymphoma negative tissues. An increase in the variant provirus blood load was observed at the time of FeLV reoccurrence. Our results demonstrate that ostensibly recovered FeLV provirus-positive cats may act as a source of infection following FeLV reactivation. The virus variants that had largely replaced the inoculation strain had unusually heavily mutated envelopes. The mutations may have led to increased viral fitness and/or changed the mutagenic characteristics of the virus.

  3. Infectivity of chimeric human T-cell leukemia virus type I molecular clones assessed by naked DNA inoculation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, T M; Robinson, M A; Bowers, F S; Kindt, T J

    1996-06-25

    Two human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) molecular clones, K30p and K34p were derived from HTLV-I-infected rabbit cell lines. K30p and K34p differ by 18 bp with changes in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) as well as in the gag, pol, and rex but not tax or env gene products. Cells transfected with clone K30p were infectious in vitro and injection of the K30p transfectants or naked K30p DNA into rabbits leads to chronic infection. In contrast, K34p did not mediate infection in vitro or in vivo, although the cell line from which it was derived is fully infectious and K34p transfectants produce intact virus particles. To localize differences involved in the ability of the clones to cause infection, six chimeric HTLV-I clones were constructed by shuffling corresponding fragments containing the substitutions in the LTRs, the gag/pol region and the rex region between K30p and K34p. Cells transfected with any of the six chimeras produced virus, but higher levels of virus were produced by cells transfected with those constructs containing the K30p rex region. Virus production was transient except in cells transfected with K30p or with a chimera consisting of the entire protein coding region of K30p flanked by K34p LTRs; only the transfectants showing persistent virus production mediated in vitro infection. In vivo infection in rabbits following intramuscular DNA injection was mediated by K30p as well as by a chimera of K30p containing the K34p rex gene. Comparisons revealed that virus production was greater and appeared earlier in rabbits injected with K30p. These data suggest that several defects in the K34p clone preclude infectivity and furthermore, provide systems to explore functions of HTLV-I genes.

  4. Factors that modify radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R

    2009-11-01

    It is known that numerous factors can influence radiation carcinogenesis in animals; these factors include the specific characteristics of the radiation (radiation type and dose, dose-rate, dose-fractionation, dose distribution, etc.) as well as many other contributing elements that are not specific to the radiation exposure, such as animal genetic characteristics and age, the environment of the animal, dietary factors and whether specific modifying agents for radiation carcinogenesis have been utilized in the studies. This overview focuses on the modifying factors for radiation carcinogenesis, in both in vivo and in vitro systems, and includes a discussion of agents that enhance (e.g., promoting agents) or suppress (e.g., cancer preventive agents) radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The agents that enhance or suppress radiation carcinogenesis in experimental model systems have been shown to lead to effects equally as large as other known modifying factors for radiation-induced carcinogenesis (e.g., dose-rate, dose-fractionation, linear energy transfer). It is known that dietary factors play an important role in determining the yields of radiation-induced cancers in animal model systems, and it is likely that they also influence radiation-induced cancer risks in human populations.

  5. Molecular pathways: radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Moore, Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E

    2013-05-01

    Each year, approximately 200,000 patients in the United States will receive partial- or whole-brain irradiation for the treatment of primary or metastatic brain cancer. Early and delayed radiation effects are transient and reversible with modern therapeutic standards; yet, late radiation effects (≥6 months postirradiation) remain a significant risk, resulting in progressive cognitive impairment. These risks include functional deficits in memory, attention, and executive function that severely affect the patient's quality of life. The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cognitive impairment remain ill defined. Classically, radiation-induced alterations in vascular and neuroinflammatory glial cell clonogenic populations were hypothesized to be responsible for radiation-induced brain injury. Recently, preclinical studies have focused on the hippocampus, one of two sites of adult neurogenesis within the brain, which plays an important role in learning and memory. Radiation ablates hippocampal neurogenesis, alters neuronal function, and induces neuroinflammation. Neuronal stem cells implanted into the hippocampus prevent the decrease in neurogenesis and improve cognition after irradiation. Clinically prescribed drugs, including PPARα and PPARγ agonists, as well as RAS blockers, prevent radiation-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment independent of improved neurogenesis. Translating these exciting findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the quality of life of brain tumor patients who receive radiotherapy. ©2013 AACR.

  6. Abnormal centrosome amplification in cells through the targeting of Ran-binding protein-1 by the human T cell leukemia virus type-1 Tax oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Peloponese, Jean-Marie; Haller, Kerstin; Miyazato, Akiko; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2005-12-27

    Human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus etiologically causal of adult T cell leukemia. The virus encodes a Tax oncoprotein that functions in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle control, and transformation. Because adult T cell leukemia like many other human cancers is a disease of genomic instability with frequent gains and losses of chromosomes, to understand this disease it is important to comprehend how HTLV-1 engenders aneuploidy in host cells. In this regard, loss of cell cycle checkpoints permits tolerance of aneuploidy but does not explain how aneuploidy is created. We show here that HTLV-1 Tax causes abnormal centrosome fragmentation in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. We report that Tax directly binds Ran and Ran-binding protein-1, locates to centrosomes/spindle poles, and causes supernumerary centrosomes.

  7. Lifetime effects of infection with bovine leukemia virus on longevity and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Stryhn, Henrik; Kelton, David; Keefe, Greg

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The economic impacts of the infection have been debated in the literature. The present study was conducted to determine the lifetime effects of BLV infection on longevity and milk production of dairy cows in Canada. The data were aggregated from a combination of two data sets: 1) BLV serum-ELISA test results from Canada-wide surveys of production limiting diseases, which took place between 1998 and 2003 in 8 provinces, and 2) longitudinal production data for all cows in the former study, extracted from the Canadian dairy herd improvement database. All participant cows had been culled or died by the onset of this study. A historical cohort study was designed, including cows which tested positive to BLV-antibodies in their first lactation (positive cohort, n=1858) and cows which tested negative in their second or later lactations (negative cohort, n=2194). To assess the impacts of infection with BLV on longevity (the number of lifetime lactations), a discrete-time survival analysis was carried out. The effect of BLV on the lifetime milk production (the sum of all life 305-day milk production) was evaluated using a multilevel linear regression model. Overall, 4052 cows from 348 herds met the eligibility criteria and were enrolled in the study. In the longevity model, the interaction term between time (lactation number) and BLV-status was highly significant. Cows which were positive to BLV had consistently greater probabilities of being culled (or dying) than the test-negative cows. In the milk production model, the interaction term between BLV-status and longevity of the cows was highly significant; indicating that lifetime BLV effects on the total milk production was dependent on the lactation in which the study cows were culled/died. Infected cows with 2 and 3 lactations showed significantly lower life milk productions [-2554kg (-3609 to -1500

  8. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  9. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    PubMed

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  10. Comparative Efficacy of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Inactivated Whole-Virus Vaccine and Canarypox Virus-Vectored Vaccine during Virulent FeLV Challenge and Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Carritt, K; Lane, J; Jayappa, H; Stahl, M; Bourgeois, M

    2015-07-01

    Four vaccines for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are available in the United States. This study's purpose was to compare the efficacy of Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (an inactivated, adjuvanted whole-virus vaccine) and PureVax recombinant FeLV (a live, canarypox virus-vectored vaccine) following FeLV challenge. Cats were vaccinated at 9 and 12 weeks with Nobivac feline 2-FeLV (group A, n = 11) or PureVax recombinant FeLV (group B, n = 10). Group C (n = 11) comprised unvaccinated controls. At 3 months postvaccination, cats were immunosuppressed and challenged with FeLV-A/61E. The outcomes measured were persistent antigenemia at 12 weeks postchallenge (PC) and proviral DNA and viral RNA at 3 to 9 weeks PC. Persistent antigenemia was observed in 0 of 11 cats in group A, 5 of 10 cats in group B, and 10 of 11 cats in group C. Group A was significantly protected compared to those in groups B (P < 0.013) and C (P < 0.0001). No difference was found between groups B and C (P > 0.063). The preventable fraction was 100% for group A and 45% for group B. At 9 weeks PC, proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected 1 of 11 cats in group A, 6 of 10 cats in group B, and 9 of 11 cats in group C. Nucleic acid loads were significantly lower in group A than in group C (P < 0.01). Group A had significantly lower proviral DNA loads than group B at weeks 6 to 9 (P < 0.02). The viral RNA loads were significantly lower in group A than in group B at weeks 7 to 9 (P < 0.01). The results demonstrate that Nobivac feline 2-FeLV-vaccinated cats were fully protected against persistent antigenemia and had significantly smaller amounts of proviral DNA and plasma viral RNA loads than PureVax recombinant FeLV-vaccinated cats and unvaccinated controls. Copyright © 2015, Patel et al.

  11. [Quantification of radiation-induced genetic risk].

    PubMed

    Ehling, U H

    1987-05-01

    Associated with technical advances of our civilization is a radiation- and chemically-induced increase in the germ cell mutation rate in man. This would result in an increase in the frequency of genetic diseases and would be detrimental to future generations. It is the duty of our generation to keep this risk as low as possible. The estimation of the radiation-induced genetic risk of human populations is based on the extrapolation of results from animal experiments. Radiation-induced mutations are stochastic events. The probability of the event depends on the dose; the degree of the damage does not. The different methods to estimate the radiation-induced genetic risk will be discussed. The accuracy of the predicted results will be evaluated by a comparison with the observed incidence of dominant mutations in offspring born to radiation exposed survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. These methods will be used to predict the genetic damage from the fallout of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. For the exposure dose we used the upper limits of the mean effective life time equivalent dose from the fallout values in the Munich region. According to the direct method for the risk estimation we will expect for each 100 to 500 spontaneous dominant mutations one radiation-induced mutation in the first generation. With the indirect method we estimate a ratio of 100 dominant spontaneous mutations to one radiation-induced dominant mutation. The possibilities and the limitations of the different methods to estimate the genetic risk will be discussed. The discrepancy between the high safety standards for radiation protection and the low level of knowledge for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mutagens will be emphasized.

  12. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  13. Functional Interplay Between Murine Leukemia Virus Glycogag, Serinc5, and Surface Glycoprotein Governs Virus Entry, with Opposite Effects on Gammaretroviral and Ebolavirus Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Zhang, Shu; Thappeta, Yashna; Denman, Audrey; Feizpour, Amin; Reinhard, Bjoern; Muriaux, Delphine; Fivash, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called “glycogag” (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others. In contrast, however, glycogag was detrimental to MLVs carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. Conversely, Serinc5 expression abrogated the negative effects of glycogag upon the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes. PMID:27879338

  14. Functional Interplay Between Murine Leukemia Virus Glycogag, Serinc5, and Surface Glycoprotein Governs Virus Entry, with Opposite Effects on Gammaretroviral and Ebolavirus Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Ahi, Yadvinder S; Zhang, Shu; Thappeta, Yashna; Denman, Audrey; Feizpour, Amin; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Reinhard, Bjoern; Muriaux, Delphine; Fivash, Matthew J; Rein, Alan

    2016-11-22

    Gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), encode, in addition to the canonical Gag, Pol, and Env proteins that will form progeny virus particles, a protein called "glycogag" (glycosylated Gag). MLV glycogag contains the entire Gag sequence plus an 88-residue N-terminal extension. It has recently been reported that glycogag, like the Nef protein of HIV-1, counteracts the antiviral effects of the cellular protein Serinc5. We have found, in agreement with prior work, that glycogag strongly enhances the infectivity of MLVs with some Env proteins but not those with others. In contrast, however, glycogag was detrimental to MLVs carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Glycogag could be replaced, with respect to viral infectivity, by the unrelated S2 protein of equine infectious anemia virus. We devised an assay for viral entry in which virus particles deliver the Cre recombinase into cells, leading to the expression of a reporter. Data from this assay showed that both the positive and the negative effects of glycogag and S2 upon MLV infectivity are exerted at the level of virus entry. Moreover, transfection of the virus-producing cells with a Serinc5 expression plasmid reduced the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying xenotropic MLV Env, particularly in the absence of glycogag. Conversely, Serinc5 expression abrogated the negative effects of glycogag upon the infectivity and entry capability of MLV carrying Ebolavirus glycoprotein. As Serinc5 may influence cellular phospholipid metabolism, it seems possible that all of these effects on virus entry derive from changes in the lipid composition of viral membranes.

  15. [Radiation-induced cancers: state of the art in 1997].

    PubMed

    Cosset, J M

    1997-01-01

    Scientists now have available a large amount of data dealing with radiation-induced neoplasms. These data went back to anecdotal observations which were made in the very first years of utilization of X-rays and radioactive elements. In fact, it is essentially the strict follow-up of the Japanese populations irradiated by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing which allowed a more precise evaluation of the carcinogenicity of ionizing radiations. Further refinements came from therapeutical irradiations: it is now possible to study large cohorts of patients given well-known doses in well-defined volumes and followed for more than 20 years. Last but not least, a significant increase in the incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer has been detected in children contaminated by iodine radioisotopes after the Tchernobyl accident. Recently, some data suggested the emergence of "clusters" of leukemias close to some nuclear facilities, but this question remains highly polemical, both in France and in the UK. Other questions are still waiting for a precise answer; of course, the extrapolation of our available data to very low doses delivered at very low dose rates, but also the carcinogenic risk at high doses. For these "high" doses (about 30 to 70 Gy), a competition between mutagenesis and cell killing was expected, so that these dose levels were expected to be less carcinogenic than lower (a few sieverts) doses. Actually, recent data suggest that the carcinogenic risk goes on increasing up to relatively important doses. In addition, carcinogenic factors, such as tabacco, anticancer chemotherapy and individual susceptibility, are found more and more to be closely intricated with ionizing radiation in the genesis of a given cancer. Even if a number of questions are still pending, the already available data allow specialists, both in medicine and radioprotection, to edict strict rules which can be reasonably expected to have significantly reduced the risk of radiation-induced

  16. DC-SIGN Facilitates Fusion of Dendritic Cells with Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; Delebecque, Frédéric; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Moris, Arnaud; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Gessain, Antoine; Schwartz, Olivier; Ozden, Simona

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and dendritic cells (DCs) are poorly characterized. We show here that monocyte-derived DCs form syncytia and are infected upon coculture with HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We examined the role of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed in DCs, in HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. DC-SIGN is known to bind with high affinity to various viral envelope glycoproteins, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus, as well as to the cellular receptors ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. After cocultivating DCs and HTLV-1-infected cells, we found that anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were able to decrease the number and size of HTLV-1-induced syncytia. Moreover, expression of the lectin in epithelial-cell lines dramatically enhanced the ability to fuse with HTLV-1-positive cells. Interestingly, in contrast to the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of HIV and other viruses, that of HTLV-1 does not bind directly to DC-SIGN. The facilitating role of the lectin in HTLV-1 syncytium formation is mediated by its interaction with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3, as demonstrated by use of MAbs directed against these adhesion molecules. Altogether, our results indicate that DC-SIGN facilitates HTLV-1 infection and fusion of DCs through an ICAM-dependent mechanism. PMID:16641270

  17. Epidemiologic survey of feline leukemia virus in domestic cats on Tsushima Island, Japan: Management strategy for Tsushima leopard cats.

    PubMed

    Makundi, Isaac; Koshida, Yushi; Kuse, Kyohei; Hiratsuka, Takahiro; Ito, Jumpei; Baba, Takuya; Watanabe, Shinya; Kawamura, Maki; Odahara, Yuka; Miyake, Ariko; Yamamoto, Hanae; Kuniyoshi, Sawako; Onuma, Manabu; Nishigaki, Kazuo

    2017-08-01

    The Tsushima leopard cat (TLC) Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of P. bengalensis, is designated a National Natural Monument of Japan, and lives only on Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. TLCs are threatened by various infectious diseases. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. Therefore, the transmission of FeLV from Tsushima domestic cats (TDCs) to TLCs may threaten the TLC population. We investigated the FeLV infection status of both TDCs and TLCs on Tsushima Island by screening blood samples for FeLV p27 antigen and using PCR to amplify the full-length FeLV env gene. The prevalence of FeLV was 6.4% in TDCs and 0% in TLCs. We also demonstrated that the virus can replicate in the cells of TLCs, suggesting its potential cross-species transmission. The viruses in TDCs were classified as genotype I/clade 3, which is prevalent on a nearby island, based on previous studies of FeLV genotypes and FeLV epidemiology. The FeLV viruses identified on Tsushima Island can be further divided into 2 lineages within genotype I/clade 3, which are geographically separated in Kamijima and Shimojima, indicating that FeLV may have been transmitted to Tsushima Island at least twice. Monitoring FeLV infection in the TDC and TLC populations is highly recommended as part of the TLC surveillance and management strategy.

  18. The tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 is essential for transformation of human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ross, T M; Pettiford, S M; Green, P L

    1996-08-01

    The mechanism of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-mediated transformation and induction of malignancy is unknown; however, several studies have implicated the viral gene product, Tax. Conclusive evidence for the role of Tax in the HTLV malignant process has been impeded by the inability to mutate tax in the context of an infectious virus and dissociate viral replication from cellular transformation. To circumvent this problem we constructed a mutant of HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2) that replicates by a Tax-independent mechanism. For these studies, the Tax response element in the viral long terminal repeat was replaced with the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter enhancer (C-enh). Transcription of the chimeric HTLV-2 (HTLVC-enh) was efficiently directed by this heterologous promoter. Also, the chimeric virus transformed primary human T lymphocytes with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HTLV-2. A tax-knockout virus, termed HTLVC-enhDeltaTax, was constructed to directly assess the importance of Tax in cellular transformation. Transfection and infection studies indicated that HTLVC-enhDeltaTax was replication competent; however, HTLVC-enhDeltaTax failed to transform primary human T lymphocytes. We conclude that Tax is essential for HTLV-mediated transformation of human T lymphocytes. Furthermore, this chimeric HTLV, that replicates in the absence of Tax, should facilitate studies to determine the precise mechanism of T-lymphocyte transformation by HTLV.

  19. Accelerated appearance of multiple B cell lymphoma types in NFS/N mice congenic for ecotropic murine leukemia viruses.

    PubMed

    Hartley, J W; Chattopadhyay, S K; Lander, M R; Taddesse-Heath, L; Naghashfar, Z; Morse, H C; Fredrickson, T N

    2000-02-01

    Spontaneous lymphomas occur at high frequency in NFS x V+ mice, strains congenic for ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral genes and expressing virus at high titer. In the present study, a total of 703 NFS x V+ lymphomas were studied by histopathology, immunophenotypic analysis, immunoglobulin heavy chain or T cell receptor beta chain rearrangements, and somatic ecotropic MuLV integrations; 90% of the lymphomas tested were of B cell lineage. Low-grade tumors included small lymphocytic, follicular, and splenic marginal zone lymphomas, while high-grade tumors comprised diffuse large-cell (centroblastic and immunoblastic types), splenic marginal zone, and lymphoblastic lymphomas. Comparison of mice of similar genetic background except for presence (NFS x V+) or absence (NFS x V-) of functional ecotropic MuLV genomes showed that NFS x V-clonal lymphomas developed at about one-half the rate of those occurring in NFS x V+ mice, and most were low-grade B cell lymphomas with extended latent periods. In NFS x V+ mice, clonal outgrowth, defined by Ig gene rearrangements, was associated with acquisition of somatic ecotropic proviral integrations, suggesting that, although generation of B cell clones can be virus independent, ecotropic virus may act to increase the rate of generation of clones and speed their evolution to lymphoma. The mechanism remains undefined, because only rare rearrangements were detected in several cellular loci previously associated with MuLV insertional mutagenesis.

  20. Radiation-induced deletions in the 5' end region of Notch1 lead to the formation of truncated proteins and are involved in the development of mouse thymic lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hideo; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ukai, Hideki; Katsube, Takanori; Ogiu, Toshiaki

    2003-07-01

    Notch1 protein is a transmembrane receptor that directs various cell fate decisions. Active forms of Notch1 consisting of a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain (Notch1TM) or only an intracellular domain (Notch1IC) function as oncoproteins. To elucidate the effect of Notch1 abnormalities in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis, we determined the structure of the Notch1 gene and examined the frequency and the sites of Notch1 rearrangements in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas. The Notch1 gene consists of 37 exons, including three exons upstream of the previously reported exon 1. The transcript starting from exon 1 was the major transcript whereas the transcripts read upstream from exon 1a, in which amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region were changed, were minor. More than 50% of radiation-induced thymic lymphomas exhibited Notch1 rearrangements, suggesting that Notch1 acts as a major oncogene in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. We identified three rearranged sites: novel sites in the 5' end region encompassing exons 1 and 2, the previously identified juxtamembrane extracellular region, and the 3' end region. The 5' deletion and the insertion of murine leukemia virus in the juxtamembrane region led to the production of abnormal transcripts starting from cryptic transcription start sites located halfway through the Notch1 gene and resulted in transcripts lacking most of the extracellular domain. As a result of these rearrangements, truncated Notch1 polypeptides resembling Notch1TM or Notch1IC were formed. In contrast, the 3' deletion led to the production of a C-terminal PEST motif-deleted transcript. The downstream target gene Hes1 was transcribed in a lymphoma with insertion of murine leukemia virus, but not in a lymphoma with a 5' deletion. These results indicate that in addition to Hes1 expression, other Notch1 pathway(s) have a role in thymic lymphomagenesis and suggest the presence of a novel mechanism for oncogenic activation of Notch1

  1. Massive depletion of bovine leukemia virus proviral clones located in genomic transcriptionally active sites during primary infection.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodriguez, Sabrina M; de Brogniez, Alix; Renotte, Nathalie; Alvarez, Irene; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed

  2. Massive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites during Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gillet, Nicolas A.; Renotte, Nathalie; Alvarez, Irene; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induce a persistent infection that remains generally asymptomatic but can also lead to leukemia or lymphoma. These viruses replicate by infecting new lymphocytes (i.e. the infectious cycle) or via clonal expansion of the infected cells (mitotic cycle). The relative importance of these two cycles in viral replication varies during infection. The majority of infected clones are created early before the onset of an efficient immune response. Later on, the main replication route is mitotic expansion of pre-existing infected clones. Due to the paucity of available samples and for ethical reasons, only scarce data is available on early infection by HTLV-1. Therefore, we addressed this question in a comparative BLV model. We used high-throughput sequencing to map and quantify the insertion sites of the provirus in order to monitor the clonality of the BLV-infected cells population (i.e. the number of distinct clones and abundance of each clone). We found that BLV propagation shifts from cell neoinfection to clonal proliferation in about 2 months from inoculation. Initially, BLV proviral integration significantly favors transcribed regions of the genome. Negative selection then eliminates 97% of the clones detected at seroconversion and disfavors BLV-infected cells carrying a provirus located close to a promoter or a gene. Nevertheless, among the surviving proviruses, clone abundance positively correlates with proximity of the provirus to a transcribed region. Two opposite forces thus operate during primary infection and dictate the fate of long term clonal composition: (1) initial integration inside genes or promoters and (2) host negative selection disfavoring proviruses located next to transcribed regions. The result of this initial response will contribute to the proviral load set point value as clonal abundance will benefit from carrying a provirus in transcribed

  3. Kinetic analysis of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 gene expression in cell culture and infected animals.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Kesic, Matthew; Yin, Han; Yu, Lianbo; Green, Patrick L

    2009-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia and is associated with a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. It has been hypothesized that a highly regulated pattern of HTLV-1 gene expression is critical for virus survival and disease pathogenesis. In this study, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine the kinetics of viral gene expression in cells transiently transfected with an HTLV-1 proviral plasmid, in newly infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and in PBMCs from newly infected rabbits. The HTLV-1 gene expression profiles in transiently transfected and infected cells were similar; over time, all transcripts increased and then maintained stable levels. gag/pol, tax/rex, and env mRNA were detected first and at the highest levels, whereas the expression levels of the accessory genes, including the antisense Hbz, were significantly lower than the tax/rex levels (ranging from 1 to 4 logs depending on the specific mRNA). In infected rabbits, tax/rex and gag/pol mRNA levels peaked early after inoculation and progressively decreased, which correlated inversely with the proviral load and host antibody response against viral proteins. Interestingly, Hbz mRNA was detectable at 1 week postinfection and increased and stabilized. The expression levels of all other HTLV-1 genes in infected rabbit PBMCs were at or below our limit of detection. This analysis provides insight into viral gene expression under various in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions. Our in vivo data indicate that in infected rabbits, Hbz mRNA expression over time directly correlates with the proviral load, which provides the first evidence linking Hbz expression to proviral load and the survival of the virus-infected cell in the host.

  4. Sequences in the cytoplasmic tail of the gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope protein that prevent its incorporation into lentivirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, I; Cannon, P M

    2001-05-01

    Pseudotyping retrovirus and lentivirus vectors with different viral fusion proteins is a useful strategy to alter the host range of the vectors. Although lentivirus vectors are efficiently pseudotyped by Env proteins from several different subtypes of murine leukemia virus (MuLV), the related protein from gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) does not form functional pseudotypes. We have determined that this arises because of an inability of GaLV Env to be incorporated into lentivirus vector particles. By exploiting the homology between the GaLV and MuLV Env proteins, we have mapped the determinants of incompatibility in the GaLV Env. Three modifications that allowed GaLV Env to pseudotype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles were identified: removal of the R peptide (C-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain), replacement of the whole cytoplasmic tail with the corresponding MuLV region, and mutation of two residues upstream of the R peptide cleavage site. In addition, we have previously proposed that removal of the R peptide from MuLV Env proteins enhances their fusogenicity by transmitting a conformational change to the ectodomain of the protein (Y. Zhao et al., J. Virol. 72:5392-5398, 1998). Our analysis of chimeric MuLV/GaLV Env proteins provides further evidence in support of this model and suggests that proper Env function involves both interactions within the cytoplasmic tail and more long-range interactions between the cytoplasmic tail, the membrane-spanning region, and the ectodomain of the protein.

  5. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C phenotype evolves through distinct alterations near the N terminus of the envelope surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Brojatsch, J; Kristal, B S; Viglianti, G A; Khiroya, R; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1992-01-01

    Feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) belonging to the C subgroup induce aplastic anemia in domestic cats and have the ability, unique among FeLV strains, to proliferate in guinea pig fibroblasts in tissue culture. Previous studies have shown that the pathogenic and host range specificity of a prototype molecular clone of FeLV-C [FeLV-Sarma-C (FSC)] colocalize to a region encoding the 3' 73 amino acids of the pol gene product and the N-terminal 241 amino acids of the envelope surface glycoprotein named SU. Here, we amplified, via PCR, cloned, and sequenced the SU coding sequence from three additional anemia-inducing subgroup C FeLV isolates. Chimeric viruses were constructed by replacement of fragments of FeLV-C envelope genes into the FeLV-A prototype virus 61E. Using a modified vesicular stomatitis virus-FeLV pseudotype assay, we demonstrated that the subgroup C receptor specificity for each virus was determined by changes within the N-terminal 87-92 amino acids of SU, in which most changes occurred within the 15- to 20-amino-acid first variable region (V1). Determinants for growth in guinea pig cells colocalized to this region. Despite the consistent localization of biological determinants, the only consistent features that distinguished the deduced FeLV-A and FeLV-C proteins was one lysine-to-arginine change and a structural prediction of an alpha-helix in FeLV-A proteins versus random coil in FeLV-C proteins within V1. However, arginine in equilibrium with lysine substitutions were not sufficient to convert the subgroup A virus to the subgroup C phenotype or vice versa. Thus, certain distinct structural changes within the N-terminal region of FeLV SU can result in convergent viral phenotypes. Images PMID:1326757

  6. Late assembly motifs of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and their relative roles in particle release.

    PubMed

    Heidecker, Gisela; Lloyd, Patricia A; Fox, Kristi; Nagashima, Kunio; Derse, David

    2004-06-01

    Three late assembly domain consensus motifs, namely PTAP, PPPY, and LYPXL, have been identified in different retroviruses. They have been shown to interact with the cellular proteins TSG101, Nedd4, and AP2 or AIP, respectively. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a PPPY and a PTAP motif, separated by two amino acids, located at the end of MA, but only the PPPY motif is conserved in the deltaretrovirus group. Like other retroviral peptides carrying the late motif, MA is mono- or di-ubiquitinated. A mutational analysis showed that 90% of PPPY mutant particles were retained in the cell compared to 15% for the wild-type virus. Mutations of the PTAP motif resulted in a 20% decrease in particle release. In single-cycle infectivity assays, the infectious titers of late motif mutants correlated with the amounts of released virus, as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed binding of MA to the WW domains of the Nedd4 family member WWP1 but not to the amino-terminal ubiquitin E2 variant domain of TSG101 in mammalian two-hybrid analyses. The binding to WWP1 was eliminated when the PPPY motif was mutated. However, MA showed binding to TSG101 in the yeast two-hybrid system that was dependent on an intact PTAP motif. A dominant-negative (DN) mutant of WWP1 could inhibit budding of the intact HTLV-1 virus. In contrast, DN TSG101 only affected the release of virus-like particles encoded by Gag expression plasmids. Electron and fluorescent microscopy showed that Gag accumulates in large patches in the membranes of cells expressing viruses with PPPY mutations. Very few tethered immature particles could be detected in these samples, suggesting that budding is impaired at an earlier step than in other retroviruses.

  7. Evaluation of a novel nested PCR for the routine diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    PubMed

    Arjona, Alvaro; Barquero, Nuria; Doménech, Ana; Tejerizo, German; Collado, Victorio M; Toural, Cristina; Martín, Daniel; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza

    2007-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) usually involves both viruses, as the clinical signs are similar and coinfection may occur. Serological methods may not represent an accurate diagnosis: maternal antibodies or cross-reactions may give false positive results to FIV, and false negative results may occur in latent FeLV status, or in certain FIV infection stages. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was designed to detect FeLV, FIV and feline endogenous retrovirus simultaneously. The detection of endogenous sequences was considered indicative of successful DNA extraction. The technique was used to diagnose FIV and FeLV in the blood cells of 179 cats. The kappa value with the serological data was 0.69 for FeLV and 0.87 for FIV. The joint detection of FeLV and FIV by this novel nested PCR is sensitive, specific, fast and convenient, and its applicability for clinical diagnosis is promising, as the direct evidence of the presence of the virus is more realistic than the indirect data provided by the serological detection.

  8. Mutations altering the moloney murine leukemia virus p12 Gag protein affect virion production and early events of the virus life cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, B; Li, X; Goff, S P

    1999-01-01

    The p12 Gag protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus is a small polypeptide of unknown function, containing two proline-rich motifs. To determine its role in replication, we introduced a series of deletion and alanine-scanning substitution mutations throughout the p12 coding region of a proviral DNA, and characterized the phenotypes of the resulting mutant viruses. Complete deletion of p12 and mutations affecting the PPPY motif caused substantial reduction in the yield of virions and a modest reduction in Gag processing. Proteolytic cleavage of the R-peptide from the cytoplasmic tail of the envelope protein TM was abolished in these mutants, suggesting that the PPPY motif is crucial for the viral protease to access the TM tail. The resulting virions were non-infectious, and unable to initiate DNA synthesis in infected cells. Mutants with alterations in both the N- and C-terminal portions of p12 exhibited a distinct phenotype. The production of virions and processing of Gag, Pol and Env precursors were normal. The viruses were able to direct synthesis of linear viral DNA, but there was almost no detectable circular DNAs or LTR-LTR junction. These data suggest that p12 plays a critical role in the early events of the virus life cycle. PMID:10469649

  9. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    PubMed Central

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  10. Endogenous CD317/Tetherin limits replication of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus in rodent cells and is resistant to antagonists from primate viruses.

    PubMed

    Goffinet, Christine; Schmidt, Sarah; Kern, Christian; Oberbremer, Lena; Keppler, Oliver T

    2010-11-01

    Human CD317 (BST-2/tetherin) is an intrinsic immunity factor that blocks the release of retroviruses, filoviruses, herpesviruses, and arenaviruses. It is unclear whether CD317 expressed endogenously in rodent cells has the capacity to interfere with the replication of the retroviral rodent pathogen murine leukemia virus (MLV) or, in the context of small-animal model development, contributes to the well-established late-phase restriction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here, we show that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CD317 relieved a virion release restriction and markedly enhanced the egress of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in rat cells, including primary macrophages. Moreover, rodent CD317 potently inhibited MLV release, and siRNA-mediated depletion of CD317 in a mouse T-cell line resulted in the accelerated spread of MLV. Several virus-encoded antagonists have recently been reported to overcome the restriction imposed by human or monkey CD317, including HIV-1 Vpu, envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 and Ebola virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K5, and SIV Nef. In contrast, both rat and mouse CD317 showed a high degree of resistance to these viral antagonists. These data suggest that CD317 is a broadly acting and conserved mediator of innate control of retroviral infection and pathogenesis that restricts the release of retroviruses and lentiviruses in rodents. The high degree of resistance of the rodent CD317 restriction factors to antagonists from primate viruses has implications for HIV-1 small-animal model development and may guide the design of novel antiviral interventions.

  11. miR-28-3p is a cellular restriction factor that inhibits human T cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xue Tao; Nicot, Christophe

    2015-02-27

    Human T cell leukemia virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) replication and spread are controlled by different viral and cellular factors. Although several anti-HIV cellular microRNAs have been described, such a regulation for HTLV-1 has not been reported. In this study, we found that miR-28-3p inhibits HTLV-1 virus expression and its replication by targeting a specific site within the genomic gag/pol viral mRNA. Because miR-28-3p is highly expressed in resting T cells, which are resistant to HTLV-1 infection, we investigated a potential protective role of miR-28-3p against de novo HTLV-1 infection. To this end, we developed a new sensitive and quantitative assay on the basis of the detection of products of reverse transcription. We demonstrate that miR-28-3p does not prevent virus receptor interaction or virus entry but, instead, induces a post-entry block at the reverse transcription level. In addition, we found that HTLV-1, subtype 1A isolates corresponding to the Japanese strain ATK-1 present a natural, single-nucleotide polymorphism within the miR-28-3p target site. As a result of this polymorphism, the ATK-1 virus sequence was not inhibited by miR-28. Interestingly, genetic studies on the transmission of the virus has shown that the ATK-1 strain, which carries a Thr-to-Cys transition mutation, is transmitted efficiently between spouses, suggesting that miR-28 may play an important role in HTLV-1 transmission.

  12. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 antisense viral protein 2 is dispensable for in vitro immortalization but functions to repress early virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yin, Han; Kannian, Priya; Dissinger, Nathan; Haines, Robyn; Niewiesk, Stefan; Green, Patrick L

    2012-08-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are closely related but pathogenically distinct human retroviruses. The antisense strand of the HTLV-1 genome encodes HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) protein (HBZ), a protein that inhibits Tax-mediated viral transcription, enhances T-cell proliferation, and promotes viral persistence. Recently, an HTLV-2 antisense viral protein (APH-2) was identified. Despite its lack of a typical b-ZIP domain, APH-2, like HBZ, interacts with cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and downregulates Tax-mediated viral transcription. Here, we provide evidence that the APH-2 C-terminal LXXLL motif is important for CREB binding and Tax repression. In order to investigate the functional role of APH-2 in the HTLV-2-mediated immortalization of primary T lymphocytes in vitro and in HTLV-2 infection in vivo, we generated APH-2 mutant viruses. In cell cultures, the immortalization capacities of APH-2 mutant viruses were indistinguishable from that of wild-type HTLV-2 (wtHTLV-2), indicating that, like HBZ, APH-2 is dispensable for viral infection and cellular transformation. In vivo, rabbits inoculated with either wtHTLV-2 or APH-2 mutant viruses established a persistent infection. However, the APH-2 knockout virus displayed an increased replication rate, as measured by an increased viral antibody response and a higher proviral load. In contrast to HTLV-1 HBZ, we show that APH-2 is dispensable for the establishment of an efficient infection and persistence in a rabbit animal model. Therefore, antisense proteins of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 have evolved different functions in vivo, and further comparative studies will provide fundamental insights into the distinct pathobiologies of these two viruses.

  13. Viral determinants that control the neuropathogenicity of PVC-211 murine leukemia virus in vivo determine brain capillary endothelial cell tropism of the virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, M; Hoffman, P M; Ruscetti, S K

    1993-01-01

    PVC-211 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a neuropathogenic, weakly leukemogenic variant of the nonneuropathogenic, highly leukemogenic Friend MuLV (F-MuLV). Chimeric viruses constructed from PVC-211 MuLV clone 3d and F-MuLV clone 57 indicate that the env gene of PVC-211 MuLV contains the determinant(s) responsible for pathological changes in the central nervous system. However, sequences within the 5' one-third (AatII-EcoRI region) of the PVC-211 MuLV genome, which include the 5' leader sequence, the gag gene, and the 5' quarter of the pol gene, are also needed in conjunction with the env gene determinant(s) to cause clinically evident neurological disease in the majority of virus-infected animals after a short latency. In the presence of the AatII-EcoRI region of the PVC-211 MuLV genome, the PVC-211 MuLV env gene sequences encoding the amino-terminal half of the SU protein, which contains the receptor-binding region of the protein, were sufficient to cause rapidly progressive neurological disease. When PVC-211 MuLV, F-MuLV, and various chimeric viruses were tested for their ability to replicate in cultured brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC), the primary site of PVC-211 MuLV replication within the central nervous system, there was a direct correlation between the replication efficiency of a virus in BCEC in vitro and its ability to cause neurological disease in vivo. This observation indicates that the sequences in PVC-211 MuLV that render it neuropathogenic affect its replication in BCEC and suggests that rapid and efficient replication of the virus in BCEC is crucial for the pathological changes in the central nervous system that result in development of neurological disease. Images PMID:8392599

  14. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of a juvenile type of Epstein-Barr virus-associated natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Ishihara, S; Tagawa, S; Seo, N; Ohshima, K; Takigawa, M

    2001-10-01

    Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites or mosquito allergy is a mysterious disorder that has been reported mainly in Japanese patients (at least 58 patients) in the first two decades of life. The skin lesion at bite sites is typically a bulla that develops into necrosis. Patients simultaneously exhibit a high temperature and general malaise and subsequently may experience lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Recent studies have revealed that this mosquito hypersensitivity is associated with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma. The natural killer cell, infected with monoclonal (or oligoclonal) Epstein-Barr virus, seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of the hypersensitivity. Half of the patients reported died of hemophagocytic syndrome (or malignant histiocytosis), granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder, or lymphomas. We propose that this disease, defined as the triad of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection, and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphoma, is a clinical entity mostly seen in Asians.

  15. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-10-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style.

  16. Characterization of a nuclear export signal within the human T cell leukemia virus type I transactivator protein Tax.

    PubMed

    Alefantis, Timothy; Barmak, Kate; Harhaj, Edward W; Grant, Christian; Wigdahl, Brian

    2003-06-13

    Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-I transactivator protein Tax plays an integral role in the etiology of adult T cell leukemia, as expression of Tax in T lymphocytes has been shown to result in immortalization. In addition, Tax is known to interface with numerous transcription factor families, including activating transcription factor/cAMP response element-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappaB, requiring Tax to localize to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In this report, the nucleocytoplasmic localization of Tax was examined in Jurkat, HeLa, and U-87 MG cells. The results reported herein indicate that Tax contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that, when fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), can direct nuclear export via the CRM-1 pathway, as determined by leptomycin B inhibition of nuclear export. However, cytoplasmic localization of full-length Tax was not altered by treatment with leptomycin B, suggesting that native Tax utilizes another nuclear export pathway. Additional support for the presence of a functional NES has also been shown because the NES mutant Tax(L200A)-GFP localized to the nuclear membrane in the majority of U-87 MG cells. Evidence has also been provided suggesting that the Tax NES likely exists as a conditionally masked signal because the truncation mutant TaxDelta214-GFP localized constitutively to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that Tax localization may be directed by specific changes in Tax conformation or by specific interactions with cellular proteins leading to changes in the availability of the Tax NES and nuclear localization signal.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a new simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 from naturally infected celebes macaques (Macaca tonkeana): complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic relationship with the Australo-Melanesian human T-cell leukemia virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, F; de Thé, G; Gessain, A

    1995-01-01

    A study of simian T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (STLV-1) infection in a captive colony of 23 Macaca tonkeana macaques indicated that 17 animals had high human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody titers. Genealogical analysis suggested mainly a mother-to-offspring transmission of this STLV-1. Three long-term T-cell lines, established from peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from three STLV-1-seropositive monkeys, produced HTLV-1 Gag and Env antigens and retroviral particles. The first complete nucleotide sequence of an STLV-1 (9,025 bp), obtained for one of these isolates, indicated an overall genetic organization similar to that of HTLV-1 but with a nucleotide variability for the structural genes ranging from 7.8 to 13.1% compared with the HTLV-1 ATK and STLV-1 PTM3 Asian prototypes. The Tax and Rex regulatory proteins were well conserved, while the pX region, known to encode new proteins in HTLV-1 (open reading frames I and II), was more divergent than that in the ATK strain. Furthermore, a fragment of 522 bp of the gp21 env gene from uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from five of the STLV-1-infected monkeys was sequenced. Phylogenetic trees constructed with the long terminal repeat and env (gp46 and gp21) regions demonstrated that this new STLV-1 occupies a unique position within the Asian STLV-1 and HTLV-1 isolates, being, by most analyses, related more to the Australo-Melanesian HTLV-1 topotype than to any other Asian STLV-1. These data raise new hypotheses on the possible interspecies viral transmission between monkeys carrying STLV-1 and early Australoid settlers, ancestors of the present day Australo-Melanesian inhabitants, during their migrations from the Southeast Asian land mass to the greater Australian continent. PMID:7474117

  18. Study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chmura, A.

    1995-11-01

    The study of chemical and radiation induced carcinogenesis has up to now based many of its results on the detection of genetic aberrations using the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. FISH is time consuming and this tends to hinder its use for looking at large numbers of samples. We are currently developing new technological advances which will increase the speed, clarity and functionality of the FISH technique. These advances include multi-labeled probes, amplification techniques, and separation techniques.

  19. Radiation-induced heart disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lauk, S.; Kiszel, Z.; Buschmann, J.; Trott, K.R.

    1985-04-01

    After local irradiation of the rat heart with X ray doses of over 10 Gy (single dose), animals developed symptoms of radiation-induced heart disease, which at higher doses would lead to fatal cardiac failure. The LD 50 at 1 year was between 15 Gy and 20 Gy. The pericardium and epicardium responded to irradiation with exudative pericarditis after 4 months. Focal myocardial damage was secondary to progressive capillary damage.

  20. Radiation induced fracture of the scapula

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.H. III; Schultz, G.D.; Hanes, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    A case of radiation induced osteonecrosis resulting in a fracture of the scapula in a 76-yr-old female patient with a history of breast carcinoma is presented. Diagnostic imaging, laboratory recommendations and clinical findings are discussed along with an algorithm for the safe management of patients with a history of cancer and musculoskeletal complaints. This case demonstrates the necessity of a thorough investigation of musculoskeletal complaints in patients with previous bone-seeking carcinomas.

  1. Quercetin inhibits radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.

  2. Quercetin Inhibits Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596

  3. Imaging radiation-induced normal tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Mike E; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K; Peiffer, Ann M; Tsien, Christina I; Bailey, Janet E; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-04-01

    Technological developments in radiation therapy and other cancer therapies have led to a progressive increase in five-year survival rates over the last few decades. Although acute effects have been largely minimized by both technical advances and medical interventions, late effects remain a concern. Indeed, the need to identify those individuals who will develop radiation-induced late effects, and to develop interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects is a critical area of radiobiology research. In the last two decades, preclinical studies have clearly established that late radiation injury can be prevented/ameliorated by pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the cascade of events leading to the clinical expression of radiation-induced late effects. These insights have been accompanied by significant technological advances in imaging that are moving radiation oncology and normal tissue radiobiology from disciplines driven by anatomy and macrostructure to ones in which important quantitative functional, microstructural, and metabolic data can be noninvasively and serially determined. In the current article, we review use of positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopy to generate pathophysiological and functional data in the central nervous system, lung, and heart that offer the promise of, (1) identifying individuals who are at risk of developing radiation-induced late effects, and (2) monitoring the efficacy of interventions to prevent/ameliorate them.

  4. Feline Leukemia Virus DNA Vaccine Efficacy Is Enhanced by Coadministration with Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Linda; Argyle, David; Bain, Derek; Nicolson, Lesley; Dunham, Stephen; Golder, Matthew C.; McDonald, Michael; McGillivray, Christine; Jarrett, Oswald; Neil, James C.; Onions, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The expectation that cell-mediated immunity is important in the control of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection led us to test a DNA vaccine administered alone or with cytokines that favored the development of a Th1 immune response. The vaccine consisted of two plasmids, one expressing the gag/pol genes and the other expressing the env gene of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1. The genetic adjuvants were plasmids encoding the feline cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, or gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Kittens were immunized by three intramuscular inoculations of the FeLV DNA vaccine alone or in combination with plasmids expressing IFN-γ, IL-12, or both IL-12 and IL-18. Control kittens were inoculated with empty plasmid. Following immunization, anti-FeLV antibodies were not detected in any kitten. Three weeks after the final immunization, the kittens were challenged by the intraperitoneal inoculation of FeLV-A/Glasgow-1 and were then monitored for a further 15 weeks for the presence of virus in plasma and, at the end of the trial, for latent virus in bone marrow. The vaccine consisting of FeLV DNA with the IL-12 and IL-18 genes conferred significant immunity, protecting completely against transient and persistent viremia, and in five of six kittens protecting against latent infection. None of the other vaccines provided significant protection. PMID:11507187

  5. Treatment of premalignancy: prevention of lymphoma in radiation leukemia virus-inoculated mice by cyclosporin A and immunotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Yefenof, E; Abboud, G; Epszteyn, S; Vitetta, E S

    1992-01-01

    Radiation leukemia virus (RadLV)-induced preleukemic (PL) latency is characterized by the appearance of virus-infected PL cells in the thymus. The survival of these PL cells is dependent upon autostimulation with interleukin 4 (IL-4). We have intervened prophylactically in RadLV-induced preleukemia by using cyclosporin-A (CSA), which inhibits IL-4 production, and an immunotoxin (ITx) that kills PL cells. CSA efficiently inhibited IL-4 secretion from RadLV-induced PL and leukemic cells, and its administration to PL mice caused a significant delay in their death. An ITx consisting of anti-RadLV glycoprotein-70 (gp70) antibody coupled to ricin A chain efficiently inhibited protein synthesis in virus-infected cells in vitro and, when injected into PL mice, also delayed their death. Combined treatment with CSA and ITx prevented 75% of the treated PL mice from developing lymphoma. These results show that the development of malignancy from a premalignant state can be averted by a combination of therapeutic modalities that decrease the size and growth rate of the premalignant cell population. PMID:1731346

  6. Functional and Structural Characterization of Novel Type of Linker Connecting Capsid and Nucleocapsid Protein Domains in Murine Leukemia Virus.

    PubMed

    Doležal, Michal; Hadravová, Romana; Kožíšek, Milan; Bednárová, Lucie; Langerová, Hana; Ruml, Tomáš; Rumlová, Michaela

    2016-09-23

    The assembly of immature retroviral particles is initiated in the cytoplasm by the binding of the structural polyprotein precursor Gag with viral genomic RNA. The protein interactions necessary for assembly are mediated predominantly by the capsid (CA) and nucleocapsid (NC) domains, which have conserved structures. In contrast, the structural arrangement of the CA-NC connecting region differs between retroviral species. In HIV-1 and Rous sarcoma virus, this region forms a rod-like structure that separates the CA and NC domains, whereas in Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, this region is densely packed, thus holding the CA and NC domains in close proximity. Interestingly, the sequence connecting the CA and NC domains in gammaretroviruses, such as murine leukemia virus (MLV), is unique. The sequence is called a charged assembly helix (CAH) due to a high number of positively and negatively charged residues. Although both computational and deletion analyses suggested that the MLV CAH forms a helical conformation, no structural or biochemical data supporting this hypothesis have been published. Using an in vitro assembly assay, alanine scanning mutagenesis, and biophysical techniques (circular dichroism, NMR, microcalorimetry, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay), we have characterized the structure and function of the MLV CAH. We provide experimental evidence that the MLV CAH belongs to a group of charged, E(R/K)-rich, single α-helices. This is the first single α-helix motif identified in viral proteins.

  7. Characterization of AKR murine leukemia virus sequences in AKR mouse substrains and structure of integrated recombinant genomes in tumor tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Quint, W; Quax, W; van der Putten, H; Berns, A

    1981-01-01

    A specific cDNA probe of AKR murine leukemia virus (AKR-MLV) was prepared to detect AKR-MLV sequences in normal and tumor tissues in a variety of AKR mouse substrains. AKR strains contained up to six endogenous AKR-MLV genomes. All substrains tested had one AKR-MLV locus in common, and closely related substrains had several proviruses integrated in an identical site. Virus-induced tumors in the AKR/FuRdA and AKR/JS strains showed a reintegration pattern of AKR-MLV sequences unique for the individual animal, suggesting a monoclonal origin for the outgrown tumors. An analysis of tumor DNAs from the AKR/FuRdA and AKR/JS substrains with restriction enzymes cleaving within the proviral genome revealed a new EcoRI restriction site and BamHI restriction site not present in normal tissues. The positions of these sites corresponded both with cleavage sites of EcoRI and BamHI in integrated Moloney recombinants and with the structure of isolated AKR mink cell focus-forming viruses. All tumors analyzed to data contain nearly identical integrated recombinant genomes, suggesting a causal relationship between the formation of recombinants and the leukemogenic process. Images PMID:6268802

  8. Nucleotide Sequence of the Envelope Gene of Gardner-Arnstein Feline Leukemia Virus B Reveals Unique Sequence Homologies with a Murine Mink Cell Focus-Forming Virus

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John H.; Mullins, James I.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the envelope gene and the adjacent 3′ long terminal repeat (LTR) of Gardner-Arnstein feline leukemia virus of subgroup B (GA-FeLV-B) has been determined. Comparison of the derived amino acid sequence of the gp70-p15E polyprotein to those of several previously reported murine retroviruses revealed striking homologies between GA-FeLV-B gp70 and the gp70 of a Moloney virus-derived mink cell focus-forming virus. These homologies were located within the substituted (presumably xenotropic) portion of the mink cell focus-forming virus envelope gene and comprised amino acid sequences not present in three ecotropic virus gp70s. In addition, areas of insertions and deletions, in general, were the same between GA-FeLV-B and Moloney mink cell focus-forming virus, although the sizes of the insertions and deletions differed. Homologies between GA-FeLV-B and mink cell focus-forming virus gp70s is functionally significant in that they both possess expanded host ranges, a property dictated by gp70. The amino acid sequence of FeLV-B contains 12 Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequences, indicating 12 possible sites of N-linked glycosylation as compared with 7 or 8 for its murine counterparts. Comparison of the 3′ LTR of GA-FeLV-B to AKR and Moloney virus LTRs revealed extensive conservation in several regions including the “CCAAT” and Goldberg-Hogness (TATA) boxes thought to be involved in promotion of transcription and in the repeat region of the LTR. The inverted repeats that flanked the LTR of GA-FeLV-B were identical to the murine inverted repeats, but were one base longer than the latter. The region of U3 corresponding to the approximately 75-nucleotide “enhancer sequence” is present in GA-FeLV-B, but contains deletions relative to AKR and Moloney virus and is not repeated. An interesting pallindrome in the repeat region immediately 3′ to the U3 region was noted in all the LTRs, but was particularly pronounced in GA-FeLV-B. Possible roles for this

  9. Oncogenic transformation by the tax gene of human T-cell leukemia virus type I in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Takahashi, Chiaki; Yamaoka, Shoji; Nosaka, Tetsuya; Maki, Masatoshi; Hatanaka, Masakazu )

    1990-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is a causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). To elucidate the role of HTLV-I in leukemogenesis, the authors examined the biological activity of a defective HTLV-I provirus with the env-pX 3{prime} long terminal repeat region cloned from leukemic cells of an ATL patient. Transfection experiments showed growth stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells--growing beyond the saturation density and growing in soft agar. Since the pX sequence is known to encode three proteins, Tax, Rex, and p21{sup x}, the biological activity of each pX gene was examined separately. The growth-stimulating activity was induced only by the tax gene in NIH 3T3 cells and Rat-1 cells. Furthermore, the tax gene induced tumorigenicity in nude mice when introduced into Rat-1 cells. Thus, a transcriptional transactivator gene of HTLV-I, tax, is clearly identified as a viral oncogene without a cellular homolog. The transforming activity of tax, possibly via a transcriptional deregulation of cell growth control, may play an important role in leukemogenesis of ATL in addition to its aberrant stimulation of the interleukin 2 system.

  10. Expression of Glucose Transporter 1 Confers Susceptibility to Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Envelope-Mediated Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ayse Kubra; Sutton, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus identified and causes both adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy, among other disorders. In vitro, HTLV-1 has an extremely broad host cell tropism in that it is capable of infecting most mammalian cell types, although at the same time viral titers remain relatively low. Despite years of study, only recently has a bona fide candidate cellular receptor, glucose transporter 1 (glut-1), been identified. Although glut-1 was shown to bind specifically to the ectodomain of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 envelope glycoproteins, which was reversible with small interfering RNA directed against glut-1, cellular susceptibility to HTLV upon expression of glut-1 was not established. Here we show that expression of glut-1 in relatively resistant MDBK cells conferred increased susceptibility to both HTLV-1- and HTLV-2-pseudotyped particles. glut-1 also markedly increased syncytium formation in MDBK cells after exposure to HTLV-1. Another assay also demonstrated HTLV-1 envelope-cell fusion in the presence of glut-1. Taken together, these results provide additional evidence that glut-1 is a receptor for HTLV. PMID:15767416

  11. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR.

  12. LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases negatively regulate human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 transcription

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Treatment options are limited and prophylactic agents are not available. We have previously demonstrated an essential role for CREB-regulating transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs) in HTLV-1 transcription. Results In this study we report on the negative regulatory role of LKB1 tumor suppressor and salt-inducible kinases (SIKs) in the activation of HTLV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) by the oncoprotein Tax. Activation of LKB1 and SIKs effectively blunted Tax activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, whereas compromising these kinases, but not AMP-dependent protein kinases, augmented Tax function. Activated LKB1 and SIKs associated with Tax and suppressed Tax-induced LTR activation by counteracting CRTCs and CREB. Enforced expression of LKB1 or SIK1 in cells transfected with HTLV-1 molecular clone pX1MT repressed proviral transcription. On the contrary, depletion of LKB1 in pX1MT-transfected cells and in HTLV-1-transformed T cells boosted the expression of Tax. Treatment of HTLV-1 transformed cells with metformin led to LKB1/SIK1 activation, reduction in Tax expression, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings revealed a new function of LKB1 and SIKs as negative regulators of HTLV-1 transcription. Pharmaceutical activation of LKB1 and SIKs might be considered as a new strategy in anti-HTLV-1 and anti-ATL therapy. PMID:23577667

  13. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 antisense-encoded gene, Hbz, promotes T-lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Joshua; Zimmerman, Bevin; Li, Min; Lairmore, Michael D; Green, Patrick L

    2008-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) is dispensable for HTLV-1-mediated cellular transformation in cell culture, but is required for efficient viral infectivity and persistence in rabbits. In most adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells, Tax oncoprotein expression is typically low or undetectable, whereas Hbz gene expression is maintained, suggesting that Hbz expression may support infected cell survival and, ultimately, leukemogenesis. Emerging data indicate that HBZ protein can interact with cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and Jun family members, altering transcription factor binding and transactivation of both viral and cellular promoters. Herein, lentiviral vectors that express Hbz-specific short hairpin (sh)-RNA effectively decreased both Hbz mRNA and HBZ protein expression in transduced HTLV-1-transformed SLB-1 T cells. Hbz knockdown correlated with a significant decrease in T-cell proliferation in culture. Both SLB-1 and SLB-1-Hbz knockdown cells engrafted into inoculated NOD/SCID(gammachain-/-) mice to form solid tumors that also infiltrated multiple tissues. However, tumor formation and organ infiltration were significantly decreased in animals challenged with SLB-1-Hbz knockdown cells. Our data indicate that Hbz expression enhances the proliferative capacity of HTLV-1-infected T cells, playing a critical role in cell survival and ultimately HTLV-1 tumorigenesis in the infected host.

  14. Identification of a novel common proviral integration site, flit-1, in feline leukemia virus induced thymic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhito; Liao, Chun-Peng; Zhao, Yan Shi; Pan, Judong; Mathes, Lawrence E; Hayes, Kathleen A; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Roy-Burman, Pradip

    2009-03-30

    A new proviral integration site for feline leukemia virus (FeLV), termed flit-1, was identified from feline thymic lymphoma. Among 35 FeLV-related tumors examined, 5 of 25 thymic lymphomas demonstrated proviral insertion within flit-1 locus whereas none of four alimentary and five multicentric lymphomas and one T-lymphoid leukemia examined had rearrangement in this region. Extensive sequence analysis has shown that flit-1, which is noncoding, is conserved on human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 15. The human and murine homologs of flit-1 are positioned approximately 30-kb upstream to activin-A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1) gene. Expression of ACVRL1 mRNA was examined in two of five lymphomas with flit-1 rearrangement and detected in both of the two whereas normal thymuses and seven lymphoid tumors without flit-1 rearrangement had no detectable expression. Therefore, flit-1 appears to represent a novel FeLV proviral common integration domain that may influence lymphomagenesis as insertional mutagenesis.

  15. Whole genome sequencing of 51 breast cancers reveals that tumors are devoid of bovine leukemia virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas A; Willems, Luc

    2016-11-04

    Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of cancer cases may be attributable to viral exposure. Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome. Controls for sequence divergence and proviral loads further validated the approach. This unbiased analysis thus excludes a clonal insertion of BLV in breast tumor cells and strongly argues against an association between BLV and breast cancer.

  16. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  17. Overexpression of feline tripartite motif-containing 25 interferes with the late stage of feline leukemia virus replication.

    PubMed

    Koba, Ryota; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2015-06-02

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) regulates various cellular processes through E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of TRIM25 is induced by type I interferon and that TRIM25 is involved in the host cellular innate immune response against retroviral infection. Although retroviral infection is prevalent in domestic cats, the roles of feline TRIM25 in the immune response against these viral infections are poorly understood. Because feline TRIM25 is expected to modulate the infection of feline leukemia virus (FeLV), we investigated its effects on early- and late-stage FeLV replication. This study revealed that ectopic expression of feline TRIM25 in HEK293T cells reduced viral protein levels leading to the inhibition of FeLV release. Our findings show that feline TRIM25 has a potent antiviral activity and implicate an antiviral mechanism whereby feline TRIM25 interferes with late-stage FeLV replication.

  18. Bovine Leukemia Virus Small Noncoding RNAs Are Functional Elements That Regulate Replication and Contribute to Oncogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hamaidia, Malik; de Brogniez, Alix; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Renotte, Nathalie; Reichert, Michal; Trono, Karina; Willems, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses are not expected to encode miRNAs because of the potential problem of self-cleavage of their genomic RNAs. This assumption has recently been challenged by experiments showing that bovine leukemia virus (BLV) encodes miRNAs from intragenomic Pol III promoters. The BLV miRNAs are abundantly expressed in B-cell tumors in the absence of significant levels of genomic and subgenomic viral RNAs. Using deep RNA sequencing and functional reporter assays, we show that miRNAs mediate the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, cancer and immunity. We further demonstrate that BLV miRNAs are essential to induce B-cell tumors in an experimental model and to promote efficient viral replication in the natural host. PMID:27123579

  19. Nuclease S1-sensitive sites on superhelical DNA molecules carrying the LTR region of Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Takeya, T

    1987-04-29

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) from proviral DNA of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) was cloned on a derivative of pBR322, and after introducing superhelical torsions into the resulting recombinant, the sites of conformational transition were investigated by the nuclease S1-digestion method. With an increase in the negative linking differences, fourteen dominant cutting sites were identified, of which two were mapped inside the LTR and one at the 3' end of the LTR. By searching the sequence data, all these sites were localized in the regions having either palindromic sequences or AT-rich sequences. Free energy calculation for the local secondary structure on one strand indicated that nuclease S1 attacked the palindromic sequence regions which could form relatively stable hairpin structures. Under the conditions used, no correlation was found between the S1-sensitive sites and the potential Z-DNA-forming regions, including those within the enhancer sequence.

  20. Regulation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) budding by ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Yasuda, Jiro; Takano, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Shida, Hisatoshi

    2004-02-01

    The Gag protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) contains the conserved sequences PPxY and PTAP, which are putative viral motifs required for budding (L-domain motifs). We show here that the PPxY motif, but not the PTAP motif, is essential for HTLV-1 virion budding from the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that overexpression of Nedd4 enhances HTLV-1 budding and that Nedd4 interacts with Gag via its WW domain. The HECT domain of Nedd4 is also required for budding. These results indicate that Nedd4 or a Nedd4-related ubiquitin ligase plays a critical role in HTLV-1 budding.

  1. Cytogenetic, clinical, and cytologic characteristics of radiotherapy-related leukemias

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, P.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.

    1988-04-01

    From 1978 to 1985, we observed eight cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemia, three cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and three cases of chronic myeloid leukemia in patients previously treated exclusively with radiotherapy for other tumor types. The latent period from administration of radiotherapy to development of leukemia varied between 12 and 243 months. Clonal chromosome aberrations reported previously as characteristic of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia following therapy with alkylating agents were observed in three of the eight patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (5q- and -7) and in two of the three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (-7 and 12p-). All three patients with radiotherapy-related chronic myeloid leukemia presented a t(9;22)(q34;q11). The results suggest that cytogenetic characteristics may reflect the etiology in radiation-induced acute leukemias, whereas radiation-related chronic myeloid leukemia does not seem to differ chromosomally from de novo cases of the disease.

  2. No Evidence for Xenotropic Murine Leukemia-Related Virus Infection in Sweden Using Internally Controlled Multiepitope Suspension Array Serology

    PubMed Central

    Blomberg, Fredrik; Sjösten, Anna; Sheikholvaezin, Ali; Bölin-Wiener, Agnes; Elfaitouri, Amal; Hessel, Sanna; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Zachrisson, Olof; Öhrmalm, Christina; Jobs, Magnus; Pipkorn, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Many syndromes have a large number of differential diagnoses, a situation which calls for multiplex diagnostic systems. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also named chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), is a common disease of unknown etiology. A mouse retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), was found in ME/CFS patients and blood donors, but this was not corroborated. However, the paucity of serological investigations on XMRV in humans prompted us to develop a serological assay which cover many aspects of XMRV antigenicity. It is a novel suspension array method, using a multiplex IgG assay with nine recombinant proteins from the env and gag genes of XMRV and 38 peptides based on known epitopes of vertebrate gammaretroviruses. IgG antibodies were sought in 520 blood donors and 85 ME/CFS patients and in positive- and negative-control sera from animals. We found no differences in seroreactivity between blood donors and ME/CFS patients for any of the antigens. This did not support an association between ME/CFS and XMRV infection. The multiplex serological system had several advantages: (i) biotinylated protein G allowed us to run both human and animal sera, which is essential because of a lack of XMRV-positive humans; (ii) a novel quality control was a pan-peptide positive-control rabbit serum; and (iii) synthetic XMRV Gag peptides with degenerate positions covering most of the variation of murine leukemia-like viruses did not give higher background than nondegenerate analogs. The principle may be used for creation of variant tolerant peptide serologies. Thus, our system allows rational large-scale serological assays with built-in quality control. PMID:22787191

  3. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Oncogenesis: Molecular Aspects of Virus and Host Interactions in Pathogenesis of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Shirdel, Abbas; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Hassannia, Tahereh; Rahimi, Hosian; Miri, Rahele; Rezaee, S. A. Rahim

    2013-01-01

    The study of tumor viruses paves the way for understanding the mechanisms of virus pathogenesis, including those involved in establishing infection and dissemination in the host tumor affecting immune-compromised patients. The processes ranging from viral infection to progressing malignancy are slow and usually insufficient for establishment of transformed cells that develop cancer in only a minority of infected subjects. Therefore, viral infection is usually not the only cause of cancer, and further environmental and host factors, may be implicated. HTLV-I, in particular, is considered as an oncovirus cause of lymphoproliferative disease such as adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and disturbs the immune responses which results in HTLV-I associated meylopathy/tropical spastic parapresis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-I infection causes ATL in a small proportion of infected subjects (2-5%) following a prolonged incubation period (15-30 years) despite a strong adaptive immune response against the virus. Overall, these conditions offer a prospect to study the molecular basis of tumorgenicity in mammalian cells. In this review, the oncogencity of HTLV-I is being considered as an oncovirus in context of ATL. PMID:24470860

  4. Interleukin-32 Positively Regulates Radiation-Induced Vascular Inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hanako; Yazlovitskaya, Eugenia M.; Lin, P. Charles

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To study the role of interleukin-32 (IL-32), a novel protein only detected in human tissues, in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced vascular inflammation. Methods and Materials: Irradiated (0-6 Gy) human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with or without various agents-a cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) inhibitor, a cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor, or lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs)-were used to assess IL-32 expression by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells using human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells was also analyzed. Results: Ionizing radiation dramatically increased IL-32 expression in vascular endothelial cells through multiple pathways. Ionizing radiation induced IL-32 expression through nuclear factor {kappa}B activation, through induction of cPLA2 and LPC, as well as induction of Cox-2 and subsequent conversion of arachidonic acid to prostacyclin. Conversely, blocking nuclear factor {kappa}B, cPLA2, and Cox-2 activity impaired IR-induced IL-32 expression. Importantly, IL-32 significantly enhanced IR-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and leukocyte adhesion on endothelial cells. Conclusion: This study identifies IL-32 as a positive regulator in IR-induced vascular inflammation, and neutralization of IL-32 may be beneficial in protecting from IR-induced inflammation.

  5. Temporal distributions of risk for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Land, C E

    1987-01-01

    Observations of cancer risk in irradiated human populations over time after exposure suggest that there are at least two, and perhaps more, very different patterns of temporal distribution of risk for radiation-induced cancer. The first, exemplified by bone sarcoma following therapeutic injection of 224Ra and chronic granulocytic leukemia in Japanese A-bomb survivors, is an early, wave-like pulse consisting of an increase in risk followed by a gradual decline back to baseline levels. The second, exemplified by breast cancer following a brief exposure to external gamma ray or X ray, and by lung cancer and stomach cancer in A-bomb survivors, is an increase in relative risk over about 10 years to a value which appears to remain constant over time thereafter. The first pattern suggests that tumor growth kinetics may play a central role in the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, while the second seems more consistent with multi-event models for carcinogenesis, in which radiation or some other cause of early events must be followed by one or more later events whose frequencies depend mainly on attained age. There are, however, other data that appear to conform to neither of the two models just mentioned. Influences of other cancer causes, like tobacco smoking, are potentially serious confounding factors in studies of induction period.

  6. Effects of expressing human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) oncoprotein Tax on DOK1, DOK2 and DOK3 gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohsugi, Takeo

    2017-05-23

    Transgenic mice expressing the tax gene from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) genome developed T-cell leukemia or histiocytic sarcoma after at least 12 months. The transgenic mice showed low expression of the downstream of tyrosine kinase (DOK) family members, DOK1, DOK2 and DOK3, which were recently reported to be tumor suppressor genes. Mice showed low DOK2 expression at 5-6 months of age, before disease onset. The expression of DOK1 and DOK3 was not significantly reduced at any age tested. These results suggest that downregulation of DOK2 by the expression of the viral tax gene is the first step in the development of T-cell leukemia or histiocytic sarcoma.

  7. Generation of glucocorticoid-responsive Moloney murine leukemia virus by insertion of regulatory sequences from murine mammary tumor virus into the long terminal repeat.

    PubMed Central

    Overhauser, J; Fan, H

    1985-01-01

    The glucocorticoid-regulatory sequences from the murine mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) were introduced into the LTR of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) by recombinant DNA techniques. The site of insertion was in the M-MuLV LTR U3 region at -150 base pairs with respect to the RNA cap site. Infectious M-MuLVs carrying the altered LTRs (Mo + MMTV M-MuLVs) were recovered by transfection of proviral clones into NIH-3T3 cells. The Mo + MMTV M-MuLVs were hormonally responsive in that infection was 3 logs more efficient when performed in the presence of dexamethasone, irrespective of the orientation of the inserted MMTV sequences. However, even in the presence of hormone, the Mo + MMTV M-MuLVs were less infectious than wild-type M-MuLV. In contrast to the large effect on infectivity, dexamethasone induced virus-specific RNA levels in chronically Mo + MMTV M-MuLV-infected cells only two- to fourfold. Fusion plasmids between the altered LTRs and the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene allowed the investigation of LTR promoter strength by the transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression assay. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays indicated that the insertion of MMTV sequences into the M-MuLV LTR reduced promoter activity in the absence of glucocorticoids but that promoter activity could be induced two- to fivefold by dexamethasone. The Mo + MMTV M-MuLVs were also tested for the possibility that viral DNA synthesis or integration during initial infection was enhanced by dexamethasone. However, no significant difference was detected between cultures infected in the presence or absence of hormone. The insertion of MMTV sequences into an M-MuLV LTR deleted of its enhancer sequences did not yield infectious virus or active promoters, even in the presence of dexamethasone. Images PMID:2983110

  8. A Targeted Mutation within the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Envelope Protein Immunosuppressive Domain To Improve a Canarypox Virus-Vectored FeLV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the “mechanical” function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be “switched off” by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-γ/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation. PMID:24198407

  9. A targeted mutation within the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) envelope protein immunosuppressive domain to improve a canarypox virus-vectored FeLV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé; Heidmann, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the "mechanical" function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be "switched off" by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-γ/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation.

  10. Radiation-induced injury of the esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Lepke, R.A.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1983-08-01

    Forty patients with functional or morphologic esophageal abnormalities following radiotherapy were identified. Abnormalities included abnormal motility with and without mucosal edema, stricture, ulceration and pseudodiverticulum, and fistula. Abnormal motility occurred 4 to 12 weeks following radiotherapy alone and as early as 1 week after therapy when concomitant chemotherapy had been given. Strictures developed 4 to 8 months following completion of radiotherapy. Ulceration, pseudodiverticulum, and fistula formation did not develop in a uniform time frame. Radiation-induced esophageal injury is more frequent when radiotherapy and chemotherapy are combined than it is with radiotherapy alone.

  11. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168

  12. Radiation induced detwinning in nanotwinned Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Youxing; Wang, Haiyan; Kirk, Mark A.; Li, Meimei; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-11-15

    Superior radiation tolerance has been experimentally examined in nanotwinned metals. The stability of nanotwinned structure under radiation is the key factor for advancing the application of nanotwinned metals for nuclear reactors. We thus performed in situ radiation tests for nanotwinned Cu with various twin thicknesses inside a transmission electron microscope. We found that there is a critical twin thickness (10 nm), below which, radiation induced detwinning is primarily accomplished through migration of incoherent twin boundaries. Lastly, detwinning is faster for thinner twins in this range, while thicker twins are more stable.

  13. Inefficient viral replication of bovine leukemia virus induced by spontaneous deletion mutation in the G4 gene.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hironobu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Nikaido, Sae; Sato, Reiichiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load. First, examining the proviral load in the aleukaemic cattle in 2014 and 201